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An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation.
^ Inflammation produces redness on the skin.
  • Eczema: Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.eczemaguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The characteristic symptoms of inflammation are swelling, heat, redness of skin, pain, and loss of function.
  • Inflammatory Arthritis - Types, Causes and Symptoms 29 September 2009 17:25 UTC www.selfgrowth.com [Source type: General]
  • Inflammatory Arthritis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment | Herbal Remedies Supplements, Natural Cures & Home Remedies 29 September 2009 17:25 UTC www.blogs.ayurvediccure.com [Source type: General]

^ Inflammation is characterized by pain, redness and swelling.
  • Your Big New Threat: Inflammation | StopAgingNow.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.stopagingnow.com [Source type: General]

Black rings of necrotic tissue surround central areas of pus
.Inflammation (Latin, inflammare, to set on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.^ Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to the harmful stimuli.

^ Definition of Inflammation Inflammation is the response of vascular body tissue to injury or irritation.

^ Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio, a setting on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.
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[1] .Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue.^ Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue.
  • Inflammation (Inflammatory) @ Generic Viagra Pharmacy - Buy Viagra $1.27 / Pill - Cheap Viagra - No Prescription Required! 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC raypharma.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation stops when the injurious stimulus is removed.
  • Lecture Notes on Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC loki.stockton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a protective attempt by the body to remove the injurious substance and to initiate the healing process for the tissue.

.Inflammation is not a synonym for infection.^ Inflammation is not a synonym for infection.
  • BioPortfolio - Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.bioportfolio.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Inflammation, Inflammation - News - Evri 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Infection is not synonymous with inflammation.
  • First-Line Defenses Against Chronic Inflammation || Massage Therapy Articles 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.massagetherapy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted that inflammation is not the same as infection nor is it synonymous with infection.

.Even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection, the two are not synonymous: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen, while inflammation is one of the responses of the organism to the pathogen.^ Bacteria that can cause infection are called "pathogens."
  • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation is the body’s response to injury or infection.
  • Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Diet & Your Inflammation System 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.topendsports.com [Source type: General]
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^ Inflammation is not a synonym for infection.
  • BioPortfolio - Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.bioportfolio.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Inflammation, Inflammation - News - Evri 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: Academic]
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.In the absence of inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal and progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism.^ The destruction of tissue would continue threatening survival and continued life.

^ Without inflammation, infections would go unchecked and wounds would never heal.
  • Inflammation The Key to Healing 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC prolonews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wound healing and tissue repair.
  • Google Answers: EXPLAIN WHY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS NOT VERY CRUCIAL TO A VIRAL INFECTION. 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Inflammation-02 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, chronic inflammation can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.^ Chronic kidney disease or a vascular disease such as atherosclerosis.
  • Inflammation BS 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC nprine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rheumatoid arthritis, as an example, is caused by severe chronic inflammation.

^ Inflammation which runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as asthma, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • GNI|Therapeutic Areas|Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.gnipharma.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closely regulated by the body.^ Because of these dangers, the human body closely regulates inflammation.

^ It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closely regulated by the body.
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^ Inflammation is the body's normal defense reaction...
  • inflammation Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic.^ Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic.
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^ Inflammation can be acute or chronic.
  • Inflammation reduction with diet, herbs and supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. causes and treatment for inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute and chronic inflammation.

.Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues.^ Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to the harmful stimuli.

^ The increased blood flow is also largely responsible for the telltale symptoms of inflammation.
  • MDA / Quest Vol 8 No 3 / Simply Stated... Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mda.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation is part of the body's immune system, which triggers a defense response to harmful stimuli.
  • Inflammation, Insulin Resistance and Pre-Diabetes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC pre-diabetes.insulitelabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue.^ The immune system and the inflammatory response .

^ The B cells are part of the memory of the immune system.
  • Google Answers: EXPLAIN WHY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS NOT VERY CRUCIAL TO A VIRAL INFECTION. 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation is an immune system response.

.Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.^ What types (2) of cells present antigen on their cell membranes?

^ Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.
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^ Inflammation is also involved in the normal healing process.
  • ~ Chronic Inflammation - The Culprit Behind Many Serious Disease Conditions 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lifeextensionvitamins.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Causes

Types

Comparison between acute and chronic inflammation:
Acute Chronic
Causative agent Pathogens, injured tissues Persistent acute inflammation due to non-degradable pathogens, persistent foreign bodies, or autoimmune reactions
Major cells involved Neutrophils, mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages) Mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells), fibroblasts
Primary mediators Vasoactive amines, eicosanoids IFN-γ and other cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes
Onset Immediate Delayed
Duration Few days Up to many months, or years
Outcomes Resolution, abscess formation, chronic inflammation Tissue destruction, fibrosis

Clinical signs

The classic signs and symptoms of acute inflammation:
English Latin
Redness Rubor*
Swelling Tumor/Turgor*
Heat Calor*
Pain Dolor*
Loss of function Functio laesa**
.All the above signs may be observed in specific instances, but no single sign must, as a matter of course, be present.^ Some women may have no symptoms at all.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Vaginitis/Vaginal Infection 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tips & Warnings Having chronic health problems, feeling feverish, fatigued, skin problems—all these are indications that systemic inflammation may be present.
  • How to Know if You Have Chronic Inflammation | eHow.com 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Each surgery is unique to the patient's specific symptoms and there is no procedure that "fits all."

[2]
.These are the original, so called, "cardinal signs" of inflammation.^ And while, yes, these outward signs indicate inflammation, this same action happens deep inside the body.
  • Natural Ways to Reduce Inflammation | StopAgingNow.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.stopagingnow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The familiar signs of normal inflammation — heat, pain, redness, and swelling — are the first signals that your immune system is being called into action.

^ Ways to Reduce Inflammation -- Without a Statin Drug Call Toll Free: 877-985-2695 SEARCH: Sign in .
  • 6 Ways to Reduce Inflammation -- Without a Statin Drug 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: General]

[2]*
.Functio laesa is a bit of an apocryphal notion, as it is not really unique to inflammation and is a characteristic of many disease states.^ We are learning that many of our disease states.
  • INFLAMMATORY DIET: Interested in Back exercise lower pain? Right place for it! Sucking the breasts! 29 September 2009 17:25 UTC lingva.250x.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first four characteristics have been known since ancient times and are attributed to Celsus; functio laesa was added to the definition of inflammation by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.
  • Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.fightaging.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dec-2009 - Low chronic inflammation is an underlying cause of many seemingly unrelated diseases as atherosclerosis, diabetes, digestive system diseases and obesity.

[3]**
Infected ingrown toenail showing the characteristic redness and swelling associated with acute inflammation
.Acute inflammation is a short-term process, usually appearing within a few minutes or hours and ceasing upon the removal of the injurious stimulus.^ Acute inflammation is characterized by the redness, heat, swelling, and pain that is the immune system’s normal response to infection or injury.
  • Is Inflammation the Root of All Disease? 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC wellnessletter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An inflammatory response that lasts only a few days is called acute inflammation, while a response of longer duration is referred to as chronic inflammation.
  • inflammation (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Serum copper as a marker of inflammation in prediction of short term outcome in high risk patients with chronic heart failure.
  • Antibody Review - Inflammatory (Inflammation) Markers 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antibodybeyond.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]. It is characterized by five cardinal signs:[5]
  • rubor (redness),
  • calor (increased heat),
  • tumor (swelling),
  • dolor (pain), and
  • functio laesa (loss of function).
.The first four (classical signs) were described by Celsus (ca 30 BC–38 AD), while loss of function was added later by Galen[6] even though the attribution is disputed and the origination of the fifth sign has also been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham[7] and Virchow.^ (A fifth sign, loss of function , is sometimes included in this list.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first four characteristics have been known since ancient times and are attributed to Celsus; functio laesa was added to the definition of inflammation by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.
  • Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.fightaging.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though this syndrome was described four decades ago ( 44.45 ), it remains highly controversial.
  • Neurogenic Inflammation and Sensitivity to Environmental Chemicals 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.herc.org [Source type: Academic]

[4][5]
.Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site; swelling is caused by accumulation of fluid; pain is due to release of chemicals that stimulate nerve endings.^ Reaction of body tissue to infection or injury, with resulting pain, heat, swelling and redness.
  • inflammation Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling .

^ Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Loss of function has multiple causes.^ Swelling can also impede muscle and joint movement and cause loss of function.

^ In the brain, nitric oxide can hamper mental function and cause memory loss and brain aging.
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[5]
.These five signs appear when acute inflammation occurs on the body's surface, whereas acute inflammation of internal organs may not result in the full set.^ Inflammation produces pain, which is a sign the body's healing process is occurring.
  • Creating inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.getprolo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation can occur in different regions of the body.
  • Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ It may occur when your own body'...
  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Pain only happens where the appropriate sensory nerve endings exist in the inflamed area — e.g., acute inflammation of the lung (pneumonia) does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings.^ Lack of vitamin D causes pain and inflammation .
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^ Causes of Lung inflammation .
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^ Causes and Symptoms of Pneumonia Causes and Symptoms of Pneumonia Pneumonia is a serious disease that causes inflammation of the lungs....
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[5]

Process of acute inflammation

.The process of acute inflammation is initiated by cells already present in all tissues, mainly resident macrophages, dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kuppfer cells and mastocytes.^ Cholesterol is present in all the cell membranes.
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^ An equivalent cell type, called the macrophage , is a resident cell in connective tissue.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if removal of the initiating factor is not complete, inflammation can persist prompting the replacement of neutrophils by macrophages and T cells.
  • Inflammation - R&D Systems 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Inflammation - R&D Systems 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Academic]

.At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation.^ Inflammation is the body’s response to injury or infection.
  • Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Inflammation Review The inflammatory process is a response to tissue injury and/or the threat of infection.
  • First-Line Defenses Against Chronic Inflammation || Massage Therapy Articles 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.massagetherapy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation is the body's response to injury.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Chronic Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes the redness (rubor) and increased heat (calor).^ Redness is due to increased blood flow, as is heat.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This release of chemicals increases the blood flow to the area and may result in redness and warmth.
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^ Blood flow also increases during inflammation.
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.Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation (leakage) of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue (edema), which manifests itself as swelling (tumor).^ These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling .
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^ It can also lead to increased blood vessel disease.

^ These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, resulting in swelling.
  • Google Answers: EXPLAIN WHY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS NOT VERY CRUCIAL TO A VIRAL INFECTION. 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia, dolor).^ And there will be some pain (dolor).
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain and/or itching ( dolor ) is caused by direct action on nerve endings of the chemical agents released during inflammation.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another mediator released during inflammation, called bradykinin , causes a burning sensation.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mediator molecules also alter the blood vessels to permit the migration of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, outside of the blood vessels (extravasation) into the tissue.^ It is characterized by local and transient extravasation of soluble molecules and leukocytes from blood into non-lymphoid tissues.

^ Leukocytes can also circulate through the blood vessels.
  • Google Answers: EXPLAIN WHY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS NOT VERY CRUCIAL TO A VIRAL INFECTION. 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood fluids flow into the tissues.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The neutrophils migrate along a chemotactic gradient created by the local cells to reach the site of injury.^ Localized mast cells in affected tissues produce histamine, a chemical mediator that dilates blood vessels at the site of injury, producing redness and heat.
  • Critical Care: Applying Genomics to Inflammation Outcomes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC ehp.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The response consists of changes in blood flow , an increase in permeability of blood vessels , and the migration of fluid, proteins, and white blood cells ( leukocytes ) from the circulation to the site of tissue damage.
  • inflammation (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The presence of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils or eosinophils in the lung is associated with increased oxidant injury.
  • Pulmonary Immunobiology and Inflammation in Pulmonary Diseases: NHLBI Workshop 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The loss of function (functio laesa) is probably the result of a neurological reflex in response to pain.^ Redness Swollen joint that is warm to touch Joint pain Joint stiffness Loss of joint function Often, only a few of these symptoms are present.

^ A tissue's reaction to trauma often with pain, heat, redness, swelling, and or loss of function.
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^ The key features of inflammation--rubor, calor, dolor, tumor, and functio laesa (redness, heat, pain, swelling, and loss of function)--have been noted since the earliest days of medicine.
  • First-Line Defenses Against Chronic Inflammation || Massage Therapy Articles 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.massagetherapy.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to cell-derived mediators, several acellular biochemical cascade systems consisting of preformed plasma proteins act in parallel to initiate and propagate the inflammatory response.^ The immune system and the inflammatory response .

^ A compensatory anti-inflammatory response occurs in parallel with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
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^ Keywords: systemic inflammatory response .
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.These include the complement system activated by bacteria, and the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems activated by necrosis, e.g.^ Alternatively, bacteria may activate the complement system.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include interleukin 1 (IL-1) , which has already been discussed in regard to its effects on endothelial cells, and a closely related protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) .
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These proteins include fibrinogen (needed for formation of blood clots), complement proteins, and proteinase inhibitors.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a burn or a trauma.[4]
.The acute inflammatory response requires constant stimulation to be sustained.^ The acute inflammatory response - Vascular changes .
  • inflammation (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Signs The acute inflammatory response .
  • inflammation (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An inflammatory response that lasts only a few days is called acute inflammation, while a response of longer duration is referred to as chronic inflammation.
  • inflammation (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Inflammatory mediators have short half lives and are quickly degraded in the tissue.^ Chronic inflammation is characterized by (1) infiltration by mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells), (2) tissue injury, mediated largely by inflammatory cells, and (3) repair by granulation tissue, leading to scarring.

^ Short-lived hormones inside our cells called eicosanoids act as pro- or anti-inflammatory compounds depending on their type.

^ The reason I make this point is because resident tissue macrophages are an important source of inflammatory mediators, particularly interleukin-1 (see below).
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hence, inflammation ceases once the stimulus has been removed.[4]

Exudative component

.The exudative component involves the movement of plasma fluid, containing important proteins such as fibrin and immunoglobulins (antibodies), into inflamed tissue.^ What steps are involved in the exit of neutrophils from the blood into inflamed tissues?

^ Transudate: Transudates are collections of fluid in the tissues that contain relatively little protein.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood fluids flow into the tissues.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This movement is achieved via the chemically induced dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels, which results in a net loss of blood plasma.^ It can also lead to increased blood vessel disease.

^ ICAM, selectin) on the interior of the blood vessels that increase permeability of cells.
  • Google Answers: EXPLAIN WHY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS NOT VERY CRUCIAL TO A VIRAL INFECTION. 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of this increased permeability: .
  • The Innate Immune System: Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Academic]

The increased collection of fluid into the tissue causes it to swell (edema)

Vascular changes

.Acute inflammation is characterised by marked vascular changes, including vasodilation, increased permeability, and the slowing of blood flow, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators.^ III. INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY In general, blood vessels get leaky in areas of inflammation.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a manifestation of increased vascular permeability.

^ Increased vascular permeability .
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vasodilation occurs first at the arteriole level, progressing to the capillary level, and brings about a net increase in the amount of blood present, causing the redness and heat of inflammation.^ Redness is due to increased blood flow, as is heat.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urethra inflammation Urethra inflammation Notes About Causes .
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^ Blood flow also increases during inflammation.
  • http://www.jigsawhealth.com/articles/chronic_inflammation.html 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.jigsawhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased permeability of the vessels results in the movement of plasma into the tissues, with resultant stasis due to the increase in the concentration of the cells within blood - a condition characterised by enlarged vessels packed with cells.^ Mast cells: reside in the tissues near blood vessels.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can also lead to increased blood vessel disease.

^ This increases the space between the endothelial cells resulting in increased capillary permeability .
  • The Innate Immune System: Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Stasis allows leukocytes to marginate (move) along the endothelium, a process critical to their recruitment into the tissues.^ Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues.
  • BioPortfolio - Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.bioportfolio.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ There are three steps: (1) In the lumen: margination, rolling, and adhesion; (2) transmigration across the endothelium; and (3) migration in interstitial tissue toward a chemotactic stimulus.

^ The endothelial lining of capillaries ( endo = inside; the endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells which line blood vessels ) becomes more leaky, allowing more fluid (blood plasma) to exude into the connective tissue spaces.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Normal flowing blood prevents this, as the shearing force along the periphery of the vessels moves cells in the blood into the middle of the vessel.^ Normally, platelets flow along the body's blood vessels like bits of debris.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood fluids flow into the tissues.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood cells diffuse into capillaries and cause the blood vessels to dilate.

Plasma cascade systems

  • The complement system, when activated, results in the increased removal of pathogens via opsonisation and phagocytosis.
  • The kinin system generates proteins capable of sustaining vasodilation and other physical inflammatory effects.
  • The coagulation system or clotting cascade which forms a protective protein mesh over sites of injury.
  • The fibrinolysis system, which acts in opposition to the coagulation system, to counterbalance clotting and generate several other inflammatory mediators.

Plasma derived mediators

* non-exhaustive list
Name Produced by Description
Bradykinin Kinin system A vasoactive protein which is able to induce vasodilation, increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, and induce pain.
C3 Complement system Cleaves to produce C3a and C3b. .C3a stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation.^ Mast cells produce inflammatory histamines and leukotrienes.
  • BioInflammatory Plus | Support for Inflammatory Conditions | Injury and Inflammation | Biogenesis 29 September 2009 17:25 UTC www.qfac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids.
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  • Inflammation and Edema 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Research demonstrates that Flavay® inhibits the release and synthesis of histamine (which produces accelerated blood flow, dilates capillaries and increases their permeability, thereby leaking plasma into surrounding tissue), a key factor in the promotion of inflammation.
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.C3b is able to bind to bacterial cell walls and act as an opsonin, which marks the invader as a target for phagocytosis.^ Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to bacterial cells because it pokes holes in their cell walls, bursting the cells and killing them, but it also leaves you with depressed acne scars and holes in your complexion.
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^ Cathelicidins are  cleaved into two peptides that are directly toxic to microbes and can neutralize LPS from the gram-negative bacterial cell wall.
  • The Innate Immune System: Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IgG and complement components act as opsonins and are required for phagocytosis; their levels were normal as well.

C5a Complement system Stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation. It is also able to act as a chemoattractant to direct cells via chemotaxis to the site of inflammation.
Factor XII (Hageman Factor) Liver A protein which circulates inactively, until activated by collagen, platelets, or exposed basement membranes via conformational change. .When activated, it in turn is able to activate three plasma systems involved in inflammation: the kinin system, fibrinolysis system, and coagulation system.^ To reestablish balance, the pancreas lets out a gush of insulin, which in turn switches on the genes involved in inflammation.
  • http://www.angelhealingcenter.com/Anti-InflammatoryDiet.html 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.angelhealingcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psoriasis vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease involving cytokines and an activated cellular immune system.
  • Inflammation Connections | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the inflammation process fails to turn off, the immune system becomes compromised because it is simply overworked and overused.
  • http://www.jigsawhealth.com/articles/inflammation.html 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.jigsawhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Membrane attack complex Complement system A complex of the complement proteins C5b, C6, C7, C8, and multiple units of C9. .The combination and activation of this range of complement proteins forms the membrane attack complex, which is able to insert into bacterial cell walls and causes cell lysis with ensuing death.^ Because Herx is a result of cytokine release and apoptosis (death) of infected cells caused by innate immune activation, this does occur prior to treatment as the bacteria as part of their life cycle will manifest in more typical forms causing immune identification and response.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/4429.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free radicals are the pesky little devils that roam around your blood stream, getting into your tissues, causing damage to cell walls, certain cell structures, and genetic material within the cells.
  • how to reduce inflammation in the body with proper nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.wethechange.com [Source type: General]

^ When the infection is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, endotoxin released by the bacteria also activates immune cells.
  • Inflammation and Transition Cow Disorders - eXtension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.extension.org [Source type: Academic]

Plasmin Fibrinolysis system Able to break down fibrin clots, cleave complement protein C3, and activate Factor XII.
Thrombin Coagulation system Cleaves the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to produce insoluble .fibrin, which aggregates to form a blood clot.^ Here’s how: platelets, the tiny cell fragments involved in blood clotting, stick together (aggregate) when activated in an important step in the cardiovascular disease process.
  • Novel Method Combats Chronic Inflammation - Life Extension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cleanse the blood systemic enzymes also clean the blood of excess fibrin that causes the blood to thicken, which sets you up for clots, which can cause heart attack or stroke.
  • All-Natural Pain Relief and Anti-Inflammatory - Heal-n-Soothe™ 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.losethebackpain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may form clots within the tissues, leading to what is termed a fibrinous exudate.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thrombin can also bind to cells via the PAR1 receptor to trigger several other inflammatory responses, such as production of chemokines and nitric oxide.^ Glutamate acts on its receptor via a nitric oxide mechanism.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Substance P binds receptors on effector cells to trigger inflammation.
  • Neurogenic Inflammation and Sensitivity to Environmental Chemicals 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.herc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide, a substance also released from the endothelium that dilates the blood vessels (vasodilator), helps counterbalance endothelin production.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC health.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cellular component

.The cellular component involves leukocytes, which normally reside in blood and must move into the inflamed tissue via extravasation to aid in inflammation.^ What steps are involved in the exit of neutrophils from the blood into inflamed tissues?

^ Blood fluids flow into the tissues.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research demonstrates that Flavay® inhibits the release and synthesis of histamine (which produces accelerated blood flow, dilates capillaries and increases their permeability, thereby leaking plasma into surrounding tissue), a key factor in the promotion of inflammation.
  • Inflammation and Edema - Solutions and Information;Inflammation,edema,joint inflammation,muscle inflammation,inflammation of the heart,6 inflammation interleukin,arthritis inflammation rheumatoid,flavay,masquelier's and information on inflammation and ede 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.naturalessentials.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Patented for Inflammation & Swelling (Edema) 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthysource.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some act as phagocytes, ingesting bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris.^ Monocytes engulf cellular debris and mature into macrophages, which are larger leukocytes that consume entire bacteria.
  • Critical Care: Applying Genomics to Inflammation Outcomes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC ehp.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some cases are widely accepted to be due to bacteria or viruses.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/4429.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those produced during phagocytic cell attack on bacteria, viruses and parasites, especially with chronic infections.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others release enzymatic granules which damage pathogenic invaders.^ Also, platelets do not release their granules upon contact with normal endothelium, only damaged endothelium.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These triggers of acute inflammation are released by mast cells , sensitive cells which are scattered throughout ordinary connective tissues and which react to tissue damage or other disturbance.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mast cell degranulation The release from within the cell of granules, or small sacs, containing chemicals that can digest microorganisms and activate other cells to fight infection.
  • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

.Leukocytes also release inflammatory mediators which develop and maintain the inflammatory response.^ Basophils: Like mast cells, basophils contain storage granules full of inflammatory mediators that can be released when the cells are perturbed.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A SUMOylation-dependent pathway mediates transrepression of inflammatory response genes by PPAR-gamma.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory mediators contribute to neoplasia by inducing proneoplastic mutations, adaptive responses, resistance to apoptosis, and environmental changes such as stimulation of angiogenesis.
  • Chronic Inflammation 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally speaking, acute inflammation is mediated by granulocytes, while chronic inflammation is mediated by mononuclear cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes.^ Mixed acute and chronic inflammation Neutrophils and lymphocytes WebPath Photo .
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^ Presence of monocytes, plasma cells, and lymphocytes.

^ B and T lymphocytes: accumulate at sites of chronic inflammation.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Leukocyte extravasation

Neutrophils migrate from blood vessels to the inflamed tissue via chemotaxis, where they remove pathogens through phagocytosis and degranulation
.Various leukocytes are critically involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation.^ Classical inflammation involves the added presence of neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, mast cells, and various subtypes of T lymphocytes.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Atherosclerosis and inflammation share similar basic mechanisms involving the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium in their early phases.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The microscopic appearances of chronic inflammation vary considerably according to the site involved and the causative stimulus.
  • Chronic inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC implants.clic.net [Source type: Reference]

.These cells must be able to get to the site of injury from their usual location in the blood, therefore mechanisms exist to recruit and direct leukocytes to the appropriate place.^ These include blood cells and epithelial cells.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Localized mast cells in affected tissues produce histamine, a chemical mediator that dilates blood vessels at the site of injury, producing redness and heat.
  • Critical Care: Applying Genomics to Inflammation Outcomes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC ehp.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The masses of blood cells that gather at the injured or infected site produce factors to repair wounds, clot the blood, and fight any infective agents.
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The process of leukocyte movement from the blood to the tissues through the blood vessels is known as extravasation, and can be divided up into a number of broad steps:
.
  1. Leukocyte localisation and recruitment to the endothelium local to the site of inflammation – involving margination and adhesion to the endothelial cells: Recruitment of leukocytes is receptor-mediated.^ "Rabbit vascular endothelial adhesion molecules: ELAM-1 is most elevated in acute inflammation, whereas VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 predominate in chronic inflammation."
    • Inflammation References, Sulfur Mustard Library | UMDNJ-Rutgers University CounterACT Center of Excellence 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.counteract.rutgers.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Localized mast cells in affected tissues produce histamine, a chemical mediator that dilates blood vessels at the site of injury, producing redness and heat.
    • Critical Care: Applying Genomics to Inflammation Outcomes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC ehp.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Atherosclerosis and inflammation share similar basic mechanisms involving the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium in their early phases.
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The products of inflammation, such as histamine, promote the immediate expression of P-selectin on endothelial cell surfaces.^ We have recently shown that HO-1 modulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory genes, E-selectin (CD62E) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1/CD106).

    ^ The cell-surface expression of AM is followed by the release of soluble AM (3).
    • http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Nov2002/FullTextInflammationinMS.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mult-sclerosis.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ADHESION to the walls of vessels, especially venules, results when LEUKOCYTE ADHESION MOLECULES on the surface of the neutrophils interact with ENDOTHELIAL ADHESION MOLECULES on the endothelial cells.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This receptor binds weakly to carbohydrate ligands on leukocyte surfaces and causes them to "roll" along the endothelial surface as bonds are made and broken.^ These adhesion molecules are displayed on the surfaces of the stimulated endothelial cells, and they literally reach out and grab onto passing leukocytes in the blood.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Endothelial adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and chemoattractant molecules (designated CCX) bind integrins and chemokine receptors (CCR), respectively, on the monocyte surface to recruit them to the adipose tissues.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It binds to receptors for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
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    .Cytokines from injured cells induce the expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells, which functions similarly to P-selectin.^ We have recently shown that HO-1 modulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory genes, E-selectin (CD62E) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1/CD106).

    ^ Another well-known gene--tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- )--codes for a pro-inflammatory cytokine that normally regulates leukocyte and endothelial cell activity, in addition to other functions.
    • Critical Care: Applying Genomics to Inflammation Outcomes 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC ehp.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Inflammatory cytokines released by immune cells trigger the expression of brain cytokine by microglia.
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    .Cytokines also induce the expression of integrin ligands on endothelial cells, which further slow leukocytes down.^ Inflammatory cytokines released by immune cells trigger the expression of brain cytokine by microglia.
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    ^ Ulinastatin inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the production of IL-8 in vascular endothelial cells [ 50 ].
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    ^ Increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is observed in ciliated respiratory epithelium, Clara cells, and type II pneumocytes in pulmonary inflammation.
    • Pulmonary Immunobiology and Inflammation in Pulmonary Diseases: NHLBI Workshop 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .These weakly bound leukocytes are free to detach if not activated by chemokines produced in injured tissue.^ Arthritis is a general term for approximately 100 named diseases that produce either inflammation of connective tissues, particularly in joints, or noninflammatory degeneration of these tissues.
    • Herbal Medicine: Inflammation and Arthritis 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Proinflammatory cytokines and FFAs, produced either by hepatocytes in response to steatosis or by abdominal fat tissue, may activate Kupffer cells.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These cytokines and chemokines activate intracellular pathways that promote the development of insulin resistance and T2D. .
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Activation increases the affinity of bound integrin receptors for ligands on the endothelial cell surface, firmly binding the leukocytes to the endothelium.
  2. Migration across the endothelium, known as transmigration, via the process of diapedesis: Chemokine gradients stimulate the adhered leukocytes to move between endothelial cells and pass the basement membrane into the tissues.
  3. Movement of leukocytes within the tissue via chemotaxis: Leukocytes reaching the tissue interstitium bind to extracellular matrix proteins via expressed integrins and CD44 to prevent their loss from the site.^ Next, the leukocytes squeeze through the junctional spaces between endothelial cells and cross the basement membrane that underlies the endothelium.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From here the leukocytes crawl between the endothelial cells and enter the inflamed connective tissue.
    • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DR3 is a protein on the surface of cells.

    Chemoattractants cause the leukocytes to move along a chemotactic gradient towards the source of inflammation.

Cell derived mediators

* non-exhaustive list
Name Type Source Description
Lysosome granules Enzymes Granulocytes These cells contain a large variety of enzymes which perform a number of functions. Granules can be classified as either .specific or azurophilic depending upon the contents, and are able to break down a number of substances, some of which may be plasma-derived proteins which allow these enzymes to act as inflammatory mediators.^ Protease breaks down protein.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various mediator proteins increase the numbers of some or all of these.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern foods have avoided these essential oils in favor of "designer" lipids like trans-fatty acids and research has found links suggesting trans-fats may break down the body's supply of essential fatty acids.
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Histamine Vasoactive amine Mast cells, basophils, platelets Stored in preformed granules, histamine is released in response to a number of stimuli. It causes arteriole dilation and increased venous permeability.
IFN-γ Cytokine T-cells, NK cells Antiviral, immunoregulatory, and anti-tumour properties. This interferon was originally called macrophage-activating factor, and is especially important in the maintenance of chronic inflammation.
IL-8 Chemokine Primarily macrophages Activation and chemoattraction of neutrophils, with a weak effect on monocytes and eosinophils.
Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid Leukocytes Able to mediate leukocyte adhesion and activation, allowing them to bind to the endothelium and migrate across it. In neutrophils, it is also a potent chemoattractant, and is able to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species and the release of lysosome enzymes by these cells.
Nitric oxide Soluble gas Macrophages, endothelial cells, some neurons Potent vasodilator, relaxes smooth muscle, reduces platelet aggregation, aids in leukocyte recruitment, direct antimicrobial activity in high concentrations.
Prostaglandins Eicosanoid Mast cells A group of lipids which can cause vasodilation, fever, and pain.
TNF-α and IL-1 Cytokines Primarily macrophages Both affect a wide variety of cells to induce many similar inflammatory reactions: fever, production of cytokines, endothelial gene regulation, chemotaxis, leukocyte adherence, activation of fibroblasts. .Responsible for the systemic effects of inflammation, such as loss of appetite and increased heart rate.^ However, prolonged inflammation caused by a self-destructive lifestyle is a harmful response that affects your musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal function, cardiovascular...
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  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ While many of these molecules promote local inflammation and increased blood flow, inflammatory cytokines play a key role in stimulating systemic inflammatory responses, including increased body temperature, increased heart rate, and decreased feed intake (Dantzer and Kelley, 2007).
  • Inflammation and Transition Cow Disorders - eXtension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.extension.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Obesity is prevalent among people with diabetes and involves an increased inflammatory burden, thus lending plausibility to the idea that inflammation is involved in sensitivity to the cardiovascular effects of particles.
  • Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility -- O’Neill et al. 64 (6): 373 -- Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC oem.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

Morphologic patterns

.Specific patterns of acute and chronic inflammation are seen during particular situations that arise in the body, such as when inflammation occurs on an epithelial surface, or pyogenic bacteria are involved.^ GRANULOMAS are seen in certain chronic inflammation situations.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic inflammation occurs if the acute inflammatory response is not able to eliminate whatever caused the injury in the first place.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can occur in one joint in the body or in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation attacks all joint s .
  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Granulomatous inflammation: Characterised by the formation of granulomas, they are the result of a limited but diverse number of diseases, which include among others tuberculosis, leprosy, and syphilis.
  • Fibrinous inflammation: Inflammation resulting in a large increase in vascular permeability allows fibrin to pass through the blood vessels.^ III. INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY In general, blood vessels get leaky in areas of inflammation.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a disease.
    • Chronic Inflammation 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diseases associated with inflammation include: .
    • Natural Remedies to Reduce Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If an appropriate procoagulative stimulus is present, such as cancer cells,[4] a fibrinous exudate is deposited.^ Perspectives on Disease Cell Injury and Death Accumulations and Deposits Inflammation Fluids Genes What is Cancer?
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is commonly seen in serous cavities, where the conversion of fibrinous exudate into a scar can occur between serous membranes, limiting their function.
  • Purulent inflammation: Inflammation resulting in large amount of pus, which consists of neutrophils, dead cells, and fluid.^ Inflammation occurs when fluid and cells accumulate in the damaged ar...
    • Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One of the most frequently occurring severe forms of acne, acne vulgaris, is a chronic disorder of pilosebaceous units primarily on the chest, Ad face, and back, resulting in the formation of large, pus filled lesions accompanied by inflammation of the surrounding tissue.
    • Method of relieving chronic inflammation by using 5-alkylsulfonylsalicylanilides - Patent 6117859 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Soluble IL-6R-mediated signaling is therefore an important intermediary in the resolution of inflammation and supports transition between the early predominantly neutrophilic stage of an infection and the more sustained mononuclear cell influx.
    • Antibody Review - Inflammatory (Inflammation) Markers 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antibodybeyond.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Infection by pyogenic bacteria such as staphylococci is characteristic of this kind of inflammation.^ It isn't needed for daily maintenance; but, if you have a situation such as acute disk inflammation or infection, vitamin C will be usurped by the body almost as quickly as it is taken.
    • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Similarly unknown are the distinctions between populations, such as those of Asian descent who may exhibit the characteristics of adiposity-induced inflammation while relatively lean.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Inflammations may be caused by organisms such as bacteria or may be sterile as in immune disorders.
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    .Large, localised collections of pus enclosed by surrounding tissues are called abscesses.
  • Serous inflammation: Characterised by the copious effusion of non-viscous serous fluid, commonly produced by mesothelial cells of serous membranes, but may be derived from blood plasma.^ Samples of tissue or cells may be collected for examination under a microscope.
    • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The body fluid may be blood, plasma, or ultrafiltrate of plasma.
    • CA Patent 2488928 - METHOD OF MODULATING INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Research demonstrates that Flavay® inhibits the release and synthesis of histamine (which produces accelerated blood flow, dilates capillaries and increases their permeability, thereby leaking plasma into surrounding tissue), a key factor in the promotion of inflammation.
    • Inflammation and Edema - Solutions and Information;Inflammation,edema,joint inflammation,muscle inflammation,inflammation of the heart,6 inflammation interleukin,arthritis inflammation rheumatoid,flavay,masquelier's and information on inflammation and ede 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.naturalessentials.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Patented for Inflammation & Swelling (Edema) 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthysource.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Skin blisters exemplify this pattern of inflammation.
  • Ulcerative inflammation: Inflammation occurring near an epithelium can result in the necrotic loss of tissue from the surface, exposing lower layers.^ Note that any definition of an ulcer must exclude paper cuts (i.e., breaks in surfaces without necrosis) and unroofed friction blisters (i.e., loss of epithelium without loss of connective tissue.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Following removal of tissue the surface layer is reattached.
    • Laser Eye Surgery - PRK & LASIK Glossary & Definitions 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.prk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If this occurs, then the body’s immune system causes damage to its own tissues resulting in diseases known as autoimmune diseases .
    • Natural Remedies to Reduce Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The subsequent excavation in the epithelium is known as an ulcer.

Inflammatory disorders

.Abnormalities associated with inflammation comprise a large, officially unrelated group of disorders which underlie a vast variety of human diseases.^ The disease is associated with inflammation.
  • Inflammation Theory | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diseases associated with inflammation include: .
  • Natural Remedies to Reduce Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A human study of purified theaflavin extracts produced dramatic reduction in disease-causing mediators of inflammation, including levels of CRP. This effect has been directly associated with longevity.
  • Novel Method Combats Chronic Inflammation - Life Extension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.The immune system is often involved with inflammatory disorders, demonstrated in both allergic reactions and some myopathies, with many immune system disorders resulting in abnormal inflammation.^ In some conditions, the inflammation is an immune reaction.
  • Herbal Medicine: Inflammation and Arthritis 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are allergic to dairy, as many are, that allergic reaction feeds chronic inflammation.
  • Arizona Center for Advanced Medicine | Phoenix Homeopathic Medicine | Scottsdale Holistic Health 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.arizonaadvancedmedicine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypersensitivity Exaggerated reactions of the immune system.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.Non-immune diseases with etiological origins in inflammatory processes are thought to include cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischaemic heart disease.^ Inflammatory processes have also been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease.

^ Attenuated vaccine-- A vaccine in which live virus is weakened through chemical or physical processes in order to produce an immune response without causing the severe effects of the disease.
  • NIP: terms/glossary 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the early 1990s, experts believed that heart disease, specifically atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), resulted from sticky plaque glomming onto smooth artery walls.
  • Experience Life Magazine: Fighting Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.A large variety of proteins are involved in inflammation, and any one of them is open to a genetic mutation which impairs or otherwise dysregulates the normal function and expression of that protein.^ It binds up iron and makes it unavailable to bacteria, which need it for a variety of normal functions.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important that you know the functions of the principal cell types that are involved in inflammation: .
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of many ways the body turns off NF-kB is with a protein messenger known as “CARD8.” Normally, CARD8 is made when NF-kB is activated.
  • Inflammation Connections | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

Examples of disorders associated with inflammation include:

Allergies

.An allergic reaction, formally known as type 1 hypersensitivity, is the result of an inappropriate immune response triggering inflammation.^ In some conditions, the inflammation is an immune reaction.
  • Herbal Medicine: Inflammation and Arthritis 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This defense is known as the immune response.
  • NIP: terms/glossary 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypersensitivity Exaggerated reactions of the immune system.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.A common example is hay fever, which is caused by a hypersensitive response by skin mast cells to allergens.^ Sinomenine is a unique plant alkaloid, as it potently releases histamine in association with degranulation of mast cells in connective tissue, preferentially in the skin and joint capsules.
  • Herbal Medicine: Inflammation and Arthritis 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, thermal injury to the skin of animals produces an inflammatory response which is accompanied by erythema Erythema is part of the immediate response to injury which is followed by a delayed edematous response .
  • Method of inhibiting inflammatory response - Patent 4801612 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When it is released by injury--mechanical, thermal, bacterial, or chemical--bradykinin not only sets off part of the pain response, it also triggers mast cells to release their histamine.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pre-sensitised mast cells respond by degranulating, releasing vasoactive chemicals such as histamine.^ Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids.
  • Inflammation and Edema 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Patented for Inflammation & Swelling (Edema) 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthysource.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sinomenine is a unique plant alkaloid, as it potently releases histamine in association with degranulation of mast cells in connective tissue, preferentially in the skin and joint capsules.
  • Herbal Medicine: Inflammation and Arthritis 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These amines are released by trauma, cold, binding of antigen to the IgE on the mast cell surface, C3a and C5a, interleukin-1, and a host of histamine releasing factors from other white cells.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These chemicals propagate an excessive inflammatory response characterised by blood vessel dilation, production of pro-inflammatory molecules, cytokine release, and recruitment of leukocytes.^ Inflammatory cytokines attack erythropoietin production .
  • Inflammation (Chronic): Online Reference for Health Concerns 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The inflammatory response is often excessive.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Production of appropriate amounts of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 is beneficial in response to infection, but in inappropriate amounts or overproduction can be dangerous and these cytokines, especially TNF, are implicated in causing some of the pathological responses that occur in inflammatory conditions.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Severe inflammatory response may mature into a systemic response known as anaphylaxis.^ Keywords: systemic inflammatory response .
  • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Corticosteroid pretreatment may blunt the inflammatory response in humans by several distinct mechanisms.
  • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The marrow contains stored reserves of mature neutrophils, which can be released into the circulation in response to IL-1.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other hypersensitivity reactions (type 2 and type 3) are mediated by antibody reactions and induce inflammation by attracting leukocytes which damage surrounding tissue.^ Inflammation is the body’s natural method of repairing or replacing damaged or dead tissues.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that is used to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment of other types of B-cell tumors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They can do significant damage to tissues and set in motion harmful chain reactions.

[4]

Myopathies

.Inflammatory myopathies are caused by the immune system inappropriately attacking components of muscle, leading to signs of muscle inflammation.^ What causes inappropriate inflammation?
  • Vital Choices: Inflammation, Cardiovascular Disease, and Omega-3s 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.imakenews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurogenic inflammation leads to inflammation independent of the immune system.
  • Neurogenic Inflammation and Sensitivity to Environmental Chemicals 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.herc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, prolonged inflammation caused by a self-destructive lifestyle is a harmful response that affects your musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal function, cardiovascular...
  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.They may occur in conjunction with other immune disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, and include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis.^ The study of the body's immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It may occur when your own body'...
  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Other mishaps may occur.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Leukocyte defects

.Due to the central role of leukocytes in the development and propagation of inflammation, defects in leukocyte function often result in a decreased capacity for inflammatory defense with subsequent vulnerability to infection.^ Chronic inflammation in MS results from in-situ production of proretention and prosurvival factors that prevent the clearance of blood-borne inflammatory cells that have invaded the CNS ( figure 1 ).
  • http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Nov2002/FullTextInflammationinMS.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mult-sclerosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results provide additional evidence suggesting that the enhanced susceptibility of people with diabetes to air pollution may be partly due to inflammatory mechanisms.
  • Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility -- O’Neill et al. 64 (6): 373 -- Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC oem.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blepharitis – an inflammation of the eyelids, often as the result of poor hygiene, chronically dry eyes or oily skin.
  • Swollen Eyes & Eye Inflammation Symptoms - Home Remedies for Eye Allergies 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Dysfunctional leukocytes may be unable to correctly bind to blood vessels due to surface receptor mutations, digest bacteria (Chediak-Higashi syndrome), or produce microbicides (chronic granulomatous disease).^ May be chronic or acute (Ogilvie's syndrome).
  • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ADHESION to the walls of vessels, especially venules, results when LEUKOCYTE ADHESION MOLECULES on the surface of the neutrophils interact with ENDOTHELIAL ADHESION MOLECULES on the endothelial cells.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, patients with preexisting “chronic” disease conditions may also affect the outcomes of these disease processes by adhering to similar protocols.
  • Natural Approaches to Controlling Inflammatory Diseases - Natural Anti-Inflammation Supplements and Herbal Treatments 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, diseases affecting the bone marrow may result in abnormal or few leukocytes.^ In addition, patients with preexisting “chronic” disease conditions may also affect the outcomes of these disease processes by adhering to similar protocols.
  • Natural Approaches to Controlling Inflammatory Diseases - Natural Anti-Inflammation Supplements and Herbal Treatments 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It may also result from certain diseases such as AIDS or lymphoma or from anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These results provide additional evidence suggesting that the enhanced susceptibility of people with diabetes to air pollution may be partly due to inflammatory mechanisms.
  • Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility -- O’Neill et al. 64 (6): 373 -- Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC oem.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

Pharmacological

.Certain drugs or exogenic chemical compounds are known to affect inflammation.^ Enzymes are not anti-inflammatory drugs but rather reduce inflammation by neutralizing the bio-chemicals of inflammation to levels where the creation, repair and regeneration of injured tissues can take place.
  • All-Natural Pain Relief and Anti-Inflammatory - Heal-n-Soothe™ 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.losethebackpain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The method in accordance with the present invention for the relief of inflammation comprises contacting the affected area with the compounds of this invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier containing nonionic or ionic detergent.
  • Method of relieving chronic inflammation by using 5-alkylsulfonylsalicylanilides - Patent 6117859 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vitamin A deficiency causes an increase in inflammatory responses,[8] and anti-inflammatory drugs work specifically by inhibiting normal inflammatory components.^ HEIRS Nutrition, Vitamins and Supplements's tags for this article no-tag no-tag Abstract Inflammatory response plays an important role not only in the normal physiology but also in the pathology such as cancers.
  • Inflammation News - Topix 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Inflammation News - Topix 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ The “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” mediated by acetylcholine acts by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, probably by inhibiting NF-kB .
  • Inflammation Connections | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic inflammation occurs if the acute inflammatory response is not able to eliminate whatever caused the injury in the first place.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cancer

Inflammation orchestrates the microenvironment around tumours, contributing to proliferation, survival and migration. .Cancer cells use selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis.^ A drug that is used together with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Curcumin inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis through the tumor suppressor HLJ1.
  • Novel Method Combats Chronic Inflammation - Life Extension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This may stop the growth of cancer cells and blood vessels that have the receptors for PDGF. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9] .On the other hand, many cells of the immune system contribute to cancer immunology, suppressing cancer.^ The steroids are also suppressing your immune system, and are making it harder for the antibiotics to help kill off the bacteria that are causing the sarcoidosis.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/4429.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, these prostaglandins attract immune cells, which are the soldiers of the body’s defense system.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A drug that is used together with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Termination

.The inflammatory response must be actively terminated when no longer needed to prevent unnecessary "bystander" damage to tissues.^ Anything that damages tissues can initiate the reactions of the inflammatory response.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turmeric has demonstrated excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, especially curcumin , which is the active component of turmeric that is responsible for the yellow pigment.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any time there is cellular and/or tissue damage, you experience the inflammatory process.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Failure to do so results in chronic inflammation, cellular destruction, and attempts to heal the inflamed tissue.^ Chronic inflammation refers to a prolonged inflammation that is marked by simultaneous healing and destruction of the tissue .
  • Natural Remedies to Reduce Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation is actually a safeguarding attempt by the body to expel hazardous bacteria, virus or foreign substances and to trigger the healing cascade of events that eventually leads to the repair of cell lesions or damaged tissues.
  • Pimples Pop Up Solution 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC pimplespopup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic inflammation in MS results from in-situ production of proretention and prosurvival factors that prevent the clearance of blood-borne inflammatory cells that have invaded the CNS ( figure 1 ).
  • http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Nov2002/FullTextInflammationinMS.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mult-sclerosis.org [Source type: Academic]

.One intrinsic mechanism employed to terminate inflammation is the short half-life of inflammatory mediators in vivo.^ The journal's coverage includes acute and chronic inflammation; mediators of inflammation; mechanisms of tissue injury and cytotoxicity; pharmacology of inflammation; and clinical studies of inflammation and its modification.
  • Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.ovid.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACUTE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS You will find yourself overwhelmed if you try to learn all the effects of the chemical mediators of inflammation.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previously, we evaluated impaired vascular reactivity as one potential mechanism for increased sensitivity to particle-mediated health effects.
  • Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility -- O’Neill et al. 64 (6): 373 -- Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC oem.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.They have a limited time frame to affect their target before breaking down into non-functional components, therefore constant inflammatory stimulation is needed to propagate their effects.^ Without sufficient glutamine, the intestines atrophy and the immune function breaks down.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Break down scar tissue and fibrosis Fibrosis is scar tissue that builds up in our bodies and over time creates some much restriction and strain on our organs that they can no longer function.
  • All-Natural Pain Relief and Anti-Inflammatory - Heal-n-Soothe™ 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.losethebackpain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrolytes Chemicals that break down into ions (atoms) in the body's fluids and are essential to regulating many body functions.
  • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

Active mechanisms which serve to terminate inflammation include[4]:
.Acute inflammation normally resolves by mechanisms that have remained somewhat elusive.^ The journal's coverage includes acute and chronic inflammation; mediators of inflammation; mechanisms of tissue injury and cytotoxicity; pharmacology of inflammation; and clinical studies of inflammation and its modification.
  • Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.ovid.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE: Very confusing to students is sloppy use of the term "chronic inflammation" for scarring left over from acute inflammation that resolved long ago.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation is a protective response of vascularized tissue that functions as part of normal host surveillance mechanisms to destroy or quarantine both harmful agents and damaged tissue.
  • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.Emerging evidence now suggests that an active, coordinated program of resolution initiates in the first few hours after an inflammatory response begins.^ Chronic inflammation occurs if the acute inflammatory response is not able to eliminate whatever caused the injury in the first place.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been few studies investigating the effects of protease inhibitors on the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis.
  • Chen CC, et al. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis. JOP. J Pancreas (Online) 2007; 8(4 Suppl.):488-494. [Full text] 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.joplink.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Long familiar from immunology, it is now clear that they modulate the acute inflammatory response as well.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After entering tissues, granulocytes promote the switch of arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandins and leukotrienes to lipoxins, which initiate the termination sequence.^ In addition to their effects on prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, 3 fatty acids suppress the production on interleukin 1 (IL-1ß) by suppressing the IL-1ß mRNA, as well as the expression of Cox2 (cytooxygenase) mRNA that is induced by IL-1ß.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is caused by a number of mediators, including histamine and leukotrienes (which, like prostaglandins, are formed from arachidonic acid; see above).
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PROSTAGLANDINS: products of the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neutrophil recruitment thus ceases and programmed death by apoptosis is engaged.^ You are already aware that neutrophils are programmed to undergo apoptosis in 72 hours.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These events coincide with the biosynthesis, from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, of resolvins and protectins, which critically shorten the period of neutrophil infiltration by initiating apoptosis.^ Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The omega-3 fatty acid known as DHA ( docosahexaenoic acid ), richly present in fish oil, also appears to be important for protecting vision.
  • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even some organic fish or farm raised fish contain high levels of omega-6 fatty acids, which increase inflammation.
  • Joint Inflammation | Causes of Inflammation | Reducing Inflammation | Arthritis Today Magazine 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.arthritistoday.org [Source type: Original source]

.Consequently, apoptotic neutrophils undergo phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to neutrophil clearance and release of anti-inflammatory and reparative cytokines such as transforming growth factor-Β1. The anti-inflammatory program ends with the departure of macrophages through the lymphatics.^ IGF is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This implies that one of the mechanisms through which the alkylsulfonylsalicylanilides inhibited inflammation is via inhibition of the PMN pathway, preventing macrophage infiltration and release of autacoids such as histamine, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid and peroxides.
  • Method of relieving chronic inflammation by using 5-alkylsulfonylsalicylanilides - Patent 6117859 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PubMed ] 109 Khoury SJ, Hancock WW, Weiner HL. Oral tolerance to myelin basic protein and natural recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are associated with downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and differential upregulation of transforming growth factor b , interleukin 4, and prostaglandin E expression in the brain.
  • http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Nov2002/FullTextInflammationinMS.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mult-sclerosis.org [Source type: Academic]

[10]

—Charles Serhan

Systemic effects

.An infectious organism can escape the confines of the immediate tissue via the circulatory system or lymphatic system, where it may spread to other parts of the body.^ If the inflammation is severe enough, IL-1 and TNF will get into the bloodstream and travel to distant parts of the body to produce systemic symptoms.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this occurs, then the body’s immune system causes damage to its own tissues resulting in diseases known as autoimmune diseases .
  • Natural Remedies to Reduce Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation is part of the body's immune system, which triggers a defense response to harmful stimuli.

.If an organism is not contained by the actions of acute inflammation it may gain access to the lymphatic system via nearby lymph vessels.^ Call it what you will – BILE, chronic inflammation, systemic inflammation, sub-acute inflammation or silent inflammation.
  • Inflammation Theory | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, severe inflammation may also involve a number of systemic, or body-wide, changes.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research on C-reactive protein indicates that cholesterol-filled plaques in blood vessels may not pose any real danger unless they are affected by inflammation.

An infection of the lymph vessels is known as lymphangitis, and infection of a lymph node is known as lymphadenitis. .A pathogen can gain access to the bloodstream through lymphatic drainage into the circulatory system.^ If the inflammation is severe enough, IL-1 and TNF will get into the bloodstream and travel to distant parts of the body to produce systemic symptoms.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acidophilus , "friendly" bacteria , can be reintroduced into the body both systemically, through oral acidophilus, and locally, through the douche.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Vaginitis/Vaginal Infection 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When inflammation overwhelms the host, systemic inflammatory response syndrome is diagnosed.^ Keywords: systemic inflammatory response .
  • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, prolonged inflammation caused by a self-destructive lifestyle is a harmful response that affects your musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal function, cardiovascular...
  • Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ THE SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME ("total-body inflammation") represents toxicity from excessive production of the cytokines and/or other white-cell products.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When it is due to infection, the term sepsis is applied, with bacteremia being applied specifically for bacterial sepsis and viremia specifically to viral sepsis.^ Other Causes of Vaginitis Although most vaginal infections in women are due to bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis, it is clear that there are other possible causes.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Vaginitis/Vaginal Infection 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vasodilation and organ dysfunction are serious problems associated with widespread infection that may lead to septic shock and death.^ The extra iron is stored in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which may cause liver disease, heart problems, organ failure, and cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Adhesion molecule blockade may prevent neutrophil adherence during the first 24 h after CPB, thereby preventing the neutrophils from mediating widespread organ damage.
  • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While NSAID's may work for some, they often come with serious side effects, and are only a short-term solution to a potentially long-term problem.
  • All-Natural Pain Relief and Anti-Inflammatory - Heal-n-Soothe™ 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.losethebackpain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Acute-phase proteins

.Inflammation also induces high systemic levels of acute-phase proteins.^ C-reactive protein rose dramatically as expected in the placebo recipients—this protein is a sensitive marker of acute inflammation, and chronically elevated levels of CRP are known to be a risk factor for advanced atherosclerosis.
  • Novel Method Combats Chronic Inflammation - Life Extension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their levels can increase 100- to 1000-fold during an acute phase response.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The change in levels of plasma proteins is responsible for the INCREASED RED CELL SEDIMENTATION RATE, described by Hippocrates and still used to monitor the course of inflammation.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In acute inflammation, these proteins prove beneficial, however in chronic inflammation they can contribute to amyloidosis.^ Chronic inflammation contributes to coronary atherosclerosis .
  • Inflammation (Chronic): Online Reference for Health Concerns 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic inflammation occurs if the acute inflammatory response is not able to eliminate whatever caused the injury in the first place.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Eye inflammation.
  • Eye inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

[4] These proteins include C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and serum amyloid P, vasopressin, which cause a range of systemic effects including[4]:

Leukocyte numbers

Inflammation often affects the numbers of leukocytes present in the body:
.
  • Leukocytosis is often seen during inflammation induced by infection, where it results in a large increase in the amount of leukocytes in the blood, especially immature cells.^ LYSOSOMAL CONSTITUENTS: We have already seen that neutrophils release the contents of their granules during inflammation.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ADHESION to the walls of vessels, especially venules, results when LEUKOCYTE ADHESION MOLECULES on the surface of the neutrophils interact with ENDOTHELIAL ADHESION MOLECULES on the endothelial cells.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chronic inflammation in MS results from in-situ production of proretention and prosurvival factors that prevent the clearance of blood-borne inflammatory cells that have invaded the CNS ( figure 1 ).
    • http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Nov2002/FullTextInflammationinMS.html 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.mult-sclerosis.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Leukocyte numbers usually increase to between 15 000 and 20 000 cells per microliter, but extreme cases can see it approach 100 000 cells per microliter.^ It increases the number of blood cells made by the bone marrow.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Eosinophilic gastroenteritis A rare disease characterized by food-related reactions, infiltration of certain white blood cells (eosinophils) in the GI tract, and an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.
    • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The cell concentration for seeding was calculated by using the surface area, actual lumen volume of the RAD and the cell number per surface area of the cells in two dimensional culture.
    • Method of treating systemic inflammatory response syndrome - Patent 6653131 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    [4] .Bacterial infection usually results in an increase of neutrophils, creating neutrophilia, whereas diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and parasite infestation result in an increase in eosinophils, creating eosinophilia.^ The clot formed is usually bigger than it need be, and being such, the chances of it breaking loose increase.
    • Chronic Inflammation 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Normally, the vagina's mucosal lining provides immunological protection against such bacterial infiltration, but if this lining is deficient, an infection may develop.
    • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Vaginitis/Vaginal Infection 15 September 2009 6:50 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The inflammatory response increases the permeability of vessels in the area, and neutrophils are recruited to fight off potential infection.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • Leukopenia can be induced by certain infections and diseases, including viral infection, Rickettsia infection, some protozoa, tuberculosis, and some cancers.^ Pap smear, trichomonas vaginitis, showing neutrophils Viral infections, and certain unusual bacterial infections (typhoid, rickettsial disease) produce a NEUTROPENIA instead.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ RULES OF THUMB: In infections by the common bacteria (staphylococci , streptococci , gram-negative rods or cocci), the predominant cell in the inflammatory infiltrate is the NEUTROPHIL. In viral infections and autoimmune diseases, the predominant cell in the inflammatory infiltrate is the LYMPHOCYTE. There might be some neutrophils early-on in the process.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some children have a genetic disease called leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) , which results in severe, recurrent bacterial infections from the time of birth.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]

Systemic inflammation and obesity

.With the discovery of interleukins (IL), the concept of systemic inflammation developed.^ If the inflammation is severe enough, IL-1 and TNF will get into the bloodstream and travel to distant parts of the body to produce systemic symptoms.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1b) is a permissive factor for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (Abstract 118-OR).

^ And what if inflammation does develop – or never resolves – because a disease is slamming more NF-kB activators into our system?
  • Inflammation Theory | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the processes involved are identical to tissue inflammation, systemic inflammation is not confined to a particular tissue but involves the endothelium and other organ systems.^ Atherosclerosis and inflammation share similar basic mechanisms involving the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium in their early phases.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases -- Simopoulos 21 (6): 495 -- Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jacn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Theaflavins, like other nutrigenomically active molecules, exert their powerful effects by promoting activity of genes involved in controlling inflammation, and suppressing activity of genes involved in promoting inflammation.
  • Novel Method Combats Chronic Inflammation - Life Extension 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, severe inflammation may also involve a number of systemic, or body-wide, changes.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.High levels of several inflammation-related markers such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α are associated with obesity.^ High levels of nitric oxide have also been implicated in the inflammation that is associated with asthma.
  • Inflammation and Edema - Solutions and Information;Inflammation,edema,joint inflammation,muscle inflammation,inflammation of the heart,6 inflammation interleukin,arthritis inflammation rheumatoid,flavay,masquelier's and information on inflammation and ede 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.naturalessentials.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Inflammation and Edema 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Patented for Inflammation & Swelling (Edema) 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.healthysource.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum copper as a marker of inflammation in prediction of short term outcome in high risk patients with chronic heart failure.
  • Antibody Review - Inflammatory (Inflammation) Markers 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antibodybeyond.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the inflammation is severe enough, IL-1 and TNF will get into the bloodstream and travel to distant parts of the body to produce systemic symptoms.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12] .During clinical studies, inflammatory-related molecule levels were reduced and increased levels of anti-inflammatory molecules were seen within four weeks after patients began a very low calorie diet.^ In the first nutritional challenge, we assessed the changes in gene expression after a very low calorie diet (VLCD 800 kcal/day) of 28 days in obese women (28 day VLCD, subgroup 1).
  • Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects -- CLÉMENT et al. 18 (14): 1657 -- The FASEB Journal 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of arthritis, colitis, and other inflammatory disorders have all demonstrated elevated levels of nitric oxide synthesis.
  • Inflammation and Edema - Solutions and Information;Inflammation,edema,joint inflammation,muscle inflammation,inflammation of the heart,6 inflammation interleukin,arthritis inflammation rheumatoid,flavay,masquelier's and information on inflammation and ede 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.naturalessentials.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Licochalcone LR-15 from Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza inflate ) extract which clinicals in Japan have shown that at very low concentration reduces undesired p.
  • Pimples Pop Up Solution 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC pimplespopup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The association of systemic inflammation with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is the subject of intense research.^ Inflammation produces insulin resistance .
  • The Anti-Inflammation Diet: Anti-Inflammatory Foods to Eat & Avoid, Supplements to Take & How Much to Exercise 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.level1diet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are up-regulated in conditions with low level of systemic inflammation such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyloidosis, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance (36 , 38) .
  • Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects -- CLÉMENT et al. 18 (14): 1657 -- The FASEB Journal 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes , high blood pressure, hyperlipidemias, metabolic syndrome X, and Alzheimer ’s disease are characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation .
  • Inflammation Connections | Let's get better 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Outcomes

Scars present on the skin, evidence of fibrosis and healing of a wound
.The outcome in a particular circumstance will be determined by the tissue in which the injury has occurred and the injurious agent that is causing it.^ Chronic inflammation occurs if the acute inflammatory response is not able to eliminate whatever caused the injury in the first place.
  • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the body, Inflammation occurs to protect or repair tissue damaged by another cause, such as infections, injuries and wounds.
  • Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the effect of enzymes from the neutrophils that have responded to the virus having caused a bit of tissue injury.
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Here are the possible outcomes to inflammation:[4]
.
  1. Resolution
    The complete restoration of the inflamed tissue back to a normal status.^ Complete RESOLUTION, i.e., there has been no damage to the connective tissue framework or non-recoverable cells of any part of the body.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Each time you become inflamed, you struggle to get back to normal.
    • The Anti-Inflammation Diet: Anti-Inflammatory Foods to Eat & Avoid, Supplements to Take & How Much to Exercise 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.level1diet.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Inflammatory measures such as vasodilation, chemical production, and leukocyte infiltration cease, and damaged parenchymal cells regenerate.^ The production of dopamine is known to decrease with aging, perhaps due to the oxidative damage to cells that synthesize dopamine.
    • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ulinastatin inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the production of IL-8 in vascular endothelial cells [ 50 ].
    • Chen CC, et al. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis. JOP. J Pancreas (Online) 2007; 8(4 Suppl.):488-494. [Full text] 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.joplink.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Made in excess, these oxidants can harm and combine to form another toxic chemical that produces further damage in DNA and brain cells.
    • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In situations where limited or short lived inflammation has occurred this is usually the outcome.
  2. Fibrosis
    Large amounts of tissue destruction, or damage in tissues unable to regenerate, can not be regenerated completely by the body.^ Serum copper as a marker of inflammation in prediction of short term outcome in high risk patients with chronic heart failure.
    • Antibody Review - Inflammatory (Inflammation) Markers 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.antibodybeyond.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Inflammation is actually a safeguarding attempt by the body to expel hazardous bacteria, virus or foreign substances and to trigger the healing cascade of events that eventually leads to the repair of cell lesions or damaged tissues.
    • Pimples Pop Up Solution 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC pimplespopup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This can occur in one joint in the body or in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation attacks all joint s .
    • Joint Inflammation | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    .Fibrous scarring occurs in these areas of damage, forming a scar composed primarily of collagen.^ Made in excess, these oxidants can harm and combine to form another toxic chemical that produces further damage in DNA and brain cells.
    • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Higher levels of ascorbates and glutathione mean better recycling of other antioxidant compounds, including, estrogens, to their reduced (antioxidant) form so that these substances do not produce damage.
    • Inflammation, Damage & Repair 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ V. SUMMARY OF THE LOCAL CHANGES IN INFLAMMATION These three changes that occur at an area of inflammation (hyperemia, increased vascular permeability, and diapedesis) account for the classic signs of an inflammatory response.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The scar will not contain any specialized structures, such as parenchymal cells, hence functional impairment may occur.
  3. Abscess Formation
    A cavity is formed containing pus, an opaque liquid containing dead white blood cells and bacteria with general debris from destroyed cells.
  4. Chronic inflammation
    In acute inflammation, if the injurious agent persists then chronic inflammation will ensue.^ May be chronic or acute (Ogilvie's syndrome).
    • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Give a complete account of white cell behavior in acute and chronic inflammation.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lymphocyte A type of white blood cell.
    • Glossary - iffgd.org 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.iffgd.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This process, marked by inflammation lasting many days, months or even years, may lead to the formation of a chronic wound.^ Research & News C-reactive Protein Table Chronic systemic inflammation is an underlying cause of many seemingly unrelated, age-related diseases.

    ^ Scientists have known about autoimmune diseases for years, but now a new theory paints an even broader picture of how chronic inflammation helps other killers gain footholds.
    • Experience Life Magazine: Fighting Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Squelching chronic inflammation with diet and exercise is in many ways a no-brainer.
    • Experience Life Magazine: Fighting Inflammation 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Chronic inflammation is characterised by the dominating presence of macrophages in the injured tissue.^ The presence of macrophages in human adipose tissue was also shown by immunohistochemistry.
    • Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects -- CLÉMENT et al. 18 (14): 1657 -- The FASEB Journal 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Macrophages are long-lived cells that are important in the late stages of acute inflammation and in chronic inflammation.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During inflammation, macrophages in the tissues will be stimulated to produce IL-1.
    • SUNY Stony Brook Pathology Department HBP310 Inflammation 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.path.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These cells are powerful defensive agents of the body, but the toxins they release (including reactive oxygen species) are injurious to the organism's own tissues as well as invading agents.^ These include all glandular parenchymal cells, as well as fibroblasts, endothelial cells (cuboidal, and called "angioblasts", when they are healing), smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts.
    • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Evidence for a protective role against reactive oxygen species following cardiac surgery.
    • ISPUB - Pharmacologic Manipulation of Systemic Inflammatory Response after Cardiac Surgery - Printable Article 16 September 2009 23:53 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory response in adipocytes: the role of reactive oxygen species.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inflammation and insulin resistance 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    Consequently, chronic inflammation is almost always accompanied by tissue destruction.

Examples

.Inflammation is usually indicated by adding the suffix "-itis", as shown below.^ The suffix that indicates inflammation is "-itis" (the plural is "-itides".
  • INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some conditions such as asthma and pneumonia do not follow this convention.^ Even the well-knowns conditions such as asthma or lung cancer often fail to be diagnosed early.
  • Lung inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the chronic lung diseases with diagnostic difficulties include asthma (perhaps surprisingly), COPD , emphysema , chronic bronchitis , cystic fibrosis , mesothelioma , smoker's cough , AIDS-related respiratory conditions (see AIDS ), chronic pneumonia , and other respiratory diseases .
  • Lung inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Eye inflammation.
  • Eye inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

.More examples are available at list of types of inflammation.^ Products, offers and promotion categories available related to Lung inflammation: Asthma Allergies Flu (influenza) more product offers...» Lung inflammation: Medical Mistakes .
  • Lung inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Goserelin Zoladex Depot Injection Leucoprorelin Lucrin Injection Lucrin Depot Injection Nafarelin more causes...» See full list of 15 medications causing Lung inflammation .
  • Lung inflammation - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 2:40 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ferrero-Miliani L, Nielsen OH, Andersen PS, Girardin SE (February 2007). "Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 147 (2): 227–35. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03261.x. PMID 17223962. 
  2. ^ a b Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Twenty-fifth Edition, Williams & Wilkins, 1990.
  3. ^ Disturbance of function (functio laesa): the legendary fifth cardinal sign of inflammation, added by Galen to the four cardinal signs of Celsus. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1971 March; 47(3): 303–322
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Cotran; Kumar, Collins (1998). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7335-X. 
  5. ^ a b c d Parakrama Chandrasoma, Clive R. Taylor (ca. 2005). "Part A. General Pathology, Section II. The Host Response to Injury, Chapter 3. The Acute Inflammatory Response, sub-section Cardinal Clinical Signs". Concise Pathology (3rd edition (Computer file) ed.). New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0838514995. OCLC 150148447. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=183351. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  6. ^ Porth, Carol (2007). Essentials of pahtophysiology: concepts of altered health states. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 270. ISBN 0-7817-7087-4. 
  7. ^ Dormandy, Thomas (2006). The worst of evils: man's fight against pain. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. pp. 22. ISBN 0-300-11322-6. 
  8. ^ Wiedermann U, et al. (1996). "Vitamin A deficiency increases inflammatory responses.". Scand J Immunol. 44 (6): 578–84. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3083.1996.d01-351.x. PMID 8972739. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&list_uids=8972739&cmd=Retrieve. 
  9. ^ Coussens LM, Werb Z (2002). "Inflammation and cancer". Nature 420 (6917): 860–7. doi:10.1038/nature01322. PMID 12490959. 
  10. ^ Serhan CN, Savill J (2005). "Resolution of inflammation: the beginning programs the end". Nat. Immunol. 6 (12): 1191–7. doi:10.1038/ni1276. PMID 16369558. http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/v6/n12/abs/ni1276.html. 
  11. ^ Bastard J et al. (2000). "Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 (9): 3338–42. doi:10.1210/jc.85.9.3338. PMID 10999830. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/85/9/3338?ijkey=c94031a625120a7e59ea52e88137260e974cee3a. 
  12. ^ Mohamed-Ali V et al. (2001). "beta-Adrenergic regulation of IL-6 release from adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 (12): 5864–9. doi:10.1210/jc.86.12.5864. PMID 11739453. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/86/12/5864?ijkey=838bb038c4e311324ab354c88ea16afe51d6e823. 
  13. ^ Clément K et al. (2004). "Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects". Faseb J 18 (14): 1657–69. doi:10.1096/fj.04-2204com. PMID 15522911. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/18/14/1657. 
  14. ^ M Stitzinger (2007). "Lipids, inflammation and atherosclerosis" (pdf). The digital repository of Leiden University. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/dspace/bitstream/1887/9729/11/01.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 

External links


Simple English

Inflammation is the first reaction of the immune system to an infection or irritation. First the organ involved gets red, then it will get hot, then it will swell, and then it will hurt. Finally it will stop working. The first four of these reactions have been known for a long time, since Antiquity. Finding them is attributed to Celsus. The last one was added by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.

Inflammation can also be present/responsible for skin disorders such as psoriasis/dandruff, joint pains, arthritis etc. It is possible to reduce inflammation by eliminating 'nightshades' from the diet (tomato, potato, pepper etc.)



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Inflammation, which are similar to those in the above article.








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