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Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia
Flag Coat of arms
MottoBhinneka Tunggal Ika  (Old Javanese)
Unity in Diversity

National ideology: Pancasila[1]
AnthemIndonesia Raya
Capital
(and largest city)
Jakarta
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.175°S 106.8283°E / -6.175; 106.8283
Official language(s) Indonesian
Official scripts Latin alphabet
Demonym Indonesian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
 -  Vice President Boediono
Independence from the Netherlands 
 -  Declared 17 August 1945 
 -  Acknowledged 27 December 1949 
Area
 -  Land 1,919,440 km2 (16th)
735,355 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.85
Population
 -  2009 estimate 229,965,000[2] (4th)
 -  2000 census 206,264,595 
 -  Density 119.8/km2 (84th)
312.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $909.729 billion[3] (16th)
 -  Per capita $3,980[3] (121st)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $511.765 billion[3] (19th)
 -  Per capita $2,239[3] (116th)
Gini (2002) 34.3 
HDI (2007) 0.734[4] (medium) (111th)
Currency Rupiah (IDR)
Time zone various (UTC+7 to +9)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .id
Calling code +62
The Republic of Indonesia (pronounced /ˌɪndoʊˈniːziə/ or /ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/) (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia) is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia comprises 17,508 islands. With a population of around 230 million people, it is the world's fourth most populous country, and has the world's largest population of Muslims. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the seventh century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually adopted Indian cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.
Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest and most politically dominant ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism including rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread in contemporary Indonesia.[5]

Contents

Etymology

The name Indonesia derives from the Latin Indus, meaning "India", and the Greek nesos, meaning "island".[6] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[7] In 1850, George Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[8] In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[9] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and even Insulinde.[10]
From 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[11] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913.[7]

History

As early as the first century CE Indonesian vessels made trade voyages as far as Africa. Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur, circa 800 CE.
Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.[12] Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions.[13] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE,[14] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade. For example, trade links with both Indian kingdoms and China were established several centuries BCE.[15] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[16]
The nutmeg plant is native to Indonesia's Banda Islands. Once one of the world's most valuable commodities, it drew the first European colonial powers to Indonesia.
From the seventh century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.[17] Between the eighth and 10th centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia; this period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.[18]
Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.[19] Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.[20] The first Europeans arrived in Indonesia in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku.[21] Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony.[21]
For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous outside of coastal strongholds; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries.[22] The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II[23] ended Dutch rule,[24] and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement.[25] Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president.[26] The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, and an armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence[27] (with the exception of The Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated into Indonesia following the 1962 New York Agreement, and the UN-mandated Act of Free Choice of 1969).[28]
Soekarno, Indonesia's founding president
Sukarno moved from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the Military and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).[29] An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by the army, who led a violent anti-communist purge, during which the PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.[30] Between 500,000 and one million people were killed.[31] The head of the military, General Suharto, out-maneuvered the politically weakened Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968. His New Order administration[32] was supported by the US government,[33] and encouraged foreign direct investment in Indonesia, which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth.[34] However, the authoritarian "New Order" was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition.
In 1997 and 1998, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the Asian Financial Crisis.[35] This increased popular discontent with the New Order[36] and led to popular protests. Suharto resigned on 21 May 1998.[37] In 1999, East Timor voted to secede from Indonesia, after a twenty-five-year military occupation that was marked by international condemnation of often brutal repression of the East Timorese.[38] Since Suharto's resignation, a strengthening of democratic processes has included a regional autonomy program, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas.[39] A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005.[40]

Government and politics

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia[41] have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.[42] The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president.[43] The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.[44]
A session of the People's Representative Council in Jakarta
The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.[45] The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (DPR), with 560 members, and the Regional Representative Council (DPD), with 132 members.[46] The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation.[42] Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR's role in national governance.[47] The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.[48]
Most civil disputes appear before a State Court; appeals are heard before the High Court. The Supreme Court is the country's highest court, and hears final cassation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court to deal with specific religious cases.[49]

Foreign relations and military

In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations since the Suharto "New Order" have been based on economic and political cooperation with Western nations.[50] Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.[46] The nation restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era.[49] Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950,[51] and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).[46] Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was no longer a net exporter of oil. Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.[46]
National flags at the site of the 2002 terrorist bombing in Kuta, Bali
The Indonesian Government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda.[52] The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[53] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[54]
Indonesia's 300,000-member armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes marines), and Air Force (TNI–AU).[55] The army has about 233,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.[56] One of the reforms following the 1998 resignation of Suharto was the removal of formal TNI representation in parliament; nevertheless, its political influence remains extensive.[57]
Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[58] Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005.[59] In Papua, there has been a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses, since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[60]

Administrative divisions

Provinces of Indonesia
Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are further subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan), and again into village groupings (either desa or kelurahan). Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).
The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).[61] Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.[62] Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.[63] Jakarta is the country's special capital region.
Indonesian provinces and their capitals - listed by region
(Indonesian name in parentheses if different from English)

† indicates provinces with Special Status

Geography

Map of Indonesia
Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited.[64] These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the islands of Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia also shares borders with Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines to the north and Australia to the south across narrow straits of water. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.[65]
At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest country in terms of land area.[66] Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world,[67] although Java, the world's most populous island,[68] has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.[69]
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes,[70] including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra,[71] and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.[72]
Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimeters (70–125 in), and up to 6,100 millimeters (240 in) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas—particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua—receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30 °C (79–86 °F).[73]

Biota and environment

The critically endangered Sumatran Orangutan, a great ape endemic to Indonesia.
Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil),[74] and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.[75] Once linked to the Asian mainland, the islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Forests cover approximately 60% of the country.[76] In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku—having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna.[77] Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.[78]
Indonesia is second only to Australia in its degree of endemism, with 26% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[79] Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 mi) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.[6] The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace, described a dividing line between the distribution and peace of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.[80] Known as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north-south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. West of the line the flora and fauna are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.[81] The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[80]
Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues, which are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.[82] Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services.[82] Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.[83] Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan.[84]

Economy

Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java. Agriculture has been the country's largest employer for centuries.
Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies.[85] Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product (nominal) for 2008 was US$511.7 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$2,246, and per capita GDP PPP was US$3,979 (international dollars).[86] The services sector is the economy's largest and accounts for 45.3% of GDP (2005). This is followed by industry (40.7%) and agriculture (14.0%).[87] However, agriculture employs more people than other sectors, accounting for 44.3% of the 95 million-strong workforce. This is followed by the services sector (36.9%) and industry (18.8%).[88] Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining. Major agricultural products include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.
Indonesia's main export markets (2005) are Japan (22.3%), the United States (13.9%), China (9.1%), and Singapore (8.9%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Japan (18.0%), China (16.1%), and Singapore (12.8%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs.[89]
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and the country's largest commercial center
In the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger.[90] Following President Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilized the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment.[91] Indonesia is Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates.[92] Following further reforms in the late 1980s,[93] foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%.[94]
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. Against the US dollar, the Rupiah dropped from about Rp. 2,600 to a low point of 14,000, and the economy shrank by 13.7%.[95] The Rupiah has since stabilised in the Rp. 8,000 to 10,000 range,[96] and a slow but significant economic recovery has ensued. However, political instability, slow economic reform, and corruption at all levels of government and business, have slowed the recovery.[5][97] Transparency International ranked Indonesia 143rd out of 180 countries in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index.[98] The rank dropped to 111st out of 180 in 2009 [99]GDP growth, however, exceeded 5% in both 2004 and 2005, and is forecast to increase further.[100] This growth rate, however, was not enough to make a significant impact on unemployment,[101] and stagnant wages growth and increases in fuel and rice prices have worsened poverty levels. As of 2006, an estimated 17.8% of the population was living below the poverty line, defined by the Indonesian government as purchasing power parity of US$1.55 per day (household income). According to the 2006 estimates, nearly half of the population was living on less than US$2 per day.[102] In recent years, the strongest growth rates since the Suharto years have helped the unemployment rate decline to 8.46% in 2008,[103] and in comparison to its neighbours, Indonesia has been less affected by the recent global recession.[104]

Demographics

The national population from the 2000 national census is 206 million,[105] and the Indonesian Central Statistics Bureau and Statistics Indonesia estimate a population of 222 million for 2006.[106] 130 million people live on the island of Java, the world's most populous island.[107] Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1960s, the population is expected to grow to around 254 million by 2020 and 288 million by 2050.[108]
An ethnic Minangkabau woman in traditional dress. There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia.
Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian-speaking peoples whose languages can be traced to Proto Austronesian (PAn), which likely originated on Taiwan. The other major grouping are Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia.[109] There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects.[110] The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant.[111] The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups.[112] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.[113] Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence.[114] Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising less than 1% of the population.[115] Much of the country's privately owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-controlled,[116] which has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence.[117]
The Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral in Central Jakarta. Indonesia has the world's largest population of Muslims
The official national language, Indonesian, is universally taught in schools, and consequently is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was constructed from a lingua franca that was in wide use throughout the region, and is thus closely related to Malay which is an official language in Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Indonesian was first promoted by nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language on the proclamation of independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages (bahasa daerah), often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken as the language of the largest ethnic group.[89] On the other hand, Papua has over 270 indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages,[118] in a region of about 2.7 million people. A significant fraction of the people who attended school before independence can speak Dutch to some extent.[119]
Although religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution,[120] the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.[121] Although it is not an Islamic state, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census.[89] 8.7% of the population is Christian,[122] 3% are Hindu, and 1.8% Buddhist or other. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese,[123] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese.[124] Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the country's dominant religion by the 16th century.[125] Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries,[126] and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period.[127] A large proportion of Indonesians—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs.[128]

Culture

A Wayang kulit shadow puppet performance as seen by the audience
Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant.
Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.[129] The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-five times that it has been held since 1949, as well as Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as, caci in Flores, and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.
A selection of Indonesian food, including Soto Ayam (chicken soup), sate kerang (shellfish kebabs), telor pindang (preserved eggs), perkedel (fritter), and es teh manis (sweet iced tea)
Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents.[130] Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.[131] Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. Dangdut is a popular contemporary genre of pop music that draws influence from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music. The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia,[132] although it declined significantly in the early 1990s.[133] Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased.[132]
The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century CE. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;[134] and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist.[135] Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.[136]
Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.[137] The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008,[138] Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.[139]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ US Library of Congress; Vickers (2005), page 117.
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Indonesia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=536&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=15&pr.y=12. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
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  109. ^ Taylor (2003), pages 5–7, Dawson, B.; Gillow, J. (1994). The Traditional Architecture of Indonesia. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 0-500-34132-X. ; Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 139, 181, 251, 435. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  110. ^ "An Overview of Indonesia". Living in Indonesia, A Site for Expatriates. Expat Web Site Association. http://www.expat.or.id/info/overview.html. Retrieved 2006-10-05. ; Merdekawaty, E. (2006-07-06). ""Bahasa Indonesia" and languages of Indonesia" (PDF). UNIBZ - Introduction to Linguistics. Free University of Bozen. http://www.languagestudies.unibz.it/Bahasa%20Indonesia_Merdekawaty.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-17. 
  111. ^ Kingsbury, Damien (2003). Autonomy and Disintegration in Indonesia. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 0-415-29737-0. 
  112. ^ Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas.
  113. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 256
  114. ^ Domestic migration (including the official Transmigrasi program) are a cause of violence such as the massacre of hundreds of Madurese by a local Dayak community in West Kalimantan, and conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi, and parts of Papua and West Papua T.N. Pudjiastuti (2002) (PDF). Migration & Conflict in Indonesia. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Paris. http://www.iussp.org/Bangkok2002/S15Pudjiastuti.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-17. ; "Kalimantan The Conflict". Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. Conflict Prevention Initiative, Harvard University. http://www.preventconflict.org/portal/main/maps_kalimantan_conflict.php. Retrieved 2007-01-07. ; J.W. Ajawaila; M.J. Papilaya; Tonny D. Pariela; F. Nahusona; G. Leasa; T. Soumokil; James Lalaun and W. R. Sihasale (1999). "Proposal Pemecahan Masalah Kerusuhan di Ambon". Report on Church and Human Rights Persecution in Indonesia. Ambon, Indonesia: Fica-Net. http://www.fica.org/h/ambon/idRusuh1.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. ; Kyoto University: Sulawesi Kaken Team & Center for Southeast Asian Studies Bugis SailorsPDF (124 KB)
  115. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  116. ^ Schwarz (1994), pages 53, 80–81; Friend (2003), pages 85–87, 164–165, 233–237
  117. ^ M. F. Swasono (1997). "Indigenous Cultures in the Development of Indonesia". Integration of endogenous cultural dimension into development. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi. http://ignca.nic.in/cd_05008.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-17. ; "The Overseas Chinese". Prospect Magazine. 9 April 1998. http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=4212. Retrieved 2006-09-17.  The riots in Jakarta in 1998—much of which were aimed at the Chinese—were, in part, expressions of this resentment. M. Ocorandi (28 May 1998). "An Analysis of the Implication of Suharto's resignation for Chinese Indonesians". Worldwide HuaRen Peace Mission. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54b/083.html. Retrieved 2006-09-26. ; F.H. Winarta (August 2004). "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Belum Menjadi Kenyataan Menjelang HUT Kemerdekaan RI Ke-59" (in Indonesian). Komisi Hukum Nasional Republik Indonesia (National Law Commission, Republic of Indonesia), Jakarta. http://ignca.nic.in/cd_05008.htm. 
  118. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=IDP
  119. ^ taalunieversum
  120. ^ "The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia". US-ASEAN. http://www.us-asean.org/Indonesia/constitution.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  121. ^ Yang, Heriyanto (August 2005). "The History and Legal Position of Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia" (PDF). Religion 10 (1): 8. http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/pdf/2005/yang2005.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  122. ^ of which roughly two-thirds are Protestant
  123. ^ Oey, Eric (1997), Bali (3rd ed.), Singapore: Periplus Editions, ISBN 962-593-028-0 
  124. ^ "Indonesia - Buddhism". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/40.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  125. ^ "Indonesia - Islam". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/37.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  126. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 25, 26, 28 ; "1500 to 1670: Great Kings and Trade Empires". Sejarah Indonesia. http://www.gimonca.com/sejarah/sejarah02.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  127. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp.28, 62; Vickers (2005), p.22; Goh, Robbie B.H. (2005). Christianity in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 80. ISBN 9812302972. 
  128. ^ Magnis-Suseno, F. 1981, Javanese Ethics and World-View: The Javanese Idea of the Good Life, PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 1997, pp.15–18, ISBN 979-605-406-X; Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Embassy of the United States (2003-12-18). "Indonesia Annual International Religious Freedom Report 2003". Press release. http://www.usembassyjakarta.org/press_rel/religious_report2003.html. Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  129. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 103. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  130. ^ Witton, Patrick (2002). World Food: Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-009-0. 
  131. ^ Compared to the infused flavors of Vietnamese and Thai food, flavors in Indonesia are kept relatively separate, simple and substantial. Brissendon, Rosemary (2003). South East Asian Food. Melbourne: Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 1-74066-013-7. 
  132. ^ a b Kristianto, JB (2005-07-02). "Sepuluh Tahun Terakhir Perfilman Indonesia" (in Indonesian). Kompas. http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0507/02/Bentara/1857854.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 
  133. ^ (Indonesian) "Kondisi Perfilman di Indonesia (The State of The Film Industry in Indonesia)". Panton. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/7229/film.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 
  134. ^ Taylor (2003), pages 299–301
  135. ^ Vickers (2005) pages 3 to 7; Friend (2003), pages 74, 180
  136. ^ Czermak, Karen; Philippe DeLanghe, Wei Weng. ""Preserving Intangible Cultural Heritage in Indonesia"" (PDF). SIL International. http://www.sil.org/asia/ldc/parallel_papers/unesco_jakarta.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
  137. ^ Shannon L., Smith; Lloyd Grayson J. (2001). Indonesia Today: Challenges of History. Melbourne, Australia: Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 0-7425-1761-6. 
  138. ^ "Internet World Stats". Asia Internet Usage, Population Statistics and Information. Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2006. http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#id. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  139. ^ Internet World Stats http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats3.htm

References

  • Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6. 
  • Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-X. 
  • Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. ISBN 1-86373-635-2. 
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 

External links

Government
General information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Southeast Asia : Indonesia
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:id-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Jakarta
Government Republic
Currency Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Area 1,919,440 km2
Population 245,452,739 (July 2006 est.)
Language Bahasa Indonesia (official) and countless regional languages, the most widely spoken of which are Javanese and Sundanese
Religion Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (Shuko Euro plug)
Calling Code +62
Internet TLD .id
Time Zone GMT+7 through GMT+9
.Indonesia [1] is the largest archipelago in the world that straddles the Equator between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indonesia is vital strategically, sitting astride the trade routes between the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.While it has land borders with Malaysia to the north as well as East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the east, it also neighbors Australia to the south, and Palau, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, and Thailand to the north, India to the northwest.^ Papua New Guinea visa .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is surrounded by oceans, seas, and straits except where it shares an island border with East Malaysia and Brunei on Borneo (Kalimantan); with Papua New Guinea on New Guinea; and with Timor Loro Sae on Timor.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PAPUA (formerly known as Irian Jaya, not to confuse with Papua New Guinea) .
  • Indonesia Mountains Ultra-Prominence - peaklist.org 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.peaklist.org [Source type: Academic]

Understand

Indonesia is the sleeping giant of Southeast Asia. .With 18,110 islands, 6,000 of them inhabited, it is the largest archipelago in the world.^ Terrain: More than 17,500 islands; 6,000 are inhabited; 1,000 of which are permanently settled.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With well over 230 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world — after China, India and the USA — and by far the largest in Southeast Asia.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEOPLE Indonesia's approximately 240.3 million people make it the world's fourth-most populous nation.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous nation, has 203 million people living on nearly one thousand permanently settled islands.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indonesia also has the largest Muslim population in the world.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Christian groups last week called on the United Nations to send peacekeepers to end the carnage in the world's most populous Muslim nation.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Indonesia markets itself as the ultimate in diversity, and the slogan is quite true, although not necessarily always in good ways. .Indonesia's tropical forests are the second-largest in the world after Brazil, and are being logged and cut down at the same alarming speed.^ Indonesia has the world's second-largest tropical forest and the fastest deforestation rate, making it the third-largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, behind China and the U.S. In December 2007, Indonesia hosted the 13th Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and led efforts to highlight the importance of forests and deforestation in the climate debate.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.While the rich shop and party in Jakarta and Bali, after decades of economic mismanagement, 53% of the population earns less than US$2/day.^ Batik textiles were made in royal courts and cottages, but also became a major commercial industry in Java and Bali, an industry that has experienced economic vicissitudes over the decades.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Infrastructure in much of the country remains rudimentary, and travelers off the beaten track (pretty much anywhere outside Bali) will need some patience and flexibility.
.The Indonesian people, like any people, can be either friendly or rude to foreigners.^ The Indonesian army, like the Serbian army in Kosovo, arranged for this mass deportation of our people.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Most of the time, though, they are incredibly friendly to foreigners.^ The nuclear family of husband, wife, and children is the most widespread domestic unit, though elders and unmarried siblings may be added to it in various societies and at various times.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign religious, philanthropic, and national and international organizations have supported welfare efforts by government and NGOs, though most NGOs are homegrown.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The temples of Prambanan (c. 10th century)
The temples of Prambanan (c. 10th century)
The early history of Indonesia is the story of dozens of kingdoms and civilizations flourishing and fading in different parts of the archipelago. .Some notable kingdoms include Srivijaya (7th-14th century) on Sumatra and Majapahit (1293-c.1500), based in eastern Java but the first to unite the main islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo (now Kalimantan) as well as parts of the Malay Peninsula.^ Also by the 14th century, the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit had risen in eastern Java.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Indonesia 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 7th-14th centuries, the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya flourished on Sumatra.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Indonesia 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrial exports grew strongly, particularly in labor-intensive textiles, electronics, wood products, and other light manufacturing industries based in the densely populated islands of Java and Bali.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Indonesia 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first Europeans to arrive (after Marco Polo who passed through in the late 1200s) were the Portuguese, who were given permission to erect a godown near present-day Jakarta in 1522. By the end of the century, however, the Dutch had pretty much taken over and the razing of a competing English fort in 1619 secured their hold on Java, leading to 350 years of colonization.^ The Dutch did not accept and for five years fought the new republic, mainly in Java.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Jakarta preparing to end a quarter of a century of often brutal occupation, international aid began reaching hundreds of thousands of starving refugees.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Dutch is not known by most young and middle-aged people, including students and teachers of history who cannot read much of the documentary history of the archipelago.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1824, the Dutch and the British signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty which divided the Malay world into Dutch and British spheres of influence, with the Dutch ceding Malacca to the British, and the British ceding all their colonies on Sumatra to the Dutch.^ British Malaya and the Netherlands Indies used high Malay in official documents and negotiations and Christian missionaries first translated the Bible into that language.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 300 years of rule, the Dutch developed the Netherlands East Indies into one of the world's richest colonial possessions.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The line of division roughly corresponds to what is now the border between Malaysia and Indonesia.
.Various nationalist groups developed in the early 20th century, and there were several disturbances, quickly put down by the Dutch.^ Indonesia's borders are those of the Netherlands East Indies, which was fully formed at the beginning of the twentieth century, though Dutch imperialism began early in the seventeenth century.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, nationalists from various parts of the archipelago saw the value of a national language not associated with the largest group, the Javanese.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the nineteenth century the Dutch formed the Netherlands Indies government, which developed alliances with rulers in the archipelago.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Leaders were arrested and exiled. .Then during World War II, the Japanese conquered most of the islands.^ During the first decade of the 20th century, an Indonesian independence movement began and expanded rapidly, particularly between the two World Wars.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese occupied Indonesia for three years during World War II (1942-1945).
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The island of Java, roughly the size of New York State, is the most populous island in the world (124 million, 2005 est.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, Indonesia's founding fathers Sukarno (Soekarno) and Hatta declared the independence of the Republic of Indonesia.^ The U.S. played a role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s and appreciated Indonesia's role as an anti-communist bulwark during the Cold War.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 17 August 1945, following Japan's defeat in World War II, Indonesian nationalists led by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 17, 1945, three days after the Japanese surrender to the Allies, a small group of Indonesians, led by Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta, proclaimed independence and established the Republic of Indonesia.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After four years of fighting, the Dutch accepted this on December 27, 1949. The 1950 constitution was an attempt to set up a liberal democracy system with 2 chambers of parliament.^ The Dutch did not accept and for five years fought the new republic, mainly in Java.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After four years of warfare and negotiations, the Dutch transferred sovereignty to a federal Indonesian Government.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly after hostilities with the Dutch ended in 1949, Indonesia adopted a new constitution, providing for a parliamentary system of government in which the executive was chosen by and accountable to parliament.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indonesia held its first free election in 1955.
.From their declaration of their independence Indonesia claimed West Papua as part of their nation, but the Dutch held onto it into the 1960s, and in the early sixties there was armed conflict over it.^ Negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of Irian Jaya into Indonesia failed, and armed clashes broke out between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pro-independence groups in Irian Jaya, which normally refer to the region as West Papua, plan a mass demonstration of support for independence in the province on Wednesday.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In the more open atmosphere since 1998, there have been more explicit expressions within Papua calling for independence from Indonesia.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a UN-brokered peace deal, and a referendum, West Papua became part of Indonesia and was renamed as Irian Jaya, which apocryphically stands for Ikut (part of) Republic of Indonesia, Anti Netherlands.^ The Indonesian Government conducted an "Act of Free Choice" in Irian Jaya under UN supervision in 1969 in which 1,025 Papuan representatives of local councils agreed by consensus to remain a part of Indonesia.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of Irian Jaya into Indonesia failed, and armed clashes broke out between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He pledged that UN troops would be allowed in to restore peace, protect the population and implement the referendum vote for independence.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.It's now called simply Papua, but the independence movement smolders on to this day.^ In the more open atmosphere since 1998, there have been more explicit expressions within Papua calling for independence from Indonesia.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head, Lieutenant-Colonel Yahyat Sudrajad, called for the killing of pro-independence movement leaders, their children and even their grandchildren, Mr Goncalves said.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Sukarno's tribute to independence and unity — National Monument, Jakarta
Sukarno's tribute to independence and unity — National Monument, Jakarta
In 1959, Sukarno dissolved the cabinet and parliament, appointed himself PM, and created a new parliament. He called his autocratic rule "Guided Democracy". Much to the dismay of the West, Sukarno aligned himself somewhat with Moscow and had the Communist party's Dr Subandrio as Deputy PM and intelligence chief. .The government had various troubles including a communist coup attempt and an anti-communist CIA-backed rebellion in West Sumatra and North Sulawesi, complete with the 7th Fleet offshore.^ Transmigration, the organized movement of people from rural Java to less populated outer island areas in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and West Papua, was begun by the Dutch early in the twentieth century and is continued vigorously by the Indonesian government.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unsuccessful rebellions on Sumatra, Sulawesi, West Java, and other islands beginning in 1958, plus a failure by the constituent assembly to develop a new constitution, weakened the parliamentary system.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1965, things came to a head. Dr Subandrio produced a document, allegedly stolen from the British Embassy, detailing plans for a military coup. .The presidential guard killed some of the officers involved, then guard colonel Untung announced that he, Subandrio and various other leftist Indonesian leaders had formed a "Revolutionary Council" to take over the power.^ Her kickback, along with a cut for "brother-in-law" Hashim and various other Suharto relatives was provided up front, in cash, in the form of a $50 million loan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Indonesian government auditor's report was the first to review the accusations against Paiton I and the other 25 power projects.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Associated Press 9/7/99 George Gedda ".The Clinton administration blamed Indonesian authorities Tuesday for some of the violence in East Timor and indicated a willingness to take part in an international peacekeeping force if one is formed.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Army units under General Suharto put down the rebellion in a single day.^ Major General Suharto, the commander of the Army Strategic Reserve, rallied army troops opposed to the PKI to reestablish control over the city.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Suharto came to power as the leader of an anticommunist and nationalist army, and he made the military the major force behind the New Order.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later in the day, Clinton spoke with United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan as the violence in East Timor escalated.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Suharto then seized power himself, sidelining Sukarno, proclaiming a New Order (Orde Baru) and initiating a series of bloody anti-Communist purges that led to the death of 500,000-2,000,000 people (estimates vary widely).^ Estimates of the number of deaths range between 160,000 and 500,000.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the New Order, those not having a religion were suspected of being Communist, so there was a rush to conversion in many areas, including Java, which gained many new Christians.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The expansion -- from 1,000 to nearly 3,000 Australian, New Zealand and British troops -- was announced after warnings that the militias were planning a new series of attacks on peacekeepers and on East Timorese civilians.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Under Suharto from 1966 to 1997, Indonesia enjoyed stability and economic growth, but most of the wealth was concentrated in the hands of a small corrupt elite and dissent was brutally crushed.^ The severe economic downturn in the nation and the region after 1997, and the political instability with the fall of Suharto, drastically reduced foreign investment in Indonesia, and the lower and middle classes, particularly in the cities, suffered most from this recession.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suharto's hand-picked Vice President, B.J. Habibie, became Indonesia's third President.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though economic development between 1968 and 1997 aided most people, the disparity between rich and poor and between urban and rural areas widened, again particularly on Java.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Asian economic crisis of 1997 the value of the Indonesian rupiah plummeted, halving the purchasing power of ordinary Indonesians, and in the ensuing violent upheaval, now known as Reformasi, Suharto was brought down and a more democratic regime installed.^ The Asian financial crisis of 1997 altered the region's economic landscape.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything is in place for a crisis that could dwarf Kosovo in global significance..More than anywhere else in Asia, Indonesia was socially and economically destabilized by the 1997 Asian meltdown.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The ensuing scandal that erupted has caught world media attention in what is now known as Donorgate.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The former Portuguese colony of East Timor was annexed by Indonesia in 1975, but there was armed resistance to this.^ Indonesia, which forcibly annexed the former Portuguese colony after a 1975 invasion.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia's occupation of the former Portuguese East Timor in 1975, never recognized by the United Nations, conflicted with this founding notion of the nation.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Residents of the former Portuguese colony will vote Monday on whether to become an independent nation or an autonomous region within Indonesia, which annexed East Timor in 1976.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.After decades of civil war, on 30 August 1999, a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of East Timor.^ The people of East Timor voted overwhelmingly for independence from Indonesia in a UN-sponsored vote in August.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ East Timor's independence.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Military assistance programs were again suspended, however, in the aftermath of the violence and destruction in East Timor following the August 30, 1999, referendum favoring independence.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indonesia grudgingly but still astonishingly accepted the result (although army-linked militias looted capital Dili in protest), and East Timor gained its independence in 2002.
.One more violent secessionist movement took place in the devoutly Islamic state of Aceh at the northern tip of Sumatra.^ Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aceh, an oil-rich province on the northern tip of Sumatra island, has been locked in a decade-long struggle for independence that has left more than 2,600 people dead and at least 3,800 others missing...."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In the eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic proselytizing took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, and, currently, there are large communities of both religions on these islands.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After decades of insurgency and abortive talks, the deadlock was broken by the 2004 tsunami, which killed over 200,000 people in Aceh.^ Some 15,000 died in military conflict in Aceh over the following three decades.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinton's connections to Riady span most of the era since 1975, when Indonesia invaded East Timor, killing approximately 200,000 people -- a third of the nation's population -- and subjecting it to Jakarta's rule.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Aid agencies estimate that anywhere between 600 and 7,000 people have been killed and 100,000 driven into West Timor or to other islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, GAM) signed a peace deal the next year, with Aceh giving up it's fight for independence in exchange for being granted special autonomy including the right to enact Syariah (Islamic) law, and to date the peace has held.^ As a reaction to Suharto's centralization of power and reflecting historically independent sentiment, Hasan di Tiro established the Free Aceh Movement (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, GAM) in December 1976 to seek independence for Aceh.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through peace talks led by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, a peace agreement between GAM and the Indonesian Government that provided wide-ranging autonomy for Aceh was signed on August 15, 2005.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His Labour government has granted more weapons export licenses to the Indonesian military than the previous Conservative government.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

People

.Despite 50 years of promoting Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ("Unity in Diversity") as the official state motto, the concept of an "Indonesian" remains artificial and the country's citizens divide themselves along a vast slew of ethnicities, clans, tribes and even castes.^ The national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika , is an old Javanese expression usually translated as "unity in diversity."
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Smith "...According to his official Clinton White House intelligence report, Indonesian President B.J. Habibie is "the type of official needed today in developing countries."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Stratfor 3/28/00 "Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid has proposed breaking his country's reliance on the United States for military equipment.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

If this wasn't enough, religious differences add a volatile ingredient to the mix and the vast gaps in wealth create a class society as well. .On a purely numerical scale, the largest ethnic groups are the Javanese (45%) of central and eastern Java, the Sundanese (14%) from western Java, the Madurese (7.5%) from the island of Madura, and Coastal Malays (7.5%), mostly from Sumatra.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cultures of the inner islands are more homogeneous, with only four major cultural groups: the Sundanese (in West Java), the Javanese (in Central and East Java), the Madurese (on Madura and in East Java), and the Balinese (on Bali).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indonesia consists of all or part of some of the world's largest islands—Sumatra, Java, most of Kalimantan (Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes), Halmahera, and the west half of New Guinea (Papua)—and numerous smaller islands, of which Bali (just east of Java) is best known.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This leaves 26% for the Acehnese and Minangkabau of Sumatra, the Balinese, the Iban and Dayaks of Kalimantan, and a bewildering patchwork of groups in Nusa Tenggara and Papua — the official total is no less than 3000!
.For most part, Indonesia's many peoples coexist happily, but ethnic conflicts do continue to fester in some remote areas of the country.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cottage carving industry of Bali finds a wide domestic and international market for its statues of people, deities, and animals, many of which are finely artistic, some hackneyed.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Funds were channeled locally to aid Golkar candidates, and they dominated the national and regional representative bodies in most parts of the country.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The policy of transmigration (transmigrasi), initiated by the Dutch but continued by Suharto, resettled Javanese, Balinese and Madurese migrants to less crowded parts of the archipelago. The new settlers, viewed as privileged and insensitive, were often resented by the indigenous populace and, particularly on Kalimantan and Papua, led to sometimes violent conflict.
.One particularly notable ethnic group found throughout the country are the Indonesian Chinese, known as Tionghoa or the somewhat derogatory Cina.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JAKARTA Indonesia's long-stalled cable industry is getting a massive boost from Kabelvision, which is controlled by one of the country's richest congloms, the Lippo Group.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In general, princes ruled over areas of their own ethnic group, though some areas were multiethnic in character, particularly larger ones in Java or the port principalities in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At an estimated 6-7 million they make up just 3% of the population but continue to wield a disproportionate influence in the economy, with one famous — if largely discredited — study of companies on the Jakarta Stock Exchange concluding that as many as 70% of its companies (and, by extension, the country) were controlled by ethnic Chinese.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inner islands of Java, Madura, and Bali make up the geographical and population center of the archipelago.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Chinese Indonesians became a major force in the economy, controlling today an estimated 60 percent of the nation's wealth though constituting only about 4 percent of its population.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have thus been subject to persecution, with Chinese forcibly relocated into urban areas in the 1960s, forced to adopt Indonesian names and bans imposed on teaching Chinese and displaying Chinese characters.^ In some rural areas, however, such as West Sumatra, restored or new traditional houses are built by successful urban migrants to display their success.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marriages between members of different ethnic groups are also uncommon, though they may be increasing in urban areas and among the better educated.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether or not the overtures occurred, the threat of Indonesian-Chinese ties will provoke heightened concern over Southeast Asia, possibly forcing a U.S. policy decision.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Anti-Chinese pogroms have also take place, notably in the 1965-66 anti-Communist purges after Suharto's coup and again in 1998 after his downfall, when over 1100 people were killed in riots in Jakarta and other major cities.^ Major General Suharto, the commander of the Army Strategic Reserve, rallied army troops opposed to the PKI to reestablish control over the city.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exceptions are found along borders between groups, in places where other groups have moved in voluntarily or as part of transmigration programs, and in cities.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AT least 15 people were killed when a car bomb exploded at the Jakarta stock exchange yesterday.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

However, the post-Reformasi governments have overturned most of the discriminatory legislation, and Chinese writing and Chinese festivals have made a tentative reappearance.
Wayang kulit shadow puppetry, Solo
Wayang kulit shadow puppetry, Solo
.There is no one unified Indonesian culture as such, but the Hindu culture of the former Majapahit empire does provide a framework for the cultural traditions of the central islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali.^ The cultures of the inner islands are more homogeneous, with only four major cultural groups: the Sundanese (in West Java), the Javanese (in Central and East Java), the Madurese (on Madura and in East Java), and the Balinese (on Bali).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some rural areas, however, such as West Sumatra, restored or new traditional houses are built by successful urban migrants to display their success.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcanic lava and ash contributed to the rich soils of upland Sumatra and all of Java and Bali, which have nurtured rice cultivation for several thousand years.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perhaps the most distinctively "Indonesian" arts are wayang kulit shadow puppetry, where intricately detailed cutouts act out scenes from the Mahabharata and Ramayana and other popular folk stories, and its accompaniment the gamelan orchestra, whose incredibly complex metallic rhythms are the obligatory backdrop to both religious ceremonies and traditional entertainment.^ Best known in Indonesia is the Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet theater based on the Ramayana epic, with its brilliant puppeteers ( dalang ) who may manipulate over a hundred puppets in all-night oral performances accompanied by a gamelan orchestra.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All such arts use indigenously produced costumes and musical instruments, of which the Balinese barong costumes and the metalworking of the gamelan orchestra are the most complex.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fragile Traditions: Indonesian Art in Jeopardy , 1994.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indonesia is culturally intertwined with the Malay, with notable items such as batik cloth and kris daggers, and Arabic culture has also been adopted to some degree thanks to Islam.^ Indonesia includes numerous related but distinct cultural and linguistic groups, many of which are ethnically Malay.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such houses exist in varying degrees of purity in rural areas, and some aspects of them are used in such urban architecture as government buildings, banks, markets and homes.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern-day Indonesian popular culture is largely dominated by the largest ethnic group, the Javanese.^ Ethnic groups (2000 census): Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, others 38.4%.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Suharto's ban on Western imports like rock'n'roll, while long since repealed, led to the development of indigenous forms of music like dangdut, a sultry form of pop developed in the 1970s, and the televised pelvic thrusts of starlet Inul Daratista in 2003 were nearly as controversial as Elvis once was.^ Academies and institutes maintain traditional arts as well as develop newer forms of theater, music, and dance.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anggun Cipta Sasmi is a talented Indonesian singer who became a famous singer in France. Her single "La neige au sahara" became a top hit on the European charts in the summer of 1997.
Most Indonesian films are low budget B movies. "Daun di Atas Bantal" (1998) is an exception; it won the "best movie" award at the Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei, Taiwan (1998).
.Indonesian literature has yet to make much headway on the world stage, with torch-bearer Pramoedya Ananta Toer's works long banned in his own homeland, but the post-Suharto era has seen a small boom with Ayu Utami's Saman breaking both taboos and sales records.^ The constitution, as amended in the post-Suharto era, provides for the direct election by popular vote of the president and vice president.
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^ However, try as he may, he has yet to approach the record set by the Indonesian dictator Suharto.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Religion

.With 82-88% of the population depending on who you ask, Islam is by far the largest religion in Indonesia, making Indonesia the largest Muslim-majority state in the world.^ Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, and many ethnic groups are exclusively Muslim.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissidents have wanted to make Indonesia a Muslim state, but they have not prevailed.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A secular state, Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population and is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).
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Nevertheless, Indonesia officially remains a secular country. .Indonesia's brand of Islam is generally quite tolerant and in larger cities headscarves and such visible manifestations of faith are exceptions rather than the rule, although the countryside and the devout state of Aceh can be considerably stricter.^ And although East Timor is predominantly Roman Catholic compared to the predominantly Muslim remainder of Indonesia, the conflict there is regarded there as a nationalistic issue rather than as strife between ethnic or religious groups.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The other state-sanctioned religions are Protestantism (5%), Roman Catholicism (3%), Hinduism (2%) and Buddhism (1%).^ Officially the government recognizes religion ( agama ) to include Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism, while other belief systems are called just that, beliefs ( kepercayaan ).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constitutional guarantees of religious freedom apply to the six religions recognized by the state, namely Islam (86.1%), Protestantism (5.7%), Catholicism (3%), Hinduism (1.8%), Buddhism (about 1%), and Confucianism (less than 1%).
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^ Religions (2000 census): Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, others 3.4%.
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.Hindus are concentrated on Bali, while Christians are found mostly in parts of Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara.^ Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physicians and government health facilities are heavily concentrated in large cities, and private hospitals are also located there, some founded by Christian missions or Muslim foundations.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some eastern islands, such as Sulawesi and the Lesser Sundas (the island chain east of Bali), also have lost forests.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also pockets of animism throughout the country, and many strict Muslims decry the casual Javanese incorporation of animistic rites into the practices of notionally Islamic believers.^ There were no immediate claims of responsibility, but religious violence has been rising throughout this predominantly Muslim country.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Many of the 400 students there were wounded, and a few died..Muslims threatened further vigilante action around Indonesia at the end of Ramadan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Ramadan dates
  • 2010 (1431): Aug 11 - Sep 9
  • 2011 (1432): Aug 1 - Aug 29
  • 2012 (1433): Jul 20 - Aug 18
The festival of Eid ul-Fitr is held after the end of Ramadan and may last several days. Exact dates depend on astronomical observations and may vary from country to country.
.Multicultural Indonesia celebrates a vast range of religious holidays and festivals, but many are limited to small areas (eg.^ In many areas of Indonesia longstanding rights to land are held by groups such as clans, communities, or kin groups.
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^ Indonesia has made literacy and widespread elementary education a major effort of the nation, but in many rural parts of the country functional literacy is limited.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indonesia is rich in tropical fruit, but many areas have few fruit trees and little capacity for timely transportation of fruit.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the Hindu festivals of Bali). The following covers public holidays applied nationwide regardless of their belief.
.The most significant season of the year is the Muslim fasting month of Ramadhan.^ The most striking ceremonial occasion is the Muslim month of fasting, Ramadan.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major Muslim annual rituals are Ramadan (the month of fasting), Idul Fitri (the end of fasting), and the hajj (pilgrimage).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During its 30 days, devout Muslims refrain from passing anything through their lips (food, drink, smoke) between sunrise and sunset. .People get up early to stuff themselves before sunrise (sahur), go to work late, and take off early to get back home in time to break fast (buka puasa) at sunset.^ Militia backed by Indonesian forces have driven more than 150,000 people - nearly a quarter of the population of East Timor - from their homes."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Non-Muslims, as well as Muslims travelling (musafir), are exempt from fasting but it is polite to refrain from eating or drinking in public. .Many restaurants close during the day and those that stay open (e.g., hotel restaurants) maintain a low profile, with curtains covering the windows.^ During the New Order, those not having a religion were suspected of being Communist, so there was a rush to conversion in many areas, including Java, which gained many new Christians.
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During Ramadhan, all forms of nightlife including bars, nightclubs, karaoke and massage parlours close by midnight, and (especially in more devout areas) quite a few opt to stay closed entirely. .Business travellers will notice that things move at an even more glacial pace than usual and, especially towards the end of the month, many people will take leave.^ For students to own many books is not common; universities are still oriented toward lecture notes rather than student reading; and libraries are poorly stocked.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is a third of the population or, proportionally, more people than were killed by Pol Pot in Cambodia.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Times 6/21/00 Catherine Philp " MORE than 100 people have been killed in the worst single outbreak of violence in 18 months of religious conflict in Indonesia's northern Molucca Islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The climax at the end of the month is the two days of Idul Fitri (also known as Lebaran), when pretty much the entire country takes a week or two off to head back home to visit family in a ritual is known locally as mudik, meaning going home.^ Now, two weeks later, people are returning to their burned-out homes and aid is starting to reach the countryside.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The month ends with Idul Fitri, a national holiday when family, friends, neighbors, and work associates visit each other's homes to share food treats (including visits by non-Muslims to Muslim homes).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major Muslim annual rituals are Ramadan (the month of fasting), Idul Fitri (the end of fasting), and the hajj (pilgrimage).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the one time of year when Jakarta has no traffic jams, but the rest of the country does, with all forms of transport packed to the gills.^ No one knows how many were killed, or how many will live out the rest of their lives in exile, forced to resettle in Indonesia.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ JAKARTA Indonesia's long-stalled cable industry is getting a massive boost from Kabelvision, which is controlled by one of the country's richest congloms, the Lippo Group.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.All government offices (including embassies) and many businesses close for a week or even two, and traveling around Indonesia is best avoided if at all possible.^ Many, including Indonesia's first president, Soekarno (1945-67), were imprisoned for political activities.
  • Indonesia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the 400 students there were wounded, and a few died..Muslims threatened further vigilante action around Indonesia at the end of Ramadan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ On May 7, both South Korea and Taiwan warned their nationals against traveling to Indonesia in the coming weeks.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Other Muslim holidays include Idul Adha (the sacrifice day), Isra Mi'raj Muhammad SAW, Hijra (Islamic new year) and Maulid Muhammad SAW.^ The month ends with Idul Fitri, a national holiday when family, friends, neighbors, and work associates visit each other's homes to share food treats (including visits by non-Muslims to Muslim homes).
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Bali a lunar calendar New Year's day is celebrated with fasting, prayer, silence, and inactivity.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muslims and Christians follow the major holidays of their faiths, and in Makassar, for example, the same decorative lights are left up for celebrating both Idul Fitri and Christmas.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Christian holidays include Christmas, Ascension Day, Good Friday, while the Hindu New Year of Nyepi (March-April) bring Bali to a standstill and Buddhists get a day off for Waisak (Buddha's birthday), celebrated with processions around Borobudur.^ In the early 1990s, the government orchestrated a split in the group, bringing Buddhist Karens disaffected with the mostly Christian leaders under its control.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Non-religious holidays include New Year (1 Jan), Imlek (Chinese New Year) in Jan-Feb and Independence Day (17 Aug).^ The most important national celebration is Independence Day, 17 August, which is marked by parades and displays in Jakarta and provincial and district capitals.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public celebration by the Chinese of their New Year was not allowed for decades, but this rule was lifted in 1999 and dragons again danced in the streets.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East Timorese independence leader Xanana Gusmao arrived in China Monday for four days of talks with senior Chinese leaders, the official Xinhua news agency reported.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The dates of many holidays are set according to various lunar calendars and the dates thus change from year to year.^ On Bali a lunar calendar New Year's day is celebrated with fasting, prayer, silence, and inactivity.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Ministry of Labor may change the official date of holidays if they are close to the weekend. There is another official day off for workers, called cuti bersama (taking days off together), which is sometime close to the Idul Fitri holidays.

Climate

Upon arrival and disembarking from the plane, you'll immediately notice the sudden rush of warm, wet air. Indonesia is a warm place. It has no spring, summer, fall, or winter, just two seasons: rainy and dry, both of which are relative (it still rains during the dry season, it just rains less). .While there is significant regional variation, in most of the country (including Java and Bali) the dry season is April to October, while the wet season is November to March.^ Funds were channeled locally to aid Golkar candidates, and they dominated the national and regional representative bodies in most parts of the country.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the New Order, those not having a religion were suspected of being Communist, so there was a rush to conversion in many areas, including Java, which gained many new Christians.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The above patterns are national, but there are ethnic and regional variations.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the highlands temperatures will naturally be cooler, and there are even snow-covered peaks in Papua, whose mountains can soar above 5000 meters.^ These islands plus some others have mountain peaks of 9,000 feet (2,700 meters) or more, and there are some four hundred volcanos, of which one hundred are active.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bring along a jacket if planning to visit eg. Mount Bromo on Java or Tana Toraja in Sulawesi.

Time

Since the country is very large, Indonesia is divided into three time zones:
GMT +7: Western Indonesian Time (WIB, Waktu Indonesia Barat)
GMT +8: Central Indonesian Time (WITA, Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
GMT +9: Eastern Indonesian Time (WIT, Waktu Indonesia Timur)

Regions

.The nation of Indonesia is almost unimaginably vast: More than 17,000 islands providing 108,000 kilometers of beaches.^ Maritime Exploration Minister Sarwono Kusumaatmaja said on Monday the government was studying the viability of cashing in on unused islands across the vast archipelago of more than 17 000 islands stretching 5 000km along the equator.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia may soon lease some of its 10 000 uninhabited islands to raise much-needed cash and help its economic recovery.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Times 6/21/00 Catherine Philp " MORE than 100 people have been killed in the worst single outbreak of violence in 18 months of religious conflict in Indonesia's northern Molucca Islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The distance between Aceh in the West and Papua in the East is more than 4,000 kilometers (2500 miles), comparable to the distance between New York City and San Francisco.^ East Timor currently has between 20,000 and 30,000 armed pro-integration militia fighters.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The expansion -- from 1,000 to nearly 3,000 Australian, New Zealand and British troops -- was announced after warnings that the militias were planning a new series of attacks on peacekeepers and on East Timorese civilians.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia, the world's largest archipelago nation, is located astride the equator in the humid tropics and extends some 2,300 miles (3,700 kilometers) east-west, about the same as the contiguous United States.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Laying on the western rim of the Ring of Fire Indonesia has more than 400 volcanoes, of which 130 are considered active, as well as many undersea volcanoes.^ These islands plus some others have mountain peaks of 9,000 feet (2,700 meters) or more, and there are some four hundred volcanos, of which one hundred are active.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the 400 students there were wounded, and a few died..Muslims threatened further vigilante action around Indonesia at the end of Ramadan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In the wake of a rampage by pro-Indonesian militiamen, more than 400,000 East Timorese - half the population - are still displaced..."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The island of New Guinea (on which the Indonesian province of Papua is located) is the second largest island in the world.^ The province is on the western half of New Guinea island.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia consists of all or part of some of the world's largest islands—Sumatra, Java, most of Kalimantan (Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes), Halmahera, and the west half of New Guinea (Papua)—and numerous smaller islands, of which Bali (just east of Java) is best known.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Provinces are usually grouped around larger islands and include smaller surrounding islands.^ They number around 10,000 people and they will be deployed all over the Malukus and surrounding islands."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

The listing below follows this practice, except with Bali which is treated as a separate region.
Regions of Indonesia
Regions of Indonesia
Sumatra (incl. the .Riau Islands and Bangka-Belitung)
Wild and rugged, the 6th largest island in the world has a great natural and cultural wealth with more than 40 million inhabitants.
^ For more than two thousand years, trading ships sailed between the great civilizations of India and China via the waters and islands of the Indies.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous nation, has 203 million people living on nearly one thousand permanently settled islands.
  • Culture of Indonesia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President BJ Habibie has called for a large turn-out in the vote - the first free general election for more than 40 years.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Habitat to many endangered species.
.Kalimantan (Borneo)
The vast majority of this, the world's third largest island is covered by the Indonesian province.^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ An influx of Muslims from Indonesia's other islands over the past two decades has changed the religious makeup of the provinces, where the Christians used to have a small majority.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Uncharted jungles, mighty rivers, home of the orangutan, a paradise for the adventurer.
.Java (and Madura)
The country's heartland, big cities including the capital Jakarta, and a lot of people packed on a not-so-big island.^ Actually, to make the analogy stick, the US would have to bomb Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, the way it bombed the ancient city of Belgrade.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Although most of the recent violence has taken place in the Molucca Islands, Muslim vigilante groups have recently attacked restaurants and nightclubs in Jakarta, the capital.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rusdihardjo, President Abdurrahman Wahid alluded to a series of bombings, including one that killed 15 people beneath the Jakarta Stock Exchange.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Also features the cultural treasures of Yogyakarta, Borobudur and Prambanan.
Bali
By far the most popular visitor destination in Indonesia, Bali's blend of unique culture, legendary beaches and spectacular highland regions make it a perennial favourite amongst global travellers. Administratively part of Nusa Tenggara.
Sulawesi (Celebes)
Strangely shaped, this island houses a diversity of societies and some spectacular scenery, Toraja culture, rich flora and fauna, world class diving sites.
.Nusa Tenggara (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Komodo and West Timor)
Also known as the Lesser Sunda Islands, the "Southeast Islands", contain scores of ethnic groups, languages and religions, as well as Komodo lizards and more spectacular diving.^ Thousands of people have been fleeing religious and ethnic violence on the Indonesian island of Lombok.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Aid agencies estimate that anywhere between 600 and 7,000 people have been killed and 100,000 driven into West Timor or to other islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Human rights groups said 80 per cent of the population were forced to move from Oecussi to West Timor and have documented 90 confirmed killings in the enclave.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Maluku (Moluccas)
The historic Spice Islands, fought over to this day, largely unexplored and almost unknown to the outside world.^ On June 19, more than 100 people - mostly Christians - were killed during a battle in a village in the north of the region, known as the Moluccas or Spice Islands during Dutch colonial days.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Papua (Irian Jaya)
The western half of the island of New Guinea, with mountains, forests, swamps, an almost impenetrable wilderness in one of the remotest places on earth.^ Papua New Guinea visa .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The province is on the western half of New Guinea island.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Pro-independence groups in Irian Jaya, which normally refer to the region as West Papua, plan a mass demonstration of support for independence in the province on Wednesday.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

The following is a limited selection of some of Indonesia's top sights.
  • Anyer - Beach in Banten province, near Mt. .Krakatau, Lesung Cape, and Ujung Kulon National Park.
  • Bali - Unique Hindu culture, beaches and mountains on the Island of the Gods.
  • Borobudur - A largest Buddhist temple in the world.^ THE WORLD'S largest democracy and the world's largest Muslim nation are having problems.
    • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

    Located in Central Java province. .This is the place which is Indonesia's most visited site.
  • Bunaken - One of the best scuba diving destinations in Indonesia, if not the world.^ Indonesia is ranked as one of the most corrupt countries in the world....."
    • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

    Located in North Sulawesi province.
  • Komodo National Park - The park includes the three larger islands Komodo, Rinca and Padar. Komodo is the biggest reptile in the world, which only be found in this national park. Located in Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara province.
  • Lake Toba - The largest volcanic lake in the world. There is a large island in it, Samosir island. .Located on North Sumatra province.
  • Mount Bromo - Some of the scariest volcanic scenery on the planet.^ Such intimidation is commonplace now in this resource-rich province at the north-western tip of Sumatra.
    • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

    One of the best locations in the world to see sunrise. Located in East Java province.
  • Prambanan - A collection of massive Hindu temples built by the 10th century Mataram Kingdom, in Central Java province.
  • Tana Toraja - Highland area of South Sulawesi province famed for their extraordinary funeral rites.

Get in

Dealing with Imigrasi serves as a useful introduction to the Byzantine complexity of Indonesia's bureaucracy. .The long and short of it, though, is that most Western travelers can get a visa on arrival for US$10/25 at most common points of entry (Java, Bali, etc), so read on only if you suspect that you don't fit this description.^ ""At least around US$25 billion, but how much further is the limit I don't know,'' he said in Cairo, where he is attending a G-15 summit.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

There are three ways of entering Indonesia:
  • Visa-free. Show your passport, get stamped, that's it. .Applies only to a few select countries, mostly in ASEAN.
  • Visa on arrival.^ Maximum stay in Indonesia: 60 days Group discounts Submit Indonesia business visa application Add Indonesia to Selection, and apply for more visas 1 Select the type of Indonesia official visa application: .
    • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maximum stay in Indonesia: 60 days Group discounts Submit Indonesia tourist visa application Add Indonesia to Selection, and apply for more visas 1 Select the type of Indonesia business visa application: .
    • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apply for Indonesia Visa Online » To apply for visas to several countries add Indonesia to selection and return to the list of destinations.
    • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Pay on arrival, get a visa in your passport, get it stamped, that's it. Most visitors fall in this category.
  • Visa in advance. Obtain a visa at an Indonesian embassy before arrival.
One peculiarity to note is that visa-free and visa-on-arrival visitors must enter Indonesia via specific ports of entry. Entry via other ports of entry will require a visa regardless of whether you are a visa-free or visa-on-arrival national or otherwise.
Customs in Indonesia is usually quite laid-back. You're allowed to bring in one liter of alcohol, 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 100 gm of tobacco products, and a reasonable quantity of perfume. Amounts of money carried in excess of 100 million Rupiah, or the equivalent in other currencies, have to be declared upon arrival or departure. In addition to the obvious drugs and guns, importing pornography and fruit, plants, meat or fish is (technically) prohibited. Indonesia imposes the death penalty on those caught bringing in drugs.
Indonesia Immigration maintains its own website [2], but the following is based on data from the Indonesian Embassy in London [3], which seems to be the most comprehensive.

Visa-free entry

.Nationals of Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, Hong Kong, Macao, Chile, Morocco, Peru, and Vietnam are given visa-free entry facility for maximum of 30 days.^ Lippo's multibillion dollar assets include businesses in Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

They cannot extend their stay and cannot convert their visa-free status to any other visa status.
Visa-free entries are only permitted via the following ports of entry:
  • Airports: Juanda (Surabaya, East Java), Adisutjipto (Yogyakarta, Java), Adi Sumarno (Solo, Central Java), Achmad Yani (Semarang, Central Java), El Tari (Kupang, West Timor), Hang Nadim (Batam, Riau Islands), Hasanuddin (Makassar, South Sulawesi), Husein Sastranegara (Bandung, West Java), Ngurah Rai (Denpasar, Bali), Polonia (Medan, North Sumatra), Sam Ratulangi (Manado, North Sulawesi), Selaparang (Mataram, Lombok), Sepinggan (Balikpapan, East Kalimantan), Soekarno-Hatta (Jakarta), Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II (Palembang, South Sumatera), Sultan Syarif Kasim II or Simpang Tiga (Pekanbaru, Riau), Supadio (Pontianak, West Kalimantan) and Minangkabau (Padang, West Sumatera).
  • Seaports: Bandar Seri Udana Lobam (Batam, Riau Islands), Belawan (Medan, North Sumatra), Bitung (Manado, North Sumatra), Lembar (Mataram, Lombok), Nongsa Terminal Bahari (Batam, Riau Islands), Sekupang (Batam, Riau Islands), Sri Bayintan (Tanjung Pinang, Bintan, Riau Islands), Tanjung Balai Karimun (Karimun, Riau Islands), Tanjung Perak (Surabaya, East Java), Tanjung Priok (Jakarta), Bandar Bintan Telani Lagoi (Bintan, Riau Islands), Batu Ampar (Batam, Riau Islands), Benoa (Bali), Dumai (Riau), Lhokseumawe (North Sumatra), Marina Teluk Senimba (Batam, Riau Islands), Padang Bai (Bali), Selat Kijang (Bintan, Riau Islands), Tanjung Mas (Semarang, Central Java), Tanjung Pinang (Bintan, Riau Islands) and Tenau (Kupang, West Timor).

Visa on arrival

.All visitors entering Indonesia by way of visa-on-arrival must have a return ticket out of the country on their person when passing through immigration into the country.^ We did not bomb our way into Indonesia because that country is of immense strategic significance...."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia has been trying to fight its way of economic troubles that overwhelmed the country in 1997.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ We blithely bombed our way into Yugoslavia because the country we needed to bludgeon is of no strategic significance.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

(E-tickets are acceptable.) This is checked fairly often, and visitors without one may be deported — although more commonly the problem can be solved with a suitable "fine".
.Visas on arrival can be issued to nationals of Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, China, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Surinam, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and USA for a maximum of 30 days.^ AP 9/12/99 Terence Hunt ".Clinton's national security adviser, Sandy Berger, said the United States hopes the peacekeepers -- led by Australia and largely with forces from Asian nations -- will deploy ``in the next several days.''
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ They were the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, not Japan, China or other East Asian countries.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Stratfor 9/12/99 ".Ever since the fall of Sukarno, Australia and New Zealand have existed in a splendid isolation.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

A visa-on-arrival is not extendable and cannot be converted into any other type of visa. .However, obtaining a visa from an Indonesian embassy or consulate before traveling is also possible and will allow you to skip some lines on entry.^ A NOTARIZED letter of consent signed by both parents, specifying who will be traveling with the child and authorizing the Consulate to issue a visa to the child.
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indonesia travel information: Travel visa F.A.Q. Indonesia Visa Information Embassy of Indonesia in United States Indonesia Embassy Holidays Indonesia Customs Indonesia visa in Canada Social networking .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corporate Accounts Travel Experts Affiliate Program Travel Tips Customs Regulations Embassies and Consulates .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Visa-on-arrival are only available at the following:
  • Airports: Juanda (Surabaya, East Java), Adisutjipto (Yogyakarta, Java), Adi Sumarmo (Solo, Central Java), Achmad Yani (Semarang, Central Java), El Tari (Kupang, West Timor), Halim Perdanakusuma (Jakarta), Hassanudin (Makasar, South Sulawesi), Ngurah Rai (Denpasar, Bali), Polonia (Medan, North Sumatra), Sam Ratulangi (Manado, North Sulawesi), Selaparang (Mataram, Lombok), Sepinggan (Balikpapan, East Kalimantan), Soekarno Hatta (Jakarta), Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II (Palembang, South Sumatera), Sultan Syarif Kasim II (Pekanbaru, Riau) and Minangkabau International Airport (Padang, West Sumatera).
  • Seaports: Bandar Bentan Telani Lagoi (Bintan, Riau Islands), Bandar Seri Udana Lobam (Bintan, Riau Islands), Batu Ampar (Batam, Riau Islands), Belawan (Medan, North Sumatra), Benoa (Bali), Bitung (Manado, North Sulawesi), Jayapura (Papua), Marina Teluk Senimba (Batam, Riau Islands), Maumere (Flores, East Nusa Tenggara), Nongsa (Batam, Riau Islands), Padang Bai (Bali), Pare-Pare (South Sulawesi), Sekupang (Batam, Riau Islands), Sibolga (North Sumatra), Soekarno Hatta (Makassar, South Sulawesi), Sri Bintan Pura (Tanjung Pinang, Bintan, Riau Islands), Tanjung Balai Karimun (Karimun, Riau Islands), Tanjung Mas (Semarang, Central Java), Tanjung Priok (Jakarta), Teluk Bayur (Padang, West Sumatra), Batam Centre (Batam, Riau Islands), Tenau (Kupang, West Timor) and Yos Sudarso (Dumai, Riau).
Note the slight difference between the visa-free and visa-on-arrival lists and the absence of Entikong for visa-on-arrival visitors.
.Visa on arrival fees: As of July 2009, visa on arrival fees are US$10 for a stay up to 7 days, and US $25 for a stay up to 30 days.^ Maximum stay in Indonesia: 60 days Group discounts Submit Indonesia business visa application Add Indonesia to Selection, and apply for more visas 1 Select the type of Indonesia official visa application: .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum stay in Indonesia: 60 days Group discounts Submit Indonesia tourist visa application Add Indonesia to Selection, and apply for more visas 1 Select the type of Indonesia business visa application: .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum stay in Indonesia: 30 days Group discounts Submit Indonesia official visa application Add Indonesia to Selection, and apply for more visas Indonesia visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest Indonesia embassy .
  • Indonesia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Indonesian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC indonesia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exact change in dollars is recommended, although a selection of other major currencies (including rupiah) are accepted, and any change will be given in rupiah.^ An influx of Muslims from Indonesia's other islands over the past two decades has changed the religious makeup of the provinces, where the Christians used to have a small majority.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Credit cards are accepted in Bali, but don't count on this elsewhere.
How to get visa on arrival: At the above airports/seaports, the following procedure should be followed to get your visa on arrival.
  1. Before arriving, fill in the arrival/departure card. This card will be your visa application form.
  2. When you arrive, go to the bank counter and pay the required amount for your visa. You will be issued a bar-coded receipt.
  3. Take the receipt to the Visa on Arrival counter where your arrival/departure card, passport and receipt will be recorded by the officer. A visa sticker will be issued and stuck in your passport.
  4. Proceed to the immigration counter for your passport to be stamped.
As always, there may be variations to this layout, especially at the smaller points of entry. Bank and visa counters may be placed together. Anyhow, your visa must be applied for before you reach the immigration counter.

Visa before arrival

.Nationals of countries not listed above, and visitors wishing to stay for more than 30 days are required to apply for visas through the nearest Indonesian Embassy or consulate.^ His Labour government has granted more weapons export licenses to the Indonesian military than the previous Conservative government.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The newspaper also said London had spent around one million pounds training more than 50 members of the Indonesian military in Britain.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The military presence surpasses even that of occupied East Timor, where invading Indonesian forces have been fighting a popular resistance for more than 21 years.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Single-entry visas are valid for 60 days and fairly routine if pricy at US$50-100, but multiple-entry visas (quite convenient esp. for visiting .East Timor) are generally difficult to obtain and very expensive at US$200. Visa applications will usually take at least one week to be processed.^ Clinton, backed up by the United Nations General Assembly, demanded that a defiant Indonesia invite an international force to restore security to tiny East Timor.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ To a great extent, this has been true in the generation since Indonesia seized East Timor during the collapse of the Portuguese empire.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In East Timor, the cult of war reveals itself at its most extreme, and innocents die, in part and again, because of us.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

By plane

The three main international airports are Soekarno-Hatta (CGK) at Tangerang, Banten, near Jakarta, Ngurah Rai (DPS) at Denpasar, Bali and Juanda (SUB) at Surabaya, East Java. .There are however many cities which have air links with neighbouring countries such as Singapore and Malaysia which can be interesting and convenient entry points into Indonesia.^ We did not bomb our way into Indonesia because that country is of immense strategic significance...."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Many of the 400 students there were wounded, and a few died..Muslims threatened further vigilante action around Indonesia at the end of Ramadan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ For East Timor, where massacres and ethnic cleansing have been going on for 23 years, there are no suggestions of such a tribunal for Indonesia's military leaders, many of whom have received training in NATO countries.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Garuda Indonesia [4], the state airline, provides links to Asian and Australian destinations and while its planes are a bit tatty, they are a fairly safe and often a cheap option.^ Preparations for such a mission, initiated by the United States, were thwarted by the Australian Government which sought to avoid upsetting Indonesia's armed forces.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ A US State Department officer says Indonesia is not fulfilling its commitment to provide order and security in the territory.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

While banned from the EU for a while, the ban was lifted in 2009 and they plan to restart direct flights to Europe in 2010.
.Travel to Indonesia from America costs around US$1000. As travel from most of Europe or anywhere in the USA will take over 20 hours, many flights stop in Hong Kong, Seoul, Taipei or Singapore before arriving in Jakarta.^ Many of the 400 students there were wounded, and a few died..Muslims threatened further vigilante action around Indonesia at the end of Ramadan.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Our interests are involved in avoiding a wider conflict in Southeastern Europe, which I think would most likely involve us at some later point with far greater cost and with far greater risk.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Lippo's multibillion dollar assets include businesses in Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Sydney, though, is just 6-8 hours away.
.The cost of flying to Indonesia from within the Southeast Asia region have gone down a lot with the advent of low cost carriers.^ Residents of the former Portuguese colony will vote Monday on whether to become an independent nation or an autonomous region within Indonesia, which annexed East Timor in 1976.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Among them are Air Asia [5], which has excellent coverage of Indonesia from its hub in Kuala Lumpur, as well as Singaporean competitors Tiger Airways [6], Jetstar Asia/Valuair [7] and SilkAir [8]. SilkAir is actually a full-service, full-fare airline, but they often have very good promotions if you book in advance.

By boat

Ferries connect Indonesia with Singapore and Malaysia. .Most connections are between ports in Sumatra (mostly in Riau and Riau Islands provinces) and those in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, although there is also a ferry service between Malaysia's Sabah state with East Kalimantan on Borneo.^ The contrast between the comfortable situation in which aid workers operate, and the daily struggle for survival that is still the lot of most East Timorese, creates depression and discontent.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ There is no moral difference between profiteers who trade in cheap handguns and those who sell high-tech gunships in the developing world.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ And although East Timor is predominantly Roman Catholic compared to the predominantly Muslim remainder of Indonesia, the conflict there is regarded there as a nationalistic issue rather than as strife between ethnic or religious groups.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Onward boat connections to Jakarta and other Indonesian islands are available from these ports.^ These are not golf links, but Mr. Clinton's other favorite links, the links of money, connecting Mr. Clinton to the generals through Mochtar Riady, the Indonesian billionaire, onetime Little Rock banker and sometime pal of Jack Stephens, the Little Rock investment mogul.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

See the pages for each city for more details.
  • Frequent ferries to/from the various ports of Batam (Sekupang, Batu Ampar, Nongsa, Marina Teluk Senimba and Batam Centre).
  • Frequent ferries to Tanjung Pinang and Bandar Bintan Telani Lagoi (Bintan Resorts) on Bintan.
  • Several ferries daily to/from Tanjung Balai in Karimun Island.
  • One daily ferry, increasing to two during weekends, to/from Tanjung Batu* in Kundur Island.
From Peninsular Malaysia
From Sabah, Malaysia
Visa-free/visa-on-arrival is available at all ports above except those tagged with *, which require a visa in advance.

By land

.From East Timor: The main crossing is at Mota'ain between Batugade in East Timor and Atambua, West Timor.^ The West's shameful betrayal of the people of East Timor continues.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Guardian (UK) 4/28/99 John Aglionby "...While the West blusters self-righteously in the Balkans, the situation in East Timor is being allowed to deteriorate.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ East Timor currently has between 20,000 and 30,000 armed pro-integration militia fighters.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

From Malaysia: The only formal way to enter by land from Malaysia is at the Entikong-Tebedu crossing between West Kalimantan and Sarawak, Malaysia on Borneo. The crossing in on the main route between Kuching, (Sarawak) and Pontianak, the capital of (West Kalimantan). As the crossing is listed only as a visa-free entry point, nationalities who do not qualify for this will have to apply for visas beforehand.
.From Papua New Guinea: The only recognized crossing into Indonesia is at Wutung, between Vanimo in Sandaun Province in Papua New Guinea, and Jayapura, the capital of Indonesian Papua.^ Many people from the western districts of East Timor, and from the capital, Dili, were moved by force or by fear across the border into western Timor, in Indonesia, by violence that followed an Aug.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ They soon not only found themselves harassed by the pro-Indonesia groups, but saw their region plunged into unimaginable bloodshed.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The province is on the western half of New Guinea island.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Note: It is not guaranteed that you will be able to enter Indonesia through these crossings and non-Indonesians are required to apply for visas at the nearest Indonesian Embassy or Consulate.
Domestic airport tax
Airport tax (service charge) is paid in cash on check-in. Charges vary by airport, but Rp 25,000-30,000 for domestic flights is typical.
The only rapid means of long-distance travel within Indonesia is the plane. .The largest domestic carriers are state-owned Garuda [9] and private competitor Lion Air [10], but in recent years a host of low-cost competitors have sprung up, including Indonesia Air Asia [11], Batavia Air [12], Mandala [13] and many more.^ Similar civilian militia have been established throughout Indonesia, including a 12,000-member militia established to help ensure order during the June general elections.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ However, "private" ownership in Indonesia means owned and operated by the Suharto "First Family."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Routes for less popular destinations and routes (particularly in eastern Indonesia) are served by Garuda's little buddy Merpati [14], memorably summarized as "It's Merpati and I'll fly if I want to", AirFast [15], Sriwijaya [16], Jatayu and more, often flying smaller planes. If you really get off the beaten track, eg. settlements in .Papua, there are no scheduled services at all and you'll need to charter a plane or hitch rides with missionaries.^ So we need to bring in all the civil service, all the essential services to be able to manage the country," he said....."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ "I think you'll see a development there in the next couple of days," he told reporters.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Many carriers have poor on-time records and frequent cancellations, and the safety record of the smaller companies is dubious, with Adam Air, Lion Air and Mandala suffering fatal crashes in recent years.^ It is a task the UN has undertaken many times before, most recently when Namibia was granted independence from South Africa in 1990.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

A majority of the aircraft are planes from the 1970s and 1980s, which have been flown by many previous operators and may be poorly maintained. A select a few carriers, such as Garuda, Lion Air, and Mandala among others, have recently bought brand new planes straight from an aircraft manufacturer which have replaced some of the older planes in their fleet. Still, compared to the carnage on Indonesia's roads, a flight even on an aging turboprop is probably far safer — and far more comfortable — than traveling the same distance by bus. Garuda and Air Asia are run to international standards and are considered the safest options.
Prices are low by international standards, with more or less any domestic return flight available for under US$100 even on short notice, and fares for a fraction of that if you plan ahead. .The hardest part is often finding what carriers serve what route and making a reservation, as many companies have not yet discovered the joys of the Internet, much less set up online booking engines.^ Many of the pro-integration militia were originally set up and armed by the Indonesian military as additional security forces in East Timor.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

When traveling off the beaten track, it's imperative to reconfirm early and often, as frequencies are low and paid-up, occasionally even checked-in passengers are bumped off with depressing regularity if a VIP happens to show up. Make sure you arrive at the airport at least 2 hours before the departure time.
Of late there has been considerable improvement in the safety standards and recently Garuda Indonesia has been allowed to fly into Europe. .Lion Air has reportedly inducted 178 new 737 900 ER planes which now service not only domestic but also international routes.^ He now risks failing to please both the international community and his domestic supporters as he struggles to exert his authority.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Garuda has also changed its livery and added new aircrafts. Adam Air and few other companies have been closed and their licences withdrawn. With entry of low cost carriers like Indonesia Air Asia the cost of travel has further reduced.
PELNI route map
PELNI route map
.Indonesia is all islands and consequently ferries have long been the most popular means of inter-island travel.^ In a travel warning dated Monday, the department reminded potential travelers that demonstrations have occurred in Jakarta and on all major islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The largest company is PELNI [17], whose giant ferries visit practically every inhabited island in Indonesia on lengthy journeys that can take two weeks from end to end.^ An influx of Muslims from Indonesia's other islands over the past two decades has changed the religious makeup of the provinces, where the Christians used to have a small majority.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

PELNI uses European-built boats, which are large enough to deal with rough seas, but they can still be uncomfortably overcrowded during peak seasons: ferries built for 3000 have been known to board 7000. This means that there are often not enough lifeboats in the event of a sinking and could pose a potential safety hazard.
Cabin accommodation classes, all including meals and private lockers, are:
  • 1st class, around US$40/day: two beds per cabin, private washroom, TV, aircon
  • 2nd class, around US$30/day: four beds per cabin, private washroom, aircon
  • 3rd class, around US$20/day: six beds per cabin, aircon, shared washrooms
  • 4th class, around US$15/day: bed in a dormitory
Ekonomi class on a PELNI ship
Ekonomi class on a PELNI ship
The plush cabin of an IndoFalcon fast ferry
The plush cabin of an IndoFalcon fast ferry
.The "real" way to travel, though, is ekonomi class (around US$10/day), which is a noisy, smoky, cramped free-for-all scrum; buy a rattan mat and get in early to stake out your spot — it's common for people to start rushing in as soon as the ferry arrives.^ They number around 10,000 people and they will be deployed all over the Malukus and surrounding islands."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Now, two weeks later, people are returning to their burned-out homes and aid is starting to reach the countryside.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Pickpocketing and theft are a real concern though.
In addition to PELNI's slow boats, ASDP runs fast ferries (Kapal Ferry Cepat, rather amusingly abbreviated KFC) on a number of popular routes. Both PELNI and ASDP tickets can be booked via travel agents.
.Last but not least, there are also countless services running short island-to-island hops, including Merak-Bakauheni (hourly) from Java to Sumatra, Ketapang-Gilimanuk (every 15 min) between Java and Bali and Padangbai-Lembar (near-hourly) between Bali and Lombok.^ Last time I looked he had been arrested in Las Vegas after running up, and I kid you not, some $25 million plus in gaming debts at casinos there.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Clashes between minority Christians and Muslims in the Moluccas (Moluku) islands have cost thousands of lives since the beginning of last year.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

In general, schedules are notional, creature comforts sparse and safety records poor. Try to scout out what, if any, safety devices are on board and consider postponing your trip if the weather looks bad. As maintenance is poor and overloading is common, sinkings are all too common on ferries run by smaller companies, so try to stick to the larger ones if possible. .Food on ferries varies from bad to inedible, and journey times can stretch well beyond the schedule, so bring along enough to tide you over even if the engine stalls and you end up drifting for an extra day.^ Last time I looked he had been arrested in Las Vegas after running up, and I kid you not, some $25 million plus in gaming debts at casinos there.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

You may get hassled by people onboard trying to extract extra money under some dubious excuse. .Feel free to ignore them, although on the upside, it may be possible to bribe your way to a better class of accommodation.^ If they are called on to do so, they may put themselves in harm's way, or they may even have to delay landing in order to avoid that possibility....."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

By train

PT Kereta Api [18] runs trains across most of Java and some parts of Sumatra. The network was originally built by the Dutch, and few new lines have been built since the Independence. Double-tracking of the most congested lines have been done, though, and is still ongoing. Maintenance is spotty and derailments and crashes occur occasionally.
Java by far has the best railway network, with trains connecting the capital city of Jakarta with other main cities, i.e. Surabaya both via Semarang on the north coast and via Yogyakarta and Solo through the southern main line. .Bandung is connected to Jakarta by some 30 trains per day, and is itself connected to Surabaya through Yogyakarta.^ Oecussi saw some of the worst violence carried out by the Indonesian military and pro-Jakarta militias after the the UN-sponsored independence ballot on August 30.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Bali has no railway lines, but there are trains from Surabaya to Banyuwangi, connecting with ferries to the island.
Sumatra's networks are concentrated on the northern (around Medan) and the southern (Lampung to Palembang) parts of the island. Passenger trains on the island are much less frequent than in Java.
Type of service: 1. Air-conditioned Eksekutif class 2. Bisnis 3. Ekonomi classes are also available for the more budget-conscious traveler, but comfort and safety are noticeably less (due to congestion and length of travel time).
No sleeping car service is provided in Indonesia, and the best accommodation provided is air-conditioned, adjustable reclining seats in the Argo and other eksekutif class trains.
Ticket reservations can be made one month in advance, although generally tickets will still be available almost to the last minute. An exception is the very busy Lebaran season, in which time it is not advisable to travel due to the extremely high demand for tickets. No on-line ticket reservation is available, but availability can be gleaned on PT Kereta Api's ticketing site [19].
Generally, trains in Java travel through scenic areas, and travelers not in a hurry should consider the length of the journey and the scenery as a bonus to his travels. However, theft is common, particularly on overnight journeys, so padlock your doors if possible.

By bus

The major types of buses are air-conditioned bus (AC) and non-air-conditioned bus (non-AC or "economy class"). The air-conditioned chartered buses can be rented with its drivers for a tourist group. Indonesian bus companies offer intercity and interprovince routes. .The interprovince routes usually include transportation to other islands mainly between Java and Sumatra.^ Aid agencies estimate that anywhere between 600 and 7,000 people have been killed and 100,000 driven into West Timor or to other islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Bus maintenance is poor, and drivers are often drunk, on drugs or just reckless. Long, overnight journeys are particularly dangerous. Guard your bags like a hawk. In the wilder parts of the country (notably South Sumatra), interprovince buses are occasionally ambushed by bandits.

By car

Indonesian driving habits are generally atrocious. Lanes and traffic lights are happily ignored, passing habits are suicidal and driving on the road shoulder is common.
.That said, renting a car in Indonesia is cheap compared to renting in other countries, and despite recent fare hikes gas remains cheap (fixed price for gasoline is Rp 4500/litre and price of diesel fuel is Rp 4300/litre).^ Independence would be unwelcome to Indonesia, to Australia and to other countries in the region, because an independent Portuguese Timor would inevitably become the focus of attention of others outside the region..
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia has recovered less than almost any other Asian country, thus feeding the social and political crisis.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

To drive a car yourself, an International Driver Permit is required, but it is strongly recommended that you consider renting a car with driver, because the additional cost is quite low and having a traffic accident in Indonesia will certainly spoil your trip.
Road condition and road maintenance in Indonesia is poor. If you go outside major cities, you should use a four-wheel drive car (Kijang jeeps are popular). During rainy season, major roads in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi are flooded for several weeks. Several important, old bridges in Sumatra had collapsed recently.
Traffic moves on the left in Indonesia.
Becak in Bandung
Becak in Bandung
.Becak ("BEH-chuck") is a tricycle (pedicab) transportation mode for short distances such as residential areas in many cities.^ The Marines arrived aboard a C-130 transport plane at the air force base in Darwin, the northern coastal city which is the staging area for the peacekeeping mission....."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

In some areas, the driver is sitting at the back of the passenger, but in some areas (like Medan) the driver is sitting on the side of the passenger. Good communication skills is integral to prevent getting overcharged on these rides. .Often, sly drivers try to get some more money out of you after you've reached your destination, so be sure that you know how much it costs beforehand.^ ""At least around US$25 billion, but how much further is the limit I don't know,'' he said in Cairo, where he is attending a G-15 summit.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ No one knows how many were killed, or how many will live out the rest of their lives in exile, forced to resettle in Indonesia.."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Riady, meanwhile, was also reaching out.......The Riadys' kindnesses have not stopped with money.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Note that there are no becak in Jakarta or Bali.^ There is no evidence that the political establishment in Jakarta has any control over the military or the militias in East Timor.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Instead, the motorized bajaj (BAH-jai), somewhat similar to the Thai tuk-tuk, serves the same function. In some other provinces (eg. North Sumatra, Aceh) you can also find motorbikes with sidecars, known as bentor or bemo (short for becak bermotor).

By ojek

If you're in such a hurry that you're willing to lose a limb to get there, then ojek motorcycle taxis might be the ticket for you. Ojek services consist of guys with bikes lounging around street corners, perhaps identified with a colored, numbered jacket, who usually shuttle short distances down alleys and roads but will also do longer trips for a price. Haggle furiously.

Talk

The sole official language is Indonesian, known as Bahasa Indonesia. Indonesian adopted a number of loan words from Arabic, Dutch, and Sanskrit. It is similar to Malay, and speakers of both languages can comprehend each other to a large extent. The main differences are in the loan words : Malay borrowed mainly from English while Indonesia borrowed mainly from Dutch.
Written phonetically with the Latin alphabet and with a fairly logical grammar, Indonesian is generally regarded as one of the easiest languages to learn, and A.M. Almatsier's The Easy Way to Master the Indonesian Language, a 200 page small paperback, is an excellent starting point. It can be found in any Indonesian bookstore for less than 3 dollars.
The language went through a series of spelling reforms in the 1950s and 60s to smoothe over differences with Malay and expunge its Dutch roots. Although the reforms are long complete, you may still see old signs with dj for j, j for y, or oe for u.
Many educated Indonesians understand and are able to speak English. .While Indonesian is the lingua franca throughout the archipelago, there are thousands of local languages as well, and if you really get off the beaten track you may have to learn them as well.^ But thousands of local people have been evacuated to the Indonesian part of the island and many buildings have been attacked.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Some ethnic Chinese communities continue to speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien in Medan and Teochew in Pontianak.
Most educated seniors (65 years/older) in Indonesia understand Dutch.
Educated Indonesians who graduated from Islamic Religious Institutes/Islamic Universities understand and are able to speak Arabic.
English language TV channels are available on most hotels. MetroTV (local TV channel) broadcasts news in Chinese from Monday to Friday at 07.00 AM. MetroTV also broacasts news in English from Monday to Friday at 07.30 AM. TVRI (state owned TV station) broadcasts news in English from Monday to Friday at 04.30 PM in the afternoon. .All schedules are in Waktu Indonesia Barat (WIB), which is 7 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and includes the capital city of Jakarta.^ Actually, to make the analogy stick, the US would have to bomb Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, the way it bombed the ancient city of Belgrade.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Buy

Indonesia's currency is the rupiah (IDR), abbreviated Rp. .The rupiah's value plummeted during the 1997 economic crisis and has drifted downward ever since, and as of November 2009 you need more than Rp 9,000 to buy one US dollar.^ In 1997 the Asian financial crisis increased Indonesia's need for aid and thereby boosted Western leverage.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Everything is in place for a crisis that could dwarf Kosovo in global significance..More than anywhere else in Asia, Indonesia was socially and economically destabilized by the 1997 Asian meltdown.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In the wake of a rampage by pro-Indonesian militiamen, more than 400,000 East Timorese - half the population - are still displaced..."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The trailing three zeros are often abbreviated with rb (ribu, thousand) or even dropped completely, and for more expensive items you will often even see jt (juta, million).^ Even accounting for the possibility that 200,000 or more refugees are in western Timor doesn't resolve the mystery surrounding the whereabouts of thousands more......"
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The largest banknote is the red Rp 100,000, which may only be US$10 but is still inconveniently large for most purchases.^ Indonesia may soon lease some of its 10 000 uninhabited islands to raise much-needed cash and help its economic recovery.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Next in the series are Rp 50,000 (blue), Rp 20,000 (green), Rp 10,000 (purple), Rp 5,000 (brown), Rp 2,000 and finally Rp 1,000. While the new, colorful large-denomination bills are easy to tell apart, the smaller bills and pre-2004 large notes are all confusingly similar pale pastel shades of yellow, green and brown and often filthy and mangled to boot.^ "There's a price of fifty million rupiah (about $A.10,000) on the heads of all my ministers and there's a much higher price on my head".
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ They number around 10,000 people and they will be deployed all over the Malukus and surrounding islands."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The expansion -- from 1,000 to nearly 3,000 Australian, New Zealand and British troops -- was announced after warnings that the militias were planning a new series of attacks on peacekeepers and on East Timorese civilians.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.A chronic shortage of small change — it's not unusual to get a few pieces of candy back instead of coins — has been to some extent alleviated by a new flood of plasticky aluminum coins, available in denominations of Rp 500, Rp 200, Rp 100, Rp 50 and the thoroughly useless Rp 25. Older golden metallic versions are also still floating around, and you may occasionally even run into a sub-1,000 banknote.^ Aid agencies estimate that anywhere between 600 and 7,000 people have been killed and 100,000 driven into West Timor or to other islands.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ A few militia thugs are still parading around Dili, brandishing automatic rifles and knives, but now the streets are not theirs...."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Bills printed in 1992 or earlier are no longer in circulation, but can be exchanged at banks.^ Even more important, East Timor can no longer be viewed as only a human tragedy to be balanced against considerations of sea lanes and bank loans.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

US dollars are the second currency of Indonesia and will be accepted by anyone in a pinch, but are typically used as an investment and for larger purchases, not buying a bowl of noodles on the street. .Many hotels quote rates in dollars, but all accept payment in rupiah.^ During the transitional period, payments made with Indonesian rupiah will be accepted, but subjected to a transaction fee.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Singapore dollars are also widely accepted, especially in more touristy areas.

Changing money

Banks and money exchangers are widely available on Java, Bali and Lombok, but can be a major headache anywhere else, so load up with rupiah before heading off to any outer islands. Money exchangers are very picky about bill condition, and pre-1999 dollars or any imperfect bills or (ripped, wrinkled, stained, etc) will often be rejected. Banks in general won't change any 1996 dollars. Counterfeit US dollars are a huge problem in the country and as a result the older your dollars are, the lower the exchange rate. You will get the highest exchange rate for dollars issued in 2001 or later and the exchange rate drops for 1999 and 1996 dollars. .There are even different exchange rates according to the serial number for dollars from 1996. Banks and money exchangers on outer islands are sparse and will charge commissions of 10-20% if you can find them.^ The Lippo group, according to financial analysts, escaped the worst of the Asian financial collapse thanks to raising money to repay its US dollar debts just prior to the collapse.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

In the reverse direction, money changers will be happy to turn your dirty rupiah into spiffy dollars, but the spread is often considerable (10% is not unusual). Be very careful dealing with moneychangers, who are very adept at distracting your attention during the counting process and short-changing you as a result. As a precaution, consider bringing a friend along to watch over the transaction very carefully. Be aware of moneychangers who offer great rates. They will quote you one price, and start counting stacks of Rp.20,000 notes, and ask you to count along with them. This is a ploy to confuse and shortchange you. If they realize you are onto them, they will tell you that they have to subtract 6-8% for "commission" or "taxes".

ATMs

ATMs (pron. .ah-teh-em) are common in any major cities in Indonesia especially in the capital of the provinces such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Medan, Denpasar, etc.^ An influx of Muslims from Indonesia's other islands over the past two decades has changed the religious makeup of the provinces, where the Christians used to have a small majority.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Actually, to make the analogy stick, the US would have to bomb Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, the way it bombed the ancient city of Belgrade.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Usually a Maestro or Plus sign on your debit card allows you to extract easy money. Be aware to take out your bank card before you take out the money. Some machines do not remind you to take your card first.

Credit cards

Be careful when using credit cards, as cloning and fraud are a major problem in Indonesia. Visa and Mastercard are widely accepted, but American Express can be problematic. At smaller operations, surcharges of 2-5% over cash are common.

Costs

Living in Indonesia is cheap, as long as you're willing to live like an Indonesian. For example, Rp 10,000 (<$1) will get you a meal on the street or two packets of kretek cigarettes or three kilometers in a taxi or three bottles of water. But as a tourist it's absolutely necessary to chaffer a minimum of 50%-70% off the initial price, otherwise you will spend your money quickly.
Fancy restaurants, hotels and the like will often slap on a 10% service charge plus 6-11% tax. This may be denoted with "++" after the price or just written in tiny print on the bottom of the menu.
Spiced nasi kuning rice shaped into the ceremonial tumpeng cone and topped with dried beef adom
Spiced nasi kuning rice shaped into the ceremonial tumpeng cone and topped with dried beef adom
.With 17,000 islands to choose from, Indonesian food is an umbrella term covering a vast variety of cuisines, but if used without further qualifiers the term tends to mean the food originally from the central and eastern parts of the main island Java and now widely available throughout the archipelago.^ Maritime Exploration Minister Sarwono Kusumaatmaja said on Monday the government was studying the viability of cashing in on unused islands across the vast archipelago of more than 17 000 islands stretching 5 000km along the equator.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ But thousands of local people have been evacuated to the Indonesian part of the island and many buildings have been attacked.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ With no food or medicine and a lack of water, about 1,500 refugees are trying to survive in the islands' jungle-covered mountains, said Maria Teresa Vilhena of the emergency relief agency, Doctors Without Borders.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.All too many backpackers seem to fall into a rut of eating nothing but nasi goreng (fried rice), but there are much more interesting options lurking about if you're adventurous and take the trouble to seek it out.^ "There's a price of fifty million rupiah (about $A.10,000) on the heads of all my ministers and there's a much higher price on my head".
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

With the exception of Balinese, Padang and Manadonese dishes, local flavors tend to be rather simple compared to neighbouring Malaysia or Thailand, the predominant flavorings being peanuts and chillies, and the Javanese in particular like their food rather sweet.
A basic Indonesian meal: rice, fried chicken (ayam goreng) and tofu (tauhu)
A basic Indonesian meal: rice, fried chicken (ayam goreng) and tofu (tauhu)
The main staple is rice (nasi), served up in many forms including:
  • bubur nasi, rice porridge with toppings, popular at breakfast
  • lontong and ketupat, rice wrapped in leaves and cooked so it compresses into a cake
  • nasi goreng, the ubiquitous fried rice
  • nasi kuning, yellow spiced rice, a festive ceremonial dish usually moulded into a sharp cone called a tumpeng
  • nasi padang, white steamed rice served with numerous curries and other toppings, originally from Padang but assimilated throughout the country with lots of variations and adjustments to taste.
  • nasi timbel, white steamed rice wrapped in a banana leaf (looks pretty but doesn't add any flavor)
  • nasi uduk, slightly sweet rice cooked with coconut milk, eaten with omelette and fried chicken; popular at breakfast
Noodles (mi or mie) come in a good second in the popularity contest. Worth a special mention is Indomie, no less than the world's largest instant noodle manufacturer. .A pack at the supermarket costs under Rp 1000 and some stalls will boil or fry them up for you for as little as 2000 Rp.^ Last time I looked he had been arrested in Las Vegas after running up, and I kid you not, some $25 million plus in gaming debts at casinos there.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

  • bakmi, thin egg noodles usually served boiled with a topping of your choice (chicken, mushroom, etc)
  • kuetiaw, flat rice noodles most commonly fried up with soy sauce
Beef sate
Beef sate
Gudeg jackfruit curry served with an egg
Gudeg jackfruit curry served with an egg
Chinese-style tofu and seafood sapo claypot
Chinese-style tofu and seafood sapo claypot
Soups (soto) and watery curries are also common:
  • bakso/baso ("BAH-so"), meatballs and noodles in chicken broth
  • rawon, spicy beef soup, a speciality of East Java
  • sayur asam vegetables in a sour soup of tamarind
  • sayur lodeh, vegetables in a soup of coconut milk and fish
  • soto ayam, chicken soup Indonesian style with chicken shreds, vermicelli, and chicken broth and various local ingredients
Popular main dishes include:
  • ayam bakar, grilled chicken
  • ayam goreng, deep-fried chicken
  • cap cay, Chinese-style stir-fried vegetables
  • gado-gado, boiled vegetables with peanut sauce
  • gudeg, jackfruit curry from Yogyakarta.
  • ikan bakar, grilled fish
  • karedok, similar to gado-gado, but the vegetables are finely chopped and mostly raw
  • perkedel, deep-fried patties of potato and meat or vegetables (adopted from the Dutch frikadel)
  • sate (satay), grilled chicken and lamb
  • sapo, Chinese-style claypot stew
Indonesian chillies: tiny but brutally hot cabe rawit (left) and comparatively mild lombok (right)
Indonesian chillies: tiny but brutally hot cabe rawit (left) and comparatively mild lombok (right)
Chillies (cabe or lombok) are made into a vast variety of sauces and dips known as sambal. The simplest and perhaps most common is sambal ulek, which is just chillies and salt with perhaps a dash of lime pounded together. .There are many other kinds of sambal like sambal pecel (with peanut), sambal terasi (with shrimp paste), sambal tumpeng, etc.^ But there is no one to perform the grim forensic excavation of the fetid well, and like so many other reports of multiple killings in East Timor, the number of victims in this one has yet to be established.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Many of these can be very spicy indeed, so be careful if you're asked whether you would like your dish pedas (spicy)!
Crackers known as kerupuk (or keropok, it's the same word spelled differently) accompany almost every meal and are a traditional snack too. They can be made from almost any grain, fruit, vegetable or seed imaginable, including many never seen outside Indonesia, but perhaps the most common is the light pink keropok udang, made with dried shrimp.
If you are daring enough to try the spiciest and even outlandish local foods, look for Batak eateries (Lapo) and Manadonese eateries. These two ethnicities have a different way of cooking than the standard Javanese and Padang style. Very hot and spicy, with unusual ingredients like wild boar, pork cooked in blood, dog and bat meat, all of which are "haram" (not halal) for Muslims. Tamed Muslim-friendly versions are available in malls and food courts, but it's worth it to seek out the real thing.
Mangos (mangga)
Mangos (mangga)
Snakefruit (salak)
Snakefruit (salak)
Dessert in the Western sense is not common in Indonesia, but there are plenty of snacks to tickle your sweet tooth. Kue covers a vast array of traditional cakes and pastries, all colorful, sweet, and usually a little bland, with coconut, rice flour and sugar being the main ingredients. Es teler, ice mixed with fruits and topped with coconut cream or condensed milk, comes in infinite variations and is a popular choice on a hot day.
Perhaps the cheapest, tastiest and healthiest option, though, is to buy some fresh fruit, which is available throughout the year, although individual fruits do have seasons. Popular options include mango (mangga), papaya (papaya), banana (pisang), starfruit (belimbing) and guava (jambu), but more exotic options you're unlikely to see outside Indonesia include the scaly-skinned crisp snakefruit (salak) and the alien-looking local passionfruit (markisa). Probably the most infamous Indonesian fruit, though, is the durian. Named after the Indonesian word for thorn, it resembles an armor-plated coconut the size of a human head, and it has a powerful odor often likened to rotting garbage. Inside is yellow creamy flesh, which has a unique sweet, custardy, avocadoey taste and texture. It's prohibited in most hotels and taxis.

Dietary restrictions

The vast majority of Indonesian restaurants serve only halal food and are thus safe for Muslim travellers. This includes Western chains like McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut. The main exception is ethnic eateries catering to Indonesia's non-Muslim minorities, especially those serving Batak, Manadonese (Minahasan), Balinese, and Chinese cuisine, so enquire if unsure.
Strict vegetarians will have a tough time in Indonesia, as the concept is poorly understood and avoiding fish and shrimp-based condiments is a challenge. Tofu (tahu) and its chunkier, indigenous cousin tempeh are an essential part of the diet, but they are often served with non-vegetarian condiments. For example, the ubiquitous sambal chili pastes very often contain shrimp, and kerupuk crackers with a spongy appearance, including those always served with nasi goreng, nearly always contain shrimp or fish. (Those that resemble potato chips, on the other hand, are usually fine.)

Eating by hand

In Indonesia eating with your hand (instead of utensils like forks and spoons) is very common. The basic idea is to use four fingers to pack a little ball of rice, which can then be dipped into sauces before you pop it in your mouth by pushing it with your thumb. .There's one basic rule of etiquette to observe: Use only your right hand, as the left hand is used to clean yourself in the toilet.^ Clinton's move left the only remaining low-sulfur coal supply in Lippo hands, creating a Riady monopoly.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ But he did not rule out using force against Taiwan if there were any outside interference in their dispute, or if Taiwan asserted independence.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Don't stick either hand into communal serving dishes: instead, use the left hand to serve yourself with utensils and then dig in. Needless to say, it's wise to wash your hands well before and after eating.
Eating by hand is frowned on in some "classier" places. If you are provided with cutlery and nobody else around you seems to be doing it, then take the hint.

Budget

.Eating on the cheap in Indonesia is cheap indeed, and a complete streetside meal can be had for under US$1 (Rp 10,000).^ Indonesia may soon lease some of its 10 000 uninhabited islands to raise much-needed cash and help its economic recovery.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

However, the level of hygiene may not be up to Western standards, so you may wish to steer clear for the first few days and patronize only visibly popular establishments.
The fastest way to grab a bite is to visit a kaki lima, literally "five feet". Depending on whom you ask, they're named either after the mobile stalls' three wheels plus the owner's two feet, or the "five-foot way" sidewalks mandated during British rule. These can be found by the side of the road in any Indonesian city, town or village, usually offering up simple fare like fried rice, noodles and porridge. At night a kaki lima can turn into a lesehan simply by providing some bamboo mats for customers to sit on and chat.
A step up from the kaki lima is the warung (or the old spelling waroeng), a slightly less mobile stall offering much the same food, but perhaps a few plastic stools and a tarp for shelter.

Mid-range

Rather more comfortable is the rumah makan or eating house, a simple restaurant more often than not specializing in a type of food or style of cuisine. Nasi Padang restaurants, offering rice and an array of curries and other toppings to go along with it, are particularly popular and easily identified by their soaring Minangkabau roofs. Ordering at these is particularly easy: just sit down, and your table will promptly fill up with countless small plates of dishes. Eat what you like and pay for what you consumed.
Another easy mid-range option in larger cities is to look out for food courts and Indonesian restaurants in shopping malls, which combine air-con with hygienic if rather predictable food.
Major local chains include EsTeler 77 [20], best known for its iced fruit desserts (es teler) but also selling bakso (meatball), nasi goreng (fried rice) and other Indonesian staples, and Hoka Hoka Bento, for localized Japanese fare. Bakmi Gajah Mada (GM) is a famous Chinese noodle restaurant chain.
KFC, Texas Fried Chicken, McDonalds, Pizza Hut, Wendy's, A&W, Krispy Kreme, Starbucks, Dunkin Donuts, Haagen Dazs (ice cream), JolliBee hamburger (from Philippines) and the usual suspects plus copies thereof are also abundant in large cities, but there are none to be found once you go east of Lombok.

Splurge

A restoran indicates more of a Western-style eating experience, with air-con, table cloths, table service and prices to match. Especially in Jakarta and Bali, it's possible to find very good restaurants offering authentic fare from around the world, but you'll be lucky to escape for under Rp 100,000 a head. Famous local restaurant chains are Gandy Steakhouse and Hanamasa Japanese restaurant.
Avocado juice (jus alpokat) with a squirt of chocolate syrup and condensed milk
Avocado juice (jus alpokat) with a squirt of chocolate syrup and condensed milk
Tap water is generally not potable in Indonesia. Water or ice served to you in restaurants may have been purified and/or boiled (air minum or air putih), but do ask. Bottled water, usually known as Aqua after the best-known brand, is cheap and available everywhere, but check that the seal is intact.
Most hotels provide free drinking water because tap water is rarely potable. Do not use tap water for brushing your teeth. Also beware of ice which may not have been prepared with potable water or kept in hygienic conditions.
Quite a few Indonesians believe that cold drinks are unhealthy, so specify dingin when ordering if you prefer your water, bottled tea or beer cold, rather than at room temperature.

Juices

Fruit juices — jus for plain juice or es if served with ice — are popular with Indonesians and visitors alike, although the hygiene of the water used to make them can be dubious. In addition to the usual suspects, try jus alpokat, a surprisingly tasty drink made from avocadoes, often with some chocolate syrup poured in!

Coffee and tea

Indonesians drink both coffee (kopi) and tea (teh), at least as long as they have had vast quantities of sugar added in. An authentic cup of Java, known as kopi tubruk, is strong and sweet, but let the grounds settle to the bottom of the cup before you drink it. .Last and least, no travel guide would be complete without mentioning the infamous kopi luwak, coffee made from beans which have been eaten, partially digested and excreted by the palm civet (luwak), but even in Indonesia this is an exotic delicacy costing upwards of Rp.200,000 (US$20) for a small pot of brew.^ According to a study commissioned by the Australian Parliament, "at least" 200,000 East Timorese have died as a direct result of the Indonesian invasion and occupation.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ House of Representatives 4/15/97 Rep Cunningham "...In 1992, Candidate Clinton described as unconscionable Indonesia's treatment of the East Timorese, 200,000 of whom had perished since Indonesia had annexed East Timor 20 years ago.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Even accounting for the possibility that 200,000 or more refugees are in western Timor doesn't resolve the mystery surrounding the whereabouts of thousands more......"
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Tea (teh) is also quite popular, and the Coke-like glass bottles of the Tehbotol brand of sweet bottled jasmine tea are ubiquitous.

Jamu

The label jamu covers a vast range of local medicinal drinks for various diseases. Jamu are available in ready-to-drink form as well as in powder satchets or capsules. Most of them are bitter and drunk for the supposed effect, not the taste. Famous brands of jamu include Iboe, Sido Muncul, Jago, and Meneer; avoid buying jamu from the street as the water quality is dubious. Some well-known jamu include:
  • galian singset — weight reduction
  • beras kencur (from rice, sand ginger and brown sugar) — cough, fatigue
  • temulawak (from curcuma) — for liver disease
  • gula asem (from tamarind and brown sugar) — rich in vitamin C
  • kunyit asam (from tamarind, turmeric) — for skin care, canker sores
  • Wedang Serbat - made from star anise, cardamon, tamarind, ginger, and sugar. Wedang means "hot water".
  • Ronde - made from ginger, powdered glutinous rice, peanut, salt, sugar, food coloring additives. [21]
  • Wedang Sekoteng - made from ginger, green pea, peanut, pomegranate, milk, sugar, salt and mixed with ronde (see above).
  • Bajigur - made from coffee, salt, brown sugar, cocount milk, sugar palm fruit, vanillin.
  • Bandrek - made from brown sugar, ginger, pandanus leaf, coconut meat, clove bud, salt, cinnamon, coffee.
  • Cinna-Ale - made from cinnamon, ginger, tamarind, sand ginger and 13 other spices.
  • Cendol/Dawet - made from rice flour, sago palm flour, pandanus leaf, salt, food coloring additives.
  • Talua Tea/Teh Telur (West Sumatra) - made from tea powder, raw egg, sugar and limau nipis.
  • Lidah Buaya Ice (West Kalimantan) - made from aloe vera, french basil, javanese black jelly, coconut milk, palm sugar, pandanus leaf, sugar.

Alcohol

Islam is the religion of the majority of Indonesians, but alcohol is widely available in most areas, especially in upscale restaurants and bars. Public displays of drunkenness, however, are strongly frowned upon and in the larger cities are likely to make you a victim of crime or get you arrested by police. Do not drive if you are drunk. The legal drinking age is 18.
Indonesia's most popular tipple is Bintang [22] beer (bir), a standard-issue lager available more or less everywhere, although the locals like theirs lukewarm. Other popular beers include Bali Hai [23] and Anker. A can costs upward of Rp 5,000 in a supermarket and as much as Rp 50,000 in a fancy bar.
Wine is expensive and only available in expensive restaurants and bars in large hotels. Almost all of it is imported, but there are a few local vintners of varying quality on Bali.
Various traditional alcoholic drinks are also available:
  • Tuak — sugar palm wine (15% alcohol)
  • Arak — the distilled version of tuak, up to 40%
  • Brem Balinese style sweet glutinous rice wine
Exercise some caution in choosing what and where to buy — homemade moonshine may contain all sorts of nasty impurities. .In May 2009, 23 people, including four tourists, were killed by dodgy arak in Bali and Lombok.^ Rusdihardjo, President Abdurrahman Wahid alluded to a series of bombings, including one that killed 15 people beneath the Jakarta Stock Exchange.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Smoke

.Many Indonesians smoke like chimneys and the concepts of "no smoking" and "second-hand smoke" have yet to make much headway in most of the country.^ But there is no one to perform the grim forensic excavation of the fetid well, and like so many other reports of multiple killings in East Timor, the number of victims in this one has yet to be established.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Western-style cigarettes are known as rokok putih ("white smokes") but the cigarette of choice with a 92% market share is the ubiquitous kretek, a clove-laced cigarette that has become something of a national symbol and whose scent you will likely first encounter the moment you step out of the plane into the airport.^ He was released after the August ballot and is widely expected to become the new nation's first president.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Popular brands of kretek include Djarum, Gudang Garam, Bentoel and Sampoerna (Dji Sam Soe, 234). A pack of decent kretek will cost you on the order of Rp 9000. Note that the cheapest brands don't have filters!
Kretek are lower in nicotine but higher in tar than normal cigarettes; an unfiltered Dji Sam Soe has 39 mg tar and 2.3 mg nicotine. Most studies indicate that the overall health effects are roughly the same as for traditional western-style cigarettes.
.Recently a ban on smoking has been instituted for public places in Jakarta.^ Although most of the recent violence has taken place in the Molucca Islands, Muslim vigilante groups have recently attacked restaurants and nightclubs in Jakarta, the capital.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Anyone violating this ban can be fined up to US$ 5000. If you want to smoke check with the locals by asking: "Boleh merokok?".

Sleep

In popular travel destinations like Bali and Jakarta accommodation options run the gamut, from cheap backpacker guesthouses to some of the most opulent (and expensive) five-star hotels and resorts imaginable.
Off the beaten track, though, your options will be more limited. Probably the most common lodging choice for backpackers is the losmen, or guesthouse, which also go by the names wisma or pondok. Often under US$10/night, basic losmen are fan-cooled and have shared bathroom facilities, usually meaning Asian-style squat toilets and mandi (water tank) baths, from which you ladle water over yourself (do not enter one!). Very small losmen, essentially homestays or rented rooms, are known as penginapan.
The next step up on the scale are cheap Chinese-run hotels, usually found even in the smallest towns and cities, typically near transport terminals. These may have little luxuries like air-conditioning and hot water, but tend to be rather depressing otherwise, with tiny, often windowless rooms.
By law, all hotels have to display a price list (daftar harga). .You should never have to pay more than the list says, but discounts are often negotiable, especially in the off season, on weekdays, longer stays, etc.^ If the United States can't do better than it did in East Timor, Clinton should just quit saying "never again."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Learn

.The Darmasiswa Program is a scholarship program funded by the government of Indonesia and open to all foreign students from countries with which Indonesia has friendly relations to study Indonesian languages, arts, music and crafts.^ One 1994 document, obtained by Larry Klayman of Judicial Watch, noted the Indonesian government-backed project had "state-of-the-art emissions-control technology...
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Participants can choose to study at any of the state universities and colleges participating in the program. Some foreign students from Australia, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Poland, and Nigeria study Indonesian Language and culture at Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM) in Jogyakarta.
.
You can find many schools offering curriculum in foreign languages (mostly are, of course, English), one of the most notable of which is Sekolah Pelita Harapan in Jakarta.
^ One building - the police station - hides one of the most shocking of many shocking stories that have emerged so far from East Timor's killing fields.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ It was he who chose to offer the ballot to East Timor which has resulted in what is still a shocking defeat to many in Jakarta.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Some foreign government sponsored schools can also be found in Jakarta, teaching either in English or in their foreign native language.^ A five-member UN mission is in Jakarta to urge the Indonesian government either to bring East Timor under control or allow UN involvement in restoring the peace.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Oecussi saw some of the worst violence carried out by the Indonesian military and pro-Jakarta militias after the the UN-sponsored independence ballot on August 30.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

For university education in English, one can consider studying at Swiss-German University [24], Universitas Pelita Harapan [25], or President University [26], all of which are located in Jakarta. Enquire before you enroll.

Work

.In Indonesia, salaries vary from US$70/month - US$15,000/month for the local people.^ Prior to this, and since Indonesia's invasion of East Timor in 1975, 275,000 people out of a then population of 690,000 have died from war, starvation and disease, including 60,000 killed in mass executions in the first two months.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Here in Balibo, once home to 15,000 people, they found exactly one local resident--an elderly woman, believed to be deaf, who was left behind when the rest of the town fled.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The sales clerks that you see at luxurious shopping malls like Plaza Indonesia earns between US$110 - US$140. This is very small even for the Indonesians.^ The Australia-Indonesia defense pact and arms sales were shattered by tension between the two nations.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Some adults above 20 stay with their parents to save money. Nevertheless, the main reason they stay with parents is it is considered impolite to leave parents on their own.
Expats usually earn higher salaries. An English teacher could make between Rp. 7,500,000 - Rp. 8,000,000 (US$800 - US$850) and that is considered high by the local standard.
Mount Semeru, a popular tourist attraction in East Java, erupting in 2004
Mount Semeru, a popular tourist attraction in East Java, erupting in 2004
Indonesia has been and continues to be wracked by every pestilence known to man: earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, terrorism, civil strife, plane crashes, corruption and crime make the headlines on a depressingly regular basis. However, it is important to retain a sense of proportion and remember Indonesia's vast size: a tsunami in Aceh will not cause the slightest ripple on the beaches of Bali, and street battles in troubled Central Sulawesi are irrelevant in the jungles of Papua.

Crime

The crime rate has increased in recent years, but fortunately it remains mostly non-violent and guns are rare. Robbery, theft and pickpocketing are common in Indonesia, particularly in markets, public transport and pedestrian overpasses. Avoid flashing jewelry, gold watches, MP3 players or large cameras. Thieves have been known to snatch laptops, PDAs and cellphones from Internet hotspot areas.
Crime is rampant on local and long-distance public transport (bus, train, ships). Do not accept drinks from strangers, as they may be laced with drugs. Choose your taxis carefully in cities (hotel taxis are often best), lock doors when inside and avoid using cellular phones, MP3 players, PDAs or laptops at traffic lights or in traffic jams.
Do not place valuable items in checked baggage, as they may be stolen by baggage handlers. Do not leave valuable items in an empty hotel room, and use the hotel's safe deposit box instead of the in-room safe.
Do not draw large amounts of cash from banks or ATMs. Guard your belongings carefully and consider carrying a money clip instead of a wallet.

Corruption

.Indonesia is one of the world's most corrupt countries.^ JAKARTA Indonesia's long-stalled cable industry is getting a massive boost from Kabelvision, which is controlled by one of the country's richest congloms, the Lippo Group.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesian coal, the project will be one of the cleanest, most efficient coal-fired facilities in the world."
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^ FoxNews 8/8/99 AP "...A local journalist investigating corruption was found dead in Aceh, one of Indonesia's troubled provinces, a newspaper reported Sunday.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Officials may ask for bribes, tips or "gifts" — the Indonesian terms are uang kopi or uang rokok, literally "coffee money" and "cigarette money" — to supplement their meager salaries; pretending you do not understand may work. Generally, being polite, smiling, asking for an official receipt for any 'fees' you are asked to pay, more politeness, more smiling, will avoid any problems.
The going rate for paying your way out of small offenses (not carrying your passport, losing the departure card, minor or imaginary traffic violation, etc) is Rp 50,000 ($4.50). It's common for police to initially demand silly amounts or threaten you with going to the station, but keep cool and they'll be more reasonable. Also note that if your taxi/bus/car driver is stopped, any fine or bribe is not your problem and it's best not to get involved. (If it's clear that the police were out of line, your driver certainly won't object if you compensate him afterwards though.)

Civil strife and terrorism

.Indonesia has a number of provinces where separatist movements have resorted to armed struggles, notably Aceh and Papua.^ In a separate clash, three separatists were killed by security forces in restive Aceh province, Indonesian media reported.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ FoxNews 8/8/99 AP "...A local journalist investigating corruption was found dead in Aceh, one of Indonesia's troubled provinces, a newspaper reported Sunday.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.In addition, sectarian strife between Muslims and Christians, as well as between the indigenous population and transmigrants from Java/Madura, continues to occur in Maluku, central parts of Sulawesi and some areas of Kalimantan.^ Thousands of Muslim Jihad militia continue to raid the area, slaughtering communities and driving tens of thousands of Christians out.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Clashes between minority Christians and Muslims in the Moluccas (Moluku) islands have cost thousands of lives since the beginning of last year.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Islamic Views 4/6/00 AFP ".Thousands of Muslims, many in white robes and carrying swords, rallied in a central Jakarta stadium Thursday to support the launching of a Jihad against Christians in the troubled Maluku islands this month.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Elections in Indonesia frequently involve rowdy demonstrations that have on occasion spiralled into violence, and the Indonesian military have also been known to employ violent measures to control or disperse protesting crowds.^ Many people from the western districts of East Timor, and from the capital, Dili, were moved by force or by fear across the border into western Timor, in Indonesia, by violence that followed an Aug.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Scores were injured as riot police and students clashed Police and demonstrators have been involved in violent clashes on the streets of the Indonesian capital of Jakarta, with several injuries reported.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Oecussi saw some of the worst violence carried out by the Indonesian military and pro-Jakarta militias after the the UN-sponsored independence ballot on August 30.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Travel permits (surat jalan) are required for entering conflict areas such as much of Papua and Poso and Palu in central Sulawesi.
.While the great majority of civil strife in Indonesia is a strictly local affair, terrorist bombings targeting Western interests have also taken place in Bali and Jakarta, mostly notably the 2002 bombing in Kuta that killed 202 people, including 161 tourists.^ Prior to this, and since Indonesia's invasion of East Timor in 1975, 275,000 people out of a then population of 690,000 have died from war, starvation and disease, including 60,000 killed in mass executions in the first two months.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Clinton's connections to Riady span most of the era since 1975, when Indonesia invaded East Timor, killing approximately 200,000 people -- a third of the nation's population -- and subjecting it to Jakarta's rule.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Although most of the recent violence has taken place in the Molucca Islands, Muslim vigilante groups have recently attacked restaurants and nightclubs in Jakarta, the capital.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.To minimize your risk, avoid any tourist-oriented nightclub or restaurant without strong security measures in place or where parking of cars and/or motorcycles in front of the club is permitted.^ Although most of the recent violence has taken place in the Molucca Islands, Muslim vigilante groups have recently attacked restaurants and nightclubs in Jakarta, the capital.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Drugs

.Indonesia has extremely harsh punishments for drug offenses — visitors are greeted with cheery "DEATH TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS" signs at airports and recent cases have seen long jail terms for simple possession — but drugs are still widely available.^ The United States, which has had a long and cosy relationship with dictators and dictatorship in Indonesia, is having a hard time coming to terms with Indonesia's struggling, year-old democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

By far the most common is marijuana (known as gele or cimeng), which is not only sold to tourists but is used as food in some parts of the country, notably Aceh. Magic mushrooms are advertised openly in parts of Bali and Lombok, and hard drugs are common in the Jakarta nightlife scene. .Still, it's highly advisable to steer well clear or, at very least, be very discreet as entrapment and drug busts are common and you really, really don't want to get involved with the Indonesian justice system; thanks to the anti-corruption drive, you cannot even count on being able to bribe your way out anymore.^ And I don't want to rule out anything categorically but the focus is not on infantry forces.''
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Mission CEO John Bryson even wrote Brown, thanking him for the overwhelming efforts from 1994 through 1995 to get the Indonesians to buy their Paiton bid.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ A corruption scandal at the heart of the country's banking system and fresh violence in the outlying provinces combined today to drive the value of the currency, the rupiah, down ..."
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Natural disasters

.Indonesia is a chain of highly volcanic islands sprinkled along the Ring of Fire, so earthquakes occur constantly and tsunamis and volcano eruptions are all too common.^ But there was no report of a tsunami, a massive wave caused by an earthquake or volcanic eruption.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The main church in the Spice Island provincial capital of Ambon was set on fire along with a mosque.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In December 1992, a magnitude 7 earthquake caused a tsunami that killed about 2,500 people on the southeastern island of Flores.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Realistically, there is little you can do to avoid these risks, but familiarize yourself with the warning signs and pay special heed to fire escape routes in hotels.

Wildlife

.Crocodiles and poisonous snakes are present throughout most of Indonesia, although there are uncommon in most areas.^ They would also face some of Indonesias military (including Kopassus, Indonesias special forces), as it is unclear whether there is any command and control over troops in the area.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Komodo dragons can be very dangerous if harassed, but are only found on Komodo and a few neighboring islands.^ They soon not only found themselves harassed by the pro-Indonesia groups, but saw their region plunged into unimaginable bloodshed.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Break like the wind
Most Indonesians have not yet quite accepted the germ theory of disease: instead, any flu-like diseases are covered under the concept of masuk angin, lit. ."enter wind". Preventive measures include avoiding cold drinks and making sure bus windows are tightly rolled up during a 48-hour bus ride (evidently kretek smoke does not cause masuk angin), while accepted cures include the practice of kerokan (rubbing an oiled coin over your skin) or the less socially acceptable kentut, in other words fart!^ He said that if Indonesia, which has declared martial law in East Timor, failed to restore order within 48 hours, ``the international community will have to consider what other measures it can take to assist the Indonesia government.''
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Indonesia has recovered less than almost any other Asian country, thus feeding the social and political crisis.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.The bad news is that every disease known to man can be found somewhere in Indonesia — the good news is that you're probably not going to go there.^ The good news is that in some places there has been some international response.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Malaria prophylaxis is not necessary for Java or Bali, but is wise if traveling for extended periods in remote area of Sumatra, Borneo, Lombok or points east. Dengue fever can be contracted anywhere and using insect repellents (DEET) and mosquito nets is highly advisable. Hepatitis is also common and getting vaccinated before arriving in Indonesia is wise.
Food hygiene is often questionable and getting vaccinated for hepatitis A and possibly typhoid fever is a wise precaution. .See a doctor if what seems like food poisoning does not clear up within a few days.^ The militias are so powerful that within a few days they were able to gain control most of the former Portuguese colony.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

The air quality in major cities, especially Jakarta and Surabaya, is poor, and the seasonal haze (June-October) from forest fires on Borneo and Sumatra can also cause respiratory problems. If you have asthma, bring your medicine and breather.
Recent years have seen outbreaks of polio and anthrax in rural parts of Java and rabies in East Nusa Tenggara. Avian influenza (bird flu) has also made headlines, but outbreaks are sporadic and limited to people who deal with live or dead poultry in rural areas. Eating cooked chicken appears to be safe.
The local Indonesian health care system is not up to western standards. While a short term stay in an Indonesian hospital or medical center for simple health problems is probably not markedly different to a western facility, serious and critical medical emergencies will stretch the system to the limit. In fact, many rich Indonesians often choose to travel to neighboring Singapore to receive more serious health care. SOS Indonesia [27] (24-hour emergency line +62-21-7506001) specializes in treating expats and has English staff on duty, but charges are correspondingly high. In any case, travel health insurance that includes medical evacuation back to a home country is highly recommended.
If you need a specific medicine, bring the medicine in its container/bottle, if possible with the doctor's prescription. Indonesian custom inspectors may ask about the medicine. If you need additional medicine in Indonesia, bring the container to a pharmacy (apotek) and if possible mention the active ingredients of the medicine. Drugs are usually manufactured locally under different brand names, but contain the same ingredients. Be careful about the proper dosage of the medicine.
For routine traveller complaints, one can often find medical doctors (dokter) in towns. These small clinics are usually walk-in, although you may face a long wait. Most clinics open in the afternoon (from 4 PM). The emergency room (ER) in hospitals always open (24 hour). There are clinics (poliklinik) in most hospitals (8 AM-4 PM). Advance payment is expected for treatment.
Be warned, though, that the doctors/nurses may not speak English well enough to make an appropriate diagnosis -- be patient and take a good phrasebook or a translator with you. Ask about the name and dosage of the prescription medicine, as few doctors may oversubscribe to inflate their own cut, with antibiotics handed out like candy.
Indonesia has a low HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. However, most infections are among sex workers and injecting drug users. Always protect yourself before engaging in risky activities.

Respect

.By and large (hawkers and touts don't count), Indonesians are a polite people and adopting a few local conventions will go a long way to smooth your stay.^ But thousands of local people have been evacuated to the Indonesian part of the island and many buildings have been attacked.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1977, the Indonesian army killed 900 people in reprisals after local protesters sabotaged a Freeport pipeline" .
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.One general tip for getting by in Indonesia is that saving face is extremely important in Indonesian culture.^ JAKARTA Indonesia's long-stalled cable industry is getting a massive boost from Kabelvision, which is controlled by one of the country's richest congloms, the Lippo Group.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

If you should get into a dispute with a vendor, government official etc, forget trying to argue or 'win'. Better results will be gained by remaining polite and humble at all times, never raising your voice, and smiling, asking the person to help you find a solution to the problem. Rarely, if ever, is it appropriate to try to blame, or accuse.
When meeting someone, be it for the first time ever or just the first time that day, it is common to shake hands — but in Indonesia this is no knuckle-crusher, just a light touching of the palms, often followed by bringing your hand to your chest. Meetings often start and end with everybody shaking hands with everybody! However, don't try to shake hands with a Muslim woman unless she offers her hand first. It is respectful to bend slightly (not a complete bow) when greeting someone older or in a position of authority.
Never use your left hand for anything! It is considered very rude. This is especially true when you are shaking hands or handing something to someone. It can be hard to get used to, especially if you are left handed. However, sometimes special greetings are given with both hands.
Polite forms of address for people you don't know are Bapak ("father") for men and Ibu ("mother") for women. If you know the name of the person you're talking to, you can address them respectfully as Pak Name (for men) or Bu Name (for women). The Javanese terms mas ("older brother") and mbak ("older sister") are also heard, but best reserved for equals, not superiors.
Remove your shoes or sandals outside before entering a house, unless the owner explicitly allows you to keep them on. Even then, it might be more polite to remove your shoes. Do not put your feet up while sitting and try not to show the bottom of your feet to someone, it is considered rude. Don't walk in front of people, instead walk behind them.
Do not stand or sit with your arms crossed or on your hips. This is a sign of anger or hostility. If a guest, it is not polite to finish any drink all the way to the bottom of the glass. This indicates that you would like more. Instead, leave about a half of an inch/2cm in the bottom of your glass and someone will most likely ask you if you would like more.
.And if all this seems terribly complex, don't worry about it too much — Indonesians are an easygoing bunch and don't expect foreigners to know or understand intricacies of etiquette.^ "There's a price of fifty million rupiah (about $A.10,000) on the heads of all my ministers and there's a much higher price on my head".
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ ""At least around US$25 billion, but how much further is the limit I don't know,'' he said in Cairo, where he is attending a G-15 summit.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Dress

By and large, Indonesia is a conservative country and modest dress is advisable. On the beaches of Bali and Lombok, the locals are used to foreigners gamboling about in bikinis, but elsewhere women are advised to keep legs and necklines covered and to match the locals when bathing. (Covering your hair is unnecessary, although doing so may be appreciated in Aceh.) Wearing shorts, miniskirts etc is unlikely to cause actual offense, but clothing like this is associated with sex workers. Men, too, can gain respect by wearing collared, long-sleeve shirts and trousers if dealing with bureaucracy.

Contact

Keeping in touch with the outside world from Indonesia is rarely a problem, at least if you stay anywhere close to the beaten track.

Telephone calls

As getting a fixed line remains an unaffordable luxury for many Indonesians, wartel (short for warung telekomunikasi) can be found on most every street in Indonesia.
If you have Global System Mobile (GSM) cellular phone, ask your local provider about "roaming agreement/facility" with local GSM operators in Indonesia (ie: PT Indosat, PT Telkomsel, PT Excelindo etc).
Making local calls 
Dial (telephone number)
Making long distance calls 
Dial 0-(area code)-(telephone number)
Making international calls 
Dial 017-(country code)-(area code, if any)-(telephone number)
Beside "017" prefix, you can use "001", "007" or "008". For example
001-(country code)-(area code, if any)-(telephone number)
You can make International calls through operator
dial 101 or 102.
Making long distance collect calls 
Dial 0871-(area code)
Connecting to the Internet 
Dial 080989999 (from your modem), costing you Rp. 165/minute in business days and Rp. 100/minute in Saturdays and Sundays
TELKOM Calling Card access number 
Dial 168

Mobile phones

.The Indonesian mobile phone market is heavily competed and prices are low: you can pick up a prepaid SIM card for less than Rp 20,000 (US$ 2) and calls may cost as little as Rp 1,000 a minute (subject to the usual host of restrictions).^ Roll Call 9/20/99 Morton Kondracke "...Australian-led troops are on the way to East Timor, but the place already has been ravaged by pro-Indonesian militias.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ Embattled former Indonesian president Suharto, under investigation for graft, may hand over US$25 billion (S$43 billion) to the government, President Abdurrahman Wahid has said.
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^ Recently over 500,000 Muslims gathered in the capitol to call for a "jihad" against Christian Indonesians.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

.Indonesia is also the world's largest market for used phones and basic models start from Rp 200,000. The largest operators are Telkomsel [28] (brand Kartu HALO, simPATI, Kartu As), Indosat [29] (brands Matrix, Mentari, IM3), 3 [30], AXIS [31], and Excelcomindo [32] (brands Jempol, Bebas).^ BBC News 6/7/99 "....The people of Indonesia have begun voting in a general election which will lead to the creation of the world's third-largest democracy.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

If you have Global System Mobile (GSM) cellular phone, ask your local GSM operator about "roaming agreement/facility" in Indonesia. Most GSM operators in Indonesia have roaming agreement with various GSM operators worldwide. Using roaming facility, you can use your own cellular phone and GSM SIM card in Indonesia.
Most Indonesian operators use GSM, but beware of the few offering CDMA phones: they are slightly cheaper, but generally not usable outside major cities. Be sure to double-check when buying!

Internet

The modern-day version of the wartel is the warnet, which feature Internet-connected PCs as well, and many shops now do double duty. Prices vary considerably, and as usual you tend to get what you pay for, but you'll usually be looking at around Rp 5,000 per hour. In large cities, there are free hotspots in certain shopping malls, McDonald restaurants and StarBucks cafes. Some hotels provide free hotspots in the lobby.
.If you have GSM/WCDMA Mobile phones, you can easily use them for internet connections with a prepaid card from Indosat called Mentari or IM3. There is a GPRS package with time-based calculation like PSTN dialup.^ Last time I looked he had been arrested in Las Vegas after running up, and I kid you not, some $25 million plus in gaming debts at casinos there.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Hongkong-based telecommunications giant is also said to be helping the group develop its wireless calling card facility.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

The charge is only Rp 110 per minute or Rp 6600 per hour. Mentari or IM3 starter-kit is Rp 10,000 with vouchers Rp 25,000, Rp 50,000 or Rp 100,000.

Telephone directories and information services

Other information services

Current time 
Dial 103
Information about TELKOM services 
Dial 162
Phone directory
Dial 108
Phone directory in other cities
Dial (Code Area) 108
Hello Yellow Phone Directory
Dial (62)(21) 7917 8108
Online Yellow Pages
Indonesian YellowPages [33]
Code area of large cities in Indonesia
Balikpapan (0542), Banda Aceh (0651), Bandung (022), Batam (0778), Denpasar (0361), Jakarta (021),Jogyakarta (0274), Kupang (0380), Makassar (0411), Manado (0431), Medan (061), Palembang (0711), Pekanbaru (0761), Semarang (024), Solo (0271), Surabaya (031)
  • Ministry of Tourism and Culture. Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No.17, 9th floor, Jakarta 10110, Tel.: (62)(21) 383 8303.
  • Indonesia Tourism Promotion Board (BPPI), Wisma Nugraha Santana 9th flr. Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav. 8, Jakarta 12930. Tel.: (62)(21) 570 4879. Fax.: (62)(21) 570 4855.

Emergency

Here is a list of emergency numbers in Indonesia (please note that while these numbers are accessible for free from all non-mobile telephones, they may not be accessible from mobile phones [for mobile phones, you'd better use international mobile phones emergency number, 112]) :
  • Police : 110
  • Fire department : 113
  • Ambulance : 118
  • Search and rescue team: 115.
  • Indonesian Police HQ. Jl. Trunojoyo 3, South Jakarta. Tel.: (62)(21) 7218144.
  • National Search and Rescue agency (BASARNAS): Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur No.5, Jakarta 10110. Tel.: (62)(21) 348-32881, (62)(21) 348-32908, (62)(21) 348-32869, Fax.: (62)(21) 348-32884, (62)(21) 348-32885. Website: Basarnas [34].

Cope

Embassies, high commissions and consulates

The Departemen Luar Negeri (Deplu) or Ministry of Foreign Affairs [35] maintains a complete searchable database of diplomatic institutions. .All embassies are located in Jakarta (see that article for listings), but a few countries maintain consulates general and honorary consulates elsewhere, mostly in Surabaya, Bali and port cities (eg.^ Antara reported that the U.S. warship's arrival was coinciding with the visit of U.S. Consul General Robert Polar to Ambon, capital of Maluku, to seek data on conflicts in the city.
  • CLINTON'S ROGUES GALLERY: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC alamo-girl.com [Source type: News]

Malaysia in Pekanbaru, Philippines in Manado and so on).
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also indonèsia, and Indonèsia

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˌɪn.dəˈni.zi.ə/, /ˌɪn.dəʊˈni.zi.ə/, SAMPA: /%In.d@"ni.zi.@/, /%In.d@U"ni.zi.@/
  • (US) IPA: /ˌɪn.dəˈni.ʒə/, /ˌɪn.doʊˈni.ʒə/, SAMPA: /%In.d@"ni.Z@/, /%In.doU"ni.Z@/
  • Rhymes: -iːʒə

Proper noun

Singular
Indonesia
Plural
-
Indonesia
.
  1. Country in Southeast Asia.^ Other Countries in Southeast Asia: Brunei .
    • Indonesia - Country Profile - Republik Indonesia - archipelago, Indonesia, Tourism South East Asia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

    ^ This organization is a regional alliance of ten independent countries that promotes stability and economic growth within Southeast Asia.
    • Indonesia - Economic analysis of government policies, investment climate and political risk. 15 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They see Indonesia becoming the major power in Southeast Asia and one of the major countries in Asia.
    • History of South East Asia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.aseanfocus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Republic of Indonesia.

Translations

See also


Finnish

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: In‧do‧ne‧si‧a

Proper noun

Indonesia (stem Indonesi-*)
  1. Indonesia.

Italian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /indoˈnɛzja/, SAMPA: /indo"nEzja/
  • Indonèsia

Proper noun

Indonesia f.
  1. Indonesia

Derived terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Proper noun

Indonesia
  1. Indonesia

Related terms


Papiamentu

Proper noun

Indonesia
  1. Indonesia

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˌin.doˈne.sja/

Proper noun

Indonesia f.
  1. Indonesia

Simple English

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia

File:Flag of File:Coat of Arms of Indonesia Garuda
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bahasa Indonesia : Berbeda-beda tetapi tetap Satu
English : Unity in Diversity
National anthem: "Indonesia Raya"
About the people
Official languages: Bahasa Indonesia
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 241,973,879 (ranked 4)
  - Density: 126 per km²
Geography / Places
Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Jakarta
Largest city: Jakarta
Area
  - Total: 1,919,440 (ranked 15)
  - Water:n/a km² (4.85%)
Politics / Government
Established: August 17, 1945
Leaders: President: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)
International information
Time zone: +7 to +9
Telephone dialing code: +62
Internet domain: .id

Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia. It is part of the Malay Archipelago. It has 18,108 islands. 6,000 of these islands are inhabited. The most important islands of Indonesia are Java, Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Sumatra. The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta, on Java. The current president is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Modern Indonesia began on the 17th of August 1945. At 10 o'clock on that Friday morning, Ir. Soekarno read Indonesia's Declaration of Independence. Indonesia's Independence Day is a national holiday.

Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world with a population of 238,452,952 (2004 est.) There are 111 inhabitants per km². The official language of Indonesia is Bahasa Indonesia, but a total of 737 languages are spoken throughout Indonesia mostly confined to remote tribal groups. Other languages widely spoken in Indonesia include Javanese, Balinese and Sundanese. The closest countries are Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, and East Timor which share land borders with Indonesia. Other neighbouring countries are Australia to the south, Singapore to the Northwest, and Philippines to the Northeast.

The religion that most people in Indonesia follow is Islam, which is the country's official religion. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population on earth. Other religions include Christianity (Protestant, and Roman Catholic), Hinduism, and Buddhism.

Contents

History

[[File:|250px|thumb|left|Indonesia]]

Pre World War II

Indonesia has written history as far back as the 7th century. Before the colonial Dutch came in the 1700s, Indonesia was made up of many kingdoms in constant warfare. Indonesia was ruled by the Netherlands from the 17th century until World War II.

Modern Indonesia

During World War II, the Japanese drove out the Dutch and took control of Indonesia. After Japan surrendered in the war, Indonesia claimed its independence on the 17th of August 1945. The proclamation was read by Ir. Soekarno in Jakarta. Soekarno later became Indonesia's first President.

British troops came into Indonesia to restore peace and to rescue Europeans who had been prisoners of the Japanese. The British troops also had the job of shipping home 300,000 Japanese troops. The Indonesian Republicans fought the British troops, because it was expected that the British would give Indonesia back to the Dutch. The Indonesian Republicans killed many of the Japanese prisoners, before they could be sent home. They also began killing people from minority groups who might be against the new Republic. Many European and Indonesian European people were killed. Many Chinese business people and other minority groups were killed or made homeless. In Java there were many thousands of homeless people.

In 1946, the Dutch came back. When the British left in 1947, there were 55,000 Dutch soldiers in Indonesia. The Dutch action was called "Operatie Product" or "Politionele Acties". The Indonesian Republicans fought the Dutch until 1949. But the Indonesian Republicans were badly organised and often fought among themselves. As the Dutch forced the Republican soldiers out of different areas, they moved in more troops until there was 100,000 Dutch troops. The Dutch refused to obey the United Nations who said they should stop the fighting in Indonesia. The United States of America organised for meetings between Dutch and Indonesian leaders. The Dutch finally agreed to recognise Indonesia's independence in November 1949.

Because of the fighting and the bad organisation, it took a long time for the country to become peaceful, and for the economy to get better. Many Indonesian soldiers had died, between 45,000 and 100,000. Also, a very large number of civilian (people not in the army), Indonesians, Europeans and Chinese, had died; perhaps as many as 200,000.

Indonesian people and culture

There are people of many different cultural groups living in Indonesia.

Album

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Indonesia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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