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Infarction: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In medicine, an infarction is the process of tissue death (necrosis) caused by blockage of the tissue's blood supply. The supplying artery may be blocked by an obstruction (e.g. an embolus, thrombus, or atherosclerotic plaque), may be mechanically compressed (e.g. tumor, volvulus, or hernia), ruptured by trauma (e.g. atherosclerosis or vasculitides), or vasoconstricted (e.g. cocaine vasoconstriction leading to myocardial infarction).

Infarctions are commonly associated with hypertension or atherosclerosis. In atherosclerotic formations a plaque develops under a fibrous cap. When the fibrous cap is degraded by metalloproteinases released from macrophages or by intravascular shear force from blood flow subendothelial thrombogenic material (extracellular matrix) is exposed to circulating platelets and thrombus formation occurs on the vessel wall occluding blood flow. Occasionally, the plaque may rupture forming an embolus that travels with the blood flow downstream where the vessel narrows and eventually clogs the vessel lumen. Infarctions can also involve mechanical blockage of the blood supply, such as when part of the gut or testicles herniates or becomes involved in a volvulus.

Classification

Infarctions are divided into 2 types according to the amount of blood present:

Diseases

Diseases commonly associated with infarctions include:

References

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