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.An initial public stock offering (IPO) referred to simply as an "offering" or "flotation," is when a company (called the issuer) issues common stock or shares to the public for the first time.^ Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) are the first time a company sells its stock to the public.

^ An IPO is the first public sale of a corporation's common shares.
  • Justia :: Initial Public Offerings Overview 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.justia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (IPO) is the first sale of a corporation's common shares to investors on a public stock exchange.
  • IPO - Economy Vocabulary - Business 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.trendio.com [Source type: General]

.They are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately-owned companies looking to become publicly traded.^ IPOs are often launched by companies seeking capital to expand their business.
  • Initial public offering - MarketsWiki, A Commonwealth of Market Knowledge 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.marketswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPOs are often smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand their business.
  • Definition IPO - initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fundingpost.com [Source type: General]

^ They are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately-owned companies looking to become publicly traded.
  • IPO Stocks 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipostocks.com [Source type: News]
  • US IPO Attorneys --- A Focus Point to your Search 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC usipoattorneys.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO links 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ipodlive.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is an IPO? | FeedTheBull 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.feedthebull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PhysOrg.com - initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) | Financial Terms and Definitions 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC terms.speakstocks.com [Source type: Academic]

.In an IPO the issuer may obtain the assistance of an underwriting firm, which helps it determine what type of security to issue (common or preferred), best offering price and time to bring it to market.^ The shares get issued at the IPO price which goes to the issuer, less fees.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an IPO, the issuer obtains the assistance of an underwriting firm, which helps it determine what type of security to issue (common or preferred), best offering price and time to bring it to market.
  • Initial public offering | Definition of Initial public offering at Dictionary.com: 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an Initial Public Offer , the issuer gets the help of an underwriting, methods of issuing the insurance policies, firm regarding the determination of security to issues.

.An IPO can be a risky investment.^ Investing in an IPO is a risky and speculative investment.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: News]
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: News]

^ IPOs can be a risky investment.
  • US IPO Attorneys --- A Focus Point to your Search 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC usipoattorneys.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO links 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ipodlive.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An IPO can be a risky investment.
  • IPO Stocks 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipostocks.com [Source type: News]
  • PhysOrg.com - initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.For the individual investor, it is tough to predict what the stock or shares will do on its initial day of trading and in the near future since there is often little historical data with which to analyze the company.^ I am planning to buy shares in the near future.
  • IPOTREND - Your resource for IPO news, Yahoo IPOs, IPO markets, Initial Public Offerings - IPO News, SEC filing, World IPO News, NASDAQ IPO News, Chinese IPO News, india IPO News, How to buy IPOs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipotrend.com [Source type: News]

^ It is really tough for an individual investor to guess the performance of the stock on its first day of trading as well as in the coming days due to lack of historical data regarding that stock.

^ For the individual investor it is tough to predict what the stock will do on its initial day of trading and in the near future since there is often little historical data to analyze the company with.
  • Initial public offering | Definition of Initial public offering at Dictionary.com: 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, most IPOs are of companies going through a transitory growth period, and they are therefore subject to additional uncertainty regarding their future value.^ Also, most IPOs are of companies going through a transitory growth period, and they are therefore subject to additional uncertainty regarding their future value.
  • IPO Stocks 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipostocks.com [Source type: News]
  • US IPO Attorneys --- A Focus Point to your Search 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC usipoattorneys.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO links 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ipodlive.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PhysOrg.com - initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Mostly IPOs are issued by companies going through transitions in their growth and hence uncertainties increase regarding future value of the stock.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ The IPO valued the company at £425M. .

Contents

Reasons for listing

.When a company lists its shares on a public exchange, it will almost invariably look to issue additional new shares in order at the same time.^ Secondary When a public company issues additional shares to the public.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a public company, we will do the same," the letter states.
  • Google files for unusual $2.7 billion IPO - CNET News 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Listed IPO IPO shares news IPO profile .
  • Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited - Investment Services > Securities > IPO 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bochk.com [Source type: News]

.The money paid by investors for the newly-issued shares goes directly to the company (in contrast to a later trade of shares on the exchange, where the money passes between investors).^ The money of the IPOs is directly given to the company.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ Myer shares have yet to trade at or above the A$4.10 investors paid in the IPO. .
  • Kathmandu Shares Rise After Initial Public Offering (Update1) - Bloomberg.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bloomberg.com [Source type: News]

^ Trades that are materialized later are exchanges between investors.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

.An IPO, therefore, allows a company to tap a wide pool of stock market investors to provide it with large volumes of capital for future growth.^ An IPO is a company's first issuance of stock to the public in an open market.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mindxpansion.com [Source type: General]

^ Tags: company , ipo , market , stock , stock market Related posts .
  • ipo at Finance Croco 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC shortbusmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Tagged with company , ipo , market , stock , stock market .
  • ipo at Finance Croco 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC shortbusmag.com [Source type: General]

.The company is never required to repay the capital, but instead the new shareholders have a right to future profits distributed by the company and the right to a capital distribution in case of a dissolution.^ In case of dissolution investors have the right to capital distribution.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ Optimum capital structure planning includes financing before and after IPO, maintaining long-term shareholders and incentive plans: it can be the lifeline of your company.
  • Initial Public Offering | Global Corporate Consulting, Inc. 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.g-c-c.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ Assuming that there are sufficient distributable reserves available at the time and subject to any regulatory capital requirements, the Supervisory Board intends to target a dividend of not less than 50% of the annual reported Group profits for the financial year after tax in the form of total annual dividend to shareholders.
  • Initial public offering of TrygVesta A/S Publication of offering memorandum 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trygvesta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The existing shareholders will see their shareholdings diluted as a proportion of the company's shares.^ Shareholders of the company who already exist have their holdings diluted in proportion to the company’s shares.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ Comscore has not yet determined the number of shares or the price range for the proposed IPO, which will by sold by the company and certain shareholders, according to the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • ComScore Plans Initial Public Offering - washingtonpost.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: News]

^ The model utilizes company size, variance of aftermarket returns, inside share ownership proportion, expected short-term income and operating history.
  • Abstracts: Forecast disclosure by initial public offering firms in a low-litigation environment. Market performance impacts of human capital disclosures - Business 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, they hope that the capital investment will make their shareholdings more valuable in absolute terms.^ These shareholders, however, were the groups and companies that gave the startup some venture capital to get off the ground, not individuals investing for their portfolios.
  • IPO « WeSeed Blog 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.weseed.com [Source type: General]

^ Optimum capital structure planning includes financing before and after IPO, maintaining long-term shareholders and incentive plans: it can be the lifeline of your company.
  • Initial Public Offering | Global Corporate Consulting, Inc. 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.g-c-c.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ This will result in faster, more convenient and effective communication with shareholders, a low risk service offering and long term cost benefits.

.In addition, once a company is listed, it will be able to issue further shares via a rights issue, thereby again providing itself with capital for expansion without incurring any debt.^ The company which launches an IPO has the right to issue more shares which is again capital that can be used for expansion.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ Secondary When a public company issues additional shares to the public.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once public, the company can offer additional shares on occasion to raise capital for expansion without incurring debt.
  • IPO - Initial Public Offering - Stock Market First Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC biotech.about.com [Source type: News]

.This regular ability to raise large amounts of capital from the general market, rather than having to seek and negotiate with individual investors, is a key incentive for many companies seeking to list.^ This is the main attraction of public listing and is an incentive for companies who seek to be listed.
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

^ Large amounts of capital have been raised in recent years by small companies that went public.
  • Term definition: Initial Public Offering (IPO) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.entrepreneur.com [Source type: News]

^ FEATURED LISTINGS Take Your Company Public We will take your company public and raise capital.
  • Initial Public Offerings (IPO): Filings and Resources | Business.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]


.Benefits of being a public company-
• Bolster and diversify equity base
• Enable cheaper access to capital
• Exposure and prestige
• Attract and retain the best management and employees
• Facilitate acquisitions
• Create multiple financing opportunities: equity, convertible debt, cheaper bank loans, etc.
^ This was among the funding options being examined by the management besides bank loans.
  • The Hindu : Business : Tata logistics venture plans initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.hindu.com [Source type: News]

^ Being public means that companies can offer equity securities and debt to the general public.
  • Express IPO Capital FAQs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC expressipo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equity finance: Initial Public Offering .
  • Equity finance: Initial Public Offering | #1 Equity Finance 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC equity.talkingfinancing.com [Source type: News]

Procedure

IPOs generally involve one or more investment banks as "underwriters." The company offering its shares, called the "issuer," enters a contract with a lead underwriter to sell its shares to the public. .The underwriter then approaches investors with offers to sell these shares.^ Generation Partners is not selling shares in the offering.
  • Virtual Radiologic Prices Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.generation.com [Source type: News]

^ The underwriter then approaches investors with offers to sell these shares.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ These shares will be redeemed as part of the underwriting at the offering price.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sale (that is, the allocation and pricing) of shares in an IPO may take several forms.^ IPO, with shares priced between Rs.
  • IPO | mocoNews 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC moconews.net [Source type: News]

^ The IPO shares will be priced on Oct.
  • China Construction Bank Plans $7.68 Bln Share Sale (Update3) - Bloomberg.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC quote.bloomberg.com [Source type: News]

^ The share price divided by the sales per share.

Common methods include:
.A large IPO is usually underwritten by a "syndicate" of investment banks led by one or more major investment banks (lead underwriter).^ One underwriter leads the syndicate and the others sell a part of the issue.
  • Safe Haven | The IPO Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.safehaven.com [Source type: General]

^ The startup's lead bank on the IPO is Sal.

^ The IPO is usually arranged through an investment bank by the company's CFO .
  • Initial public offering - Wiki 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.fool.com [Source type: General]

.Upon selling the shares, the underwriters keep a commission based on a percentage of the value of the shares sold (called the gross spread).^ The percentage below net asset value at which shares sell.

^ Upon selling the shares, the underwriters keep a commission based on a percentage of the value of the shares sold.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ The selling stockholder has granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 8.7 million additional shares of common stock.
  • InvestorIdeas.com - American Water Prices Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.investorideas.com [Source type: News]

Usually, the lead underwriters, i.e. the underwriters selling the largest proportions of the IPO, take the highest commissions—up to 8% in some cases.
.Multinational IPOs may have as many as three syndicates to deal with differing legal requirements in both the issuer's domestic market and other regions.^ Multinational IPOs may have as many as three syndicates to deal with differing legal requirements in both the issuer's domestic market and other regions.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ Although this article is discussing differences between European and American markets, I reckon we should think in terms of best of both worlds.
  • ipo The Next Web 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC thenextweb.com [Source type: News]

^ Because of the wide array of legal requirements, IPOs will also involve one or more law firms with major practices in securities law.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

.For example, an issuer based in the E.U. may be represented by the main selling syndicate in its domestic market, Europe, in addition to separate syndicates or selling groups for US/Canada and for Asia.^ An issuer based in the E.U. may be represented by the main selling syndicate in its domestic market, Europe, in addition to separate syndicates or selling groups for US/Canada and for Asia.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ Multinational IPOs may have as many as three syndicates to deal with differing legal requirements in both the issuer's domestic market and other regions.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ Dynasty also makes available access to exchanges in Continental Europe, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Canada and parts of the Asia-Pacific region.
  • China Corporate Finance,Initial Public Offerings, China IPOs, China Reverse Mergers, China SPAC 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dynastyresources.net [Source type: News]

.Usually, the lead underwriter in the main selling group is also the lead bank in the other selling groups.^ One underwriter leads the syndicate and the others sell a part of the issue.
  • Safe Haven | The IPO Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.safehaven.com [Source type: General]

^ Usually, the lead underwriter in the main selling group is also the lead bank in the other selling groups.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ The underwriters form a 'Selling Group'.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

.Because of the wide array of legal requirements, IPOs typically involve one or more law firms with major practices in securities law, such as the Magic Circle firms of London and the white shoe firms of New York City.^ New York City hospitals and jails, the ...
  • Article: Dole Food Company, Inc. Announces Initial Public Offering. - Food Weekly News | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: News]

^ New York City (55) .
  • Rackspace Initial Public Offering, IPO Auction Is Now Open 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC laughingsquid.com [Source type: General]

^ Because of the wide array of legal requirements, IPOs will also involve one or more law firms with major practices in securities law.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

.Usually, the offering will include the issuance of new shares, intended to raise new capital, as well the secondary sale of existing shares.^ Usually, the offering will include the issuance of new shares, intended to raise new capital, as well the secondary sale of existing shares.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ The Offering will comprise US$200 million (£110 million) of primary common shares issued by Catlin and up to US$250 million (£138 million) of secondary common shares sold by investors that are existing shareholders of the Group, giving a total offer size of up to US$450 million (£248 million).
  • Initial Public Offering Price Range | Catlin U.S. 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC catlinus.com [Source type: News]

^ Capital Formation: Raising capital is usually easier because of the added liquidity for the investors, and it often takes less time and expense to complete an offering.
  • China Corporate Finance,Initial Public Offerings, China IPOs, China Reverse Mergers, China SPAC 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dynastyresources.net [Source type: News]

.However, certain regulatory restrictions and restrictions imposed by the lead underwriter are often placed on the sale of existing shares.^ However, certain regulatory restrictions and restrictions imposed by the lead underwriter are often placed on the sale of existing shares.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ The Lead Underwriter is the investment bank in charge of setting the offering price of an IPO and allocating shares to others for the primary offering.
  • Initial Public Offering ( IPO's ) -- earnings-splits-ipo.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.earnings-splits-ipo.com [Source type: General]

^ In most cases, a single investment-banking firm takes the lead role in setting up a new IPO. This lead firm, referred to as the managing underwriter, then often forms a larger group of investment bankers, called an underwriting syndicate, to participate in the sale.
  • IPO (Initial Public Offering) -- A complete definition 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC web.streetauthority.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Public offerings are primarily sold to institutional investors, but some shares are also allocated to the underwriters' retail investors.^ The Offer Shares being offered in this Offering are being sold by TiD. .
  • Initial public offering of TrygVesta A/S Publication of offering memorandum 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trygvesta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Offering consists of: (i) a public offering to retail and institutional investors in Denmark and (ii) an offering to institutional investors outside Denmark.
  • Initial public offering of TrygVesta A/S Publication of offering memorandum 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trygvesta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public offerings are primarily sold to institutional investors, but some shares are also allocated to the underwriters' retail investors.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

.A broker selling shares of a public offering to his clients is paid through a sales credit instead of a commission.^ The client pays no commission to purchase the shares of a public offering, the purchase price simply includes the built in sales credit.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ Selling Concession Commission paid to brokers to help distribute a securities offering.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this latest UPS offering, a broker I know got a client 50 shares.
  • What is an initial public offering? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bankrate.com [Source type: General]

.The client pays no commission to purchase the shares of a public offering; the purchase price simply includes the built-in sales credit.^ The client pays no commission to purchase the shares of a public offering, the purchase price simply includes the built in sales credit.
  • Initial Public Offering - IPO 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greekshares.com [Source type: News]

^ BUSINESS Hertz prices shares for public offering .
  • Articles about Initial Public Offering - Los Angeles Times 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC articles.latimes.com [Source type: News]

^ There is no public offering.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

.The issuer usually allows the underwriters an option to increase the size of the offering by up to 15% under certain circumstance known as the greenshoe or overallotment option.^ An offering may be terminated under certain circumstances.
  • Form S-1 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Hyatt has granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 5,700,000 shares of Class A common stock.
  • Hyatt Hotels Corporation Prices Initial Public Offering :: Hotel Resource 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.hotelresource.com [Source type: News]
  • Hyatt Hotels Corporation Prices Initial Public Offering :: Hotel Resource 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.hotelresource.com [Source type: News]

^ The underwriters have a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 1,544,117 shares of common stock from the Company at the public offering price less the underwriting discount to cover over-allotments, if any.
  • Kraton Investor Relations - Press Release 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC phx.corporate-ir.net [Source type: Reference]

Business cycle

.In the United States, during the dot-com bubble of the late 1990s, many venture capital driven companies were started, and seeking to cash in on the bull market, quickly offered IPOs.^ What has been the past performance of the Company offering the IPO ?
  • IPO - Initial Public Offering. How to apply - Checklist 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sharemarketbasics.com [Source type: News]

^ Role of venture capitalists in IPO market .
  • Initial Public Offering |Papers4you.com|Over 50,000 University essays-and-dissertationss, Dissertations, Research Papers, Essays, Assignments, Academic Reports and Analysis 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.coursework4you.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Tagged with company , ipo , market , stock , stock market .
  • ipo at Finance Croco 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC shortbusmag.com [Source type: General]

.Usually, stock price spiraled upwards as soon as a company went public.^ Usually, the stock price spiraled upwards as soon as a company went public, as investors sought to get in at the ground-level of the next potential Microsoft.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ The first sale of stock by a company to the public .

^ Aftermarket:   the price performance of company's stock in public market.
  • IPO Monitor: Recent Filings 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ipomonitor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Investors sought to get in at the ground-level of the next potential Microsoft and Netscape.^ Usually, the stock price spiraled upwards as soon as a company went public, as investors sought to get in at the ground-level of the next potential Microsoft.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ In any event, the management team must be in place and functioning smoothly well prior to the IPO to assure potential investors that the leadership of the company is on solid ground.
  • Thinking of Doing an IPO? - Graziadio Business Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC gbr.pepperdine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, many small investors got burned by buying these stocks with the hopes of finding the next "Microsoft".

.Initial founders could often become overnight millionaires, and due to generous stock options, employees could make a great deal of money as well.^ Initial founders could often become overnight millionaires, and due to generous stock options, employees could make a great deal of money as well.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ For the individual investor, it is tough to predict what the stock will do on its initial day of trading and in the near future because there is often little historical data with which to analyze the company.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.investopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The initial public offering is a part of the market that always generates a great deal of interest, along with stories of fabulous profits and spectacular losses.
  • Trading With The Trends � Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.meta-formula.com [Source type: General]

.The majority of IPOs could be found on the Nasdaq stock exchange, which lists companies related to computer and information technology.^ Tags: companies , company , ipo , Lat , Lev , stock Related posts .

^ The majority of IPOs could be found on the Nasdaq stock exchange, which is laden with companies related to computer and information technology.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ Symbol 'IPO' could not be found.
  • IPO Stock Quote - stock news and information on Boston.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]
  • IPO Stock Quote - stock news and information - CBS MoneyWatch.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC investor.news.com [Source type: News]

.However, in spite of the large amounts of financial resources made available to relatively young and untested firms (often in multiple rounds of financing), the vast majority of them rapidly entered cash crises.^ More often, though, the value is estimated by using a multiple, like a price earnings ratio, and by looking at the pricing of comparable firms that are already publicly traded.
  • From Private to Publicly Traded Firm: The Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pages.stern.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Staff changes must be made, new financial systems tested, functions like human resources must be managed, etc.
  • The IPO Process 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.exinfm.com [Source type: News]

^ These statements include information relating to future events, future financial performance, strategies, expectations, competitive environment, regulation and availability of financial resources.
  • HealthPort, Inc. Announces Postponement of Registration Statement for Initial Public Offering | Press Releases @ Your Story 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.your-story.org [Source type: News]

.Crisis was particularly likely in the case of firms where the founding team liquidated a substantial portion of their stake in the firm at or soon after the IPO (Mudambi and Treichel, 2005).^ The IPO share price gave it a valuation of €52.7M, which is not bad for a firm that generates annual sales of €16M (in 2005).

^ For a mega private equity firm like Blackstone ( BX ), there's a need to get liquidity on a mega scale.

^ Management team: The pre-IPO planning process is a good time to evaluate the skills and capabilities of top management in a firm.
  • Thinking of Doing an IPO? - Graziadio Business Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC gbr.pepperdine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This phenomenon was not limited to the United States. .In Japan, for example, a similar situation occurred.^ This phenomenon was not limited to U.S. In Japan, for example, a similar situation occurred.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

.Some companies were operated in a similar way in that their only goal was to have an IPO. Some stock exchanges were set up for those companies, such as Osaka Securities Exchange.^ The Company operates in only one segment.
  • Form S-1 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terms of the IPO were not disclosed in the company's filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • Danger IPO Announced | Wireless Week 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wirelessweek.com [Source type: News]

^ That was 5.6% less that the stocks of similar companies.

.Perhaps the clearest bubbles in the history of hot IPO markets were in 1929 and 1989, when closed-end country fund IPOs sold at enormous premiums to net asset value.^ Compare with closed-end fund.

^ Closed-end funds often sell at a discount to net asset value in order to retain shareholders.

^ This paper argues that the bookbuilding process, the almost exclusive method of distributing IPO shares in the U.S., is the root cause of the abuses that occurred in the IPO market in the 1999-2000 bubble.
  • SSRN-Moral Hazard and the Initial Public Offering by Christine Hurt 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ssrn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SSRN-Moral Hazard and the Initial Public Offering by Christine Hurt 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC papers.ssrn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What makes these bubbles so clear is the ability to compare market prices for shares in the closed-end funds to the value of the shares in the funds' portfolios.^ (NAV) - The current market value of a mutual fund's share.

^ Compare with closed-end fund.

^ Compare with open-end fund .

.When market prices are multiples of the underlying value, bubbles are likely to be occurring.^ This paper argues that the bookbuilding process, the almost exclusive method of distributing IPO shares in the U.S., is the root cause of the abuses that occurred in the IPO market in the 1999-2000 bubble.
  • SSRN-Moral Hazard and the Initial Public Offering by Christine Hurt 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ssrn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SSRN-Moral Hazard and the Initial Public Offering by Christine Hurt 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC papers.ssrn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To enter the IPO intermediary market, companies will likely have to initially compete on price, by offering their services for a low commission rate.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

^ More often, though, the value is estimated by using a multiple, like a price earnings ratio, and by looking at the pricing of comparable firms that are already publicly traded.
  • From Private to Publicly Traded Firm: The Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pages.stern.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Auction

.A venture capitalist named Bill Hambrecht has attempted to devise a method that can reduce the inefficient process.^ The perspective of the venture capitalist on the IPO process was presented by Andrew Savage.
  • Mastering the Initial Public Offering (IPO) - Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.innovation-enterprise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He devised a way to issue shares through a Dutch auction as an attempt to minimize the extreme underpricing that underwriters were nurturing.^ ACE Limited, through its subsidiaries, is retaining a beneficial interest of 25% to 35% depending upon the exercise of the underwriters' 7,350,000 share over-allotment option.
  • Initial Public Offering of Assured Guaranty Ltd. Priced at $18.00 per Share | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Underprice the shares significantly and the company is deprived of money it could have received through the IPO. Overprice the shares and the underwriters risk being stuck with shares no one wants – at least, at the IPO price.
  • CBC News Indepth: Initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

^ On the hot issues which go through an initial public stock offering, the shares are limited and the demand might be high.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

.Underwriters, however, have not taken to this strategy very well.^ However, there are certain parameters which are known to have taken place in previous underwritings and the negotiations take place around these.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

.Though not the first company to use Dutch auction, Google is one established company that went public through the use of auction.^ Google auctioning public shares.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ Where were you when Google and Apple went public?
  • Top Social Media IPO Contenders 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC inventorspot.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the first sale of stock by a company to the public.
  • Safe Haven | The IPO Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.safehaven.com [Source type: General]

.Google's share price rose 17% in its first day of trading despite the auction method.^ Google auctioning public shares.
  • Google IPO - Initial Public Offering of Google Stock. Google Shares Being Offered in a Public Auction IPO. Google IPO | Art, Art Logos, Google Logo Art at Logoogle.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.logoogle.com [Source type: News]

^ Shares close nearly 8 percent higher in first day of trading.
  • RedHerring.com ~ The Business of Technology 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC redherring.com [Source type: News]

^ The shares more than doubled Friday, the first day of trading.

Perception of IPOs can be controversial. .For those who view a successful IPO to be one that raises as much money as possible, the IPO was a total failure.^ The IPO is expected to raise as much as $800… .

^ Others speculate that the company could use the raised IPO money as working capital to build its property portfolio, given the fact that distressed assets are available.

^ June 1, 2006 Company expects those who signed up for its IPO shares to pay for them, even though it risks losing some to rivals.
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ces.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC computershopper.com.com [Source type: General]

.For those who view a successful IPO from the kind of investors that eventually gained from the underpricing, the IPO was a complete success.^ IPO's are extremely speculative and rarely do they result in large gains for investors.
  • The IPO Process 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.exinfm.com [Source type: News]

^ June 1, 2006 Company expects those who signed up for its IPO shares to pay for them, even though it risks losing some to rivals.
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ces.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • IPO news on CNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC computershopper.com.com [Source type: General]

^ Article15260.html Initial Public Offering IPO Initial Public Offer ( IPO ), also known as public offering, are usually issued by those companies, mainly small and young, who ask for capital to grow.
  • Initial Public Offerings (IPO) – Web Listings 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.business.com [Source type: News]

.It's important to note that different sets of investors bid in auctions versus the open market—more institutions bid, fewer private individuals bid.^ Under a Dutch auction (named after a method of selling flowers in the Netherlands), individual and institutional investors alike can bid for Google shares, with the first-day price being set by the level of demand by many bidders.

^ 'Private Placements' are the direct sale of an issue of securities to large institutional investors and large private investors.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

^ Domestic institutional investors have strong interest in new issues for the purposes of extending their portfolio while maintaining the share of investment on the domestic market.
  • IPO - Prague Stock Exchange 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pse.cz [Source type: News]

.Google may be a special case, however, as many individual investors bought the stock based on long-term valuation shortly after it launched its IPO, driving it beyond institutional valuation.^ And since many companies have IPO’s during a period of transition, the uncertainty of future value increases, adding even more risk.
  • IPO's At Zecco.com, the Free Trading Community 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.zecco.com [Source type: General]

^ Under a Dutch auction (named after a method of selling flowers in the Netherlands), individual and institutional investors alike can bid for Google shares, with the first-day price being set by the level of demand by many bidders.

^ Since most institutions hold shares for relatively long time periods and uphold a considerable fiduciary responsibility to invest conservatively, many analysts look at the percentage of a company’s stock that is held by institutions as a measure of market confidence.
  • Initial Public Offering | Issued Stock | Index 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.millennium-traders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pricing

.The underpricing of initial public offerings (IPO) has been well documented in different markets (Ibbotson, 1975; Ritter 1984; Levis, 1990; McGuinness, 1992).^ APA Style: initial public offering .
  • initial public offering -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ REC mulls initial public offering .

^ I would like to buy some IPOs(Initial Public Offerings).
  • IPOTREND - Your resource for IPO news, Yahoo IPOs, IPO markets, Initial Public Offerings - IPO News, SEC filing, World IPO News, NASDAQ IPO News, Chinese IPO News, india IPO News, How to buy IPOs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipotrend.com [Source type: News]

.While Issuers always try to maximize their issue proceeds, the underpricing of IPOs has constituted a serious anomaly in the literature of financial economics.^ For established banks, IPO underpricing has a negative impact on market share, suggesting future issuers avoid banks that leave too much "money on the table".
  • SSRN-Factors Affecting Investment Bank Initial Public Offering Market Share by Craig Dunbar 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ssrn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The shares get issued at the IPO price which goes to the issuer, less fees.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cards are always stacked against the individual investor in an IPO, but underpricing hurts the issuer as well.
  • Who Profits from IPO Underpricing? - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many financial economists have developed different models to explain the underpricing of IPOs.^ Rather, we focus on the successful realization of the associated financial goals and the opportunities to develop future growth potential through investments made with the funds resulting from the IPO. .
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) / Corporate Finance / Services / Skillnet 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC skillnet.com [Source type: News]

^ For this reason, venture capitalists, who are on the boards of many of the IPO firms, also are motivated to support underpricing, according to the authors.
  • Who Profits from IPO Underpricing? - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our scientific team has expertise in many different aspects of drug discovery and development.
  • Form S-1 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the models explained it as a consequences of deliberate underpricing by issuers or their agents. .In general, smaller issues are observed to be underpriced more than large issues (Ritter, 1984, Ritter, 1991, Levis, 1990) Historically, IPOs both globally and in the United States have been underpriced.^ Generally if it is a good IPO there is more demand than supply.
  • Are investment firms allowed to restrict an initial public offering to existing clients? | LinkedIn Answers | LinkedIn 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.linkedin.com [Source type: General]

^ United States, foreign countries or both; .
  • SEC Info - Constant Contact/Inc - S-1 - On 7/6/07 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.secinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And third, you can buy t he U.S. IPOX-100 index, which includes the 100 largest, typically best-performing, and most liquid IPOs in the United States.

.The effect of "initial underpricing" an IPO is to generate additional interest in the stock when it first becomes publicly traded.^ These first stock offerings are known as IPOs – Initial Public Offerings.
  • CBC News Indepth: Initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

^ An IPO (initial public offering) is what it is called when a company first offers its stock to the public.
  • Going Public: A Quick Look at IPOs - Starting to Trade Publicly | eHow.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ IPOs are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately-owned companies looking to become publicly traded.
  • IPO's At Zecco.com, the Free Trading Community 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.zecco.com [Source type: General]

.Through flipping, this can lead to significant gains for investors who have been allocated shares of the IPO at the offering price.^ If the customer's limit price is below the offering price of the issue, the customer will not be allocated shares.
  • About Open Initial Public Offerings 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC personal.fidelity.com [Source type: General]

^ Google IPO priced at $85 a share .
  • CNN.com - Google IPO priced at $85 a share - Aug 19, 2004 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The offer price on the IPO was $9.75.

.However, underpricing an IPO results in "money left on the table"—lost capital that could have been raised for the company had the stock been offered at a higher price.^ What has been the past performance of the Company offering the IPO ?
  • IPO - Initial Public Offering. How to apply - Checklist 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sharemarketbasics.com [Source type: News]

^ If it was "underpriced," does it mean the issuing company left "money on the table?"
  • Who Profits from IPO Underpricing? - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tagged with company , ipo , market , stock , stock market .
  • ipo at Finance Croco 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC shortbusmag.com [Source type: General]

.One great example of all these factors at play was seen with theglobe.com IPO which helped fuel the IPO mania of the late 90's internet era.^ The researchers sifted through the details of IPOs that occurred between 1990 and 1994, a period before the late 1990s dot-com bubble, which the researchers regarded as atypical.
  • Who Profits from IPO Underpricing? - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Become the first to know New IPO Filings , Solve IPO Allotment problems , get IPO Listing Date , read IPO Review & IPO Valuation all at one place.
  • IPO Alert Blog - IPO Info, IPO Allotment, IPO Listing & IPO News - 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipoalert.chittorgarh.com [Source type: General]

^ The bottom line is that we need to do what is best for our our customers and business in general, and in this situation Rackspace has been a major factor in our success all of these years.
  • Rackspace Initial Public Offering, IPO Auction Is Now Open 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC laughingsquid.com [Source type: General]

.Underwritten by Bear Stearns on November 13, 1998 the stock had been priced at $9 per share, and famously jumped 1000% at the opening of trading all the way up to $97, before deflating and closing at $63 after large sell offs from institutions flipping the stock .^ Issued Price per Share .
  • Form S-1 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prices Initial Public Offering at $13.50 Per Share .
  • Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter: Ancestry.com Inc. Prices Initial Public Offering at $13.50 Per Share 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.eogn.com [Source type: General]

^ Flipping — Buying an IPO at the offering price and then selling the stock soon after it starts trading on the open market.

.Although the company did raise about $30 million from the offering it is estimated that with the level of demand for the offering and the volume of trading that took place the company might have left upwards of $200 million on the table.^ The company raised about $10.6 billion.
  • Initial Public Offering -- BloggingBuyouts 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bloggingbuyouts.com [Source type: General]

^ It brings the company’s total amount raised to $200 million.
  • IPO | mocoNews 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC moconews.net [Source type: News]

^ The company has about $900 million in sales.

The danger of overpricing is also an important consideration. .If a stock is offered to the public at a higher price than the market will pay, the underwriters may have trouble meeting their commitments to sell shares.^ Public offerings on the stock market are complex exercises.
  • Mastering the Initial Public Offering (IPO) - Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.innovation-enterprise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A portion of the shares of common stock to be offered...
  • ipo Resources | BNET 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on negotiations between the underwriter and the issuer, the public offering price may be lower, but will not be higher, than the clearing price.
  • About Open Initial Public Offerings 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC personal.fidelity.com [Source type: General]

.Even if they sell all of the issued shares, if the stock falls in value on the first day of trading, it may lose its marketability and hence even more of its value.^ Is share / stock market, a gambling ?
  • IPO | LinkedIn Answers | LinkedIn 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.linkedin.com [Source type: General]

^ It's just that they may not signal their potential on the first day of trading.
  • Pop Goes The IPO - Forbes.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.forbes.com [Source type: News]

^ The shares more than doubled Friday, the first day of trading.

.Investment banks, therefore, take many factors into consideration when pricing an IPO, and attempt to reach an offering price that is low enough to stimulate interest in the stock, but high enough to raise an adequate amount of capital for the company.^ Both the company and the investment bank come together to set a price.
  • Initial Public Offering - Blog Toplist 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

^ What has been the past performance of the Company offering the IPO ?
  • IPO - Initial Public Offering. How to apply - Checklist 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sharemarketbasics.com [Source type: News]

^ The offer price on the IPO was $9.75.

.The process of determining an optimal price usually involves the underwriters ("syndicate") arranging share purchase commitments from leading institutional investors.^ This price range is determined by the issuer and underwriter.
  • About Open Initial Public Offerings 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC personal.fidelity.com [Source type: General]

^ Usually, the 'Syndicate Manager or Underwriting Manager' is the head of the syndicate.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

^ The final offering price is determined and the lead underwriter determines final share allocations.
  • Still Thinking of Doing an IPO? - Graziadio Business Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC gbr.pepperdine.edu [Source type: General]

Issue price

.A company that is planning an IPO appoints lead managers to help it decide on an appropriate price at which the shares should be issued.^ The shares get issued at the IPO price which goes to the issuer, less fees.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Google IPO priced at $85 a share .
  • CNN.com - Google IPO priced at $85 a share - Aug 19, 2004 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ IPO, with shares priced between Rs.
  • IPO | mocoNews 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC moconews.net [Source type: News]

.There are two ways in which the price of an IPO can be determined: either the company, with the help of its lead managers, fixes a price or the price is arrived at through the process of book building.^ The price would be determined through a 100 per cent book building process.

^ Per Equity Share through 100% book building process.
  • ipo - Stock Market India - Buy Calls - IPO Updates - Online Share Trading - Finance Articles 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.stockmarketindia.net [Source type: General]

^ There are also two other ways that most companies use.
  • Express IPO Capital FAQs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC expressipo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note: Not all IPOs are eligible for delivery settlement through the DTC system, which would then either require the physical delivery of the stock certificates to the clearing agent bank's custodian, or a delivery versus payment (DVP) arrangement with the selling group brokerage firm.^ Buy Side Those entities that are buying the IPOs and secondarys for profits and not connected with any brokerage firms.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The traditional IPO process involves the company selling the IPO, an investment banker that acts as an intermediary between the seller and buyers, and a select group of typically larger investors.
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

^ Stock splits for all listed stocks are entered into our database and noted intraday on our blog, Investing with Harvey .

Quiet period

.There are two time windows commonly referred to as "quiet periods" during an IPO's history.^ And since many companies have IPO’s during a period of transition, the uncertainty of future value increases, adding even more risk.
  • IPO's At Zecco.com, the Free Trading Community 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.zecco.com [Source type: General]

^ If one only thinks about "quiet period" applying during an offering, one would almost certainly conclude that if there is no offering, there is no quiet period restriction, and thus no requirement for any sort of "blackout period" period prior to quarterly earnings announcements.
  • The MoPR Blog » initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mobilitypr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is strict prohibition on any false or misleading statements coming out in public, during the period of sale.
  • Initial Public Offering - 10 Interesting Facts About Initial Public Offering! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first and the one linked above is the period of time following the filing of the company's S-1 but before SEC staff declare the registration statement effective.^ Long before the company filed its IPO documents with the SEC...
  • IPO initial public offering Content at ZDNet UK 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.zdnet.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The investment bank will file the registration statement with the SEC. .
  • Initial Public Stock Offering information habout initial public offerings IPOs 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC initialpublicstockoffering.com [Source type: News]

^ A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed and declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • Archipelago Learning Closes Initial Public Offering « FinancialWire™ 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.financialwire.net [Source type: News]

During this time, issuers, company insiders, analysts, and other parties are legally restricted in their ability to discuss or promote the upcoming IPO.[1]
.The other "quiet period" refers to a period of 40 calendar days following an IPO's first day of public trading.^ The Day Ahead: Mixed bag for IPO quiet period pops .
  • IPO initial public offering Content at ZDNet UK 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.zdnet.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Its shares doubled on their first day of trading.
  • USATODAY.com - Burger King plans to file for initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ Leahy said the company could not discuss the figures while it is in the SEC-mandated "quiet period" for companies going public.
  • SoundBite targets $69M in initial public offering - Boston Business Journal: 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC boston.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

.During this time, insiders and any underwriters involved in the IPO are restricted from issuing any earnings forecasts or research reports for the company.^ IPOs are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately-owned companies looking to become publicly traded.
  • IPO's At Zecco.com, the Free Trading Community 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.zecco.com [Source type: General]

^ IPOs are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking the capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately owned companies looking to become publicly traded.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.investopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ It also allows the companys' insiders who have to hold their stock for a period of time (called letter stock or restricted stock) before they can sell, to start off with a gain.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO) - Hot New Issue? You Should Live So Long! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: General]

.Regulatory changes enacted by the SEC as part of the Global Settlement enlarged the "quiet period" from 25 days to 40 days on July 9, 2002. When the quiet period is over, generally the lead underwriters will initiate research coverage on the firm.^ Leahy said the company could not discuss the figures while it is in the SEC-mandated "quiet period" for companies going public.
  • SoundBite targets $69M in initial public offering - Boston Business Journal: 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC boston.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ Quiet Period A period of 25 days from the time of the offering, as required by the SEC, and the first time underwriters distribute research information about the issuing company.
  • IPO Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC briankohl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The parties have filed a global settlement agreement (issuers and underwriters) with the court.
  • The 10b-5 Daily: IPO Allocation Cases Archives 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.the10b-5daily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, the NASD and NYSE have approved a rule mandating a 10-day quiet period after a Secondary Offering and a 15-day quiet period both before and after expiration of a "lock-up agreement" for a securities offering.^ The lock-up period is usually 180 days.

^ The company has granted to the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 1,108,500 shares from Data Domain at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount.
  • Data Domain Announces Pricing of Initial Public Offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.datadomain.com [Source type: News]

^ Leahy said the company could not discuss the figures while it is in the SEC-mandated "quiet period" for companies going public.
  • SoundBite targets $69M in initial public offering - Boston Business Journal: 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC boston.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

Largest

See also

References

  1. ^ "Quiet Period". Securities and Exchange Commission. August 18, 2005. http://www.sec.gov/answers/quiet.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-04. "The federal securities laws do not define the term "quiet period," which is also referred to as the "waiting period." However, historically, a quiet period extended from the time a company files a registration statement with the SEC until SEC staff declared the registration statement "effective." During that period, the federal securities laws limited what information a company and related parties can release to the public."  
  2. ^ "The Largest IPO in History". Motley Fool. October 27, 2006. http://www.fool.com/investing/international/2006/10/27/the-largest-ipo-in-history.aspx. Retrieved 2008-03-04. "You might not have even known that it was happening, but a record of sorts was set overnight. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Hong Kong: 1398) held its long-awaited initial public offering, which, amazingly enough, was the largest one ever, raising a whopping $19 billion."  
  3. ^ "Pricing the 'biggest IPO in history'". http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/HI29Cb01.html.  

External links

Further reading

  • Gregoriou, Greg (2006). .Initial Public Offerings (IPOs).^ Port operator DP World, part of Dubai World conglomerate, is considering a $884 million initial public offering (IPO)...
    • Initial Public Offering (IPO): Blog - Business Exchange 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Citation: In re Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, 471 F.3d 24 (2d Cir.
    • Cases: In re Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, 471 F.3d 24 (2d Cir. 2006) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.butlerpappas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So the company/organization/institution offers its common shares to the public as an initial sale.
    • Initial Public Offering - 10 Interesting Facts About Initial Public Offering! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Butterworth-Heineman, an imprint of Elsevier. ISBN 0-7506-7975-1. .http://books.elsevier.com/finance/?isbn=0750679751.  
  • [1] Goergen, M., Khurshed, A. and Mudambi, R. 2007. The Long-run Performance of UK IPOs: Can it be Predicted?^ Amazon.com: The Ipo Decision: Why And How Companies Go Public (9781845426385): Jason Draho: Books .
    • Amazon.com: The Ipo Decision: Why And How Companies Go Public (9781845426385): Jason Draho: Books 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On the other hand, the managers will be with the company long after the IPO, and they have an interest in seeing the venture succeed in the long run, according to the authors.
    • Who Profits from IPO Underpricing? - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Author Resource:- Want to find out more information on IPO or Initial Public Offerings, then come and check us out at http://www.tcc5.com .
    • IPO Or Initial Public Offering, Is Your Company Ready? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.makemoneylibrary.com [Source type: News]

    .Managerial Finance, 33(6): 401-419.
  • [2] Loughran, T. and Ritter, J.R. 2004. Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?^ With the Time curve you can manipulate the animation time of objects without changing the animation or the other Ipos.
    • Doc:Manual/Animation/Basic/Tools/Ipo Curves and Keyframes - BlenderWiki 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC wiki.blender.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In fact, it changes the mapping of animation time to global animation time ( Linear time IPO ).
    • Doc:Manual/Animation/Basic/Tools/Ipo Curves and Keyframes - BlenderWiki 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC wiki.blender.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Order a reprint of this article now APRIL 30, 2004 Google IPO Aims To Change the Rules .
    • Google IPO Aims To Change the Rules - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    .Financial Management, 33(3): 5-37.
  • [3] Loughran, T. and Ritter, J.R. 2002. Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs?^ At a P/E of 33, the management has definitely left something on the table for INVESTORS. However, the company in our view will definitely earn more in FY10.
    • IPO India - Indepth Review and Recommendation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC india.dalalstreet.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The main body of the registration statement is a prospectus containing detailed information about the company, including its financial statements and a management analysis.
    • Initial Public Offering Law & Legal Definition 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC definitions.uslegal.com [Source type: News]
    • Initial Public Offerings - advantage, type, benefits, disadvantages, cost, Advantages of going public, Disadvantages of going public, The process of going public 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: News]

    ^ One of the biggest misconceptions about IPOs is that you can’t win big if you don’t “get in” before the newly issued stock hits the market.

    .Review of Financial Studies, 15(2): 413-443.
  • [4] Khurshed, A. and Mudambi, R. 2002. The Short Run Price Performance of Investment Trust IPOs on the UK Main Market.^ This is the website to check IPO allotment status online, IPO listing information, IPO News, IPO Reviews, IPO Grey Market Premium and IPO discussion forum.
    • IPO Allotment Status | IPO Listing | IPO News 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.chittorgarh.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Post-ipo TMH will have 61.4 million shares outstanding for a market cap of 921 million on a pricing of $15.

    ^ November 2006 - last chance to get your IPO shares for Dubai Financial Market.

    .Applied Financial Economics, 12(10): 697-706.
  • [5] Minterest.com
  • [6] Bradley, D.J., Jordan, B.D. and Ritter, J.R. 2003. The Quiet Period Goes Out with a Bang.^ Note that although the "quiet period" applies to all public offerings, the rules restricting communications outside the prospectus are strictest with respect to companies doing an IPO. .
    • The MoPR Blog » initial public offering 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mobilitypr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Journal of Finance, 58(1): 1-36.
  • [7] M.Goergen, M., Khurshed, A. and Mudambi, R. 2006. The Strategy of Going Public: How UK Firms
    Choose Their Listing Contracts.^ By: Joel Arberman l Finance l Apr 30, 2006 l Views: 225 Going Public via Initial or Direct Public Offering: The Role of an Investor Relations Firm .
    • Going Public via Initial or Direct Public Offering: The Role of the Stock Exchange 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Firms no longer needed strong financials and a solid history to go public.
    • Safe Haven | The IPO Report 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.safehaven.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are some advantages and disadvantages to consider and it's always best to sit down and speak to your 'go public' consultant firm for better advice.
    • IPO Or Initial Public Offering, Is Your Company Ready? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.makemoneylibrary.com [Source type: News]

    .Journal of Business Finance and Accounting, 33(1&2): 306-328.
  • [8] Mudambi, R. and Treichel, M.Z. 2005. Cash Crisis in Newly Public Internet-based Firms: An Empirical Analysis.^ Trubion files initial public offering - Puget Sound Business Journal (Seattle): .
    • Trubion files initial public offering - Puget Sound Business Journal (Seattle): 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC seattle.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

    ^ By: Joel Arberman l Finance l Apr 30, 2006 l Views: 225 Going Public via Initial or Direct Public Offering: The Role of an Investor Relations Firm .
    • Going Public via Initial or Direct Public Offering: The Role of the Stock Exchange 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both our independent registered public accounting firm and management periodically meet privately with our audit committee.
    • Form S-1 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Journal of Business Venturing, 20(4): 543-571.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Initial public offering, which are similar to those in the above article.








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