Inglewood, California: Wikis

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City of Inglewood

Seal
Motto: City of Champions
Location of Inglewood in Los Angeles County, California
Coordinates: 33°57′27″N 118°20′46″W / 33.9575°N 118.34611°W / 33.9575; -118.34611Coordinates: 33°57′27″N 118°20′46″W / 33.9575°N 118.34611°W / 33.9575; -118.34611
Country United States United States
State California California
County Los Angeles
Established 1888
Incorporated February 14, 1908[1]
Government
 - Type Council-Manager
 - Mayor Vacant
Area
 - Total 23.7 km2 (9.1 sq mi)
 - Land 23.7 km2 (9.1 sq mi)
 - Water 0.0 km2 (0.0 sq mi)  0.00%
Elevation 40 m (131 ft)
Population (2000)
 - Total 112,580
 Density 4,755.7/km2 (12,323.6/sq mi)
  U.S. Census, 2000
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 90301-90313, 90397-90398
Area code(s) Area code 310
FIPS code 06-36546
GNIS feature ID 1660799
Website cityofinglewood.org

Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California, southwest of downtown Los Angeles. It was incorporated on February 14, 1908.[1] In 2006, its population was estimated at 129,900.[2] The city is in the South Bay region of the greater Los Angeles area.[3]

Contents

History

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Pre-American era

The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood may have been indigenous people who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park (known for most of its history as Centinela Park). Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose gradually around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "(thus the name centinelas or sentinels)."[4]:unpaged [xiv]

Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa." These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders."[4]:unpaged [xiv]

Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela Adobe, 1889

Later Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site,[5] this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park. It no longer exists.

In 1834 Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe,[4]:unpaged [xv] which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. [1] Two years later, Waddingham writes, Ygnacio[6] was granted the 2,220-acre (9.0 km2) Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela even though this land had already been claimed by Avila.[4]:unpaged [xv]

American era

Inglewood, about 1894
Commercial Street (later La Brea Avenue) in Inglewood, sometime around 1910
Radio engineer Ernest G. Underwood sitting at desk of his KHJ broadcasting station in Inglewood, 1927
Aircraft workers on lunch break in Inglewood aircraft factory, 1942.

Through the years

Inglewood Park Cemetery, a widely used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905, [7] and the city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack since 1938.[8] Fosters Freeze, the first Soft Serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood.[9] Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again recently in 2009 for its visible progress.[10]

Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family. The raid led to the shooting death of one of the culprits, an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants who completed the trial. It was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that eventually led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.[11] The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931.

African-American influence

“No blacks had ever lived in Inglewood,” Gladys Waddingham wrote,[4]:59 but by 1960, “they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents already residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29 'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its [previous] history of restrictions.” “Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents, even though any that occurred were very minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites.”[4]:61 In 1969, an organization called “Morningside Neighbors” changed its name to “Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration.”[4]:63

On July 22, 1970, Superior Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents.[12] At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.[13] On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."[12]

The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary,[4]:66 and in 1971, Waddingham wrote, “Stormy racial meetings in 1971” included a charge by “some real estate men in the overflowing Crozier Auditorium” that the Human Relations Commission was acting like “the Gestapo.”[4]:67 In that year, Loyd Sterling Webb, president of Inglewood Neighbors, became the first black officeholder when voters elected him to the school board.[14]

In 1972 Curtis Tucker Sr. was appointed as the first black City Council member.[4]:69 That year composer LeRoy Hurte, an African-American, took the baton of the Inglewood Symphony Orchestra and continued to work with it for 20 years.[4]:75 Edward Vincent became Inglewood’s first black mayor in 1980. In that decade Inglewood became the first city in California to declare the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. as a holiday.[4]:76

Rise of Latino population

The 1990 census showed that Hispanics in Inglewood had increased by 134 percent since 1980, the largest jump in the South Bay. Economic factors apparently played a role in where new arrivals settled, said David Heer, a USC professor of sociology and associate director of the university's Population Research Laboratory. "Housing is generally less expensive here than elsewhere . . . and I would say that they receive a warmer welcome here," said Norm Cravens, assistant city manager in Inglewood, where the Anglo population dropped from nearly 21 percent in 1980 to 8.5 percent in 1990.[15]

In the 2000 census, blacks made up 47 percent of the city's residents (53,060 people), and Hispanics made up 46 percent (51,829), but the Census Bureau estimated that in 2007 the percentage of blacks had declined to 41 percent (48,252) and that of Hispanics of any race were at 52.5 percent (61,847). The white population declined from 19 percent (21,505) to 17.7 percent (20,853).[16][17]

But in that year, only one of the city's five City Council members was Latino. There were no Latinos on the five-member Board of Education.[18]

Geography

Randy's Donuts is a landmark in Inglewood, near the 405 Freeway.

Location and area

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.7 km² (9.1 mi²). Downtown Inglewood is 4.15 miles (6.68 km) from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).

Neighborhoods

Crenshaw-Imperial

The Crenshaw-Imperial district was a later annexation to Inglewood. It has its own branch public library and an important shopping center for the area.[19][20]

Morningside Park

Morningside Park is a district in the eastern part of the city. Though the city of Inglewood does not define the district's boundaries, it may be delineated by Hyde Park on the north, South Los Angeles on the east, Century Boulevard on the south and Prairie Avenue on the west. The major streets that run through the area are Manchester and Crenshaw boulevards. It is six miles (10 km) from Los Angeles International Airport and about two miles (3 km) from the Hollywood Park Racetrack and The Forum where for 31 years the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Kings played.

North Inglewood

North Inglewood is the area north of the Santa Fe railroad tracks. It is the site of a burgeoning arts district centered at East Hyde Park Boulevard and La Brea Avenue.[21]

Larkspur Larkspur is the area of southwestern Inglewood bordered to the north by Century Boulevard, to the east by Prairie Avenue, and to the west and south by the unincorporated community of Lennox, California.

Population

Source for this section is the American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2006. Numbers may be rounded to the nearest whole figure.[2]

Inglewood’s population of 129,900 in 2006 was relatively youthful, with a median age of 31, compared to 36 in the nation as a whole. Eleven percent of its residents were under 5 years of age, as against 7 percent in the rest of the country. Some 8 percent were 65 or older, versus 12 percent elsewhere.

It was a city of renters squeezing into a limited amount of space. Of Inglewood’s 37,562 occupied housing units (houses and apartments), just 39 percent were owned by the people who lived in them (compared to 67 percent in the U.S. as whole). The other units were rented out. Only 5 percent of its housing units were vacant, much less than the 12 percent across the country. The number of people living in each unit was about 3.7 persons, versus 2.7 elsewhere. Family size was 3.9 people, compared to 3.2.

It was estimated that 18 percent of Inglewood families had incomes below the poverty level, about twice that of the country at large (9 percent).

About 17 percent of Inglewood’s residents had earned a bachelor’s degree or higher (versus 27 percent across the country).

Twenty-nine percent of Inglewoodians were foreign-born, compared to 13 percent in the nation as a whole.

Politics

Inglewood has the highest percentage of registered Democrats of any city in California, with 75.6 percent of its 48,615 voters registered in May 2009 as Democrats. Seven percent were registered as Republicans, and 14.1 percent declined to state a preference.[22]

In 2005, the Bay Area Center for Voting Research, a nonpartisan organization in Berkeley, ranked Inglewood as the sixth-most-liberal city in the United States, after Oakland, California, and just ahead of Newark, New Jersey. Researchers examined voting patterns of 237 American cities with populations over 100,000 and ranked them on liberal and conservative scales. [2]

The city is within California's 35th congressional district, which in February 2008 had a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D +33, which meant that recent Democratic presidential candidates received 33 percentage points more votes than the national average.[23] It is represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.

In the California Legislature, Inglewood is in the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Edward Vincent, and in the 51st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Curren D. Price Jr.

Government and infrastructure

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Curtis Tucker Health Center in Inglewood.[24]

The United States Postal Service operates the Hillcrest Inglewood Post Office at 300 East Hillcrest Boulevard,[25] the North Inglewood Post Office at 811 North La Brea Avenue,[26] and the Morningside Park Post Office at 3212 West 85th Street.[27]

The city is a member of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments. [3]

Education

Inglewood High School students portrayed historic characters when the restored mural behind them was dedicated in August 2007.

Public and private schools

Most of Inglewood is served by the Inglewood Unified School District. Some of it is in the Los Angeles Unified School District

  • St John Chrysostom Elementary School is a private Catholic school
  • St. Mary's Academy, "In 1966 St. Mary's Academy left its home of many years on Slauson Avenue [at Crenshaw Boulevard] in Los Angeles for a new building on Grace Avenue across from [Daniel] Freeman Hospital".[4]:62

Schools history

In 1888, a school district was organized, trustees were elected and a building was chosen. The school opened on May 21 of that year on the second floor of a livery stable on Grevillea Avenue between Regent Street and Orchard (today's Florence Avenue), with 17 boys and 16 girls. The first teacher was Minnie Walker, a graduate of Los Angeles State Normal School. The schoolroom, named Bucephalus Hall, after a horse belonging to town founder Daniel Freeman, was also used for community meetings.[4]:6

Meanwhile, a permanent school building was erected on Grevillea Avenue a block to the south, between Regent and Queen. It remained Inglewood's only school until 1911. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1920.[4]:6 and 26

The Centinela Valley Union High School District was organized in 1904 to bring secondary education to the town. Inglewood High opened in two rooms of the school building with 15 students taught by Nina Martin, principal, and Anna McClelland. Four years later, a new building rose on 9.5 acres (38,000 m2) of land, and the first graduation of one boy and four girls took place in 1908.[4]:13–14 Until 1912 there was a new principal every year at the grammar school, but on May 8 of that year George W. Crozier was named principal, and he held the post for 20 years. The school was renamed in his honor in 1932.[4]:20 In 1913, George M. Green was appointed principal of Inglewood Union High School; he retired from that position in 1939.[4]:22

In 1914 voters approved bonds for high school improvement. Four more buildings and a power plant were erected, "joined by walks and arcades." The improvement included a "five-room model flat in the Home Economics Building." Nine acres of land were bought at Kelso Avenue and Damask (now Inglewood Avenue) for an experimental agricultural statement, thenceforth known as "The Farm." There were gardens, an orchard and an alfalfa field. In 1915 Inglewood High won a first-place Los Angeles County prize for its beautiful ivy-covered brick buildings.[4]:24 These buildings were destroyed in 1953 to make room for new ones.[4]:unpaged [58c]

In the mid-1920s, the high school district stretched all the way south to El Segundo, so two women teachers were asked to live in El Segundo and ride the school buses with the students every day to and from that city — for an extra dollar a day in pay. In 1923 girls adopted a school uniform, "a dark blue skirt with a white middy."[4]:30

In 1925 a new fine arts building for the high school was erected on the southwest corner of Grevillea and Manchester, replacing the Truax Candy Kitchen,[4]:34 but it was severely damaged by the Long Beach earthquake of 1933. It was "later rebuilt with WPA help but lost its magnificent stairway and all its fireplaces." Temporary classrooms were built on Olive Street, "all too cold in winter and too hot most of the time."[4]:41

The athletic field on the west side of the campus, later called Badenoch Field, was used for physical education and sporting events. In 1937, agricultural classes were ended at the Farm and Sentinel Field was dedicated there for sports activities.[4]:30 By 1938 there were more than 3,000 students and 141 teachers at the high school.[4]:43

The "startling news" of 1948 was the dismissal "of the entire administrative staff at Inglewood High School, beginning with Principal James R. Haines." He was replaced by Forrest Murdoch of Everett, Washington, as superintendent and Fred Heisner as principal.[4]:49

In 1952, another secondary school campus in Inglewood was opened in the east side neighborhood of Morningside Park as Morningside High School.[4]:55 Center Park School of Los Angeles became part of the Inglewood School District in 1961 when its area (Crenshaw-Imperial) was annexed to the city.[4]:59 In the 1970s, its name was changed to Worthington School to honor Frances and William Worthington.[4]:74

Religion

In 2007 the area served by the Inglewood post office (including Lennox) had 98 churches, temples, mosques, chapels and other houses of worship, according to the AreaConnect.com Web site.[28]

The first church service was held on April 22, 1888, in the Inglewood House hotel on Commercial Street (today's La Brea Boulevard), popularly called Mrs. Belden's Boarding House, when Inglewood had only 300 residents and 112 registered voters. Later services were in Bucephalus Hall, but eventually the congregation moved to Hyde Park, which left Inglewood with no church. On January 19, 1890, Inglewood's first permanent church — Presbyterian — was established on Market Street. A bit later the [United] Brethren constructed a building on South Market Street.[4]:6, 10, and 17

In 1907, a group of Episcopalians began services in a private home, and a few years later the first Catholic services were held in Bank Hall. In 1910 the Presbyterians moved their two buildings, a sanctuary and a manse, to the corner of Grevillea and Nutwood "because the streetcars [on Market Street] were so noisy and threw so much dust and sand fleas in the windows."[4]:14 and 17

By 1940, the Methodists had built a structure at Manchester and La Brea, but in that year they moved to a new building at Kelso and Spruce. St. John's Catholic Church and School were built in 1956 on Florence Avenue.[4]:46 and 57

Police and crime

An article by Dennis Romero in Los Angeles CityBeat magazine of November 6, 2003, quoted three sources as saying that Hispanic gangsters in that year were moving to Inglewood as a result of higher rents, or "gentrification," and increased police presence in West Los Angeles districts where they had been living. African American gangs, most notably the Piru Bloods, gained notoriety in the Inglewood area for their violent tendencies. [29]

Sister cities

Born in Inglewood

Notable residents

Filming locations

References in fiction

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "City History". City of Inglewood. http://www.cityofinglewood.org/about/city_history.asp. 
  2. ^ a b "2006 American Community Survey," American Fact Finder, U.S. Census Bureau
  3. ^ Nick Green, "Racing to Tomorrow," Daily Breeze, March 14, 2009
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Waddingham, Gladys (1994). The History of Inglewood. Inglewood: The Historical Society of Centinela Valley. ISBN none. 
  5. ^ "Things To Do In Los Angeles". LAOkay.com. http://www.laokay.com/AdobeSites.htm#Inglewood. 
  6. ^ Waddingham used the spelling Ignacio for both Avila and Machado.
  7. ^ "Inglewood Park Cemetery: Living Heritage". Inglewood Park Cemetery. http://www.inglewoodparkcemetery.org/heritage.html. 
  8. ^ "Hollywood Park: About". Hollywood Park. http://www.hollywoodpark.com/about/history.html. 
  9. ^ "Fosters Freeze: Company History". Fosters Freeze. http://www.fostersfreeze.com/Company.html. 
  10. ^ "Past Winners of the All-America City Award". National Civic League. http://www.ncl.org/aac/past_winners/past_winners_1980s.html. 
  11. ^ "Ex-Klan Chief Dies After Traffic Row; Knife Fight With Truck Driver Following Collision Proves Fatal for Gus Price, 64." Los Angeles Times, May 21, 1949
  12. ^ a b "Parents Lose Plea in Inglewood Suit," Los Angeles Times, September 2, 1970, page D-2
  13. ^ "Inglewood Order," Los Angeles Times, July 26, 1970, page F-5
  14. ^ "Negro Elected to Inglewood Public Office," Los Angeles Times, April 7, 1971, page 18
  15. ^ Janet-Rae Dupree, “Census Shows Influx of Asians on Peninsula,” Los Angeles Times, February 28, 1991, page 3
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder figures for 2000
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder estimates for 2007
  18. ^ Hugo Martin, "Latino Revolution Leaves Some City Councils Untouched," Los Angeles Times, October 9, 2000, page 1
  19. ^ "City of Inglewood: Departments - Library". City of Inglewood. http://www.cityofinglewood.org/depts/library/default.asp. 
  20. ^ "Crenshaw Imperial Shopping Center (includes a map)". LoopNet (LoopNet, Inc.). http://www.loopnet.com/xNet/MainSite/Listing/Profile/ProfileSE.aspx?LID=13568669&linkcode=1070&sourcecode=1lww2t006a00001. 
  21. ^ Alejandro Lazo, "Inglewood art studio tour a stroke of genius," Los Angeles Times, November 16, 2009
  22. ^ http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/ror/ror-pages/15day-stwdsp-09/politicalsub.pdf
  23. ^ "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  24. ^ "Curtis Tucker Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  25. ^ "Post Office Location - HILLCREST INGLEWOOD." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  26. ^ "Post Office Location - NORTH INGLEWOOD." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  27. ^ "Post Office Location - MORNINGSIDE PARK." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  28. ^ "Inglewood Churches and Religion (Inglewood, CA)". areaConnect (MDNH, Inc.). http://inglewood.areaconnect.com/churches.htm. 
  29. ^ Romero, Dennis. Gangster's Paradise Lost." LA City Beat. November 6, 2003. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
  30. ^ "Tyra Banks: Snapshot". People Magazine. http://www.people.com/people/tyra_banks. 
  31. ^ "Dorothy Collins". AAGPBL. http://www.aagpbl.org/players/index.cfm?do=player.details&playerid=2. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  32. ^ "Flo Hyman". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwrN0iIW. 
  33. ^ "Interview with Bishop Lamont". Aftermath Music (MRF Entertainment). January 2006. http://www.aftermathmusic.com/_interviews/bishoplamont_january_2006.html. 
  34. ^ "Vicki Lawrence". Richard De La Font Agency, Inc.. http://delafont.com/specialty_acts/Vicki-Lawrence.htm. 
  35. ^ "Mack 10". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0532924/. 
  36. ^ "Scott McGregor Baseball Stats". Baseball Almanac. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/players/player.php?p=mcgresc01. 
  37. ^ "Lisa Moretti". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0604324/. 
  38. ^ "Zoot Sims". All About Jazz. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/musician.php?id=4362. 
  39. ^ "Esther Williams". BrainyMedia.com. http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1923/august_8_1923_83369.html. 
  40. ^ http://sports.espn.go.com/nba/players/profile?playerId=1780
  41. ^ Gaines, Steven (1986). Heroes and Villains: the true story of the Beach Boys. New York: New American Library. p. 40. ISBN 0 306 80647 9. 
  42. ^ "The Wood". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0161100/. 
  43. ^ "Plot summary for The Wood". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0161100/plotsummary. 
  44. ^ "Filming locations for Boyz n the Hood". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0101507/locations. 
  45. ^ "Filming locations for Training Day". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0139654/locations. 
  46. ^ "Boys Beware". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4enfUyGWSY. 
  47. ^ "Girls Beware". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fAKo-i4jpQ. 
  48. ^ "Memorable quotes for Pulp Fiction". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0110912/quotes. 
  49. ^ "Soul Plane Movie Review". Netkushi.com (Web Logix, Inc.). http://www.netkushi.com/movies/hollywood_movie_reviews/soul-plane.php. 

External links

Further reading

  • Constance Zillgitt Snowden, Men of Inglewood, 1924.
  • Roy Rosenberg, The History of Inglewood, published by Arthur Cawston, 1938.[12]
  • Lloyd Hamilton, Inglewood Community Book, 1947.

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