The Full Wiki

Industrial revolution: Wikis

  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Industrial revolution

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Industrial Revolution article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine fuelled primarily by coal that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and the world.
^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrial revolution--Europe; Industrial revolution--Great Britain; Great Britain--Foreign economic relations--Europe.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first users of steam engines were the coal and iron industries.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.^ The 18th Century was the time of the Industrial Revolution in Britain,.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We started the first industrial revolution - now we are starting the...
  • Industrial Revolution: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The industrial revolution was a time for change.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_I: Industrial Revolution Workers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.^ The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human social history, comparable to the invention of farming or the rise of the first city-states; almost every aspect of daily life and human society is, eventually, in some way influenced.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was life like before and after the Industrial Revolution?
  • Toolbook: The Modern World - The Industrial Revo - Performance Education - Social Studies Solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.performance-education.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrialization changed many aspects of life.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting in the later part of the 18th century there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal–based economy towards machine-based manufacturing.^ In the later part of the 1700s the manual labour-based economy of the Kingdom of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process began in England in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world.
  • The Industrial Revolution: 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.grimshaworigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the latter half of the 1700s the manual labour based economy of the Kingdom of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.^ It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developed textiles, iron and mining.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It first developed a large textile industry.
  • Industrial Revolution - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways.^ It began with the mechanisation of the textile industries and the development of iron -making techniques, and trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canal s, improved road s and then railways .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads and railways.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads and railways .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilisation of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.^ Water-powered factories and textile mills .

^ Coal to provide steam power.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries.^ The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slowly production of other metals also developed.

^ More and more industries used interchangeable parts and machine tools.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world, a process that continues as industrialisation.^ This was true in western Europe as well as in America after the Second World War.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world, a process that continues as industrialization.
  • The Social Revolution is Our Industrial Revolution | Brian Solis 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.briansolis.com [Source type: News]
  • The Social Revolution is Our Industrial Revolution | Brian Solis 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.briansolis.com [Source type: News]

^ It began in Britain and spread throughout the world, a process that continues as industrialisation.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The impact of this change on society was enormous.^ The impact of this change on society was enormous.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The impact of this change on society was enormous and is often compared to the Neolithic revolution, when various human subgroups embraced agriculture and in the process, forswore the nomadic lifestyle.

^ By comparing and contrasting conditions of work today and in days gone by, the students should begin to grasp the magnitude of impact that technological change has had on societies.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.The first Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.^ Progress in technology and in industrial development has been almost continuous since the Industrial Revolution began.

^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 18th Century was the time of the Industrial Revolution in Britain,.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians.^ The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The industrial revolution was a time for change.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_I: Industrial Revolution Workers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s,[5] while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.[6] Some twentieth century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is not a true description of what took place.^ The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830 .
  • Industrial Revolution: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The changes that occurred during this period (1760-1850), in fact, occurred gradually.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 27, 1830, the July Revolution broke out in Paris.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is still a subject of debate among historians.^ This is still a subject of debate amongst historians.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origins of the Industrial Revolution in England are complex and varied and, like the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution is still a subject of a vast historical debate over origins, developments, growth and end results.
  • Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

[7][8] .GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy.^ It has been argued that GDP per capita was much more stable and progressed at a much slower rate until the industrial revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, and that it has since increased rapidly in capitalist countries.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European economy before industrial revolution De Vries, pp.
  • Alter, George. The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC eh.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been argued that GDP per capita was much more stable and progressed at a much slower rate until the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, and that it has since increased rapidly in capitalist countries.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.^ Industrial revolution; Economic history.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Productivity grows faster than GDP per capita in the Industrial Revolution era.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Historians agree that the Industrial Revolution was one of the most important events in history.^ The invention of the steam engine was one of the most important innovations of the industrial revolution.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Steam Engine : the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The industrial revolution is important to history of the piano for many reasons..
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Name history

.The earliest use of the term "Industrial Revolution" yet located seems to be a letter of 6 July 1799 by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that the process had started in his country.^ FindLaw practice, I use the term industrial revolution to refer to.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from the industrial revolution .
  • Unenumerated: A letter from the industrial revolution 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC unenumerated.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Term Papers on industrial revolution .
  • Term Papers on industrial revolution | industrial revolution essays | AcaDemon 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Term Papers on industrial revolution | industrial revolution essays | AcaDemon 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] In his book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Louis-Auguste Blanqui description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle. .Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of it.^ Friedrich Engels, Condition of the Working Classes in 1844 (London, 1892), p.
  • The Factory System of the Early Nineteenth Century - William H. Hutt - Mises Institute 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What works for one class in society may not suit another.
  • opencopy.org » 11. A Second Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC opencopy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Causes

.
Regional GDP per capita changed very little for most of human history before the Industrial Revolution.
^ Women, women's history, and the Industrial Revolution .
  • Industrial Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some historians believe this revolution (the industrial) is the most fundamental change in human history.
  • Industrial Revolution--Urban Game 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thecaveonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Industrial Revolution changed the work experience.
  • Lesson Plan - Industrial Revolution and Women (The) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.learningtogive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The empty areas mean no data, not very low levels.^ (The empty areas mean no data, not very low levels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its very high level in 1801 and 1811 helped produce the very low real income estimates of Deane and Cole for 1801 and 1811.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is data for the years 1, 1000, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1820, 1900, and 2003)
.The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians believing the Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century.^ Even today, social scientists and historians continue to treat the Industrial Revolution as if it were the beginning of the end of civilization.
  • The Factory System of the Early Nineteenth Century - William H. Hutt - Mises Institute 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is commonly held as the end of the industrial revolution.
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has followed a long debate about the cause of the Industrial Revolution.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, thereby preventing the epidemics common in previous times.^ As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, therefore preventing the epidemics common in previous times.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, they caught diseases readily, and epidemics were common.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As time passed, people gained more benefits, and their lives became better.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce.^ The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As apprentices, children lived and worked with their master who established a workshop in his home or attached to the back of his cottage.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He writes, "It reminded me about children who lived on canal barges and travelled along them with their parents."
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories.^ Industrial Revolution Social and economic transformation of agricultural societies into industrial societies.
  • Industrial Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, encouraging the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry , for example weaving , and in the longer term into the cities and the newly-developed factories .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radical resource productivity --that is industrial efficiency.
  • Review of Natural Capitalism by Paul Hawken, Hunter Lovins and Amory Lovins 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century.^ The expansion in trade had made it possible to accumulate capital to use in industry.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation of capital.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Until the 1980s, it was universally believed by academic historians that technological innovation was the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the key enabling technology was the invention and improvement of the steam engine.^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The invention of the steam engine was one of the most important innovations of the industrial revolution.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was the key industry early in the Industrial Revolution?
  • Industrial Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .However, recent research into the Marketing Era has challenged the traditional, supply-oriented interpretation of the Industrial Revolution.^ "Demand vs Supply in the Industrial Revolution."
  • The Industrial Revolution -- Economic Factors and Contexts: Selected Bibliography 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The era of fragmentation Then came the industrial revolution.
  • Repeal the Industrial Revolution 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.roberttomasko.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Industrial Revolution also had positive effects.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the Early Middle Ages, much earlier than most estimates.^ Early Industrial Revolution I (1840 - 1865) .

^ The historian, Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the early Middle Ages , much earlier than most estimates.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Paper "Richard Hooker argues that the Industrial Revolution was the most far-reaching influential transformation of human culture since the advent of agriculture.
  • Term Papers on industrial revolution | industrial revolution essays | AcaDemon 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Term Papers on industrial revolution | industrial revolution essays | AcaDemon 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .He explains that the model for standardised mass production was the printing press and that "the archetypal model for the industrial era was the clock". He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that medieval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical, manifestations such as the steam engine.^ For more information on the development of the steam engine.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He explains that the model for standardised mass production was the printing press and that "the archetypal model for the [industrial era] was the clock".
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that Mediaeval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical manifestations such as the steam engine.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain.^ The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important catalyst of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1750-1900, Britain had an industrial revolution.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Britain that led the way in the Industrial Revolution.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them.^ In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other nations, such as France , markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariff s on goods traded amongst them.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The emergence of the factory was drawn out in some regions due to systems of land tenure, obstructionism by local property-owners or other legal and institutional factors.
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies 1623) is considered an influential factor.^ Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies 1623) is considered an influential factor.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies 1623 ) is considered an influential factor.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technological innovation protected by patents (by the Statute of Monopolies 1623 ) was, of course, at the heart of it and the key enabling technology was the invention and improvement of the steam engine Hudson, Pat.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology.^ For more information on the development of the steam engine.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A history of the growth of the steam-engine .

.In return for publicly revealing the workings of an invention the patent system rewarded inventors such as James Watt by allowing them to monopolise the production of the first steam engines, thereby rewarding inventors and increasing the pace of technological development.^ For more information on the development of the steam engine.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Newcomen and James Watt developed the steam engine.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution -- railroads 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Watt steam engine in Madrid .

.However monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicising ingenuity and rewarding inventors.^ However monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicizing ingenuity and rewarding inventors [11] .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe how the invention had a long term effect that may possibly even have affected your life.
  • An Instructional Unit: The Industrial Revolution - A Turning Point in History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nysatl.nysed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • An Instructional Unit: The Industrial Revolution - A Turning Point in History 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.emsc.nysed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Watt's monopoly may have prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick, William Murdoch or Jonathan Hornblower, from introducing improved steam engines, thereby retarding the industrial revolution by about 16 years.^ Information about Industrial Revolution .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many other inventors in the next 100 years perfected elements of the steam engine.
  • Industrial Revolution - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Causes for occurrence in Europe

.
A 1623 Dutch East India Company bond.
^ See also: Industrial Revolution in China A 1623 Dutch East India Company bond European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets created the legal and financial structures that could be used to invest in the new industrial infrastructure.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After crushing the uprising, the British government took direct control of India from the British East India Company.
  • Student's Friend Part 2, Unit 3 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.studentsfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British East India Company also gained a firm foothold in India.
  • Helga LaRouche: German Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]


European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th century industrial growth.
.One question of active interest to historians is why the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity[23] or the Middle Ages.^ The 18th Century was the time of the Industrial Revolution in Britain,.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Numerous factors have been suggested, including education, technological changes[25] (see Scientific Revolution in Europe), "modern" government, "modern" work attitudes, ecology, and culture.^ Numerous factors have been suggested, including ecology , government , and culture .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numerous factors have been suggested, including ecology, government, and culture.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The change in ideas arose perhaps from the turmoil of 17th-century Europe experimenting with democratic church government and getting along without kings.
  • Deirdre McCloskey: Publications: Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.deirdremccloskey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .The Age of Enlightenment not only meant a larger educated population but also more modern views on work.^ Recent historical work has shown that not only intellectuals but also many ordinary people had changed their view of the world by the 1750s due to the influence of Enlightenment philosophy.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The discoveries from archeology digs in Egypt and Mesopotamia have shown how advanced and modern life was in that industrial age-- IF-- ONLY IF you were in the ruling class.
  • THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.balaams-ass.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars[27]) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars.^ Industrialization first took shape in the late 18th century in Western Europe, particularly Britain.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars [16] ) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, modern estimates of per capita income in Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and England had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars * ) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the average interest rate was about 5% in Britain and over 30% in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in Britain.^ Also, the average interest rate was about 5% in England and over 30% in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in England; capital that was available for investment.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the average interest rate was about 5% in Britain and over 30% in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in Britain; capital that was available for investment.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low as these wage rates were, they were nonetheless much more than these paupers could earn in any other field open to them.
  • Facts about The Industrial Revolution | The Freeman | Ideas On Liberty 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thefreemanonline.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Some historians such as David Landes[28] and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred.^ Some historians such as David Landes [17] and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some historians credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kenneth Pomeranz , in the Great Divergence , argues that Europe and China were remarkably similar in 1700, and that the crucial differences which created the Industrial Revolution in Europe were sources of coal near manufacturing centres, and raw materials such as food and wood from the New World , which allowed Europe to expand economically in a way that China could not.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity, and Greek thought.^ The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Christianity , Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity, and Greek thought.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius, Mencius, Han Feizi (Legalism), Lao Tzu (Taoism), and Buddha (Buddhism).^ Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius , Mencius, Han Feizi (Legalism), Lao Tzu ( Taoism ), and Buddha ( Buddhism ).
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius , Mencius , Han Feizi ( Legalism ), Lao Tzu ( Taoism ), and Buddha ( Buddhism ).
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whereas the Europeans believed that the universe was governed by rational and eternal laws, the East believed that the universe was in constant flux and, for Buddhists and Taoists, not capable of being rationally understood.^ In other words, liberals believed in the ability of self-government and self-control, because they considered man to be rational in that man was capable of making independent decisions about his life.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English universities might be comatose and the government indifferent to industry, but the law left the entrepreneur and the self-advancing artisan free to pursue their genius.
  • On The Industrial Revolution: "Myths and Realities." 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The collapse of European Communism in the late 1980s forced a number of East European governments to convert to a market economy as a means of accelerating industrial growth.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Other factors include the fact that the coal deposits in China, although very large, were found a considerable distance from the cities; but the yellow river that connects these deposits to the sea were not navigable by cargo vessels.^ Great Britain's large deposits of coal and iron ore helped make it the world's first industrial nation.  Early ironmaking.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country had large deposits of coal and iron, the two natural resources on which early industrialization largely depended.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also built canals to link cities and to connect coal fields with rivers.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.puhsd.k12.ca.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
Regarding India, the Marxist historian Rajani Palme Dutt said: "The capital to finance the Industrial Revolution in India instead went into financing the Industrial Revolution in England."[30] In contrast to China, India was split up into many competing kingdoms, with the three major ones being the Marathas, Sikhs and the Mughals. .In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and there appears to have been little technical innovation.^ In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors--agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humphries and Horrell believe there was a decline in the participation rate of women and children in the economy due to this saturation of the labour market, especially in the agricultural South.
  • The Industrial Revolution: Blessing or curse for the working class?@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Industrial Revolution: Blessing or curse for the working class?@Everything2.com 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is believed that the vast amounts of wealth were largely stored away in palace treasuries by totalitarian monarchs prior to the British take over.^ The vast amounts of wealth were stored away in palace treasuries, and as such, were easily moved to England .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast amounts of wealth were stored away in palace treasuries, and as such, were easily moved to Britain.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the issue of time, I do believe that the proceeding centuries are an issue, in particular in terms of wealth stolen from the Americas given that the vast majority of it was removed prior to the mid nineteenth century.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Absolutist dynasties in China, India, and the Middle East failed to encourage manufacturing and exports, and expressed little interest in the well-being of their subjects.^ One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution started in 18th century Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India , and the Middle East , or at other times like in Classical Antiquity [13] or the Middle Ages .
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China, India, and Spain did not begin to industrialize until well into the 20th century.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The students will be encouraged to pose imaginary questions and get imaginary answers from their subjects as well.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]

Causes for occurrence in Britain

As the Industrial Revolution developed British manufactured output surged ahead of other economies
.The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries.^ Information about Industrial Revolution .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We started the first industrial revolution - now we are starting the...
  • Industrial Revolution: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Industrial revolution--Europe; Industrial revolution--Great Britain; Great Britain--Foreign economic relations--Europe.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment.^ Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British regulation of the colonial iron industry .

^ Industry that started United States down road toward economic revolution (textiles), industry that represented revolution's ultimate destination (automobiles), industry that fueled journey by turning nation's natural resources into sources of wealth and power.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has been pointed out, however, that slave trade and West Indian plantations provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.^ It has been pointed out however that slavery provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/con_economic.cfm Was slavery the engine of economic growth?
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution".
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution .
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Even though slavery accounted for minimal economic profits in Britain during the Industrial Revolution Caribbean-based demand accounted for 12% of England's industrial output.^ Industrial revolution--Europe; Industrial revolution--Great Britain; Great Britain--Foreign economic relations--Europe.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1750-1900, Britain had an industrial revolution.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life in the Factory during the Industrial Revolution .
  • Kidinfo.com - Your Guide to the History of the Industrial Revolution 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.kidinfo.com [Source type: Reference]

[33]
.Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia.^ Technological developments in Britain .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and utilise emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'That the annual loss of life from filth and bad ventilation are greater than the loss from death or wounds in any wars in which the country has been engaged in modern times.
  • The Industrial Revolution: Blessing or curse for the working class?@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Industrial Revolution: Blessing or curse for the working class?@Everything2.com 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy[34]).^ Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy [20] ).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy ).
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once established, the power of British industry (particularly as it was first displayed during the Napoleonic Wars) inspired deliberate imitation elsewhere.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods.^ Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canals and roads were built, and the advent of the railroad and the steamship widened the market for manufactured goods.
  • Industrial Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important catalyst of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.^ The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of conflict in the period resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was further aided by Britain's geographical position—an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe.^ This was further aided by Britain's geographical position— an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It ended with France losing most of its possessions in North America, and forfeiting to Britain its position as the leading power in Europe.
  • Helga LaRouche: German Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

.Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed.^ Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1750-1900, Britain had an industrial revolution.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Britain that led the way in the Industrial Revolution.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It had a dense population for its small geographical size.^ It had a dense population for its small geographical size.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Enclosure of common land and the related agricultural revolution made a supply of this labour readily available.^ Enclosure of common land and the related Agricultural Revolution made a supply of this labour readily available.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, encouraging the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry , for example weaving , and in the longer term into the cities and the newly-developed factories .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since many people (women) cannot compete with the spinning and weaving of cloth made in the factory and there are large numbers of poor families who have lost their livelihood due to the Enclosure Acts, we do have an available supply of workers.
  • Industrial Revolution--Urban Game 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thecaveonline.com [Source type: General]

.There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands.^ There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England , the English Midlands , South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.^ Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second phase focuses on economic prosperity and the third stage is a period of industrial expansion during which existing manufacturing techniques are perfected and still more techniques are developed.
  • Term Papers on industrial revolution | industrial revolution essays | AcaDemon 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extrapolating forward leads to predictions that the earth’s water supply (or supply of anything else) will be exhausted in a finite period.
  • The Industrial Revolution: Past and Future - The Region - Publications & Papers | The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.minneapolisfed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.^ Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In England the textile industry was the first to be transformed.

^ In the cases of silk and cotton, the raw materials were obtained from foreign sources, such as, China, the West Indies, North American and Africa.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688, and British society's greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution.^ How did the industrial revolution change life in Britain?.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural and political factors also partially caused the Industrial Revolution.
  • Global Consequences of the Industrial Revolution - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1750-1900, Britain had an industrial revolution.
  • A Merseyside Town in the Industrial Revolution: St Helens 1750-1900 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as a significant source of resistance to industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.^ In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The improved yield of the agricultural sector can be attributed to the enclosure movement and to improved techniques and practices developed during this period.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since many people (women) cannot compete with the spinning and weaving of cloth made in the factory and there are large numbers of poor families who have lost their livelihood due to the Enclosure Acts, we do have an available supply of workers.
  • Industrial Revolution--Urban Game 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thecaveonline.com [Source type: General]

[35] .(This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State.^ (This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc 's The Servile State .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Protestant work ethic

.Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.^ Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this social protest novel, the working class, know as Hands, as well as the other classes, experience some hard times.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European imperialism brought advances in technology to much of the colonized world, and these advances led to increases in production that could, as in British India, be impressive.
  • The Industrial Revolution: Past and Future - The Region - Publications & Papers | The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.minneapolisfed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of the Baptists and the dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War.^ Protestant work ethic .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers, Baptists and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber ) and the particular status of dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers , Baptists and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures.^ There were many national benefits of this revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Britain that led the way in the Industrial Revolution.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities).^ Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two Universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities).
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two Universities at the time, Oxford and Cambridge, when the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican church became mandatory due to the Test Act .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two Universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities ).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.^ They thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two Universities at the time, Oxford and Cambridge, when the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican church became mandatory due to the Test Act .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.^ The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Unitarians , in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences--areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Unitarians , in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved.^ Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economic systems Ideologies and Theories Primitive communism Capitalist economy Corporate economy Fascist economy Laissez-faire Mercantilism Natural economy Social market economy Socialist economy Communist economy .....
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Living Economic and Social History: Historians Explain their Interest in, and the Nature of Their Subject (2001).
  • Industrial Revolution in Britain: Bibliography 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.umassd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.^ While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class , such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have increased the comforts of the middle classes.
  • On The Industrial Revolution: "Myths and Realities." 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

.Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.^ Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the Scientific revolution of the 17th century.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "These ironworks, however, were different in that they were large-scale factory enterprises involving joint financing, a complicated technology, specially imported workmen, and heavy capital risk.

^ "The Industrial Revolution began in New England because there were more young men than there was arable land, forcing some of these surplus men to invent new kinds of machinery."

Innovations

The only surviving example of a Spinning Mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton
The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,[37] made in the second half of the 18th century:
.
  • TextilesCotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame, James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule (a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame).^ Arkwright and others developed the water frame.
    • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Steppenwolf ) 1764: James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny .
    • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Textiles - Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame.
    • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills.^ The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills.
    • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783.
    • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills .
    • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen.
  • Steam power – The improved steam engine invented by James Watt and patented in 1775 was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines.^ Used to pump water from mines.
    • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New experiments with transportation using the power of a steam engine are tried.
    • Industrial Revolution--Urban Game 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thecaveonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Steam power - The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was initially mainly used for pumping out mines , but from the 1780s was applied to power machines.
    • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.
  • Iron founding – In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal.^ Iron founding - In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal.
    • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Iron founding - In the Iron industry , coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting , replacing charcoal .
    • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.
    • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling (patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784).
.These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined.^ There has been two industrial revolutions.
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrial revolution; Economic history.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry.^ This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many other machines contributed to the progress of the textile industry.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam engines were harnessed by the textile industry, but gradually adapted to drive many other key industries.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution -- railroads 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without some earlier ones, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible.^ Abraham Darby successfully produced pig iron smelted with coke.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without some earlier ones, such as spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were the spinning jenny, and the water frame.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain.^ The Steam Engine : the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The invention of the steam engine was the most important innovation of the Industrial Revolution.

^ Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a watermill.^ The steam engine replaces the water frame.
  • Industrial Revolution--Urban Game 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thecaveonline.com [Source type: General]

^ New forms of energy: From watermills to steam engines powered by coal!
  • Toolbook: The Modern World - The Industrial Revo - Performance Education - Social Studies Solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.performance-education.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a mill.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester.^ These textile mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These textile mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis the name given to the vast collection of mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester .

.The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries.^ The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides the innovation of machinery in factories, the assembly line greatly improved efficiency.

^ The positive effects of the Industrial Revolution were the introduction of factories and the assembly line, new inventions, and electricity and railroads.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly.^ With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer, or might be poached.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also important was the 1756 rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by the British engineer John Smeaton, which had been lost for 13 centuries.^ In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Komlos, "Patterns of Children's Growth in East-Central Europe in the Eighteenth Century," Annals of Human Biology 13 (1986), pp.
  • Alter, George. The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC eh.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Sir John Harold Clapham CBE, LittD, FBA (September 13 1873- March 29 1946) was a British economic historian.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Transfer of knowledge

.
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (ca.
^ A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (ca.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1766)
Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances
.Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means.^ Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies—like the Lunar Society of Birmingham—in which members met to discuss science and often its application to manufacturing.

^ Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham , in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i.e.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached.^ Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer, or might be poached.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Employers manipulated this to apply to all workers and those who refused were fired and/or blacklisted.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could.^ A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines , published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy.^ What was life like before and after the Industrial Revolution?
  • Toolbook: The Modern World - The Industrial Revo - Performance Education - Social Studies Solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.performance-education.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France , even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European economy before industrial revolution De Vries, pp.
  • Alter, George. The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC eh.net [Source type: Academic]

.In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods.^ In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shift is designed to answer criticism from business that other governments, notably France, are doing more to help their domestic industries than Britain is.
  • Labour's industrial revolution - UK Politics, UK - The Independent 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I'm a Canadian, I've lived in America for several years, but I don't have a lot of exposure to other countries and cultures.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

.Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries.^ Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods.^ Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum Excellent source for information about Eisenhower.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i.e. science) and often its application to manufacturing.^ Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham , in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i.e.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies—like the Lunar Society of Birmingham—in which members met to discuss science and often its application to manufacturing.

^ Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss science and often its application to manufacturing.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial Revolution".[39] Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions.^ Examples of these free thinkers were the Lunar Society of Birmingham which flourished from 1765 to 1809.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such inequality is a product of the industrial revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution: Past and Future - The Region - Publications & Papers | The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.minneapolisfed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions.^ Some of these societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions, and the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions .

^ Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were publications describing technology.^ There were publications describing technology.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802–1819) contain much of value.^ Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802-1819) contain much of value.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encyclopedia s such as Harris's Lexicon technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802-1819) contain much of value.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encyclopedias such as Harris's Lexicon technicum (1704) and Dr. Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802-1819) contain much of value.

.Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings.^ This is what i think about the industrial revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. How important was science in the Industrial Revolution?
  • Alter, George. The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC eh.net [Source type: Academic]

.Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates.^ Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the cases of silk and cotton, the raw materials were obtained from foreign sources, such as, China, the West Indies, North American and Africa.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents.^ Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and a number regularly included notice of the latest patents.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Change In Urban Society At the end of the 18th century a revolution in energy and industry began in England and spread rapidly all around Europe later in the 19th century, bringing about dramatic and radical change.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines , published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Technological developments in Britain

Textile manufacture

.
Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany.
^ Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany.

^ Main article: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution
.In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.^ The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.

^ The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans , doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This system is called a cottage industry.^ This system is called a cottage industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This system is called a cottage industry .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was called the "American system of manufacturing," and it was admired by all other industrial nations.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output.^ Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are difficult to change because they reflect the underlying structure of political power in these societies.
  • What Makes an Industrial Revolution? - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major international seaports such as London, Bristol and Liverpool were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry, but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century.^ Railways appeared in the early 19th century.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry, but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cotton manufacturing industry of the United States.

.India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods.^ India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With English factories calling for supplies, such as American cotton, and sending goods to all parts of the world, better transportation was needed.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham.^ Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis Paul and John Wyatt of Birmingham patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness.

.Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey.^ New machines and sources of power were developed.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines.^ In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton; fifty spindles turned on five of Paul and Wyatt's machines proving more successful than their first Mill and operated until 1764.

^ Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton, although this came about under great suspicion after a fire at Daniel Bourn's factory in Leominster which specifically used Paul and Wyatt's spindles.

.This operated until about 1764. A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down.^ This operated until about 1764.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster , but this burnt down.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in 1748. Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill.^ The third was a frame for spinning cotton thread with rollers, first set up by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt (1741).
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule.^ Textiles - Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samuel Crompton perfects the spinning mule.
  • Industrial Revolution@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom or 'frame'. The output of an individual labourer increased dramatically, with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to employment, and early innovators were attacked and their inventions destroyed.^ The output of an individual labourer increased dramatically, with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to employment, and early innovators were attacked and their inventions destroyed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The iron industry benefited also from other early inventions of the 18th century.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttle s and the loom or 'frame'.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright.^ To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To capitalize upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright.

^ To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs , of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.^ He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay ; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is John Parsons, this self-taught engineer, and what were the events that led to the development of NC? In an exclusive interview with Manufacturing Engineering, he discussed his early life, and the events that led to this revolutionary invention.
  • Society of Manufacturing Engineers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.sme.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power—which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.^ The industrial factories were built with production in mind.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cotton manufacturing industry of the United States.

.Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery.^ Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Ned Ludd was also said to be a general on whose orders workers would demand that factory owners shut down steam powered machinery or the frames would be broken.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam engines were harnessed by the textile industry, but gradually adapted to drive many other key industries.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution -- railroads 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Metallurgy

Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger
Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale
.
The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using mined coal.
^ The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using coal, which was mined.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale).
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur.^ This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This opened the way to increased iron production.
.The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal.^ The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was alot of change during the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reverberatory Furnace The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal.

.Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas.^ Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was then that a combination of coal, steam engines, spinning machines and an army of former agricultural workers coalesced into the West's Industrial Revolution.
  • What Makes an Industrial Revolution? - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalbrookdale by Night , 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using coal, which was mined.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal.^ These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide , playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide , playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal.^ This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulfur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal.

.This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687. It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace.^ It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s , but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation.^ The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709. However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles.^ Abraham Darby successfully produced pig iron smelted with coke.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was followed by Abraham Darby , who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs.^ He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this he had an advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and hence cheaper than those of his rivals.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had an advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than those of his rivals.

.Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale).^ Abraham Darby successfully produced pig iron smelted with coke.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron.^ By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By this time coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abraham Darby successfully produced pig iron smelted with coke.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been.^ Throughout this period, bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forge s, as it long had been.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges , as it long had been.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, new processes were adopted in the ensuing years.^ However, new processes were adopted in the ensuing years.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process.^ The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is referred to today as potting and stamping , but this was superseded by Henry Cort 's puddling process.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort 's puddling process.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began.^ From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British regulation of the colonial iron industry .

^ Long known as the Industrial Revolution, some have recently begun to talk more broadly about the period -- when standards of living began to improve in industrial countries -- which they call "the Great Divergence."
  • What Makes an Industrial Revolution? - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources.^ The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all, and were therefore not limited by the speed at which trees grow.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German, Russian and Belgian governments did all they could to sponsor the new industries by the provisions of state funding.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies.^ Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other factories, such as those involved in the manufacture of iron, had considerations of a different kind involving their location.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subject of this publication is restricted to Pacific coastal Native American use of iron and steel knives by indigenous coastal traders.

.This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s.^ This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods.^ The manufacture of iron in New England.

^ However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, from 1785, imports decreased, leading to Britain becoming an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative The Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III.^ Following the building of the Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III , iron also became a major structural material.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III. An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.

.An improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.^ Wrought iron and smith-forged natural steel edge tools .

^ An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III. An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.

.Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s.^ Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benjamin Huntsman of Sheffield had started crucible steelmaking in 1742.

.The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process.^ The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process , whose raw material was largely imported Swedish iron.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process.

.The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways.^ The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of iron and steel technology in China .

^ Railways pre-dated the steam engine.
  • war and social upheaval: industrial revolution -- railroads 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain.^ Industrial archeology of American iron and steel.

^ Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry.

Mining

.
Men working their own coal mines.
^ First coal mine safety laws passed in Pennsylvania following a fire that suffocated 179 men.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several sections of Pikes book, Hard Times , are an excellent teacher resource for material related to women and children working in Englands coal mines.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One finds the working conditions and practices of coal mining in the l8th and l9th centuries to be risky, at best, and suicidal at worst.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Early 1900s, USA
.Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early.^ Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales is of great age.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: History of rail transport in Great Britain A replica of the early locomotive Sans Pareil at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials of 1829 Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted.^ Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface and being abandoned as the coal was extracted.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface which were abandoned as the coal was extracted.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was then that a combination of coal, steam engines, spinning machines and an army of former agricultural workers coalesced into the West's Industrial Revolution.
  • What Makes an Industrial Revolution? - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill.^ In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit driven into the side of a hill.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough , a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I have a problem with the coal mine, the mine is asleep on its left side.
  • [BUILDINGS] Railroads! Industrial Revolution - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: General]

.Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water.^ Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and numerous water works, but it was not a success since it was limited in the height it could raise water and was prone to boiler explosions.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and a number of water works, but was not a success, being limited in the height it could raise water and was prone to boiler explosions.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine).^ It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough , a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and numerous water works, but it was not a success since it was limited in the height it could raise water and was prone to boiler explosions.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity.^ In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at level where it could flow away by gravity.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locks : controlled the level and flow of water between rivers.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted.^ The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more mineral to be extracted.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water mills Steam engine .

^ The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt's more efficient steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable.^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Steam Engine : the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution.
  • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt's more efficient steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams.^ All of the jobs that existed in coal mining were not as dangerous as the firemans,; however, every one of them could be termed hazardous.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Petroleum springs and coal mines are not inexhaustible but are rapidly diminishing in many places.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphry Davy and independently by George Stephenson. .However, the lamps proved a false dawn because they became unsafe very quickly and provided a weak light.^ I think that people were very happy because they got more money but scared of the strenth of the machines.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they now only produced one or two crops, the harvest season was very short as well.

.Firedamp explosions continued, often setting off coal dust explosions, so casualties grew during the entire nineteenth century.^ Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite using a lot of fuel, Newcomen engines continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century because they were reliable and easy to maintain.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That deviation first appears after 1630, but it continues and gathers force in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conditions of work were very poor, with a high casualty rate from rock falls.^ Poor working conditions in factories and woman and children worked for low wages in dangerous conditions.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Short-term negative effects included death and illnesses from working in factories, poor working conditions, and poor conditions within cities.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report is first scientific inquiry linking high rates of infectious disease and child mortality to grossly unsanitary conditions and polluted drinking water.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Steam power

The 1698 Savery Engine – the world's first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin.
.The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.^ Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Will man, then, return to the power of water and wind?
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few mines (hence its "brand name", The miner's Friend), but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions.^ He constructed and patented in London an a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few mines (hence its "brand name", The miner's Friend ), but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He constructed and patented in London the first engine, which he called the "Miner's Friend" as he intended it to pump water from mines.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and numerous water works, but it was not a success since it was limited in the height it could raise water and was prone to boiler explosions.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Newcomen's steam powered atmospheric engine was the first practical engine.
^ Main article: Steam power during the Industrial Revolution Newcomen's steam powered atmospheric engine was the first practical engine.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karl Benz with the worlds first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine.
  • An Environment and Sustainability Chronology 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.sustreport.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first successful machine was the atmospheric engine , a low performance steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution
.The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced by Thomas Newcomen before 1712. Newcomen apparently conceived the Newcomen steam engine quite independently of Savery, but as the latter had taken out a very wide-ranging patent, Newcomen and his associates were obliged to come to an arrangement with him, marketing the engine until 1733 under a joint patent.^ The first successful machine was the atmospheric engine , a low performance steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first successful machine was the atmospheric engine, a low performance steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newcomen apparently conceived his machine quite independently of Savery.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40][41] .Newcomen's engine appears to have been based on Papin's experiments carried out 30 years earlier, and employed a piston and cylinder, one end of which was open to the atmosphere above the piston.^ Newcomen's engine appears to have been based on Papin's experiments carried out 30 years earlier, and employed a piston and cylinder, one end of which was open to the atmosphere above the piston.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The transfer of one technology to another is evident here, in that Watt used John Wilkinsons device for boring cannon to accurately bore the large cylinder for his engine.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vacuum sucked a piston into the cylinder which moved under pressure from the atmosphere.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Steam just above atmospheric pressure (all that the boiler could stand) was introduced into the lower half of the cylinder beneath the piston during the gravity-induced upstroke; the steam was then condensed by a jet of cold water injected into the steam space to produce a partial vacuum; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the vacuum on either side of the piston displaced it downwards into the cylinder, raising the opposite end of a rocking beam to which was attached a gang of gravity-actuated reciprocating force pumps housed in the mineshaft.^ The vacuum sucked a piston into the cylinder which moved under pressure from the atmosphere.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also used condensed steam to produce a partial vacuum to suck water into the cylinder.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His engines used a piston and cylinder, and it operated with steam just above atmospheric pressure which was used to produce a partial vacuum in the cylinder when condensed by jets of cold water.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The engine's downward power stroke raised the pump, priming it and preparing the pumping stroke.^ The engine's downward power stroke raised the pump, priming it and preparing the pumping stroke.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam power - The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was initially mainly used for pumping out mines , but from the 1780s was applied to power machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The engine produced a succession of power strokes which could work a pump but could not drive a rotating wheel.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At first the phases were controlled by hand, but within ten years an escapement mechanism had been devised worked by a vertical plug tree suspended from the rocking beam which rendered the engine self-acting.^ At first the phases were controlled by hand, but within ten years an escapement mechanism had been devised worked by of a vertical plug tree suspended from the rocking beam which rendered the engine self-acting.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within 50 years it would control over one-fifth of India.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine , which was built within a stone or brick engine-house but around that time various patterns of portable (i.e.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of Newcomen engines were successfully put to use in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, and produced about 5 hp (3.7 kW).^ A number of Newcomen engines were successfully put to use in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, and produced about 5 hp.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, but produced about 5 hp.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The transfer of one technology to another is evident here, in that Watt used John Wilkinsons device for boring cannon to accurately bore the large cylinder for his engine.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.^ They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were inefficient, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, they were usefully employed in pumping water from mines.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century.^ Despite being fuel hungry, Newcomen engines continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century as they were reliable and easy to maintain.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite using a lot of fuel, Newcomen engines continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century because they were reliable and easy to maintain.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread (first) to Hungary in 1722 ,Germany, Austria, and Sweden.^ By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread to France, Germany, Austria, Hungary and Sweden.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread to France, Germany , Austria , Hungary and Sweden .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread to France, Germany , Austria, Hungary and Sweden.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad.^ A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the patent expired, of which 14 were abroad.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the patent expired of which 14 were abroad.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements.^ In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The transfer of one technology to another is evident here, in that Watt used John Wilkinsons device for boring cannon to accurately bore the large cylinder for his engine.
  • 81.02.06: The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf , Thomas Telford and John Macadam .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A total of 1,454 engines had been built by 1800.[42]
James Watt
.A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt.^ A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its working was fundamentally unchanged until James Watt succeeded in making his Watt steam engine in 1769, which incorporated a series of improvements, especially the separate steam condenser chamber.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These executions brought about a complete change in the mood of the population, which immediately demanded independence.
  • Helga LaRouche: German Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

.In close collaboration with Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber.^ Its working was fundamentally unchanged until James Watt succeeded in making his Watt steam engine in 1769, which incorporated a series of improvements, especially the separate steam condenser chamber.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the close collaboration Matthew Boulton , he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine , which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A catechism of the high pressure or non-condensing steam engines .

.All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions.^ All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, encouraging the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry , for example weaving , and in the longer term into the cities and the newly-developed factories .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state with the largest number of steam engines in 1861 was Louisiana, and almost all of them were operated and maintained by slave mechanics.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.^ This improved engine efficiency by about a factor of five saving 75% on coal costs.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are well worth the cost of investment and generally improve the aesthetics of the house while increasing energy efficiency.
  • John Schellnhuber's Third Industrial Revolution, a New Approach to Addressing the Hazards of Global Warming | Mother Jones 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780. However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill.^ However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Watt steam engine's ability to drive rotary machinery also meant it could be used to drive a factory or mill directly.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both of Watt's basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces, and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp (7.5 kW).^ They were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 acting as pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces, and 308 to power mill machinery.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the engines generated between 5 to 10 hp.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of Watt's basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces , and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines.^ The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of machine tools such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine.^ Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine , built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, which was built within a stone or brick engine-house, but around that time various patterns of portable (readily removable engines, but not on wheels) engines were developed, such as the table engine.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine , which was built within a stone or brick engine-house but around that time various patterns of portable (i.e.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Towards the turn of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere.^ Richard Trevithick, a Cornish blacksmith, began to use high pressure steam with improved boilers in 1799.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards the turn of the 19th Century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick , and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard Trevithick , a Cornish blacksmith, began to use high pressure steam with improved boilers in 1799 .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allowed an engine and boiler to be combined into a single unit compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats.^ This allowed engines to be compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotive s and steam boats .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allowed an engine and boiler to be combined into a single unit compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.^ In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Waterpower in the century of the steam engine.

^ In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine had many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chemicals

The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843)
Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel
.The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution.^ The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843) Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746. He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead.^ He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first of these was the production of sulfuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watts first partner) in 1746 .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead of making a small amount each time, he was able to make around 100 pounds (50 kg) in each of the chambers, at least a tenfold increase.^ Instead of a few pounds at a time, he was able to make a hundred pounds (45 kg) or so at a time in each of the chambers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate.^ The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and a Frenchman, Nicolas Leblanc , succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid.^ The Leblanc process was done by reacting sulfuric acid to sodium chloride to give sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide.^ The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone ( calcium carbonate ) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide.^ Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Addition of it to water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulfide.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone ( calcium carbonate ) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulphide was a useless waste product).^ The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulfide was a useless waste product) but proved economical over the previous method of deriving it from wood ashes, barilla , or kelp .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulphide was a useless waste product).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Leblanc process was done by reacting sulfuric acid to sodium chloride to give sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning specific plants (barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash,[43] and also to potash (potassium carbonate) derived from hardwood ashes.^ Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared that produce from burning certain plants (barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash, [23] and also to potash (potassium carbonate) derived from hardwood ashes.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared that produce from burning certain plants ( barilla ) or from kelp , which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash, [24] and also to potash ( potassium carbonate ) derived from hardwood ashes.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulfide was a useless waste product) but proved economical over the previous method of deriving it from wood ashes, barilla , or kelp .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes.^ These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two chemicals were very important in that they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first three performance metrics in the table, weight, volume and price, are pretty straightforward but the other two, cycle-life and user cost per cycle, are incredibly mushy because they assume that a battery owner will use every charge-discharge cycle he buys, which is usually not the case.
  • Cleantech: The Sixth Industrial Revolution -- Seeking Alpha 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries.^ Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sodium carbonate saw many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth.^ Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subject of this publication is restricted to Pacific coastal Native American use of iron and steel knives by indigenous coastal traders.

.The development of bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk.^ The development of bleaching powder ( calcium hypochlorite ) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800 , based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet , revolutionized the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of bleaching powder ( calcium hypochlorite ) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet , revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world.^ Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow , became the largest chemical plant in the world.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tennant's factory at St. Rollox, North Glasgow became the largest chemical plant in the world at that time.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades.^ In 1824 Joseph Aspdin , a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843) Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843) Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1,400 °C (2,552 °F), then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete.^ This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1400 °C, then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also used condensed steam to produce a partial vacuum to suck water into the cylinder.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel.^ It was utilised several years later by the famous English engineer, Marc Isambard Brunel, who used it in the Thames Tunnel.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was utilised several years later by the famous English engineer, Marc Isambard Brunel , who used it in the Thames Tunnel .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843) Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later.^ Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large area around the nuclear plant is evacuated, but three other reactors in the complex are used for years more to generate electricity.
  • An Environment and Sustainability Chronology 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.sustreport.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843) Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Machine tools

Sir Joseph Whitworth
.The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.^ The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tool s, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools , for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.^ They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches, and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th century industrial growth.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated.^ The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children would often work in the factories and sometimes accidently get their fingers, toes, hair, or clothing smocks stuck in the machines and then the would get their body parts or clothing chopped off!
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some people A.K.A the rich were happy because they made money off others that worked.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin of the modern engineering industry.^ The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin of the modern engineering industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These revised GDP figures also imply that relative to many modern economies England was a relatively rich economy in the pre-industrial period.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These craft skills later morphed into the machine-building and machine-tool trades.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts.^ Machines were built by various craftsmen— carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Machines were built by various craftsmen-- carpenter s made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830. The invention of a new machine by Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell and James Stephen Perry allowed mass manufacture of robust, cheap steel pen nibs; the process had been laborious and expensive.^ The good moments were the new inventions.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The manufacture of iron in New England.

^ A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum.^ Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A type of machine tool able to make other machines Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time.^ Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society."
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time Frame: ïDO NOW: 5 minutes ïDiscussion: 5 minutes ïPsychology Lecture: 20 minutes ïGroup Work: 20 Minutes .
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically.^ As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but required machine tools to make them economically.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He saw the industrialization process as the logical dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, necessary for the full development of capitalism, which he saw as in itself a necessary precursor to the development of socialism and eventually communism.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.^ Before the advent of machine tools metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metal, minds and machines: Waterbury at work .

.Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly.^ Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, such as castings for a lathe bed, where components had to slide together, the production of flat surfaces by means of the hammer and chisel followed by filing, scraping and perhaps grinding with emery paste, was very labourious and costly.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' due to the metal spindles and gears they incorporated.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A lathe from 1911, a machine tool able to make other machines
.Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines.^ A type of machine tool able to make other machines Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of Newcomen engines were successfully put to use in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, and produced about 5 hp.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century.^ The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unit Many lesson plans for both middle school and high school units on the first decade of the 20th Century.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Age of Imperialism Lesson Plan A lesson plan on 19th century US expansionism developed by Small Planet.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until during the Second Industrial Revolution.^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The industrial revolution was a time of great suffering.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until during the Second Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools.^ Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by the Verbruggans.^ Henry Maudslay , who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal , Woolwich , as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by the Verbruggans.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by the Verbruggans.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own.^ He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills.^ He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own he was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills .
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were all metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability.^ Mass productions is when you use t o make machines .
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were all metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THis was when machines and factories started mass production.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth.^ The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts , Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds.^ James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These craft skills later morphed into the machine-building and machine-tool trades.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement.^ Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gas lighting

.Another major industry of the later Industrial Revolution was gas lighting.^ Main article: Gas lighting Another major industry of the later industrial revolution was gas lighting .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second Industrial Revolutions and later evolution .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the industrial revolution we wouldn't have some of the luxurys that we have to day like the refrigerator,light bulb, and electric ovens.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers.^ Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch , an employee of Boulton and Watt , the Birmingham steam engine pioneers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watt's monopoly may have prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick , William Murdoch or Jonathan Hornblower , from introducing improved steam engines thereby retarding the industrial revolution by up to 20 years [12] .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonia, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution.^ The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonium, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first gas lighting utilities were established in London between 1812-20. They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Gas lighting had an impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil.^ They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Gaslighting had in impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first gaslighting utilities were established in London between 1812-20.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was greater than the productivity advances achieved in the cotton textile industry over the Industrial Revolution period, though it took place over a much longer period.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and streets could be lighted on a larger scale than before.^ Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and street could be lighted on a larger scale than before.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalbrookdale by Night , 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using coal, which was mined.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secretary of the Interior Delano testifies before Congress, "The buffalo are disappearing rapidly, but not faster than I desire.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Glass making

The Crystal Palace held the Great Exhibition of 1851
.A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century.^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exploring the Middle East - Hands-On Approaches Three lesson plans developed during the 2002 Yale-New Have Teachers Institute.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The further development of the steam engine in the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent saw many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.
  • Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1832, this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass.^ He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. .This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings.^ FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY : Homework Assignment: Ss will create their own story on what life would be like without fuel due on Day Fourteen.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and street could be lighted on a larger scale than before.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Crystal Palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure.^ He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens when we think of using new DNA to reorganize structurally inefficient industries?
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

Effects on agriculture

.The invention of machinery played a big part in driving forward the British Agricultural Revolution.^ Looking forward to being part of that revolution and trying to figure out how to organize it.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

^ The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agricultural improvement began in the centuries before the Industrial revolution got going and it may have played a part in freeing up labour from the land to work in the new industrial mills of the eighteenth century.^ The good parts of the industrial revolution are that people that were out of work were able to get new jobs.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watt's monopoly may have prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick , William Murdoch or Jonathan Hornblower , from introducing improved steam engines thereby retarding the industrial revolution by up to 20 years [12] .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Industrial Revolution began in New England because there were more young men than there was arable land, forcing some of these surplus men to invent new kinds of machinery."

.As the revolution in industry progressed a succession of machines became available which increased food production with ever fewer labourers.^ The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution and the Progressive Era: 1877-1913 One segment of the above curriculum.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jethro Tull's seed drill invented in 1731 was a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds efficiently across a plot of land. .Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of 1730, was the first commercially successful iron plough.^ "Braintree Furnace achieved the first recorded and successful production of cast iron within the limits of what is now the United States."

Andrew Meikle's threshing machine of 1784 was the final straw for many farm labourers, and led to the 1830 agricultural rebellion of the Swing Riots.

Transport in Britain

.At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea.^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Transport during the Industrial Revolution At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next industrial revolution begins here.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

.Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.^ Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.^ Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the observations from 1260-9 to 1630-9 can plausibly be regarded as showing an economy with a fixed technology and varying supplies of labor relative to land.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal and waterway network, and a railway network.^ Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads and railways .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before.^ Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With so many hands performing repetitive tasks for so many hours, it seems obvious that someone would think of a way to do a job more quickly, more cheaply, or more easily."

^ Factories ahd machines that you could get more done quickly.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.^ Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We should not look at this time of period of great new ideas and innovations although some inventions where great like technology, and development of transportation.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coastal sail

.Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods round the British coast.^ Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods round the British coast.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Transport during the Industrial Revolution At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in medieval times.^ The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in mediaeval times.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The transport of goods coastwise by sea within Britain was common during the Industrial Revolution, as for centuries before.^ The Industrial Revolution was a time of good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think the Industrial Revolution was good and bad.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This became less important with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.^ Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also there is a clear acceleration in the rate of growth of output per person in the 1870s, after the end of the classic Industrial Revolution period.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Navigable rivers

.All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution.^ See also: All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: List of rivers of United Kingdom All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent.^ Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it.^ Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Industrial Revolution began in New England because there were more young men than there was arable land, forcing some of these surplus men to invent new kinds of machinery."

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale) and the Black Country.^ The Severn , in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale ) and the Black Country .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. .The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France.^ The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Canals

.Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country.^ Pennsylvania iron manufacture in the eighteenth century.

^ Main article: History of the British canal system Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country.^ Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without it, we would've been walking across the country bare foot, transporting a decent shirt and pants.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though we still do work we made it easier to work and we no longer have to wait months for one shirt to be made and transported across the country to a decent Walmart.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart at a faster pace.^ This was a time period that had many inventions were invented that made everyday life easier for example the Cotton Gin could clean cotton 50% faster than any human.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the 1820s, a national network was in existence.^ By the 1820s, a national network was in existence.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways.^ Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on.^ They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain.^ Industrial Revolution The Future of Business In the past, business could rely on methods, rules, and practices that they have used and improved upon since the early days of the industrial revolution.
  • Industrial Revolution - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The Industrial Revolution and the Progressive Era: 1877-1913 One segment of the above curriculum.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transatlantic Industrial Revolution: The diffusion of textile technology between Britain and America, 1790-1830's .

Roads

.Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads.^ The Iron Bridge (1781) The first large bridge made of cast iron Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust.^ Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pawson, E., Transport and Economy: the turnpike roads of 18th century England , 1977.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam.^ New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf , Thomas Telford and John Macadam .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. .Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses.^ Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horses.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow broad wheeled carts hauled by teams of horses.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Transport during the Industrial Revolution At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. .Stage coaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts.^ Stage coaches transported rich people.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The less wealthy walked or paid to ride on a carriers cart.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Railways

A replica of the early locomotive Sans Pareil at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials of 1829
.Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal.^ Main article: History of rail transport in Great Britain A replica of the early locomotive Sans Pareil at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials of 1829 Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline.^ These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state with the largest number of steam engines in 1861 was Louisiana, and almost all of them were operated and maintained by slave mechanics.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used).^ The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used).
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A type of machine tool able to make other machines Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century.^ Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rest of Europe was against it and didn't participate that much until later in the 19th century when it became a matter of national survival.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830. Construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution.^ The construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution becomes very narrow.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After many of the workers had completed the railways, they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories.^ After many of the workers had completed the railways, they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some negative effects of the Industrial Revolution were that many workers were underpaid and they often got hurt or killed in the midst of working.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factories made goods and foods at low cost which was good for the customers but bad for the workers because they got paid less.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Railways helped Britain's trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport and an easy way to transport mail and news.^ Railways helped Britain's trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Typographical Union struck successfully for the 8 hour day which helped pave the way for shorter hours i n the printing trades.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Social effects

.In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry.^ Each Class will coincide with the week's topic of science, technology, war, and social reformation, by presenting an interdisciplinary view of these aspects of the Industrial Era.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of all of the classes, the middle class made up most of the social triangle.Also this was a good for women, because this is where the women got their independance.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The positive things about the Industrial Revolution were they did not have to use human power they got to use machines, new inventions like interchangeable parts, the middle class was growing bigger, and greater independence for woman.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines.^ Kids had to work long hours and some lost fingures in the machine.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People moved to cities to work in factories.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place.^ However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the industrial revolution took place as well.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It took a long time for some to get to and from work.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Industrial Revolution also had positive effects.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labour, dirty living conditions, and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution.^ However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the industrial revolution took place as well.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labour, dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution becomes very narrow.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]

Factories and urbanisation

Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys
.Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory.^ Manchester, England (" Cottonopolis "), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised.^ Arguably the first was John Lombe 's water-powered silk mill at Derby , operational by 1721.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories.^ The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city , as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Show clips from Metropolis (opening sequence of the city of the future and underground factory montage) and Modern Times (assembly line, factory sequence.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that a very large majority of factory and mine workers in the North were immigrants.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and arguably the world's first industrial city.^ Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester , nicknamed " Cottonopolis ", and arguably the world's first industrial city.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here was a rolling and slitting mill, the first in the New World, and set up when there were only about a dozen of which we have record in the British Isles and on the continent."

^ Arguably the first was John Lombe 's water-powered silk mill at Derby , operational by 1721.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs.^ For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rest of Europe was against it and didn't participate that much until later in the 19th century when it became a matter of national survival.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.^ Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a tall chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Ned Ludd was also said to be a general on whose orders workers would demand that factory owners shut down steam powered machinery or the frames would be broken.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England had ceased to be a society of castes or Estates, and had become one of classes, long before the factory or the steam engine.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty.^ The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories.^ For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Labor Union formed in Baltimore, MD. 1867 Knights of St. Crispin founded which was a union open to all factory workers in the shoe industry.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emile Zola writes Germinal , a protest against the inhuman working conditions in factories and mines.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive.^ In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muir defines the Industrial Revolution as a "transition from the use of this year's sunlight to the use of the products of fossil sunlight (coal and petroleum.

^ He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers.^ Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House of Commons Factory Commission chaired by Michael Sadler, a member of Parliament and Yorkshire mill owner, began investigating conditions of workers in the textile mills.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those are just some positives and negatives about working and living conditions in that time period.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement.^ One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen , known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House of Commons Factory Commission chaired by Michael Sadler, a member of Parliament and Yorkshire mill owner, began investigating conditions of workers in the textile mills.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enlighted industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol.^ By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods.^ Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibers, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Housing was provided for workers on site.^ Housing was provided for workers on site.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system.^ Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Child labour

A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub along a mine gallery
.The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the industrial revolution (although infant mortality rates were reduced markedly).^ The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This mechanism kept the population from pressing too hard on the subsistence capacity of the territory; given the high infant mortality rates, crude birth rates needed to be well above 25 per 1000 to produce consistent population growth.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47] .There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work.^ There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The positive affects of the I.R. is factories made goods at low cost, which made food and goods afforable for more people, there were greater opportunities for education, and greater independence for women.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers.^ Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Industrial Revolution began in New England because there were more young men than there was arable land, forcing some of these surplus men to invent new kinds of machinery."

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries.^ This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the industrial revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain and subsequently spread throughout the world, a process that continues as industrialisation .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.^ The southern two thirds of England saw almost no growth in output per capita or productivity growth in the Industrial Revolution.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those machines are spinning jenny, water frame, cotton gin, power loom, and the flying shuttle ect.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More good things are that the Cotton Gin, Spinning Jenny, Power Loom, steam engine, and water wheel were created.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English workers weren't peasants; the English peasantry had been liquidated long, long before the Industrial Revolution.
  • tdaxp » Blog Archive » Why the Industrial Revolution? Why not an Industrial Counter-Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tdaxp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders.^ Before the passing of laws protecting children, many were forced to work in terrible conditions for much lower pay than their elders.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The working conditions were terrible and the factory owners forced young children to work and lots of them died.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poor working conditions in factories and woman and children worked for low wages in dangerous conditions.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines[50] and textile factories[51] and these helped to popularise the children's plight.^ Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines [1] and textile factories [2] and these helped to popularise the children's plight.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The teacher will introduce the concept and importance of a ìFactory Work Placeî (particularly within the context of a textile factory).
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare.^ The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour.^ Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation , and others simply welcomed the cheap labour.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class , such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts , were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.^ In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts , were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws prohibiting children from working over ten hours per day.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First state law limiting women's working day to ten hours passed in Ohio.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law.^ Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden.^ About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subsequent Mines Act of 1842 prohibited all women and boys under age ten from working in the mines.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second column shows calculated wage income on two assumptions: the average days worked per year were the same throughout, and the fraction of women in employment did not change (I make no assumption here about the length of the work day.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These laws decreased the number of child labourers; however, child labour remained in Europe and the United States up to the 20th century.^ These laws decreased the number of child labourers; however, child labour remained in Europe up to the 20th century.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increasing air pollution from coal burning leads to more killer smogs in Europe and the United States.
  • An Environment and Sustainability Chronology 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.sustreport.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unit Many lesson plans for both middle school and high school units on the first decade of the 20th Century.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] By 1900, there were 1.7 million child labourers reported in American industry under the age of fifteen.[53]

Housing

.
Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c.
^ Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities
.Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers.^ Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC History Home Page: Industrial Revolution National Museum of Science and Industry website: machines and personalities Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living by Clark Nardinelli - the debate over whether standards of living rose or fell Factory Workers in the Industrial Revolution Revolutionary Players website First and second industrial revolution .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets.^ Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also many people had to live in very small dirty rooms in the city because of there jobs.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people who were living in the South and were very poor, moved to the cities and made more money working in factories.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp.^ These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply.^ Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to disease spreading through the cramped living conditions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conditions did improve during the 19th century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes.^ French scientist Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease revolutionizes concepts of public health, making it possible to isolate and treat specific diseases.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 7, Public Health Act is passed by a reluctant Parliament fearful of spread of cholera.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Quarantine Act empowers the Surgeon General of the Marine Hospital Service (precursor to the Public Health Service) to impose quarantines.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not everybody lived in homes like these.^ Not everybody lived in homes like these.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though when it comes to the living conditions I know it was hard because a lot of people these days that really dont have that much live in places like the " ghetto.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors.^ The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positive effects of the Industrial Revolution were that it created new jobs and it modernized the country.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The positive things about the Industrial Revolution were they did not have to use human power they got to use machines, new inventions like interchangeable parts, the middle class was growing bigger, and greater independence for woman.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conditions for the poor improved over the course of the 19th century because of government and local plans which led to cities becoming cleaner places, but life had not been easy for the poor before industrialisation.^ The conditions for the poor improved over the course of the 19th century because of government and local plans which led to cities becoming cleaner places, but life had not been easy for the poor before industrialisation.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chicago becomes the first American city to create a local ordinance regulating smoke discharges, followed that same year by Cincinnati.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For other state and local history lesson plans, see History: Up Close and Personal (grades 9-12), "Promote A City" Posters (grades 5-7), and Built Environment Artifacts (grades 6-12).
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to diseases spreading through the cramped living conditions.^ However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to disease spreading through the cramped living conditions.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The working conditions were terrible and the factory owners forced young children to work and lots of them died.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chest diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and typhoid were also extremely common, as was smallpox.^ Chest diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and typhoid were also extremely common, as was smallpox.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water pollution carried disease, but no one knew exactly why until the 1880s.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progress is slow but the common interest in pure drinking water and sanitation is spurred by epidemics of typhoid and cholera.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Accidents in factories with child and female workers were regular. .Dickens' novels illustrate this; even some government officials were horrified by what they saw[citation needed].^ Dickens' novels perhaps best illustrate this; even some government officials were horrified by what they saw.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, even if they do receive some sort of sentencing, it seems as though they are advantaged in the system.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

.Strikes and riots by workers were also relatively common.^ Strikes and riots by workers were also relatively common.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Luddites

The Leader of the luddites, engraving of 1812
The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. .The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation.^ By the 1890s, industrialisation in these areas had created the first giant industrial corporations with burgeoning global interests, as companies like U.S. Steel , General Electric , and Bayer AG joined the railroad companies on the world's stock markets .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver.^ The textile industry in particular industrialised early, and many weavers found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It could be an even more useful than your riffs on Obama...
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

^ This also brought us to the point where we can have a surplus, which left us with more than we needed and we could make more money selling it and we would have more to make into clothes and more.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery.^ There were factories that created many things with workers and machines.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Ned Ludd was also said to be a general on whose orders workers would demand that factory owners shut down steam powered machinery or the frames would be broken.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House of Commons Factory Commission chaired by Michael Sadler, a member of Parliament and Yorkshire mill owner, began investigating conditions of workers in the textile mills.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure.^ These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd , a folklore figure.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to legend, the mythical figure Ned Ludd was a simple minded boy who accidentally broke a "frame" (loom).
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures using the militia or army to protect industry.^ The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government had to take drastic measures to protect industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luddite movement was adamantly non-violent and reached its height in the spring of 1812 when it acted as an underground guerilla army in the region.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life.
.Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as agricultural labourers in the 1830s, when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances.^ For the effects of individual technical advances on aggregate productivity depend crucially on such accidental factors as the size of the sector affected and the price elasticity of demand.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Threshing machines were a particular target, and rick burning was a popular activity. .However the riots led to the first formation of trade unions, and further pressure for reform.^ Trade unions were formed by people with the same types of skills, and they often led strikes to get factory owners to talk.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wartime labor organizing led to the formation of 12 national unions as labor is in high demand and can wield a voice.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Cooperative Association of Cordwainers, the first national union of a specific trade, was founded in New York City.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organisation of labour

The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, 1848
.The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people.^ People moved to cities to work in factories.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People were not payed a lot for working in a mill.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children's Employment Commission (UK) begins investigation into non-textile industries employing children, partly at behest of mill owners.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production.^ The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was accidents of demand, demography, and trade that allowed innovations in this sector to have a much bigger impact than previous innovations of similar magnitude in terms of productivity gains.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production.^ Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining.^ Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though when it comes to the living conditions I know it was hard because a lot of people these days that really dont have that much live in places like the " ghetto.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action.^ Strike by the American Railway Union against the Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago is defeated by the use of injunctions and federal troops.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the sitdown strike strategy brings recognition of unions in several large industries including the auto industry.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. .In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. Even after this, unions were still severely restricted.^ Even after this, unions were still severely restricted.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act which restricts union activities and permits the states to pass "right-to-work" laws.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1832, the year of the Reform Act which extended the vote in England but did not grant universal suffrage, six men from Tolpuddle in Dorset founded the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers to protest against the gradual lowering of wages in the 1830s.^ He and his supporters hoped America would remain a rural agricultural society where equality and a man's dignity could be maintained by tying men to the land.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Founding of the Commons Preservation Society in England to protect woodlands and heths used by communities for recreation.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They refused to work for less than 10 shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six shillings.^ They had to work 16 hours a day and six days a week.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus while from 1760-9 to 1860-9 nominal wage income per person more than doubled, nominal property income per person increased by 50% or less.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IR had a lot of negative and some positive affects on people.They worked six days a week.the factories were very dirty and some people died b/c of it.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done.^ This curriculum guide is created by James D. Brown, Jr. Illinois Labor History Society in cooperation with teachers from the metro Chicago area and local union members.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, society worked together to protect the children and the people with child labor laws, trade unions, and Labor Day.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have students interview family members about their experiences in union or non-union shops.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, George's brother James Loveless, George's brother in-law Thomas Standfield, and Thomas's son John Standfield were arrested, found guilty, and transported to Australia. They became known as the Tolpuddle martyrs. .In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice.^ In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Medicine is a social science and politics [is] nothing but medicine on a grand scale...
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enlighted industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration.^ April 10, 1848 -- Chartists bring two million signatures to London demanding political and social reforms.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship.^ Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The you'll realize how brave and hard working these people were and take the time to appericate all the things they've done for YOU. .
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class.^ Friedrick Engels writes The Condition of the Working Class in England .
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike.^ Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act which restricts union activities and permits the states to pass "right-to-work" laws.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The m ajor steel companies and the United Steelworkers of America approved an "Experimental Negotiation Agreement" where the union gave up the right to strike in favor of binding arbitration.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1842, a General Strike involving cotton workers and colliers was organised through the Chartist movement which stopped production across Great Britain.^ In Flint, Michigan, United Auto Workers make effective use of the sit-down strike in a General Motors plant.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Annie Besant helps organise a strike of women workers at the Bryant and May match factory in the East End of London.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female workers in five cotton mills in Allegheny, Pennsylvania strike for the ten hour day.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
.Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party.^ Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some may have relatives who have worked in both types of a workplace, union or non-union.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life of Frances Cobbe, founder of the Victoria Street Society (1875), which became the British National Anti-Vivisection Society, and later founder of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (1898).
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other effects

.The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation.^ The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Ned Ludd was also said to be a general on whose orders workers would demand that factory owners shut down steam powered machinery or the frames would be broken.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this period includes the rise of industrial powers other than Great Britain, such as Germany, France or the USA, it may be .....
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.^ Positives- The positives of the Industrial Revolution were that we advanced in technology making life easier for us humans.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well for one i think that the industrial revolution brought hard times to peoples lives even little children.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the possitive things about working in during the industrial revolution is that you got payed itmight not have been much but you did.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829.[46] Also, there was a significant increase in worker wages during the period 1813-1913.[55][56][57]
.According to Robert Hughes in The Fatal Shore, the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at 6 million from 1700 to 1740, rose dramatically after 1740. The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1851 and, by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million.^ Note: British Income from Deane and Cole was multiplied by the share of the population in England and Wales in each decade.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus while from 1760-9 to 1860-9 nominal wage income per person more than doubled, nominal property income per person increased by 50% or less.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Indian History timeline, the buffalo population at this time is estimated at 7 million, down from 15 million in 1865 and from over 50 to 100 million before the European's arrived.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .As living conditions and health care improved during the 19th century, Britain's population doubled every 50 years.^ For every person who died of old age or violence in Britain in the year 1839, the commission reports, eight died of infectious disease.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conditions did improve during the 19th century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59][60] .Europe’s population doubled during the 18th century, from roughly 100 million to almost 200 million, and doubled again during the 19th century, to around 400 million.^ According to the Indian History timeline, the buffalo population at this time is estimated at 7 million, down from 15 million in 1865 and from over 50 to 100 million before the European's arrived.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labour’s Reward: Real Wages and Economic Change in 19th- and 20th -Century Europe.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61]
.The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanisation and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.^ Growth of cities in Europe.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But notice that while Crafts and others find a nice buildup of productivity growth from low levels in the late eighteenth century to the highest levels by the mid-nineteenth century, so that the Industrial Revolution seems to be a train getting into motion slowly but nevertheless running nicely by the end, I do not find that here.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003 Paul Mantoux, The Industrial Revolution in the Eighteenth Century , First English translation 1928, revised edition 1961 online edition Dunham; Arthur Louis.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities,[62] a figure that has risen to nearly 50% at the beginning of the 21st century.^ Some negative effects of the industrial revolution was the population boom,development of child labor,pollution spreading of diseases,unhealthy living conditions, and crowded cities are only some of the negative effects the industrial revolution caused our world.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York city physician John H. Griscom,, appointed inspector for the Board of Health, begins writing 'The Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of New York City."
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction To a first approximation the path of world income per capita between 8,000 BC and 2,000 AD is best represented by figure 1 (where income in 1800 is set as 1).
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .In 1717 Manchester was merely a market town of 10,000 people, but by 1911 it had a population of 2.3 million.^ By 1905, all U.S. towns with population over 4,000 have city sewers.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population fed and clothed by English agriculture did not expand from 7.5 million to 21 million between 1760 and 1860 as figure 10 suggests, but instead grew from 7.5 to 9.6 million.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
The greatest killer in the cities was tuberculosis (TB).[65] By the late 19th century, 70 to 90% of the urban populations of Europe and North America were infected with M. tuberculosis, and about 40% of working-class deaths in cities were from TB.[66]

Continental Europe

.The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came a little later than in Great Britain.^ The industrial revolution was a time of great suffering.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came later than in Great Britain .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second Industrial Revolutions and later evolution .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many industries, this involved the application of technology developed in Britain in new places.^ In many industries, this involved the application of technology developed in Britain in new places.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transatlantic Industrial Revolution: The diffusion of textile technology between Britain and America, 1790-1830's .

.Often the technology was purchased from Britain or British engineers and entrepreneurs moved abroad in search of new opportunities.^ Some of the positive effects on the Industrial Revolution is that there were rapid growth of cities, greater job opportunities, new forms of transportation, and new inventions and technology.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American and British technology in the nineteenth century: The search for labour saving inventions .

.By 1809 part of the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia was called 'Miniature England' because of its similarities to the industrial areas of England.^ By 1809 part of the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia were being called Miniature England because of its similarities to the industrial areas of England.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The German, Russian and Belgian governments all provided state funding to the new industries.^ This includes the locations of blast furnaces in all the New England states.

^ The government policy was to provide free ammunition to all buffalo hunters.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the census of manufactures, 1810-1954: The only complete and authentic body of statistics on all manufacturing industries in the United States, being taken for 1954 .

.In some cases (such as iron), the different availability of resources locally meant that only some aspects of the British technology were adopted.^ In some cases (such as iron ), the different availability of resources locally meant that only some aspects of the British technology were adopted.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some historians such as David Landes [17] and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wallonia, Belgium

Lifts on Canal du Centre (1888 - 1917) near La Louvière, Wallonia
Workers' housing at Bois-du-Luc (1838-1853) in La Louvière
.Renowned for its coal and steel, Wallonia has experienced strong industrial growth since the Middle Ages.^ Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historian, Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the early Middle Ages , much earlier than most estimates.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal , Coal mining , Coke , Cotton , Industry , Invention , Iron , Machinery , Manufacturing , Metallurgy , Sociology , Steam power , Steel , Technology , Textiles , Water power , Workforce .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For many years, heavy industry was the driving force behind the region's economy.^ These revised GDP figures also imply that relative to many modern economies England was a relatively rich economy in the pre-industrial period.
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed, Wallonia was the birthplace of the industrial revolution on continental Europe:
Before railway construction on the Continent demanded huge quantities of maleable iron mainly for rails, for which low quality iron sufficed, Wallonia was the only Continental region to follow the British model successfully. .Since the middle of the 1820s, numerous works comprising coke blast furnaces as well as puddling and rolling mills were built in the coal mining areas around Liège and Charleroi.^ Pittsburgh: Its blast furnaces, rolling mills and steelworks.

^ Coalbrookdale by Night , 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using coal, which was mined.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was followed by Abraham Darby , who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Excelling all others, John Cockerill's factories at Seraing integrated all stages of production, from engineering to the supply of raw materials, as early as 1825.[67]
Wallonia came to be regarded as an example of the radical evolution of industrial expansion. .Thanks to coal (the French word "houille" was coined in Wallonia),[68] the region geared up to become the 2nd industrial power in the world after England.^ Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WW II: The United States Becomes a World Power A teaching/learning module using primary source documents.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luddite movement is a reaction by mill workers of the Manchester - Leeds industrial region of England to the coming of steam powered machinery, replacing their skilled labor and leaving them jobless and hungry.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But it is also pointed out by many researchers, with its Sillon industriel, 'Especially in the Haine, Sambre and Meuse valleys, between the Borinage and Liège, (...^ They will be asked to do some research over the Internet to try and find out how many and what types of large- scale businesses represent Hip Hop music.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) there was a huge industrial development based on coal-mining and iron-making...'[69]. .Philippe Raxhon wrote about the period after 1830: "It was not propaganda but a reality the Walloon regions were becoming the second industrial power all over the world after England."^ Since this period includes the rise of industrial powers other than Great Britain, such as Germany, France or the USA, it may be .....
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these things helped America become a leader in the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WW II: The United States Becomes a World Power A teaching/learning module using primary source documents.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] "The sole industrial centre outside the collieries and blast furnaces of Walloon was the old cloth making town of Ghent."[71] Michel De Coster, Professor at the Université de Liège wrote also: "The historians and the economists say that Belgium was the second industrial power of the world, in proportion to its population and its territory (...) .But this rank is the one of Wallonia where the coal-mines, the blast furnaces, the iron and zinc factories, the wool industry, the glass industry, the weapons industry...^ Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry.

^ In the indirect process, the blast furnace smelts the ore and turns out cast iron in the form of sows and pigs.

^ For, all day, we drag our burden tiring, Through the coal-dark underground -- Or, all day, we drive the wheels of iron In the factories, round and round ...
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

were concentrated" [72]

Demographic effects

Wallonia's Sillon industriel, not the blue bloth in the N
Gallow frame of the Crachet in Frameries IN Wallonia's French Châssis à molettes or Belfleur (French Chevalement
Official Poster of the Liège's World fair in 1905
.Wallonia was also the birthplace of a strong Socialist party and strong trade-unions in a particular sociological landscape.^ Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the left, the Sillon industriel, which runs from Mons in the west, to Verviers in the east (except part of North Flanders, in another period of the industrial revolution, after 1920).^ The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The good parts of the industrial revolution are that people that were out of work were able to get new jobs.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even if Wallonia is the second industrial country after England, the effect of the industrial revolution there was very different.^ The Industrial Revolution effected many people in many different ways.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Industrial Revolution also had positive effects.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industrial Revolution had negative and positive effects.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 'Breaking stereotypes', Muriel Beven and Isabelle Devos say:
.The industrial revolution changed a mainly rural society into an urban one, but with a strong contrast between northern and southern Belgium.^ The Industrial Revolution and the Progressive Era: 1877-1913 One segment of the above curriculum.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transatlantic Industrial Revolution: The diffusion of textile technology between Britain and America, 1790-1830's .

^ The Industrial Revolution had many positive effects but there were also negative ones as well.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, Flanders was characterised by the presence of large urban centres (...^ Prehistoric Europe Classical antiquity Late antiquity Middle Ages Renaissance Early modern Europe Modern Times Contemporary history .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historian, Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the early Middle Ages , much earlier than most estimates.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University of Chicago Press, 1993 J. H. Clapham; An Economic History of Modern Britain: The Early Railway Age, 1820-1850 .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) at the beginning of the nineteenth century this region .(Flanders), with an urbanisation degree of more than 30 per cent, remained one of the most urbanised in the world.^ Documents and Photographs Related to Japanese Relocation During World War II One more lesson plan regarding Japanese internment.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By comparison, this proportion reached only 17 per cent in Wallonia, barely 10 per cent in most West European countries, 16 per cent in France and 25 per cent in England.^ However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars [16] ) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nineteenth century industrialisation did not affect the traditional urban infrastructure, except in Ghent (...) .Also, in Wallonia the traditional urban network was largely unaffected by the industrialisation process, even though the proportion of city-dwellers rose from 17 to 45 per cent between 1831 and 1910. Especially in the Haine, Sambre and Meuse valleys, between the Borinage and Liège, where there was a huge industrial development based on coal-mining and iron-making, urbanisation was rapid.^ Even though there was a bunch of good things in the IR there also was some bad things that happened.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though it had its good times and bad, we wouldnt be where we are today without the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arms making in the Connecticut Valley: A regional study of the economic development of the small arms industry, 1798-1870 .

.During these eighty years the number of municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants increased from only 21 to more than one hundred, concentrating nearly half of the Walloon population in this region.^ Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been pointed out, however, that slavery provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 265,000 Bands of Mercy were chartered by Angell's death in 1909.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, industrialisation remained quite traditional in the sense that it did not lead to the growth of modern and large urban centres, but to a conurbation of industrial villages and towns developed around a coal-mine or a factory.^ In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Communication routes between these small centres only became populated later and created a much less dense urban morphology than, for instance, the area around Liège where the old town was there to direct migratory flows.^ Families lived in dirty and rough envirements causing much sickness throughout homes in urban areas.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]

Political and social effects

Wallonia became the country of the general strike. .A general strike is the "cessation of work by a majority of the workers in all industries of a locality or nation.^ National Labor Union formed in Baltimore, MD. 1867 Knights of St. Crispin founded which was a union open to all factory workers in the shoe industry.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Flint, Michigan, United Auto Workers make effective use of the sit-down strike in a General Motors plant.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some negative effects of the Industrial Revolution were that many workers were underpaid and they often got hurt or killed in the midst of working.
  • The Industrial Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iweb.lexington1.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such a stoppage is economic if it is for the purpose of redressing some grievance or pressing upon the employer a series of economic demands. It is political if called for the purpose of wresting some concession from the government or if the goal is the overthrow of the existing government. .The political strike has been advocated by the syndicalists and to a certain extent by anarchistic movements".[74] General strikes in Wallonia took place in 1885 (this strike began to celebrate the Commune de Paris), 1902, 1913 (in order to win universal suffrage), 1932, 1936 (in order to win paid holidays), 1950 (against Leopold III), in the winter 1960-1961 in order to win the autonomy of Wallonia, when the Walloon economic decline became clear and when it became (or seemed) clear for some socialist Trade-Unions leaders, that the Belgian government would not make anything for the economic recovery of Wallonia.^ General strike of Chicago trade unions demanding an 8 hour day.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federal employee's unions given the right to bargain collectively with government agencies as a result of President Kennedy's executive order.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

France

A barricade of the Commune de Paris—celebrated in march 1885 in Wallonia by a General strike March 18th, 1871.
.The industrial revolution in France was a particular process for it did not correspond to the main model followed by other countries.^ Main article: Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this period includes the rise of industrial powers other than Great Britain, such as Germany, France or the USA, it may be .....
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The classical Industrial Revolution did not involve all production.

Notably, most French historians argue that France did not go through a clear take-off [75]. Instead, France's economic growth and industrialisation process was slow and steady along the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, some stages were identified by Maurice Lévy-Leboyer :
  • French Revolution and Napoleonic wars (1789–1815),
  • industrialisation, along with Britain (1815–1860),
  • economic slowdown (1860–1905),
  • renewal of the growth after 1905.

United States

Slater's Mill
.The United States originally used horse-powered machinery to power its earliest factories, but eventually switched to water power, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States, where fast-moving rivers were located.^ Main article: Technological and industrial history of the United States As in Britain, the United States originally used water power to run its factories, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States , where fast-moving rivers were located.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Horse-drawn production proved to be economically challenging and a more difficult alternative to the newer water-powered production lines. .However, the raw materials (cotton) came from the Southern United States.^ However, the raw materials (cotton) came from the Southern United States .
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibers, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not until after the Civil War in the 1860s that steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to fully spread across the nation.^ Engineer John Ericsson, famed for inventing the screw propeller and the U.S.S. Monitor (Civil War ironclad) devotes his remaining years to solar steam generators.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern labor leaders and industrialist thought the South was trying to destroy capitalism and spread its slave power aristocracy on the nation.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War A lesson plan using historical documents available via the Internet from the National Archives.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Samuel Slater (1768–1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry.^ Samuel Slater (1768–1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samuel Slater, father of American manufactures.

^ Samuel Slater and the origins of the American textile industry, 1790-1860 .

.As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England, he learned of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge.^ As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England he learnt of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge.
  • What is Industrial Revolution? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The iron industry of northern New York.

^ The New England textile mill survey.

Slater, among the Cabot Brothers and investors, started the Beverly Cotton Manufactory in Beverly, Massachusetts. This was the first cotton mill in America. This cotton mill was designed to utilize horse-powered production. The mill operators quickly learned that the economic stability of their horse-drawn platform was unstable, and had fiscal issues for years after it was built. .Despite the losses, the Manufactory served as a playground of innovation, both in turning a large amount of cotton, but also developing the water-powered milling structure used in Slater's second mill[76], Slater's Mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793. He went on to own thirteen textile mills.^ First textile mill is established in Pawtucket, Rhode Island by Samuel Slater for Ezekial Carpenter.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First reported strike of women workers when they join male weavers protesting wage reduction and extension of the workday in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can SMS/text messaging be used for clean water or developing world education?
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

[77] .Daniel Day established a wool carding mill in the Blackstone Valley at Uxbridge, Massachusetts in 1810, the third woollen mill established in the U.S. (The first was in Hartford, Connecticut, and the second at Watertown, Massachusetts.^ Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws prohibiting children from working over ten hours per day.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York passed the first U.S. state anti-cruelty law, followed by Massachusetts in 1835 and Connecticut and Wisconsin in 1838.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First textile mill is established in Pawtucket, Rhode Island by Samuel Slater for Ezekial Carpenter.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .The John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor retraces the history of "America's Hardest-Working River', the Blackstone.^ John James Audubon begins work on his illustrated book, Birds of America.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report by the Museum of American Textile History for the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.

^ Louisiana Purchase Natural History Materials Two lesson plans (Extinct Animals of the Louisiana Purchase and Headwater Swamps) from the Arkansas National Heritage Commission.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Blackstone River and its tributaries, which cover more than 45 miles (72 km) from Worcester to Providence, was the birthplace of America's Industrial Revolution.^ "The Industrial Revolution began in New England because there were more young men than there was arable land, forcing some of these surplus men to invent new kinds of machinery."

^ Transatlantic Industrial Revolution: The diffusion of textile technology between Britain and America, 1790-1830's .

^ Eight hour movement begins The depression which follows the Panic of 1873 hits industrial America harder than earlier depressions when the agrarian nature of America allowed more to provide for themselves.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At its peak over 1100 mills operated in this valley, including Slater's mill, and with it the earliest beginnings of America's Industrial and Technological Development.^ Children's Employment Commission (UK) begins investigation into non-textile industries employing children, partly at behest of mill owners.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most comprehensive survey of the history of the iron industry in America up to the beginning of the 20th century.

^ The very best summary of the role of water mills in the industrialization of America.

While on a trip to England in 1810, Newburyport merchant Francis Cabot Lowell was allowed to tour the British textile factories, but not take notes. .Realising the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a market for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, he memorised the design of textile machines, and on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company.^ War of 1812 A thematic unit for grade 7.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Textile Workers of America founded.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The textile industries of the United States.

.Lowell and his partners built America's second cotton-to-cloth textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts, second to the Beverly Cotton Manufactory After his death in 1817, his associates built America's first planned factory town, which they named after him.^ House of Commons Factory Commission chaired by Michael Sadler, a member of Parliament and Yorkshire mill owner, began investigating conditions of workers in the textile mills.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Massachusetts passes the first factory inspection law, with 22 states following over the next 20 years.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that summer, eight men in Lancashire were sentenced to death and 13 more were transported to Australia for attacks on cotton mills.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This enterprise was capitalised in a public stock offering, one of the first uses of it in the United States.^ "Braintree Furnace achieved the first recorded and successful production of cast iron within the limits of what is now the United States."

^ The enterprising Americans: A business history of the United States.

^ We Must Not be Enemies: Lincoln's First Inaugural Address A unit for grades 3-5 that uses archival documents available online.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lowell, Massachusetts, utilising 5.6 miles (9.0 km) of canals and ten thousand horsepower delivered by the Merrimack River, is considered by some to be a major contributor to the success of the American Industrial Revolution.^ Oliver Evans: Inventive genius of the American industrial revolution.

^ Engines of change: The American Industrial Revolution, 1790 - 1860 .

^ The book on occupational health (industrial hygiene) included clinical observations and suggestions for improvements that helped mitigate some of the worst effects of the industrial revolution.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The short-lived utopia-like Lowell System was formed, as a direct response to the poor working conditions in Britain.^ The living conditions in crowded tenements without running water, toilet facilities or sanitation were very unhealthy and life expectancy was short.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps they will create a model like the Lowell system.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lowell girls go on strike again over working conditions and wages.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, by 1850, especially following the Irish Potato Famine, the system had been replaced by poor immigrant labour.^ Forced to Flee A lesson plan about the Irish Potato famine for grades 6-8.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also Reasons for Irish Immigration: Potato Famine.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The industrialisation of the watch industry started 1854 also in Waltham, Massachusetts, at the Waltham Watch Company, with the development of machine tools, tools, gauges and assembling methods adapted to the micro precision required for watches.^ While it is a start, we need multiple solutions, including industrial scale development and distributed renewable alternatives.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

^ The US machine tool industry from 1900 to 1950.

^ Technological change in the machine tool industry, 1840-1910.

Japan

In 1871 a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the USA to learn western ways. The result was a deliberate state led industrialisation policy to prevent Japan from falling behind. The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. Education was expanded and Japanese students were sent to study in the west.

Second Industrial Revolution and later evolution

Bessemer converter
.The insatiable demand of the railways for more durable rail led to the development of the means to cheaply mass-produce steel.^ While supply and demand still controls tenants of the new economy, the producer/consumer dichotomy takes on an entirely new meaning.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

.Steel is often cited as the first of several new areas for industrial mass-production, which are said to characterise a "Second Industrial Revolution", beginning around 1850, although a method for mass manufacture of steel was not invented until the 1860s, when Sir Henry Bessemer invented a new furnace which could make wrought iron and steel in large quantities.^ Industrial archeology of American iron and steel.

^ A revolution in steel: Mass production in Pennsylvania, 1867 - 1901.

^ The iron industry of northern New York.

However, it only became widely available in the 1870s. .This second Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries, and, in the twentieth century, the automotive industries, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany.^ The textile industries of the United States.

^ Industrial history of the United States .

^ The cotton manufacturing industry of the United States.

The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialisation of coal-deprived northern Italy, beginning in the 1890s. .The increasing availability of economical petroleum products also reduced the importance of coal and further widened the potential for industrialisation.^ Because Aerie's strategy of dramatically reducing the cost of bandwidth and increasing availability depends on the scale of its fiber cache, the company is installing 432 fibers in each of its conduits, which means the end product will be replete with 8.9 million fiber miles.

^ Muir defines the Industrial Revolution as a "transition from the use of this year's sunlight to the use of the products of fossil sunlight (coal and petroleum.

Marshall McLuhan analysed the social and cultural impact of the electric age. While the previous age of mechanisation had spread the idea of splitting every process into a sequence, this was ended by the introduction of the instant speed of electricity that brought simultaneity. This imposed the cultural shift from the approach of focusing on "specialized segments of attention" (adopting one particular perspective), to the idea of "instant sensory awareness of the whole", an attention to the "total field", a "sense of the whole pattern". It made evident and prevalent the sense of "form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This had major impact in the disciplines of painting (with cubism), physics, poetry, communication and educational theory.[78]
.By the 1890s, industrialisation in these areas had created the first giant industrial corporations with burgeoning global interests, as companies like U.S. Steel, General Electric, and Bayer AG joined the railroad companies on the world's stock markets.^ Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry.

^ If you're a startup, and your elevator pitch isn’t shaped by this blueprint; if you're an investor, and your portfolio isn't full of companies like this; if you’re a corporate boardroom, and you're not refocusing and restructuring to meet these new challenges – here’s the bottom line: the next industrial revolution has your name written all over it.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

^ Separation and inspiration, concerning the first industrial application of electricity in America.

Intellectual paradigms and criticism

Capitalism

The advent of the Age of Enlightenment provided an intellectual framework which welcomed the practical application of the growing body of scientific knowledge—a factor evidenced in the systematic development of the steam engine, guided by scientific analysis, and the development of the political and sociological analyses, culminating in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. .One of the main arguments for capitalism, presented for example in the book The Improving State of the World, is that industrialisation increases wealth for all, as evidenced by raised life expectancy, reduced working hours, and no work for children and the elderly.^ The Peel committee took evidence from doctors and textile manufacturers, but no evidence was taken from parents or children.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somebody has to do work and build things to sell and make money with so they can have that corn, water, and car -- because the whole world wants those things for themselves and their children.
  • A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution - Umair Haque 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC discussionleader.hbsp.com [Source type: General]

^ Royal Commission on Employment of Children in the Mines reports "cruel slaving revolting to humanity," The commission found women and children chained to carts and working 15-hour days.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marxism

Marxism began essentially as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.[79] .According to Karl Marx, industrialisation polarised society into the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production, the factories and the land) and the much larger proletariat (the working class who actually perform the labour necessary to extract something valuable from the means of production).^ Workers lead dust or are exposed to fumes are much more affected than those who handle solid lead, he notes.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make it more successful I may have students bring in products that they relate to popular culture and then we would do research to find out who owns the company, where it was produced, and to what types of communities those companies are marketing their product to.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think that kids will mostly enjoy getting to hear their music in class, but also gain an inside look to the inner workings of production.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He saw the industrialisation process as the logical dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, necessary for the full development of capitalism, which he saw as in itself a necessary precursor to the development of socialism and eventually communism.^ Students will spend ten min brainstorming three major terms; capitalism, socialism, communism and write down what they think these terms mean.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topic: The emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and responses to in such as Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism .
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will analyze and categorize the effects of industrialization on social organization, specifically through the emergence of capitalism, socialism, and communism.
  • The Industrial Age 22 September 2009 21:23 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Romanticism

.During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialisation developed.^ Exploring the Middle East - Hands-On Approaches Three lesson plans developed during the 2002 Yale-New Have Teachers Institute.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of the English toolmaking industry during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

^ See also Child Labor and the British Industrial Revolution and Life in Britain During the Industrial Revolution for information and links to many resource sites.
  • history lesson plans 8 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.cloudnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was known as the Romantic movement. Its major exponents in English included the artist and poet William Blake and poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley. .The movement stressed the importance of "nature" in art and language, in contrast to "monstrous" machines and factories; the "Dark satanic mills" of Blake's poem "And did those feet in ancient time". Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein reflected concerns that scientific progress might be two-edged.^ April - France - Augustine Mouchot predicts a need for solar energy: “The time will arrive when the industry of Europe will cease to find those natural resources, so necessary for it.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although not outspoken in the women's suffrage or women's rights movements, she saw improvements in scientific education as a key to the progress of women and the country.
  • Environmental History Timeline: 1830-1890 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

Bibliography

.

Notes

  1. ^ Watt steam engine image: located in the lobby of into the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of a the UPM (Madrid)
  2. ^ Beck B., Roger (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 
  3. ^ Business and Economics. Leading Issues in Economic Development, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511589-9 Read it
  4. ^ Russell Brown, Lester. Eco-Economy, James & James / Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-904-3 Read it
  5. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848, Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. ISBN 0-349-10484-0
  6. ^ Joseph E Inikori. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 Read it
  7. ^ Berg, Maxine (1992). "Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution". The Economic History Review 45: 24. doi:10.2307/2598327. 
  8. ^ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Retrieved November 2006.
  9. ^ Robert Lucas, Jr. (2003). "The Industrial Revolution". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm. Retrieved 2007-11-14. "it is fairly clear that up to 1800 or maybe 1750, no society had experienced sustained growth in per capita income. (Eighteenth century population growth also averaged one-third of 1 percent, the same as production growth.) That is, up to about two centuries ago, per capita incomes in all societies were stagnated at around $400 to $800 per year." 
  10. ^ Lucas, Robert (2003). "The Industrial Revolution Past and Future". http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm. "[consider] annual growth rates of 2.4 percent for the first 60 years of the 20th century, of 1 percent for the entire 19th century, of one-third of 1 percent for the 18th century" 
  11. ^ Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, Library of Economics and Liberty
  12. ^ Crouzet, François (1996). "France". in Teich, Mikuláš; Porter, Roy. The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780521409407. 
  13. ^ Hudson, Pat (1992). The Industrial Revolution. London: Edward Arnold. p. 11. ISBN 9780713165319. 
  14. ^ "BBC – Plague in Tudor and Stuart Britain". bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/voices/voices_salisbury.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  15. ^ The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England
  16. ^ "Scientific Revolution". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Archived 2009-10-31.
  17. ^ Hudson, Pat. The Industrial Revolution, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-7131-6531-6
  18. ^ Fullerton, Ronald A. (January 1988). "How Modern Is Modern Marketing? Marketing's Evolution and the Myth of the "Production Era"". The Journal of Marketing (New York City, NY: American Marketing Association) 52 (1): 108–125. doi:10.2307/1251689. 
  19. ^ "Technics & Civilization". Lewis Mumford. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/015688254X/ref=sib_fs_top?ie=UTF8&p=S00Q&checkSum=udoW5CVmUdy3Y45ns0wtGk7Wesh6yWx220dcukbd7VE%3D#reader-link. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  20. ^ Deane, Phyllis. The First Industrial Revolution, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29609-9 Read it
  21. ^ Eric Schiff, Industrialisation without national patents: the Netherlands, 1869-1912; Switzerland, 1850-1907, Princeton University Press, 1971.
  22. ^ Michele Boldrin and David K. Levine, Against Intellectual Monopoly, Chapter 1, final online version January 2, 2008PDF (55 KB), page 15. Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 9780521879286
  23. ^ Why No Industrial Revolution in Ancient Greece? J. Bradford DeLong, Professor of Economics, University of California at Berkeley, 20 September 2002. Retrieved January 2007.
  24. ^ The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England | The History Guide, Steven Kreis, 11 October 2006 – Accessed January 2007
  25. ^ Jackson J. Spielvogel (2009). "Western Civilization: Since 1500". p.607.
  26. ^ The Industrial Revolution – Causes
  27. ^ Cobb-Douglas in pre-modern Europe1 – Simulating early modern growthPDF (254 KB) Jan Luiten van Zanden, International Institute of Social History/University of Utrecht. May 2005. Retrieved January 2007.
  28. ^ Landes, David (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. London: Abacus. pp. 38–9. ISBN 0349111669. 
  29. ^ How Earth Made Us: Fire by Professor Iain Stewart
  30. ^ South Asian History -Pages from the history of the Indian subcontinent: British rule and the legacy of colonisation. Rajni-Palme Dutt India Today (Indian Edition published 1947). Retrieved January 2007.
  31. ^ Monarchies 1000–2000. By W. M. SPELLMAN. London: Reaktion Books, 2001.. Journal of World History.
  32. ^ Was slavery the engine of economic growth? Digital History
  33. ^ The Industrial Revolution by Pat Hudson, pg. 198
  34. ^ The Royal Navy itself may have contributed to Britain's industrial growth. Among the first complex industrial manufacturing processes to arise in Britain were those that produced material for British warships. For instance, the average warship of the period used roughly 1000 pulley fittings. With a fleet as large as the Royal Navy, and with these fittings needing to be replaced ever 4 to 5 years, this created a great demand which encouraged industrial expansion. The industrial manufacture of rope can also be see as a similar factor.
  35. ^ Barrington Moore, Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, pp. 29-30, Boston, Beacon Press, 1966.
  36. ^ Foster, Charles (2004). Capital and Innovation: How Britain Became the First Industrial Nation. Northwich: Arley Hall Press. ISBN 0951838245.  Argues that capital accumulation and wealth concentration in an entrepreneurial culture following the commercial revolution made the industrial revolution possible, for example.
  37. ^ The Industrial Revolution – Innovations
  38. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) "Building construction: the reintroduction of modern concrete"
  39. ^ The Lunar Society at Moreabout, the website of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter guide, Bob Miles.
  40. ^ Hulse, David H: The Early Development of the Steam Engine; TEE Publishing, Leamington Spa, U.K., 1999 ISBN 1 85761 107 1
  41. ^ L.T.C. Rolt and J. S. Allen, The Steam engine of Thomas Newcomen (Landmark, Ashbourne, 1997), 44.
  42. ^ Rolt and Allen, 145
  43. ^ Clow, Archibald; Clow, Nan L. (June 1952), Chemical Revolution, Ayer Co, pp. 65–90, ISBN 0-8369-1909-2 
  44. ^ Properties of Concrete Published lecture notes from University of Memphis Department of Civil Engineering. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
  45. ^ R.M. Hartwell, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth, Methuen and Co., 1971, page 339-341 ISBN 0-416-19500-8
  46. ^ a b Mabel C. Buer, Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, London: George Routledge & Sons, 1926, page 30 ISBN 0-415-38218-1
  47. ^ "Demographic Transition and Industrial Revolution: A Macroeconomic Investigation" (PDF). 2007. http://www.unc.edu/~oksana/Paper1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-05. "The decrease [in mortality] beginning in the second half of the 18th century was due mainly to declining adult mortality. Sustained decline of the mortality rates for the age groups 5-10, 10-15, and 15-25 began in the mid 19th century, while that for the age group 0-5 began three decades later" . Although the survival rates for infants and children were static over this period, the birth rate & overall life expectancy increased. Thus the population grew, but the average Briton was about as old in 1850 as in 1750 (see figures 5 & 6, page 28). Population size statistics from mortality.org put the mean age at about 26.
  48. ^ "Child Labor and the Division of Labor in the Early English Cotton Mills". Douglas A. Galbi. Centre for History and Economics, King's College, Cambridge CB2 1ST.
  49. ^ The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England, Laura Del Col, West Virginia University.
  50. ^ "Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission". 2008. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/ashley.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  51. ^ "The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England". 2008. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/workers1.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  52. ^ "Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor". The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
  53. ^ "The Industrial Revolution". The Web Institute for Teachers.
  54. ^ General Strike 1842 From chartists.net. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  55. ^ Crafts, N (1994). "Trends in Real Wages in Britain, 1750-1913". Explorations in Economic History 31: 176. doi:10.1006/exeh.1994.1007. 
  56. ^ Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living From www.econlib.org, downloaded 17 July 2006.
  57. ^ R.M. Hartwell, The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850, Economic History Review, 1963, page 398 ISBN 0-631-18071-0
  58. ^ "The UK population: past, present and future" (PDF). Statistics.gov.uk
  59. ^ "A portrait of Britain in 2031". The Independent. October 24, 2007.
  60. ^ BBC - History - Victorian Medicine - From Fluke to Theory. Published: 2002-02-01.
  61. ^ "Modernization - Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  62. ^ "Human Population: Urbanization". Population Reference Bureau.
  63. ^ "Human Population: Population Growth: Question and Answer". Population Reference Bureau.
  64. ^ Manchester (England, United Kingdom). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  65. ^ "Diseases in industrial cities in the Industrial Revolution". Historylearningsite.co.uk.
  66. ^ "Tuberculosis in Europe and North America, 1800–1922". The Harvard University Library, Open Collections Program: Contagion.
  67. ^ Chris Evans, Göran Rydén, The Industrial Revolution in Iron; The impact of British Coal Technology in Ninenteenth-Century Europe Published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Farnham2005, pp. 37-38 ISBN 075463390X.
  68. ^ a word from Walloon origin
  69. ^ Muriel Beven and Isabelle Devos, 'Breaking stereotypes', in M.Beyen and I.Devos (editors), 'Recent work in Belgian Historical Demography', in Revue belge d'histoire contemporaine, XXXI, 2001, 3-4, pages 347-359 [1]
  70. ^ Philippe Raxhon, Le siècle des forges ou la Wallonie dans le creuset belge (1794-1914), in B.Demoulin and JL Kupper (editors), Histoire de la Wallonie, Privat, Toulouse, 2004, pages 233-276, p. 246 ISBN 2-7089-4779-6
  71. ^ [European Route of Industrial Heritage http://en.erih.net/index.php?pageId=114]
  72. ^ Michel De Coster, Les enjeux des conflits linguistiques, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2007, ISBN 978-2-296-0339-8 , pages 122-123
  73. ^ Muriel Beven and Isabelle Devos, Breaking stereotypes, art. cit., pages 315-316
  74. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008
  75. ^ Jean Marczewski, « Y a-t-il eu un "take-off" en France ? », 1961, dans les Cahiers de l'ISEA
  76. ^ "Made In Beverly-A History of Beverly Industry", by Daniel J. Hoisington. A publication of the Beverly Historic District Commission. 1989.
  77. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1998): Samuel Slater
  78. ^ Marshall McLuhan (1964) Understanding Media, p.13 [2]
  79. ^ Karl Marx: Communist as Religious EschatologistPDF (3.68 MB)

External links


Simple English

File:Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg d. J.
Coalbrookdale is a town in England where new ideas for industry were first tried out. Here it is seen at night in 1801. The fires are from the large scale making of iron.

The Industrial Revolution is the name historians have given to the period in history when there was a large and rapid change in the way things were made. This meant that instead of things being hand made in small workshops, they were made more cheaply in large quantities by machines in factories .

Many people began to move from an agricultural based life in the country to the towns where the factories offered more and better paid work.

Contents

Beginnings

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. It spread to Europe and the Americas, especially the United States, by the early 19th century. As new inventions were being created, factories followed soon thereafter. England wanted to keep its industrialization a secret, so they prohibited anyone who had worked in a factory to leave the country. Meanwhile, Americans offered a significant reward to anyone who could build a cotton-spinning machine in the United States. Samuel Slater, who had been an apprentice in an English cotton factory, disguised himself and came to America. Once here, he reconstructed a cotton-spinning machine from memory. He then proceeded to build a factory of his own.

New ideas and inventions were also taken up and used in mining, the working of metals, and in the transportation of goods. Around the same time the Agricultural revolution was also using new ideas in farming which left some farm workers without jobs. They added to the move to the industrial towns where they sought out work in factories.

File:Grazebrook Beam
Early steam engines like this one from 1817 were used in mines to pump out water and pump in air. This allowed them to go deeper into the earth.

The most important new invention of the industrial revolution was the steam engine. The steam engine, invented by James Watt around 1776 was used to power the factories and pump out the deeper mines. It was also used in railway engines. The heat from burning coal became the main source of power.

Some historians see the period called the industrial revolution as finishing about 1820, but they agree this was only the start of change in the way we make things, which continues right up to the present time. Many refer to the period after 1820 as the "Second Industrial Revolution".

Historians still disagree on why the Industrial Revolution happened when it did, and why it happened in England first. It built on a new spirit of studying things through science. The 17th century was a period called the Enlightenment by historians during which people asked more questions about the way the world worked. England also was a politically stable country throughout the 1700s with no wars at home (although it had many abroad). England was also lucky that it had many of the raw materials needed to make and power the new machines close by within its borders. It also had an overseas empire that would buy the goods it made and provide it with a cheap source of other raw materials such as cotton and sugar. At the time of the industrial revolution slavery was practiced in many British Empire lands, this supplied a source for some of the money which could be spent on building the new industries. Also, England had much less land that could be farmed compared to other Europecontries

Problems

Living standards rose and people generally became richer and healthier and had more children who survived to be adults. This led a strong growth in the number of people in England. However, this in its turn caused new problems.[1] The environment was damaged.[1] The difference between the poor and the rich grew great.[1] Children and women had to work for a long time for little pay.[1] Often several families crowded into very small apartments. Working at different times, family members would take turns sleeping when they were not working.[2] Families were usually unable to get together. 12, 14, or even 18-hour workdays were common.[2] The Industrial Revolution brought problems of its own.

File:Edmund
Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom. the power loom was an important invention in the Industrial Revolution. It greatly sped up the weaving process.

Changes

Some of the things which happened during the industrial revolution were:

  • Canals were built that allowed heavy goods to be moved easily to where they were needed.
  • The steam engine became the main source of power. It replaced horses and human labour.
  • Cheap iron and steel became mass-produced. Steel replaced wood as material for building much of the new things.
  • Machine tools became commonplace. Things could now be mass-produced in factories instead of making them by hand.
  • Seed drills and other agricultural machinery meant that less people were needed to work in farming. Many people moved to towns and found new jobs in the factories.
  • Railways were built all around England and then the world. They carried people and goods faster.
  • Steamships began to replace sailing ships. They could be larger than sailing ships and not dependent of wind and weather.
  • The spinning machine and power loom made it easy to mass-produce clothes and fabrics.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Choi, Yong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Oong (November 1 2009). [www.chunjae.co.kr "2"]. In Choi, So-Ook (in Korean). 싱크로드 (Think Road). Lee, Geum Soo. 서울시 금천구 백년길 52: (주)천재교욱. pp. 55. ISBN 제 18-92호. www.chunjae.co.kr. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Koontz, Terri; Mark Sidwell, S.M.Bunker. World Studies. Greenville, South Carolina 29614: Bob Jones University Press. ISBN 1-59166-431-4. 
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

m krc:Индустриял революция

rue:Промыслова револуція


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Industrial Revolution, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message