Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter: Wikis

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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Theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter (or theory of infinite fractal distribution of matter; or theory infinite self-similar nesting of matter) — as opposed to atomism, alternative philosophical, physical and cosmological theory.

Contents

Basic elements of the theory

The discrete fractal paradigm focuses on nature’s fundamental organizational principles and symmetries. It emphasizes nature’s hierarchical organization of systems from the smallest observable subatomic particles to the largest observable superclusters of galaxies. The new fractal paradigm also highlights the fact that nature’s global hierarchy is highly stratified into discrete Scales, of which we can currently observe the Atomic, Stellar and Galactic Scales. A third important principle of the fractal paradigm is that the cosmological Scales are rigorously self-similar, such that for each class of objects or phenomena on a given Scale there is analogous class of objects or phenomenon every other cosmological Scale. The self-similar analogues from different Scales have rigorously analogous morphologies, kinematics and dynamics.

  • In the given theory there are no elementary particles of matter (such as preon, quark), the substance is infinite divisible, as opposed to the theory of atomism, which is finding the minimal units of the matter.
  • The Universe consists of infinite number enclosed fractal levels of the matter with characteristics similar each other.
  • Each level of the matter includes carriers with the certain spectrum of the sizes and mass. The matter is organized itself in stable conditions.
  • The course of time is much faster at a microlevel and more slowly at a macrolevel.
  • Each sort of "elementary" particles (electrons, nucleons, etc.) does not consist from strictly identical on mass and the size of particles.
  • The Universe eternal, thus carriers of the matter constantly are born and then are transformed to carriers of the same and-or other levels. That the theory falls outside the limits not only atomism, but also the Big Bang which limiting history of the Universe by the moment of its creation.
  • Space is 3-dimensional, its dimension is defined by the structure of the matter. Time in the given theory – independent coordinate from space, also is derivative of speed of movement of the matter.
  • Action of forces of gravitation and electromagnetism can be explained by modified Le Sage's theory of gravitation. Probably, electromagnetic field is a gravitational field of a underlying level of the matter.
  • There is a distinction between concepts "quantity of matter" and gravitational mass.

The historical information

That the matter shares indefinitely, approved still Aristotle, Descartes and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz[1] In each particle even if it was infinite small, "there are the cities occupied by people, the processed fields, and the sun, the moon and other stars as at us" – Greek philosopher Anaxagoras in his work in V a century B.C. approved shines. The supporter of the given theory was also known Russian poet Valery Bryusov [2]

"Perhaps, these electrons
Are the Worlds, where five continents,
Arts, knowledge, wars, thrones
And memory of forty centuries!
Still, perhaps, each atom –
the Universe, where hundred planets;
There – everything, that here, in volume compressed,
But also what here is not present."
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Quod est inferius est sicut quod est superius

Quod est inferius est sicut quod est superius

That is above, similarly to that is below. This principle uttered more two thousand years ago, has been accepted for an axiom by followers of hermetic religious philosophy. This current of times of late antiquity from which in Middle Ages the alchemical science and which was the forerunner of three movements which have partially lived up to now was born: movements of illuminatus, frank-macons, and movements rosenkreuzers. Many most outstanding scientists of Middle Ages and New time have been connected with any of these movements, mainly because these organizations stored at themselves the information inaccessible to other. Hermetists approved analogy between microcosm and macrocosm: in religious sense, this analogy was understood as conformity of the God and the person created on an image and similarity divine. However in a science the statement about general analogy can be understood much more widely.

The modern science all confirms the validity and fundamentality of the postulates stated in ancient philosophical texts is more often. In particular, the theory about similarity of the processes occurring on macro-and microlevels, is coordinated with Hermes's statement. Studying of thinking of uncommon people leads to the same conclusions. Such great researchers as Leonardo da Vinci, possessed ability simultaneously to perceive the whole and its parts; the principle of its researches consist in the analysis - division of the phenomena into probably small components – and their synthesis in new configurations. Da Vinci has developed the pyramidal scheme of mechanics according to which, natural forces – which he has named all “ four forces ” – movement, mass, force and collision – are located on system of the pyramid and occur one of another. This principle of the pyramid in which energy gathers and lost in a geometrical proportion, has made a basis of mechanics. " The uniform theory of field " of Albert Einstein has been directed on an establishment of conformity between principles of realization of all physical phenomena in the Universe – from space up to atom.

On the other hand, metaphoricalness – the feature inherent, in particular, in the statement of Hermes about general analogy, is the general feature of thinking of pathbreakers and authors of ancient texts. “ I wish to know ideas of the God, all rest – is details ”, Einstein wrote. The metaphor is an analogy. The central positions on which the science is based, at all aspiration to accuracy and unambiguity, also appear metaphoric.

On the basis of the axiom about similarity of all real communication between science, philosophy and religion is established.

Kant and Lambert

In a basis of cosmological representations of Immanuel Kant there was a recognition of existence of uncountable set of star systems which can be united in systems of higher order. At the same time each star with the planets and their satellites forms system of the subordinated order. The Universe, hence, not only is spatially infinite, but also structurally diverse, as its structure includes space systems of different orders and the sizes. Putting forward this position, Kant came nearer to idea about structural infinity of the Universe which has received fuller development in cosmological doctrine of the contemporary of Kant, German scientist Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777).

Infinite Universes and photometric paradox of Olbers

Within the limits of classical cosmology this paradox tried to resolve in model of the hierarchical structure of the Universe developed by Carl Ludwig Charlier on the basis of idea of Johann Heinrich Lambert. [3] In 1908 he has published the theory of a structure of the Universe according to which the Universe represents infinite set of systems of the escalating order of complexity entering each other. In this theory separate stars form a galaxy of the first order, set of galaxies of the first order forms a galaxy of the second order, etc. indefinitely. On the basis of such representation about a structure of Universe Charlier has come to conclusion, that in the infinite Universe the photometric paradox is eliminated, if distances between equal in rights systems are great enough in comparison with their sizes. It leads to continuous reduction of average density of space substance in process of transition to systems of higher order. For elimination of paradox it is required, that the density of substance fell more quickly, than in inverse proportion to a square of distance from the observer. Such dependence of density of substance in the Metagalaxy is not observed, therefore the modern explanation of paradox Olbers is based on other principles (for example, red shift is considered, theory of general relativity is used). However the idea about a complex structure of the Universe and an enclosure of systems of the different level remains and develops.

Fournier D'Albe

Irish scientist Edmund Edward Fournier D'Albe has made the assumption, that the scale of ranks reaches also into matters, by reduction. [4] At Fournier D'Albe a denominator of a progression, i. е. the attitude of the linear sizes of a star and atom or the sizes of a star of supraworld and stars of "our" world, being atom of supraworld, is expressed by number 1022. Such parity of spatial sizes Fournier D'Albe distributed for the time too. One second in our world in opinion Fournier D'Albe – is hundred billions years in a life of infraworld, and second in supraworld is equal hundreds billions our years. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was familiar with works of Fournier D'Albe.

Benoît Mandelbrot

Benoît Mandelbrot – the founder of the mathematical theory infinite hierarchical (recursive) self-similar sets, for the description of the given systems enters the new term – fractal. Cosmological and philosophical sights of Mandelbrot in historical prospect are well displayed in his not published note " Two heirs to the Great Chain of Being " [5] and in the book written together with Yurij Baryshev and Pekka Teerikorpi . [6]

Achieved results

The basic results in the theory of hierarchical nesting of matter have been received in last quarter XX century. It was promoted by the increasing results in research of Solar system and space owing to artificial satellites, modern means of supervision – infra-red and radio telescopes, and also ordering of knowledge in the field of elementary particles. The researchers specified further worked in the different countries practically independently from each other.

Robert L. Oldershaw

Robert L. Oldershaw [8], the independent researcher of college Amherst (Massachusetts, USA) in a number of works since 1978 developed model cosmological self-similarity (The Self-Similar Cosmological Model). He has allocated three basic levels of matter – nuclear, star and galactic levels; the last two levels are closer to each other than to the nuclear level. The matter is concentrated to the given levels basically in the form of nucleons and stars, and stars also in the majority are a part of galaxies. [7] [8] Oldershaw marks, that the overwhelming quantity of substance in space contains in the most easy elements – in hydrogen and in helium, and at the level of stars – in stars-dwarfs with mass 0.1 – 0.8 solar mass. Besides is available much another examples of similarity:

  • Rotation of carriers near each other under action of the force, decreasing in inverse proportion to a square of distance.
  • Often observable jets and emissions of a matter of the identical form in star and galactic systems.
  • The attitude of the sizes of the greatest atoms to the size of a nucleon of the same order, as the attitude of the size of greater star systems to the size of a neutron star.
  • Dependences between spin and mass, between the magnetic moment and spin have the identical form at nuclear and star systems.
  • Rydberg’s atoms show dependence between radiuses and the periods of fluctuations electrons, very similar to Kepler's law for planets.

Definition of factors of similarity on mass, on sizes and on time of processes between nuclear and star systems Oldershaw carries out through comparison of Solar system and Rydberg’s atom with number of orbit n = 168. Thus to hydrogen there correspond stars with mass of the order of 0.15 solar mass. As a result of such comparison begins possible to do exact enough predictions of mass and the sizes of stars, galaxies, the size of proton, the periods of rotation of galaxies, etc.

Sergey I. Sukhonos

Sergey I. Sukhonos [9] in a number of works [9] has shown existence of the separate material formations located on an axis of the sizes by 13 discrete groups through equal intervals in logarithmic scale. The greatest considered size belongs to the Metagalaxy, the least – to a hypothetical particle maximon, on twenty orders smaller then nucleon. Between them there are all known objects which properties periodically repeat with the attitude of the sizes nearby 1020. Sukhonos pays attention to the fractal phenomena in the nature, and also displays bimodality when objects show supplementary properties: spiral and elliptic galaxies; subdwarfs as primary stars of the Galaxy with deficiency of heavy elements, and usual stars of the main sequence; planets external and internal; processes of synthesis and division, monocentric and polycentric structures at different levels of matter. For an explanation of specified laws Sukhonos involves idea about the fourth, scale measurement and corresponding interaction, and also wave representations.

Yun Pyo Jung

Yun Pyo Jung [10] from Korea criticizes the theory of the Big Bang in connection with the logic contradiction – on greater scales the nearby space objects never will make more than one turn near each other because of constant expansion of the Universe, despite of gravitational communication between them. Proceeding from idea recursive cosmology, by comparison of the sizes of kernels of galaxies and nuclear kernels, galaxies and atoms, congestions of galaxies and molecules the factor of similarity in the sizes, with size approximately 1030 is defined. The same value is deduced for factor of similarity on time, connecting duration of the same processes in nuclear and galactic systems. [10]

Sergey G. Fedosin

Sergey G. Fedosin [11], [12], the physicist and the philosopher from Perm, Russia, mathematically has proved the basic features of the theory, having passed from qualitative conclusions to quantitative results in his monograph on the theory of similarity. [11] 18 levels of matter from preons up to metagalaxies have been divided into the basic and intermediate on the mass and the sizes. The level of elementary particles and the level of stars are carried to the basic levels in a considered range of levels of the matter. At these levels there are the steadiest and long-living carriers, that is nucleons and the neutron stars comprising a maximum quantity of compound particles and possessing in the maximal density of substance and energy. The substance of these carriers is degenerated, so their compound particles are in quantum conditions with almost identical energy and consequently the condition of such substance is described by laws of quantum mechanics.


The neutron star comprises order Φ = 1.68•1057 nucleons, and on the induction it is supposed, that as much quantum particles contains in a nucleon. Number Φ is factor of similarity on mass. The attitude of radius of a neutron star to radius of a proton gives factor of similarity on sizes Ρ = 2.26 •1019. Full energy of a neutron star without taking into account energy of rest is defined by expression Εs = ΜsC2, where C = 5.4•107 m/s – characteristic speed of particles of the neutron star, Μs – mass of the star. Similarly for a nucleon full energy Εn = Μnc2, where c = 3•108m/s – speed of light and characteristic speed of particles in the substance of nucleon, Μn – mass of a nucleon. The attitude of speed C to speed of light c gives factor of similarity on speeds S = 0.18. The factor of similarity on time is Π = P/S = 1.25 •1020. From here follows, that processes at the level of nucleon substances proceed in Π time more quickly, than at the level of neutron stars.


The theory of similarity predicts, that among stars the lightest are stars with mass of 0.056 solar mass. Solar system on the mass and number of planets similarly to atom of oxygen as the mass of the Sun exceeds mass of the most easy stars in the same way as the mass of atom of oxygen exceeds mass of atom of hydrogen. Our Galaxy Milky Way together with galaxies Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud form the congestion of galaxies similar on mass to a molecule of water H2O. Our Galaxy is considerably massive then Magellanic Clouds and plays the role of atom of oxygen (or may be fluorine). Around of the given congestion of three large galaxies rotates about 14 dwarfish galaxies which can be named galactic analogues of electron.


As on an axis of mass (and on an axis of the sizes) all natural bodies settle down discrete groups the attitude of mass between any next groups is the same number. Hence, growth of mass of objects occurs on a geometrical progression, the same is fair concerning the sizes of objects. It allows to compare with attitudes of similarity between various levels of a matter and by that in advance to predict still more about investigated badly objects. As consequence, is entered SPΦ-symmetry of similarity between the basic levels of matter. Some analogue of similar symmetry is CPT-symmetry known in the quantum field theory.

The detailed philosophical analysis of the theory of infinite enclosure of matter is carried out by Fedosin in 2003. [12] At each level of matter characteristic basic carriers and boundary points of the measure are allocated. Transitions from one level of matter to another are carried out under the law of transition of quantity in quality when the quantity of carriers in object exceeds the admissible borders of the measure typical for given object. Examples fractal structures at various spatial levels of matter are resulted. Owing to hierarchical structure of the Universe consisting of objects similar each other and particles of fields, repeatability of elements of the natural phenomena, unity and integrity of the Universe is carried out, symmetry of similarity is shown.

Leonard N. Plyashkevich, Mira L. Plyashkevich

Leonard N. Plyashkevich and Mira L. Plyashkevich in their work considered the basic postulates of a variant of cosmology, as an alternative hypothesis of the Big Bang. [13] Authors had been made attempt to reveal a uniform principle of micro and macrocosms. For achievement of this purpose methods of transformation of similarity and dimensions of physical sizes are used. The gravitational field is considered by way of Faraday - Maxwell field. Refusal of the hypothesis of the Big Bang and interpretation of red shift in spectra of far galaxies as Doppler effect, allows to develop hierarchical model of the Universe. The problem of coexistence of usual matter and antimatter is mentioned. The purpose of the work – to show, not plunging into chasms of metric theories, the right to existence and development of hierarchical model.

Boris M. Sirotenko (Boris Antsis)

Unified structure of Universe.[14] About similarity micro-and a macrocosm.[15]

Cosmology of Raël

File:Sensual Meditation Raelian.jpg
La méditation sensuelle (1980)[16], Cover of fifth book of Raël.

Raelian cosmology is based on similar cosmological sights at the structure of the Universe. w:Raelian_cosmology

Theory in pop culture

  • Template:YouTube. The episode the first time is shown 14.03.2004 (to the 125 anniversary from the date of Albert Einstein's birth).
  • The ending of film of Stephen Spielberg " War of the worlds " (War of the worlds, 2005) – http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0407304/
  • Song Moby – We are all made of stars, 2002
  • The Dark Tower – a series of novels of Stephen King
  • Final in film " People in black " (1997) / Men In Black – one of the best screen versions of given clause. (Template:YouTube)

See also

References

  1. G. W. Leibniz, De materia prima, 1670 [1].
  2. Valery Bryusov, «The World of electron», 1922, in Russian.
  3. Carl Ludwig Charlier. Hierarchy of Charlier.
  4. Edmund Edward Fournier D'Albe. Two new worlds. Infraworld and Supraworld, 1907
  5. Benoit Mandelbrot, "Two heirs to the Great Chain of Being", 1982 [2]
  6. Pekka Teerikorpi, Yurij Baryshev, "Discovery of Cosmic Fractals", 2002, ISBN 981-02-4872-5.
  7. Robert L. Oldershaw. “Self-Similar Cosmological Model: Introduction and Empirical Tests”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 28, No. 6, 669-694, 1989. [3]
  8. R. L. Oldershaw. Discrete Scale Relativity. Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 311, No. 4, pgs. 431-433, October 2007 [4]
  9. S. I. Sukhonos. (Structure of steady levels of the organization of material world), SPb.: Hydrometeoizdat, 1992., and also S. I. Sukhonos. (Scale harmony of the Universe), М.: Sofia, 2000, 312 pp, in Russian. ISBN 5-89117-096-5 .
  10. Yun Pyo Jung. «Infinite Universe In A Mote» (Fractal Cosmology), Sagyejul Publishing Co., 1994, 290 pp. [5]
  11. S.G. Fedosin, (Physics and Philosophy of Similarity from Preons to Metagalaxies), Style-Mg, Perm, 1999, 544 pp., in Russian, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1.
  12. S.G. Fedosin, (Fundamentals of Syncretics. Philosophy of Carriers), M.: Editorial URSS, 2003, 464 pp., in Russian, ISBN 5-354-00375-X.
  13. L. N. Plyashkevich, M.L. Plyashkevich. To the question on similarity of atomic and galactic structures of matter, in Russian.[6]
  14. Boris Antsis. Unified structure of Universe [7]
  15. Сиротенко, Б. М. About similarity micro-and macrocosm, Hydrometeoizdat, 1990, 42 pp., in Russian.
  16. Raël, La méditation sensuelle, 1980, ISBN 1-903571-07-3

Additional references


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