Industrial and organizational psychology: Wikis


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Industrial and Organizational Psychology (also known as I-O psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, work psychology, organizational psychology, work and organizational psychology, industrial psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) applies psychology to organizations and the workplace. In January 2010, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) announced that, as a result of membership vote, it would retain its name and not change it to the Society for Organizational Psychology (TSOP) to eliminate the word "Industrial". "Industrial-organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An I-O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems."[1]



Guion (1965) defines I-O psychology as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work:... in the process of making a living" (p. 817). Blum and Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (p 4). I-O psychology has historically subsumed two broad areas of study, as evident by its name, although this distinction is largely artificial and many topics cut across both areas. I-O psychology has roots in social psychology; organizational psychologists examine the role of the work environment in performance and other outcomes including job satisfaction and health. I-O psychology is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association.

Common research and practice areas for I-O psychologists include:

I-O psychologists are trained in the “scientist-practitioner” model. The training enables I-O psychologists to employ scientific principles and research-based designs to generate knowledge. They use what they have learned in applied settings to help clients address workplace needs. I-O psychologists are employed as professors, researchers, and consultants. They also work within organizations, often as part of a human resources department where they coordinate hiring and organizational development initiatives from an evidence-based perspective.


The "industrial" side of I-O psychology has its historical origins in research on individual differences, assessment, and the prediction of performance. This branch of the field crystallized during World War I, in response to the need to rapidly assign new troops to duty stations. After the War the growing industrial base in the U.S. added impetus to I-O psychology. Walter Dill Scott, who was elected President of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1919, was arguably the most prominent I-O psychologist of his time, although James McKeen Cattell (elected APA President in 1895) and Hugo Münsterberg (1898) were influential in the early development of the field.[2]. Organizational psychology gained prominence after World War II, influenced by the Hawthorne studies and the work of researchers such as Kurt Lewin and Muzafer Sherif.

Research methods in I-O psychology

As described above, I-O psychologists are trained in the scientist-practitioner model. I-O psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizational research. Study designs employed by I-O psychologists include surveys, experiments, quasi-experiments, and observational studies. I-O psychologists rely on diverse data sources including human judgments, historical databases, objective measures of work performance (e.g., sales volume), and questionnaires and surveys.

I-O researchers employ both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods used in I-O psychology include both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (e.g., correlation, multiple regression, and analysis of variance). More advanced statistical methods employed by some I-O psychologists include logistic regression, multivariate analysis of variance, structural equation modeling,[3] and hierarchical linear modeling[4] (HLM; also known as multilevel modeling). HLM is particularly applicable to research on team- and organization-level effects on individuals. I-O psychologists also employ psychometric methods including methods associated with classical test theory[5] (CTT), generalizability theory, and item response theory (IRT).[6] In the 1990s, a growing body of empirical research in I-O psychology was influential in the application of meta-analysis, particularly in the area of the stability of research findings across contexts. The most well-known meta-analytic approaches are those associated with Hunter and Schmidt,[7][8][9] Rosenthal,[10][11] and Hedges and Olkin.[12] With the help of meta-analysis, Hunter and Schmidt[13][14] advanced the idea of validity generalization, which suggests that some performance predictors, specifically cognitive ability tests (see especially Hunter [1986][15] and Hunter & Schmidt [1996][16]) have a relatively stable and positive relation to job performance across all jobs. Although not unchallenged, validity generalization has broad acceptance with regard to many selection instruments (e.g., cognitive ability tests, job knowledge tests, work samples, and structured interviews) across a broad range of jobs.

Qualitative methods employed in I-O psychology include content analysis, focus groups, interviews, case studies, and several other observational techniques. I-O research on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniques and participant observation to collect data. One well-known qualitative technique employed in I-O psychology is John Flanagan's[17] critical incident technique, which requires "qualified observers" (e.g., pilots in studies of aviation, construction workers in studies of construction projects) to describe a work situation that resulted in a good or bad outcome. Objectivity is ensured when multiple observers identify the same incidents. The observers are also asked to provide information about what the actor in the situation could have done differently to influence the outcome. This technique is then used to describe the critical elements of performance in certain jobs and how worker behavior relates to outcomes. Most notably, this technique has been employed to improve performance among aircraft crews and surgical teams, literally saving thousands of lives since its introduction. An application of the technique in research on coping with job stress comes from O'Driscoll and Cooper.[18]

I-O psychologists sometimes use quantitative and qualitative methods in concert. For example, when constructing behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a job analyst may use qualitative methods, such as critical incidents interviews and focus groups to collect data bearing on performance. Then the analyst would have SMEs rate those examples on a Likert scale and compute inter-rater agreement statistics to judge the adequacy of each item. Each potential item would additionally be correlated with an external criterion in order to evaluate its usefulness if it were to be selected to be included in a BARS metric.

Topics in industrial-organizational psychology


Job analysis

Job analysis is often described as the cornerstone of successful employee selection efforts and performance management initiatives. A job analysis involves the systematic collection of information about a job. Job-analytic methods are often described as belonging to one of two approaches. One approach, the task-oriented job analysis, involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competencies required by a job. The second approach, a worker-oriented job analysis, involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work. These two approaches are not mutually exclusive. Various adaptations of job-analytic methods include competency modeling, which examines large groups of duties and tasks related to a common goal or process, and practice analysis, which examines the way work is performed in an occupation across jobs.

Job-analytic data are often collected using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods. The information obtained from a job analysis is then used to create job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and criteria, or training programs. Additional uses of job-analytic information include job evaluations for the purpose of determining compensation levels and job redesign.

Personnel recruitment and selection

I-O psychologists typically work with HR specialists to design (a) recruitment processes and (b) personnel selection systems. Personnel recruitment is the process of identifying qualified candidates in the workforce and getting them to apply for jobs within an organization. Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants.

Personnel selection is the systematic process of hiring and promoting personnel. Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine the most qualified candidates. Personnel selection involves both new hires and individuals who can be promoted from within the organization. Common selection tools include ability tests (e.g., cognitive, physical, or psychomotor), knowledge tests, personality tests, structured interviews, the systematic collection of biographical data, and work samples. I-O psychologists must evaluate evidence regarding the extent to which selection tools predict job performance, evidence that bears on the validity of selection tools.

Personnel selection procedures are usually validated, i.e., shown to be job relevant, using one or more of the following types of validity: content validity, construct validity, and/or criterion-related validity. I-O psychologists adhere to professional standards, such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's (SIOP) Principles for Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures [19] and the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.[20] The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Uniform Guidelines [21] are also influential in guiding personnel selection although they have been criticized as outdated when compared to the current state of knowledge in I-O psychology.

Performance appraisal/management

Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process of measuring an individual's work behaviors and outcomes against the expectations of the job. Performance appraisal is frequently used in promotion and compensation decisions, to help design and validate personnel selection procedures, and for performance management. Performance management is the process of providing performance feedback relative to expectations and improvement information (e.g., coaching, mentoring). Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organization-level evaluation purposes.

An I-O psychologist would typically use information from the job analysis to determine a job's performance dimensions, and then construct a rating scale to describe each level of performance for the job. Often, the I-O psychologist would be responsible for training organizational personnel how to use the performance appraisal instrument, including ways to minimize bias when using the rating scale, and how to provide effective performance feedback. Additionally, the I-O psychologist may consult with the organization on ways to use the performance appraisal information for broader performance management initiatives.

Individual assessment and psychometrics

Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. I-O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees. The constructs measured pertain to job performance. With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. These assessments can include written tests, physical tests, psychomotor tests, personality tests, work samples, and assessment centers.

Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological variables, such as knowledge, skills, and abilities. I-O psychologists are generally well-trained in psychometric psychology.


Compensation includes wages or salary, bonuses, pension/retirement contributions, and perquisites that can be converted to cash or replace living expenses. I-O psychologists may be asked to conduct a job evaluation for the purpose of determining compensation levels and ranges. I-O psychologists may also serve as expert witnesses in pay discrimination cases when disparities in pay for similar work are alleged.

Training and training evaluation

Most people hired for a job are not already versed in all the tasks required to perform the job effectively. Similar to performance management (see above), an I-O psychologist would employ a job analysis in concert with principles of instructional design to create an effective training program. A training program is likely to include a summative evaluation at its conclusion in order to ensure that trainees have met the training objectives and can perform the target work tasks at an acceptable level. Training programs often include formative evaluations to assess the impact of the training as the training proceeds. Formative evaluations can be used to locate problems in training procedures and help I-O psychologist make corrective adjustments in the while the training is ongoing.

Motivation in the Workplace

Motivation is a positive drive that forces a person to reach the goal. In a workplace the manager or supervisor has to know the needs or drive of individual and motivate according to it. In an organization, when an employee is doing good job or production is increased by him, he must be rewarded with respect to his needs.

Organizational Culture

Organizational culture can be described as a set of assumptions shared by the individuals in an organization that directs interpretation and action by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. There are three levels of organizational culture: artifacts, shared values, and basic beliefs and assumptions. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. Shared values are individuals’ preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization’s culture (e.g. loyalty, customer service). Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals’ impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization, and are often deeply ingrained within the organization’s culture.

In addition to an overall culture, organizations also have subcultures. Examples of subcultures include corporate culture, departmental culture, local culture, and issue-related culture. While there is no single “type” of organizational culture, some researchers have developed models to describe different organizational cultures. The Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is a self-report measure that distinguishes organizational cultures from one another based on seven different organizational values. The Denison Model uses four general dimensions and twelve subdimensions to distinguish different organizational cultures.

Organizational culture is fostered through several different mediums. Symbols, artifacts, stories, legends, rites, rituals, language and communication are all examples of how organizational culture is established and transmitted among an organization’s members. Founding members of organizations also have an impact on the organizational culture that develops.

The study of organizational culture can be difficult. Two common methods for researching organizational culture are self-reports and ethnography. Self-report measures are administered to employees and an average score is computed for the organization. Ethnographers observe and record organizational behavior over a period of time in order to decipher an organization’s culture.

Changing an organization’s culture can be difficult and usually cannot be done quickly. While organizations must adapt over time to survive, the basic assumptions that shape an organization’s culture are difficult to change.

Organizational culture has been shown to have an impact on important organizational outcomes such as performance, attraction, recruitment, retention, employee satisfaction, and employee well-being. Also, organizations with an adaptive culture tend to perform better than organizations with an unadaptive culture.

Group Behavior

Team Effectiveness

Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own.

Job satisfaction and commitment

Job satisfaction reflects an employee's overall assessment of their job particularly their emotions, behaviors, and attitudes about their work experience. It is one of the most heavily researched topics in industrial/organizational psychology with several thousand published studies. Job satisfaction has theoretical and practical utility for the field of psychology and has been linked to important job outcomes including attitudinal variables, absenteeism, employee turnover, and job performance. For instance, job satisfaction is strongly correlated with attitudinal variables such as job involvement, organizational commitment, job tensions, frustration, and feelings of anxiety. Job satisfaction also has a weak correlation with employee's absentee behaviors and turnover from an organization with employees more likely to miss work or find other jobs if they are not satisfied. Finally, research has found that although a positive relationship exists between job satisfaction and performance, it is moderated by the use of rewards at an organization and the strength of employee's attitudes about their job.

There have been three general approaches to researching job satisfaction including the job characteristics, social information processing, and dispositional. The job characteristics approach attempts to understand what characteristics of the employer and employment environment lead to satisfied employees while the social information processing approach views jobs as a social construction and evaluates how social judgments and comparisons influence job satisfaction. To illustrate these two approaches, research has shown that although higher pay leads to higher satisfaction, employees satisfaction with pay will depend more on how their pay compares to others at an organization than on an objective numeric amount. The dispositional approach evaluates the characteristics of employees that lead to job satisfaction. Research from this approach has found that the Big 5 personality traits extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness are positively correlated to job satisfaction after controlling for job characteristics while a tendency to experience negative affect is negatively correlated with job satisfaction.

Four of the most popular measures of job satisfaction that have shown to have good construct validity are the Faces Scale, the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), and the Job Satisfaction Survey. The Faces Scale is a simplistic measure that asks respondents to determine which of a series of faces reflects how they feel in general about their job. The JDI asks individuals to determine if different descriptors such as the word fascinating, or well paid, reflect their employment, with a reply of yes, no, or unknown for specific job facets. The MSQ is a 100-item questionnaire designed to measure multiple facets of job satisfaction by asking respondents determine their level of satisfaction with various statements related to their employment. Finally, the JSS is a 36-item questionnaire that asks respondents to determine how much they agree with various statements about their job.

Organizational commitment can be defined as feelings of loyalty toward an organization and an employee’s willingness to stay employed within the organization. Employees often become committed because they have positive feelings about the organization (affective commitment), because the costs of leaving the organization are too great (continuance commitment), or because they feel morally obligated to stay with the organization (normative commitment). Employee profiles developed on each of the different commitment measures may help to predict employee job performance.

Organizational commitment has been shown to be related to attitudinal variables. Specifically, affective commitment has been shown to be strongly linked with turnover and moderately linked with job performance. Normative and continuance commitment have also been linked to turnover, but not as strongly.

There are two popular methods used in measuring organizational commitment. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) is the most popular and widely used measure. However, the OCQ only measures affective commitment. A more recent measure has been developed by Allen and Meyer (1990) measures all three types of commitment and will likely become the most widely used organizational commitment measure in the future.

Job Satisfaction and Commitment overlap considerably as psychological constructs and have been found to be well correlated. This is because it is often difficult to tease out distinctions between an employee’s satisfaction with their specific job and their relationship with the organization they work for. It is also argued that these constructs feed into each other via a cyclical process with higher job satisfaction leading to higher organizational commitment and vice-versa.

Counterproductive Behavior

Counterproductive behavior can be defined as employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization. These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counter-productive behaviors (Fox and Spector, 1999). For instance, an employee who steals from the company may do so because of lax supervision (environment) and underlying psychopathology (person) that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior.

The forms of counterproductive behavior with the most empirical examination are ineffective job performance, absenteeism, job turnover, and accidents. Less common but potentially more detrimental forms of counterproductive behavior have also been investigated including theft, violence, substance use, and sexual harassment.

Within organizations, ineffective job performance is often difficult to detect, diagnose the cause of, prevent, or resolve. This is because most performance measurement systems only assess the impact of various employee behaviors rather than the behaviors themselves. Performance data is the most common method of evaluating ineffective job performance and often includes personnel data, production data, subjective evaluations, and electronic performance monitoring. The causes of ineffective job performance have been evaluated from different theoretical approaches including: attribution theory that links performance to employee characteristics, selection errors that evaluate mistakes of hiring the wrong employees, and inadequate socialization/training that evaluate the social environment and structured training employees receive. Employers need to be careful to avoid the fundamental attribution error whereby performance is linked to characteristics of the employee rather than the environment.

Abseenteeism is typically measured by time lost measures and frequency measures. It is weakly linked to affective predictors such as job satisfaction and commitment. Research has found that women are more likely to be absent than men, and that the absence control policies and culture of an organization will predict absenteeism.

Research on employee turnover has attempted to understand the causes of individual decisions to leave an organization. It has been found that lower performance, lack of reward contingencies for performance, and better external job opportunities.

Accidents are a serious and costly form of counterproductive behavior. Most research on this topic has attempted to evaluate characteristics of the work-place environment that lead to accidents and determination of ways to avoid accidents. There has also been some research on the characteristics of accident-prone employees has found they are typically younger, more distractible, and less socially adjusted than other employees.


Leadership is a process of influencing and supporting and motivating others to work enthusiastically or effectively towards achieving the objectives or goal. A leader acts as a catalyst, who identifies the potential of a worker and tries to put that into reality. A leader can be a positive leader or a negative leader

Relationship to occupational health psychology

A separate but related discipline, occupational health psychology (OHP) is a relatively new field that combines elements of industrial-organizational psychology, health psychology, and occupational health.[22] Unlike I-O psychology, the primary emphasis in OHP is on the physical and mental health and psychological well-being of the person. For more detail on OHP, see the section on occupational health psychology.

Training and Outlook

Graduate programs

A comprehensive list of U.S. and Canadian master's and doctoral programs can be found at the web site of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP).[23] Some helpful ways to learn about graduate programs include visiting the web sites on the SIOP list and speaking to I-O faculty at the institutions listed. Admission into I-O psychology Ph.D. programs are highly competitive given that many programs accept a small number of applicants every year.

There are graduate degree programs in I-O psychology outside of the U.S. and Canada. The SIOP web site [23] also provides a comprehensive list of I-O programs in many other countries.

Job outlook

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2007), the job outlook for industrial-organizational psychologists is promising. Businesses enlist the services of these psychologists in order to retain employees and maintain a good work ethic. I-O psychologists specializing in research often conduct studies within companies to aid in marketing research.

In 2006, the median annual salary for industrial-organizational psychologists was $86,420 (US).[24]

See also


  1. ^ 'Building Better Organizations' Brochure published by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Retrieved from
  2. ^ Farr, J.L. Organized I/O Psychology: Past, Present, Future
  3. ^ Hayduk, L.A. (1987). Structural equations modeling with lisrel. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  4. ^ Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2001). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  5. ^ Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  6. ^ Du Toit, M. (2003) IRT from SSI. Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.
  7. ^ Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Thousand Oaks, CA.
  8. ^ Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1994). Estimation of sampling error variance in the meta-analysis of correlations: Use of average correlation in the homogeneous case. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 171-177.
  9. ^ Law, K. S., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1994). A test of two refinements in procedures for meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 978-986.
  10. ^ Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183-192.
  11. ^ Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2002). Meta-analysis. In H. Pashler & J. Wixted (Eds.). Stevens' handbook of experimental psychology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4: Methodology in experimental psychology, pp. 391-428. Hoboken, NJ, US: Wiley.
  12. ^ Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1984). Nonparametric estimators of effect size in meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 573-580.
  13. ^ Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F. L., & Pearlman, K. (1981). Task differences as moderators of aptitude test validity in selection: A red herring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 166-185.
  14. ^ Schmidt, F. L., Law, K., Hunter, J. E., Rothstein, H. R., Pearlman, K., McDaniel, M. (1993). Refinements in validity generalization methods: Implications for the situational specificity hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 3-12.
  15. ^ Hunter, J. E. (1986). Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitude, job knowledge, and job performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 340-362.
  16. ^ Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Intelligence and job performance: Economic and social implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 447-472.
  17. ^ Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327-358.
  18. ^ O'Driscoll, M. P., & Cooper, C. L. (1994). Coping with work-related stress: A critique of existing measures and proposal for an alternative methodology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 343-354.
  19. ^ The SIOP Principles
  20. ^ The Standards, jointly published by the American Psychological Association, the American Educational Research Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education.
  21. ^ Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
  22. ^ Everly, G. S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health psychology. In P. A. Keller & L. G. Ritt (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 5 (pp. 331-338). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
  23. ^ a b Graduate Training Programs (visited web site on March 22, 2009)
  24. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Psychologists, [1]

Further reading

  • Anderson, N., Ones, D. S., Sinangil, H. K., & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 1: Personnel psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Anderson, N., Ones, D. S., Sinangil, H. K., & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 2: Organizational psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Borman, W. C., Ilgen, D., R., & Klimoski, R., J. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of psychology: Vol 12 Industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Chapter in N. Schmitt and W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel Selection. San Francisco: Josey-Bass (pp. 71-98).
  • Campbell, J. P., Gasser, M. B., & Oswald, F. L. (1996). The substantive nature of job performance variability. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 258–299). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Copley, F. B. (1923). Frederick W. Taylor father of scientific management, Vols. I and II. New York: Taylor Society.
  • Dunnette, M. D. (Ed.). (1976). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (Eds.). (1991). Handbook of industrial/organizational psychology (4 Volumes). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Guion, R. M. (1998). Assessment, measurement and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Koppes, L. L. (Ed.). (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Lant, T.K, “Organizational Cognition and Interpretation,” in Baum, (Ed)., The Blackwell Companion to Organizations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Lowman, R. L. (Ed.). (2002). The California School of Organizational Studies handbook of organizational consulting psychology: A comprehensive guide to theory, skills and techniques. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Rogelberg, S., G. (Ed.). (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Sackett, P. R., & Wilk, S. L. (1994). Within group norming and other forms of score adjustment in pre-employment testing. American Psychologist, 49, 929-954.
  • Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274.

Key journals in industrial and organizational psychology

External links

Outline of psychology


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