Information systems: Wikis

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CS, SE, IS, IT, & Customer Venn Diagram where functionality spans left and design spans right stemming from discovery.

Information Systems (or IS) is historically defined as a 'bridge' anchored between the business world and computer science, but this discipline is slowly evolving towards a well-defined science.[1] Typically, Information Systems (or IS) include people, procedures, data, software, and hardware (by degree) that are used to gather and analyze information.[2][3] Specifically computer-based information systems are complementary networks of hardware/software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, & distribute data.[4] Today, Computer Information System(s) or CIS is often a track within the computer science field pursuing the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software & hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society.[5] Overall, an IS discipline emphasizes functionality over design.

In a broad sense, the term Information Systems refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries. An information system is not only the technology an organization uses, but also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes components.

Contents

Overview

An Information System consists of four parts which include: procedures, software, hardware, and information or data, which are essentially the same. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives.[6] Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO).The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who focuses on information security within an organization, normally reports to the CIO.

In this regard, information system professionals and their associates have strong analytical and critical thinking skills to implement large-scale business models within any organization. Although solving problems within an organization is a common practice, IS professionals have the ability to automate these solutions via programmable technologies without violating ethical principles. As an end-result, IS professionals must have a broad business and real world perspective to implement technology solutions that enhance organizational performance.[7]

In computer security, an information system is described by the following components [8]:

  • Repositories, which hold data permanently or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc. Often data stored in repositories is managed through a database management system.
  • Interfaces, which support the interaction between humans and computers, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc.
  • Channels, which connect repositories, such as routers, cables, etc..

Types of information systems

The 'classic' view of Information systems found in the textbooks[9] of the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually Transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by Management information systems, Decision support systems and ending with Executive information systems at the top.

However, as new information technologies have been developed, new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model. Some examples of such systems are:

Information systems career pathways

Information Systems have a number of different areas of work:

  • Information systems strategy
  • Information systems management
  • Information systems development
  • Information systems security
  • Information systems iteration

There are a wide variety of career paths in the information systems discipline. "Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communications skills will have the best prospects. Workers with management skills and an understanding of business practices and principles will have excellent opportunities, as companies are increasingly looking to technology to drive their revenue." [10]

Information systems development

Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence information technology development, use, and application in the organizations, which may be a business or corporation. A series of methodologies and processes can be used in order to develop and use an information system. Many developers have turned and used a more engineering approach such as the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) which is a systematic procedure of developing an information system through stages that occur in sequence. An Information system can be developed in house (within the organization) or outsourced. This can be accomplished by outsourcing certain components or the entire system.[11]. A specific case is the geographical distribution of the development team (Offshoring, Global Information System).

A computer based information system, following a definition of Langefors[12], is:

  • a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
  • as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

which can be formulated as a generalized information systems design mathematical program

Geographic Information Systems, Land Information systems and Disaster Information Systems are also some of the emerging information systems but they can be broadly considered as Spatial Information Systems. System development is done in stages which include:

  • Problem recognition and specification
  • Information gathering
  • Requirements specification for the new system
  • System design
  • System construction
  • System implementation
  • Review and maintenance

[13]

Information systems development methodology

Information systems development methodology or ISDM is a tool kit of ideas, approaches, techniques and tools which system analysts use to help them translate organisational needs into appropriate Information Systems;

An ISDM is:-

'....recommended collection of philosophies, phases, procedures, rules, techniques, tools, documentation, management, and training for developers of Information Systems”. (Avison and Fitzgerald, 1988)

Information systems research

Information systems research is generally concerned with the study of the effects of information systems on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations.[14][15] Notable publication outlets for information systems research are the journals Management Information Systems Quarterly, Information Systems Research, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, and Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

Since information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems research to generate findings that are immediately applicable in practice. However, that is not always the case. Often information systems researchers explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioners would expect them to do. This may render information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism.[16]

To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ken Hoganson, "Alternative Curriculum Models for Integrating Computer Science and Information Systems Analysis, Recommendations, Pitfalls, Opportunities, Accreditations and Trends*," (Consortium for Computing in Small Colleges, 2001) Abstract & p. 12
  2. ^ Pearson Custom Publishing & West Chester University, Custom Program for Computer Information Systems (CSC 110), (Pearson Custom Publishing, 2009) Glossary p. 694
  3. ^ Phillip Paul Fuchs, "Computers and Information Systems", author http://cis.tchs.info/cis_faqs.php
  4. ^ Pearson Education, Inc Publishing, Information systems today, (Pearson Publishing, 2008) pages ??? & Glossary p. 416
  5. ^ CSTA Committee, Allen Tucker, et alia, A Model Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science (Final Report), (Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., 2006) Abstraction & p. 2
  6. ^ Rockart et al. (1996) Eight imperatives for the new IT organization Sloan Management review.
  7. ^ ACM, AIS, AITP, John T. Gorgone, et alii "Model Curriculum and Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Systems", Association for Information Systems, 2002. Abstraction pages 6 & 7
  8. ^ Trcek, D., Trobec, R., Pavesic, N., & Tasic, J.F. (2007). Information systems security and human behaviour. Behaviour & Information Technology, 26(2), 113-118.
  9. ^ Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P. Management Information Systems, (2nd edition), Macmillan, 1988.
  10. ^ Sloan Career Cornerstone Center (2008). Information Systems. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Accessdate June 2, 2008.
  11. ^ Using MIS. Kroenke. 2009. ISBN 0-13-713029-5. 
  12. ^ Börje Langefors (1973). Theoretical Analysis of Information Systems. Auerbach. ISBN 0-87769-151-7. 
  13. ^ Computer Studies. Frederick Nyawaya. 2008. ISBN 9966-781-24-2. 
  14. ^ Galliers, R.D., Markus, M.L., & Newell, S. (Eds) (2006). Exploring Information Systems Research Approaches. New York, NY: Routledge.
  15. ^ Ciborra, C. (2002). The Labyrinths of Information: Challenging the Wisdom of Systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
  16. ^ Kock, N., Gray, P., Hoving, R., Klein, H., Myers, M., & Rockart, J. (2002). Information Systems Research Relevance Revisited: Subtle Accomplishment, Unfulfilled Promise, or Serial Hypocrisy? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 8(23), 330-346.

Further reading

External links

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In a general sense, the term Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization's manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization. Computer-based information systems are in the field of information technology. The discipline of business process modelling describes the business processes supported by information systems.

Contents

Overview

There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives.[1] Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO).The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who focuses on information security within an organization, normally reports to the CIO.

In computer security, an information system is described by the following components [2]:

  • Repositories, which hold data permanently or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc. Often data stored in repositories is managed through a database management system.
  • Interfaces, which support the interaction between humans and computers, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc.
  • Channels, which connect repositories, such as routers, cables, etc.

Types of information systems

As new information technologies are developed, new categories emerge that can be used to classify information systems. Some examples are:

Information systems development

Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence information technology development, use, and application in the organizations, which may be a business or corporation. A serous of methodologies and processes can be used in order to develop and use an information system. Many developers have turned and used a more engineering approach such as the System Development Life cycle (SDLC) which is a systematic procedure of developing an information system through stages that occur in sequence. An Information system can be developed in house( within the organization)or outsourced. This can be accomplished by outsourcing certain components or the entire system.[3]

A computer based information system, following a definition of Langefors[4], is:

  • a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
  • as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

which can be formulated as a generalized information systems design mathematical program

Information systems development methodology

Information systems development methodology or ISDM is a tool kit of ideas, approaches, techniques and tools which system analysts use to help them translate organisational needs into appropriate Information Systems;

An ISDM is:-

'....recommended collection of philosophies, phases, procedures, rules, techniques, tools, documentation, management, and training for developers of Information Systems”. (Avison and Fitzgerald, 1988)

Information systems research

Information systems research is generally concerned with the study of the effects of information systems on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations.[5][6] Notable publication outlets for information systems research are the journals Management Information Systems Quarterly, Information Systems Research, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, and Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

Since information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems research to generate findings that are immediately applicable in practice. However, that is not always the case. Often information systems researchers explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioners would expect them to do. This may render information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism.[7]

To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT.

References

  1. Rockart et al. (1996) Eight imperatives for the new IT organization Sloan Management review.
  2. Trcek, D., Trobec, R., Pavesic, N., & Tasic, J.F. (2007). Information systems security and human behaviour. Behaviour & Information Technology, 26(2), 113-118.
  3. |title=Using MIS|year=2009|publisher=Kroenke|isbn=0-13-713029-5}}
  4. Langefors, Börje (1973). Theoretical Analysis of Information Systems. Auerbach. ISBN 0-87769-151-7. 
  5. Galliers, R.D., Markus, M.L., & Newell, S. (Eds) (2006). Exploring Information Systems Research Approaches. New York, NY: Routledge.
  6. Ciborra, C. (2002). The Labyrinths of Information: Challenging the Wisdom of Systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
  7. Kock, N., Gray, P., Hoving, R., Klein, H., Myers, M., & Rockart, J. (2002). Information Systems Research Relevance Revisited: Subtle Accomplishment, Unfulfilled Promise, or Serial Hypocrisy? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 8(23), 330-346.

Further reading

External links

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