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Insects
Fossil range: 396–0 Ma
Early Devonian[1] (but see text) – Recent
Clockwise from top left: dancefly (Empis livida), long-nosed weevil (Rhinotia hemistictus), mole cricket (Gryllotalpa brachyptera), german wasp (Vespula germanica), emperor gum moth (Opodiphthera eucalypti), assassin bug (Harpactorinae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Mandibulata
Superclass: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
Linnaeus, 1758
.Insects (from Latin: insectum, translation of Greek: entomon - threaded) are a class within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae.^ The crustacean head also contains two compound eyes.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This diagram shows the three major tagmata of an arthropod: head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major regions of the arthropod body: the head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are among the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include more than a million described species and represent more than half of all known living organisms.^ There are more species of beetle than of all other animals > > put together.
  • Chez Watt: Re: Ecological Speciation in Action - talk.origins | Google Groups 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ecological Speciation in Action - talk.origins | Google Groups 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But they have a lot more to fear than this.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ They are fish that can do what most fish cannot do, so they are more than fish.
  • Ecological Speciation in Action - talk.origins | Google Groups 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3] .The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million,[2][4][5] and potentially represent over 90% of the differing metazoan life forms on Earth.^ By preferentially consuming a fast‑growing species, it keeps fungal diversity high; when Onychiurus is removed, a single fungal species predominates, representing 90 percent of the fungal biomass.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Species within these different orders vary primarily on the number and structure of their appendages.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any technician can count total numbers, weigh total biomass and estimate species richness at the resolution of morphospecies.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, the crustaceans.^ All manner of things may occur.

^ The existence of only two species of birds that absolutely require old‑growth related habitat is unlikely to be the pattern for arthropods in the Pacific Northwest, although some correlations have been found in such studies elsewhere in other environments (e.g., Manel and others, 2000; Robbins and Opler, 1997; Swengel and Swengel, 1999).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spirochaetes can be found in the louse's stomach for a few hours, but nearly all are digested.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs.^ The use of the life cycle and habitats of insects to help solve crimes, particular homicides.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bembicines are predators on various groups of insects, and are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, primarily in North and South America.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In programming, error rates vary by life cycle stage.

.Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts.^ Fleas can continue to develop inside vacuum cleaner bags and re-infest the house Insect growth regulators, or IGRs, are a safe preventative treatment for fleas.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the type (or absence) of metamorphosis during development, all insects periodically shed their exoskeleton through the process of molting that you learned about in previous lessons of this chapter.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo complete metamorphosis.^ The larval stages are distinctly different from the adult stage.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metamorphosis in which the larval stages are distinctly different from the adult stage.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the pupal stage the tissues and appendages of the larval stage are broken down and reorganized into new adult tissues, organs and limbs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.^ During their development, many insects undergo major changes in form through a process called metamorphosis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the pupal stage the tissues and appendages of the larval stage are broken down and reorganized into new adult tissues, organs and limbs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will see in lesson 3 that indirect development is also common for the insects of hexapoda although they do not go through a nauplius larval stage.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The higher level relationship of the hexapoda is unclear. .Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (22–28 in).^ The maximal size of line drawings and photographs is 20 x 28 cm.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I found this insect (about 1.5 cm long) in my garden, grazing on a daisy on a warm summer day in Victoria, British Columbia.

^ I found this giant moth type insect on the side of my brick garage this morning.

.The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants.^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bembicines are predators on various groups of insects, and are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, primarily in North and South America.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High levels of alpha-diversity (within-habitat diversity) for arthropod groups generally increase with decreasing latitude within the Pacific Northwest, as they do for plants and most other animal groups.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insects typically move about by walking, flying or occasionally sinking and swimming at the same time.^ Winged insects are also able to move by flying.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They always begin work in the same spot, in the top northwest corner of your field and move across the field, one square at a time.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was about the size of a large house fly but moved faster.

.Because it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles.^ For it is upon this ground that, when a man is dead and buried, they say his soul, that is his life, can walk separated from his body, and is seen by night amongst the graves.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that they have four pairs of appendages modified to function as walking legs, but in all they have six pairs of appendages.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows the survival of many subtle yet important errors, even when the developer really knows approximately what the correct answer should be.

.Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight.^ Insects are the only invertebrates that are capable of flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is considered an earlier version of insect flight that likely evolved before indirect flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the only invertebrates that can fly and the fossil record indicates that they had been enjoying the benefits of flight for over 100 million years before reptiles joined them in their aerial habitats.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many insects spend at least part of their life underwater, with larval adaptations that include gills and some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming.^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This hurt was about what some humans told me was not right but animals accepted as part of life.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The ability to sense many aspects of their environment is a fundamental component of the ability of some insects to have fairly complex responses to or interactions with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species, like water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water.^ "We have a large rift system that brought water to the surface, so it seems likely that this happened," Ms Chen explained.

^ When special habitats, with their associated endemic arthropod associations, occur under the forest canopy (like some swamps, bogs and waterfall splash-zones, etc.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some go after only katydids and like grasshoppers while others prefer weevils, leafhoppers, and aphids; the one you’re seeing specializes in hairless caterpillars.
  • Insects 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.urimga.org [Source type: General]

.Insects are mostly solitary, but some insects, such as certain bees, ants, and termites are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.^ Eusocial insects include species of ants, termites, bees and wasps.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A colony of social insects (termites, ants, wasps, or bees) maintains its social cohesiveness primarily through the utilization of such chemicals.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Live together in well-organized and tightly integrated colonies.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some insects, like earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young.^ Anyway, TADS3 seems just like TADS2, although some of the error messages that showed up the first time only were cool.

^ In some social insect colonies there are other specialized individuals, for example nurses that feed and care for young larvae.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the only reason you would be taking care of a car like that, to that degree, is because at some level in your mind that car is making you an important person.
  • Sheila R. Vitale: Leviathan - Part 8 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC livingepistles.org [Source type: Original source]

.Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways.^ This way others who may have found examples can get them attributed in a way that the variety is identifiable by collectors and would-be sellers alike.

.Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometers.^ In many spider species the pedipalps of the males are modified at the ends to function in transferring sperm to the females.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burrows M. , Boeckh J. , Esslen J. ( 1982 ) Physiological and morphological properties of interneurones in the deutocerebrum of male cockroaches which respond to female pheromone.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newly emerged females release an additional sex pheromone to attract males.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their legs together, to attract a mate and repel other males.^ There are more species of beetle than of all other animals > > put together.
  • Ecological Speciation in Action - talk.origins | Google Groups 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dominik (1966) found that, among the species of beetles attacking building timbers, some attacked wood heavily infected with fungi, some attacked sound, uninfected wood, and others attacked either infected or uninfected wood.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other species is the field cricket ( Gryllus spp ) .
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lampyridae in the beetle order Coleoptera communicate with light. .Humans regard certain insects as pests and attempt to control them using insecticides and a host of other techniques.^ Use a systemic insecticide to control these pests.
  • Insects 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.urimga.org [Source type: General]

^ A systemic insecticide used as directed will control these pests for you.
  • Insects 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.urimga.org [Source type: General]

^ This insecticide is injected directly into the trees vascular system and released quickly to help control insects already inside the vascular system.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.Some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, leaves or fruits, a few bite humans and livestock, alive and dead, to feed on blood and some are capable of transmitting diseases to humans, pets and livestock.^ Some of the diseases transmitted through tick bites include: .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The species is capable of transmitting human trypanosomiasis.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood eating, parasitic insects that feed on human blood and act as vectors for disease transmission.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many other insects are considered ecologically beneficial and a few provide direct economic benefit.^ This will help to encourage many beneficial insects.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects.

^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Silkworms and bees have been domesticated by humans for the production of silk and honey.^ Losses of just a few critical pollinating species, such as bees, could have a significant impact on human food production.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Morphology and physiology

Insect anatomy
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
1. antenna
2. ocelli (lower)
3. ocelli (upper)
4. compound eye
5. brain (cerebral ganglia)
6. prothorax
7. dorsal blood vessel
8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle)
9. mesothorax
10. metathorax
11. forewing
12. hindwing
13. mid-gut (stomach)
14. dorsal tube (Heart)
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, rectum & anus)
17. anus
18. oviduct
19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia)
20. Malpighian tubes
21. tarsal pads
22. claws
23. tarsus
24. tibia
25. femur
26. trochanter
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
28. thoracic ganglion
29. coxa
30. salivary gland
31. subesophageal ganglion
32. mouthparts
.
.Insects' body parts (Antennae, Abdomen etc.^ The sac is just its abdomen; its venom glands are in the narrower head part at the front of its body.

^ Chemicals that are secreted to the outside of the bodies of insects for caste regulation, attraction, communication, trail-marking, etc., are called pheromones .
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are wingless insects with two long, slender antennae, and a flat carrot-shaped body, covered with scales, that tapers down to three long bristles at the end.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), any of them in fact can be highly developed or adapted among different species, though most insects have segmented bodies supported by an .exoskeleton, a hard outer covering made mostly of chitin.^ Like all arthropods, insects have segmented bodies, jointed appendages and an exoskeleton made mostly of chitin.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The segments of the body are organized into three distinctive but interconnected units, or tagmata: a head, a thorax, and an abdomen.^ This diagram shows the three major tagmata of an arthropod: head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major regions of the arthropod body: the head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The body of an insect is divided into three regions: the head, the thorax and the abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The head supports a pair of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes, and, if present, one to three simple eyes (or ocelli) and three sets of variously modified appendages that form the mouthparts.^ The simple eyes called ocelli and compound eyes of an insect are shown above in Figure 7.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head houses three sets of appendages modified for feeding (mouthparts), one set of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes and several simple eyes called ocelli.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head includes mouthparts and sensory organs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The thorax has six segmented legs—one pair each for the prothorax, mesothorax and the metathorax segments making up the thorax—and, if present in the species, two or four wings.^ There are four species in two genera.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Santo Onofre The freguesia of Santo Onofre, along with Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, is one of the two parishes which make up the city of Caldas da Rainha, Portugal.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure Diagram of the different cells that make up an insect wing.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The abdomen consists of eleven segments, though in a few species of insects these segments may be fused together or reduced in size.^ The abdomen is made up of 11 segments and these may be reduced or fused in some species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abdomen is made up of eleven segments and these may be reduced or fused in some species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem is that these tests may be misleading, since positive results are consistent not only with acute coronary syndrome but also with pulmonary embolism.
  • AHRQ Patient Safety Network - Glossary 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.psnet.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The abdomen also contains most of the digestive, respiratory, excretory and reproductive internal structures.^ Excretory system in most terrestrial arthropods; waste is delivered to the posterior end of the digestive tract to be eliminated through the anus.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the internal organ systems of arachnids are similar to those of most arthropods including an open circulatory system, a centralized nervous system and a complete digestive tract.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The six legs are attached to the thorax and the abdomen contains most of the internal organ systems.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:22–48

Nervous system

.The nervous system of an insect can be divided into a brain and a ventral nerve cord.^ Insects, like other arthropods that you have learned about in this chapter, have a central nervous system with a brain located in the head region and a pair of ventral nerve cords that run along the bottom interior of the body.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small openings to the outside of an insect body that takes air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spiracles are small openings to the outside of an insects body that take air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The head capsule, made up of six fused segments, each with a pair of ganglia, or a cluster of nerve cells outside of the brain.^ The nervous system of arthropods is made up of: a central brain that is located in the head region a subesophageal ganglion located behind the brain two nerve cords running along the ventral side of the organism a series of ganglia located on the nerve cords, one pair per body segment well-developed sense organs including: compound eyes, simple eyes, sensory antennae, sensory bristles Ecdysis is the process of forming a new cuticle/exoskeleton and shedding the old one.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along the nerve cord, there are pairs of ganglia located in each segment that function to innervate organs and tissues within that segment.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abdomen is made up of 11 segments and these may be reduced or fused in some species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first three pairs of ganglia are fused into the brain, while the three following pairs are fused into a structure of three pairs of ganglia under the insect's esophagus, called the subesophageal ganglion.^ Immediately behind the brain is the subesophageal ganglion, which is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as you learned in the last lesson, chelicerates have four pairs of appendages that are modified to function as legs, while insects have only three.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:57
.The thoracic segments have one ganglion on each side, which are connected into a pair, one pair per segment.^ In amblypygids ( D ), a grotesquely elongated first leg pair supplies afferents to hundreds of small glomeruli in the first opisthosomal ganglion that spread into supraoesophageal neuropil.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems prudent, therefore, to study the mushroom bodies in the context of the broader landscape of the protocerebrum in which they are but one pair of neuropils connected to many others.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This arrangement is also seen in the abdomen but only in the first eight segments.^ Most malacostraca have three body regions with a head of five segments fused to a thorax of eight segments and an abdomen of six segments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many species of insects have reduced numbers of ganglia due to fusion or reduction.^ Handpick and destroy as many bags as possible in the winter, to reduce the number of eggs.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Many pest insects are food sources for birds and other insect feeding species.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pest proofing has many advantages: it is non-toxic, it is sustainable and it is VERY effective at reducing the number of pests in your home.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Some cockroaches have just six ganglia in the abdomen, whereas the wasp Vespa crabro has only two in the thorax and three in the abdomen.^ Most malacostraca have three body regions with a head of five segments fused to a thorax of eight segments and an abdomen of six segments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I looked at one such set of sermons two or three weeks ago before some discussions we were having at the Defense Policy Board.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Figure The body plan of a typical insect showing the division of the body into three major regions: head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some insects, like the house fly Musca domestica, have all the body ganglia fused into a single large thoracic ganglion.^ I have this insect coming into my house in Kings County Nova Scotia and I would like to know what kind of bug I am dealing with.

^ Coleoptera have a pair of caplike calyces for each mushroom body ( Jawlowski 1936 ), though in some species these are fused (Fig.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He was about the size of a large house fly but moved faster.

Insects have nociceptors, cells that detect and transmit sensations of pain.[10] This was discovered in 2003 by studying the variation in reactions of larvae of the common fruitfly Drosophila to the touch of a heated probe and an unheated one. The larvae reacted to the touch of the heated probe with a stereotypical rolling behavior that was not exhibited when the larvae were touched by the unheated probe.[11] .Although nociception has been demonstrated in insects, there is not a consensus that insects feel pain consciously.^ Although there are a few insects that cause great harm to humans by spreading disease or destroying agricultural crops, humans would likely not be able to exist on the planet without insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Digestive system

.An insect uses its digestive system to extract nutrients and other substances from the food it consumes.^ Water-soluble nutrients are released in the fecal material every time the organic material is passed through the digestive system of an arthropod (usually a fungivore).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many pest insects are food sources for birds and other insect feeding species.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Most of this food is ingested in the form of macromolecules and other complex substances like proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids.^ They are composed of nucleic acid and protein.
  • Biology - Dissection Links - www.101science.com 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Esoteric Buddhism, it is suggested that practicing a selective form of vegetarianism will help most students achieve a clear diamond-like consciousness necessary for healing oneself and others, to have conscious realizations, and eventually attain the state of enlightenment.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Like other flatfish, they have both eyes on the same side of the head, most often on the left side.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These macromolecules must be broken down by catabolic reactions into smaller molecules like amino acids and simple sugars before being used by cells of the body for energy, growth, or reproduction.^ When proteins are exposed to an acid the protein breaks apart into smaller molecules.
  • Biology - Dissection Links - www.101science.com 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These smaller molecules are called amino-acids.
  • Biology - Dissection Links - www.101science.com 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By "flattening" objects into a string representation, like XML, M systems can be used to store objects.

This break-down process is known as digestion.
.The main structure of an insect's digestive system is a long enclosed tube called the alimentary canal, which runs lengthwise through the body.^ A pair of small tube-like structures called cornicles extends backward and upward from the posterior of the aphid, above a small tail-like structure (cauda).

^ Outline the various organ systems and body structures of arthropods and explain how they function.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water-soluble nutrients are released in the fecal material every time the organic material is passed through the digestive system of an arthropod (usually a fungivore).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The alimentary canal directs food unidirectionally from the mouth to the anus. It has three sections, each of which performs a different process of digestion. .In addition to the alimentary canal, insects also have paired salivary glands and salivary reservoirs.^ Composed of three pairs of fused ganglia; controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles in the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These structures usually reside in the thorax, adjacent to the foregut.[8]:70–77
The salivary glands (element 30 in numbered diagram) in an insect's mouth produce saliva. .The salivary ducts lead from the glands to the reservoirs and then forward through the head to an opening called the salivarium, located behind the hypopharynx.^ Dermal gland duct opening [1] .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head contains the eyes, mouth, chelicerae and a pair of appendages behind the chelicerae called pedipalps.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles in the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By moving its mouthparts (element 32 in numbered diagram) the insect can mix its food with saliva.^ The relative positions of the insect mouthparts are shown in the diagram in Figure 6 .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piercing and sucking insects such as mosquitoes also have a modified mouthpart called a stylet that allows them to both pierce the skin of their prey and then suck food from the organism.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modified mouthpart that allows insects to pierce the skin of their prey and then suck food from the organism.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mixture of saliva and food then travels through the salivary tubes into the mouth, where it begins to break down.^ Randy Schwartz who "breaks down contextual advertising into four types : search-based contextual; channel-based contextual; Behaviorally-Based Contextual; and In-Line Advertising.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ His anger strikes through that which restrains him and he breaks forth into the realm of appearance and hardens into a solid covering for the living soul.
  • Sheila R. Vitale: Leviathan - Part 6 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.livingepistles.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 2nd Generation, you have a choice to go north through the gate to North Beach or West into the mouth of the Silent Cave once the barrier is dissolved.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14] .Some insects, like flies, have extra-oral digestion.^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Insects using extra-oral digestion expel digestive enzymes onto their food to break it down. .This strategy allows insects to extract a significant proportion of the available nutrients from the food source.^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mouthparts of a larva can be modified to adapt to a different type of food source that has become more available.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many pest insects are food sources for birds and other insect feeding species.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]:31 .The gut is where almost all of insects' digestion takes place.^ Sankey diagram Sankey diagrams summarise all the energy transfers taking place in a process.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explain several insect behaviors and in particular discuss the intricate social interactions that take place among the social insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are acutely aware of all the shifts that are taking place within and around Mother Earth.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.It can be divided into the foregut, midgut and hindgut.^ Insects have a complete digestive tract that is divided into three main regions that follow the pharynx and esophagus : a foregut, midgut and hindgut.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foregut
Stylized diagram of insect digestive tract showing malpighian tubule, from an insect of the family Orthoptera.
The first section of the alimentary canal is the foregut (element 27 in numbered diagram), or stomodaeum. The foregut is line with a cuticular lining made of chitin and proteins as protection from tough food. .The foregut includes the buccal cavity (mouth), pharynx, esophagus, and crop and proventriculus (any part may be highly modified) which both store food and signify when to continue passing onward to the midgut.^ The insect then uses a modified labium to “sponge up” and deliver the food to the esophagus.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modified appendage found on the head that function as mouthparts; usually used for manipulating food in the mouth and swallowing; feature shared by myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may want to inspect all dry stored food products in your house for signs of infestation.

[8]:70 .Here, digestion starts as partially chewed food is broken down by saliva from the salivary glands.^ Anatomy of the digestive tube, histology and histochemistry of the foregut and salivary glands of Rhinocricus padbergi Verhoeff (Diplopoda: Spirobolida: Rhinocricidae) // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

.As the salivary glands produce fluid and carbohydrate-digesting enzymes (mostly amylases), strong muscles in the pharynx pump fluid into the buccal cavity, lubricating the food like the salivarium does, and helping blood feeders, and xylem and phloem feeders.^ Anatomy of the digestive tube, histology and histochemistry of the foregut and salivary glands of Rhinocricus padbergi Verhoeff (Diplopoda: Spirobolida: Rhinocricidae) // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles in the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From there, the pharynx passes food to the esophagus, which could be just a simple tube passing it on to the crop and proventriculus, and then on ward to the midgut, as in most insects.^ Losses of just a few critical pollinating species, such as bees, could have a significant impact on human food production.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I feel like there could have been some humor, but it was just left out.

.Alternately, the foregut may expand into a very enlarged crop and proventriculus, or the crop could just be a diverticulum, or fluid filled structure, as in some Diptera species.^ Table 1 shows that just as faults/KLOC usually falls into a narrow range (Panko, 2005a), the CERs seen in spreadsheet studies have been very similar.

^ The abdomen is made up of 11 segments and these may be reduced or fused in some species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They frequently find their way indoors during their searches for prey, and some species do indeed have a very characteristic odor.

[15]:30–31
Midgut
.Once food leaves the crop, it passes to the midgut (element 13 in numbered diagram), also known as the mesenteron, where the majority of digestion takes place.^ Sankey diagram Sankey diagrams summarise all the energy transfers taking place in a process.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repetition of these interlocking 13- and 20-day cycles therefore takes 260 days to complete (that is, for every possible combination of number/named day to occur once).

^ As their numbers swell, they become less selective of their source of food and begin to consume the leaves on every tree and plant in their path, causing massive damage.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.Microscopic projections from the midgut wall, called microvilli, increase the surface area of the wall and allow more nutrients to be absorbed; they tend to be close to the origin of the midgut.^ This increases surface area for microbial colonization.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The larvae tend to crawl about as they feed and eat the nap from the fabric surface.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They that taking occasion from this place do commonly call him the Verb of God do but render the text more obscure.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.In some insects, the role of the microvilli and where they are located may vary.^ According to some versions of the story, they themselves may not know who they are.

^ These are quite small caterpillars that often spin silk as they feed, and thus may cause the leaf to roll up to some extent.

^ Surprisingly, in some instances, studying the insects found on the body may also lead to the cause of death.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, specialized microvilli producing digestive enzymes may more likely be near the end of the midgut, and absorption near the origin or beginning of the midgut.^ Neither species bears a stinger, instead when alarmed they produce an odor, like that of rotten coconut to deter predators.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those species that do not have such powerful chelicerae are capable of secreting digestive enzymes onto their prey in order to carry out much of their digestion externally.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More examples of vain philosophy, brought into religion by the doctors of School divinity, might be produced; but other men may if they please observe them of themselves.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]:32
Hindgut
.In the hindgut (element 16 in numbered diagram), or proctodaeum, undigested food particles are joined by uric acid to form fecal pellets.^ Fecal material in form of hard, dry pellets–appearing like sawdust in galleries or in piles outside.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As soon as the fecal pellet is covered with microbial growth it is fed upon by yet a different species of fungivore, and additional nutrient ends up in soluble form.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with drywood termites, fecal pellets, colored according to the kind of food eaten by the termite, may be found throughout the colony.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rectum absorbs 90% of the water in these fecal pellets, and the dry pellet is then eliminated through the anus (element 17), completing the process of digestion.^ These can sometimes be minimizes through some image editing but can never be eliminated completely and takes time to get to an acceptable level.

^ Water-soluble nutrients are released in the fecal material every time the organic material is passed through the digestive system of an arthropod (usually a fungivore).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fecal material in form of hard, dry pellets–appearing like sawdust in galleries or in piles outside.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The uric acid is formed using hemolymph waste products diffused from the Malpighian tubules (element 20).^ Coxal glands consist of a sac that collects waste from the hemocoel, a tubule that facilitates reabsorbtion of useful nutrients and concentration of waste and an excretory pore.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is then emptied directly into the alimentary canal, at the junction between the midgut and hindgut.^ As you learned in lesson one, Malphigian tubules do not exit the body directly but instead empty into the hindgut of the digestive tract.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This diagram illustrates how the tubule empties into the hindgut of the digestive tract.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects have a complete digestive tract that is divided into three main regions that follow the pharynx and esophagus : a foregut, midgut and hindgut.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of Malpighian tubules possessed by a given insect varies between species, ranging from only two tubules in some insects to over 100 tubules in others.^ Mitosis: (Science: cell biology) A method of indirect division of a cell , consisting of a complex of various processes , by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes characteristic of the somatic cells of the species .
  • Biology - Dissection Links - www.101science.com 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some animals are able to detect infrasound frequencies in the range of 1 to 3 hertz, and ultrasound above 20,000 hertz, compared with humans' 100 to 200 hertz range.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Insecticides are one possible solution to the problem of some crop-damaging insects but there are a number of serious problems with this approach.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:71–72, 78–80

Respiration and circulation

Insect respiration is accomplished without lungs. .Instead, the insect respiratory system uses a system of internal tubes and sacs through which gases either diffuse or are actively pumped, delivering oxygen directly to tissues that need it via their trachea (element 8 in numbered diagram).^ Instead, insects have a highly efficient respiratory system that is composed of trachea.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike most invertebrates (and vertebrates) that use respiratory organs to absorb oxygen from their environments and deliver it to the circulatory system for dispersal throughout the body, insects (and some other arthropods) do not transport oxygen via the circulatory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most other terrestrial arthropods have evolved an elaborate system of trachea that take in air and deliver it throughout many regions of the body.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since oxygen is delivered directly, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is therefore greatly reduced.^ They have an open circulatory system but their blood does not carry oxygen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tracheal system is composed of tubules that take in air from the environment through spiracles and carry it throughout the organism to bring oxygen directly to various tissues.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Composed of tubules that take in air from the environment through spiracles and carry it throughout the organism to bring oxygen directly to various tissues.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The insect circulatory system has no veins or arteries, and instead consists of little more than a single, perforated dorsal tube which pulses peristaltically.^ The post is more than a little insulting too.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No more than 8 sets known!
  • Insects, Butterflies, Bees, Price List 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.hgitner.com [Source type: General]

^ Russian secret services today are nothing more than the proud heirs of their KGB legacy, but they no longer work as mere caretakers of the asylum.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.Toward the thorax, the dorsal tube (element 14) divides into chambers and acts like the insect's heart.^ I have this insect coming into my house in Kings County Nova Scotia and I would like to know what kind of bug I am dealing with.

^ Insects have a complete digestive tract that is divided into three main regions that follow the pharynx and esophagus : a foregut, midgut and hindgut.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was created by the British North America Act of 1867 which divided the County of Lanark into two ridings : Lanark South and Lanark North.

.The opposite end of the dorsal tube is like the aorta of the insect circulating the hemolymph, arthropods' fluid analog of blood, inside the body cavity.^ These blood-filled regions are the primary body cavities in arthropods.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like other arthropods, insects have an open circulatory system in which the blood (called hemolymph ) spends most of its time in body cavities called hemocoels and only a small amount of time flowing through blood vessels.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNDERWATER WILLIE'S POV The inside of her helmet is a grid of LED gauges monitoring air reserve, body temperature, atmospheres, heart rate, blood pressure.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

[8]:61–65[16] .Air is taken in through openings on the sides of the abdomen called spiracles.^ The tracheal system is composed of tubules that take in air from the environment through spiracles and carry it throughout the organism to bring oxygen directly to various tissues.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Composed of tubules that take in air from the environment through spiracles and carry it throughout the organism to bring oxygen directly to various tissues.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxygen is brought to the tissues through a series of tubes throughout the body, called a tracheal system, that directly connect to the atmosphere outside of the animal through spiracles.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many different patterns of gas exchange demonstrated by different groups of insects.^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects.

^ And therefore, where many sorts of Worship be allowed, proceeding from the different Religions of Private men, it cannot be said there is any Publique Worship, nor that the Common−wealth is of any Religion at all.

Gas exchange patterns in insects can range from continuous and diffusive ventilation, to discontinuous gas exchange.[8]:65–68 .During continuous gas exchange, oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is released in a continuous cycle.^ The molecular mass of CO 2 (when the atomic mass of carbon is 12g, and oxygen is 16g) is: 2×16 + 12 = 44g, so one mole of carbon dioxide is 44g.

.In discontinuous gas exchange, however, the insect takes in oxygen while it is active and small amounts of carbon dioxide are released when the insect is at rest.^ Small openings to the outside of an insect body that takes air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spiracles are small openings to the outside of an insects body that take air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The molecular mass of CO 2 (when the atomic mass of carbon is 12g, and oxygen is 16g) is: 2×16 + 12 = 44g, so one mole of carbon dioxide is 44g.

[17] .Diffusive ventilation is simply a form of continuous gas exchange that occurs by diffusion rather than physically taking in the oxygen.^ As with the environment, every small step one takes to alleviate pain and suffering for an animal should be hailed rather than criticized as not enough.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The transfer of Y. pestis organisms from the native rodent to the commensal rats by exchange of fleas occurs rather easily.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Quantum mechanics provides probabilistic results because the physical universe is itself probabilistic rather than deterministic .

.Some species of insect that are submerged also have adaptations to aid in respiration.^ I didn’t really think much of it just thought that an ant or some insect bit me so just blew it off and put neosporin on a band-aid and went to sleep.

^ Morphological structures in some Neotropical Myrmecodesmus species (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Pyrgodesmidae) reveal the ability for plastron respiration // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In Arizona some 11,000 species of insects have been identified, a large percent of which (> 95%) are either harmless or beneficial to humans.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As larvae, many insects have gills that can extract oxygen dissolved in water, while others need to rise to the water surface to replenish air supplies which may be held or trapped in special structures.^ There are many other reasons why a species may be rare.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tree damage is caused by the insect larvae, or caterpillars, which emerge from their eggs beginning in early spring and continuing through mid-May.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Other icy planets thought to have a subsurface ocean include Jupiter's moons Europa and Callisto, while the idea that Saturn's moon Enceladus may have liquid water beneath its surface has been met with recent criticisms.

[18][19]

Exoskeleton

Scanning electron micrograph of a thrips (Thysanoptera), showing fine structure, the compound eyes, wing construction, and setae.
.Their outer skeleton, the cuticle, is made up of two layers: the epicuticle, which is a thin and waxy water resistant outer layer and contains no chitin, and a lower layer called the procuticle.^ The abdomen is made up of 12 segments with no appendages followed by the tail, or telson.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is here a quarrel> between two schools of thought; if he be pushing up his lower lip,> he emphasizes silence as silence; if his thumb is in his mouth, it> emphasizes the doctrine of Eheieh: "I shall Be".

^ If the two persons in this so called sex tape were both adults--so what if this were another britney spear s story, would anyone be bringing up her race?.
  • Блоги@Mail.Ru: SEX , love , SEX 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.mail.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The procuticle is chitinous and much thicker than the epicuticle and has two layers: an outer layer known as the exocuticle and an inner layer known as the endocuticle.^ The Kerr solution has two photon spheres , an inner and an outer one.

^ Their front two antennae or feet are much longer than any of their middle portion legs.

^ A bird in the hand is much better than two in a bush.
  • Sheila R. Vitale: Leviathan - Part 8 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC livingepistles.org [Source type: Original source]

The tough and flexible endocuticle is built from numerous layers of fibrous chitin and proteins, criss-crossing each others in a sandwich pattern, while the exocuticle is rigid and hardened.[8]:22–24 .The exocuticle is greatly reduced in many soft-bodied insects (e.g., caterpillars), especially during their larval stages.^ During the pupal stage the tissues and appendages of the larval stage are broken down and reorganized into new adult tissues, organs and limbs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will see in lesson 3 that indirect development is also common for the insects of hexapoda although they do not go through a nauplius larval stage.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, early stages of the hemimetabolous mushroom bodies appear to be representative of mushroom bodies of adult holometabolous insects.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Insects are the only invertebrates to have developed flight capability, and this has played an important role in their success.^ Insects are the only invertebrates that are capable of flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two chefs will play an important role in managing the company's growing appetites,'' said co-founder Sergey Brin in a news release.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ His daughter Eve began to play an important role in the organization of the sect at this time.

[8]:186 .These muscles are able to contract multiple times for each single nerve impulse, allowing the wings to beat faster than would ordinarily be possible.^ More than two decades after Thorne's seminal work, we still don't know whether time travel is possible.

^ In one study of real-time triggers in a single community hospital, for example, more than 1000 triggers were generated in 6 months, and approximately 25% led to physician action and would not have been recognized without the trigger.
  • AHRQ Patient Safety Network - Glossary 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.psnet.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These two types of flight differ in how the insect muscles cause the wings to flap.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Having their muscles attached to their exoskeletons is more efficient and allows more mucles connections; crustaceans also use the same method, though all spiders use hydraulic pressure to extend their legs, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors.^ Could use a hint system, though.

^ Job search delivers traffic to employer’s websites more efficiently than any other method.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ For all these things are commonly so valued; though some men are more, and some lesse sensible of the same offence.

.Unlike insects, though, most aquatic crustaceans are biomineralized with calcium carbonate extracted from the water.^ Though the truly aquatic species of invertebrates are relatively well-known, few of them will appear on any sensitive short list since most are both relatively widespread and frequent.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though most plants and vertebrates have passed through all three phases of taxonomic development, few insects have.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][21]

Reproduction and development

A pair of Simosyrphus grandicornis hoverflies mating in flight.
The majority of insects hatch from eggs. .Some species of insects, like the cockroach Blaptica dubia, are ovoviviparous.^ There are some species of insects that can also reproduce asexually.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some insect species the transition to adulthood involves relatively minor changes but in the majority of species, it is a drastic and profound transformation.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some social insect colonies there are other specialized individuals, for example nurses that feed and care for young larvae.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eggs of ovoviviparous animals develop entirely inside the female, and then hatch immediately upon being laid.^ Once the egg has been fertilized, the female usually lays the egg and it continues developing outside of the mother’s body.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy infection in ticks may sometimes be fatal for engorged female vector ticks and may reduce oviposition and egg development.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some other species, such as those in the genus of cockroaches known as Diploptera, are viviparous, and thus gestate inside the mother and are born alive.^ According to this obligation, I can acknowledge no other Books of the Old Testament, to be Holy Scripture, but those which have been commanded to be acknowledged for such, by the Authority of the Church of England.

^ All species have something that sets them apart from other species, > > even those to which they are closely related.
  • Ecological Speciation in Action - talk.origins | Google Groups 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medline ↵ Breidbach O. , Kutsch W. , eds( 1995 ) Common and special features of the nervous system of Onychophora: A comparison with Arthropoda, Annelida, and some other invertebrates.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]:129, .131, 134–135 Some insects, like parasitic wasps, show polyembryony, where a single fertilized egg divides into many and in some cases thousands of separate embryos.^ I have this insect coming into my house in Kings County Nova Scotia and I would like to know what kind of bug I am dealing with.

^ The ability to sense many aspects of their environment is a fundamental component of the ability of some insects to have fairly complex responses to or interactions with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1996 it was divided into separate districts of San Salvador and Rum Cay.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:136–137
The different forms of the male (top) and female (bottom) moth Orgyia recens is an example of sexual dimorphism in insects.
.Other developmental and reproductive variations include haplodiploidy, polymorphism, paedomorphosis or peramorphosis, sexual dimorphism, parthenogenesis and more rarely hermaphroditism.^ Friendly Overtures There are altogether some 35 recorded versions of the song, more if I include those I've learned of by reading the various messages herein.
  • Lyr Req: The Last Leviathan 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.mudcat.org [Source type: General]

^ Insects reproduce by sexual reproduction or parthenogenesis and they undergo periodic molts as they grow.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:143 .In haplodiploidy, which is a type of sex-determination system, the offspring's sex is determined by the number of sets of chromosomes an individual receives.^ The intensity of the stimulus the workers receive from the odor trails determines the number recruited (Stuart, 1967).
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the path was determined uniquely by the destination phone number, however, the system could not make use an alternate path.
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This system is typical in bees and wasps.[22] .Polymorphism is the where a species may have different morphs or forms, as in the oblong winged katydid, which has four different varieties: green, pink, and yellow or tan.^ Marking systems may differ from species to species.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This system may differ from species to species.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Creamy white flowers are the norm (though there is a pink variety) complemented with a rich yellow lip.

.Some insects may retain phenotypes that are normally only seen in juveniles; this is called paedomorphosis.^ Some may call it a bug, but I call it entertainment.

^ And so perhaps are some of those Books which are called Apocrypha, if left out of the Canon, not for inconformity of Doctrine with the rest, but only because they are not found in the Hebrew.

^ And so perhaps are some of those books which are called Apocrypha, if left out of the Canon, not for inconformity of doctrine with the rest, but only because they are not found in the Hebrew.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.In peramorphosis, an opposite sort of phenomenon, insects take on previously unseen traits after they have matured into adults.^ The juveniles mature fast into grey coloured adults in only a few weeks.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ The first instar larvae dig to the soil surface, where they feed on roots and organic material, taking typically 17-30 days to mature.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ For one thing, science admits it has to take into account multiple problems in the data, so they’re not claiming it’s perfect.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many insects display sexual dimorphism, in which males and females have notably different appearances, such as the moth Orgyia recens as an exemplar of sexual dimorphism in insects.^ In many spider species the pedipalps of the males are modified at the ends to function in transferring sperm to the females.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based originally on small differences in the complex male and female genitalia, this division into three groups is broadly supported by chromosome and enzyme-electrophoretic studies.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some insects use parthenogenesis, a process in which the female can reproduce and give birth without having the eggs fertilized by a male.^ The females then use the packaged sperm to fertilize their eggs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some species of insects that can also reproduce asexually.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If she chooses not to fertilize the eggs, they will still develop but they will produce haploid male progeny via parthenogenesis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many aphids undergo a form of parthenogenesis, called cyclical parthenogenesis, in which they alternate between one or many generations of asexual and sexual reproduction.^ Insects reproduce by sexual reproduction or parthenogenesis and they undergo periodic molts as they grow.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do this by a process called parthenogenesis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ticks and mites differ because the cephalothorax and abdomen are not distinct regions and they form one main body region.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23][24] .More rarely, insects display hermaphroditism, in which a given individual has both male and female reproductive organs.^ It represents generative power, and as such it is a> card of opposites, both male and female elements combining to forma> balanced whole.

^ Saint Death is depicted by means of both male and female representations.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike most arthropods, they are usually hermaphrodites, meaning that an individual can generate both sperm and eggs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insect life-histories may show adaptations to withstand cold and dry conditions.^ In this way, the insects can escape adverse weather conditions, such as dryness or low temperature.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to know the life histories and habits of such insects.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to quantifying the effect of aquatic insects as flycatcher food, basic natural history data on the life cycles and identification of the species present would be collated.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some temperate region insects are capable of activity during winter, while some others may migrate or go into a state of torpor.^ By leaving distant nests intact, the kissing bugs have an alternative site to inhabit; this may discourage migration into the home.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what, may some object, if a king, or a senate, or other sovereign person forbid us to believe in Christ?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some ecosystem processes, like cross-pollination of understory plants, are facilitated by edge-effects, but other faunal components may be equally hindered.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still other insects have evolved mechanisms of diapause that allow eggs or pupae to survive these conditions.^ These insects seem to hide amongst the flowers waiting for other insects to come by and feed.

^ There are still other features that are truly unique to insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eradicating these insects can be difficult as they often reside between wall partitions, in insulation materials and in other protected places.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Metamorphosis

.Metamorphosis in insects is the biological process of development all insects must undergo.^ A possible answer is suggested by comparisons between hemimetabolic insects that develop through several instars, each providing an immature version of the adult, and holometabolic insects that undergo a more or less complete metamorphosis from larva to adult through postembryonic pupal development.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During their development, many insects undergo major changes in form through a process called metamorphosis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metamorphosis in which the insects go through gradual changes as they slowly develop from juvenile forms, called nymphs, to the adult form.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two forms of metamorphosis: incomplete metamorphosis and complete metamorphosis.^ Philosophy in general knows two styles, the contemplative and the didactic, although there are many writers to whom neither belongs to the complete exclusion of the other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among insects that experience metamorphosis, there are two types: .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Incomplete metamorphosis

Insects that show hemimetabolism, or incomplete metamorphosis, change gradually by undergoing a series of molts. .An insect molts when it outgrows its exoskeleton, which does not stretch and would otherwise restrict the insect's growth.^ It is a method of stretching the woven cloth in both length and width, to reduce the shrinkage which would otherwise occur after washing.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you think of other adaptations that would allow an organism to hold its body up and maintain its shape without limiting its growth and movement the way that an exoskeleton does?
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The molting process begins as the insect's epidermis secretes a new epicuticle.^ Molting; process of shedding the exoskeleton and forming a new one periodically throughout the animal’s lifetime.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During molting, a new cuticle begins to form beneath the old cuticle.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this new epicuticle is secreted, the epidermis releases a mixture of enzymes that digests the endocuticle and thus detaches the old cuticle.^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the exoskeleton becomes too small, the organism must secrete a new one and shed the old one.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those species that do not have such powerful chelicerae are capable of secreting digestive enzymes onto their prey in order to carry out much of their digestion externally.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When this stage is complete, the insect makes its body swell by taking in a large quantity of water or air, which makes the old cuticle split along predefined weaknesses where the old exocuticle was thinnest.^ Thus, early stages of the hemimetabolous mushroom bodies appear to be representative of mushroom bodies of adult holometabolous insects.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ground-nesting insects can be discouraged by allowing the soil to dry out completely, and by mulching or planting a ground cover over large patches of bare ground.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The method used to determine the amount of magnesium in the body, food, water, air, feces and urine was atomic absorption spectroscopy.

[8]:142[26] .Other arthropods do not have much a different process and only molt; though must accommodate for the difference in exoskeleton structure and make up with other enzymes.^ So what makes a crustacean different from other arthropods?
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure Structure of the cuticle/exoskeleton of arthropods.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the cuticle of roundworms and the cuticle/exoskeleton of arthropods are structurally quite different, both must be shed periodically in order for the animal to continue growing.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Immature insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis are called nymphs or in the case of dragonflies and damselflies as naiads.^ Most insects go through some form of metamorphosis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A possible answer is suggested by comparisons between hemimetabolic insects that develop through several instars, each providing an immature version of the adult, and holometabolic insects that undergo a more or less complete metamorphosis from larva to adult through postembryonic pupal development.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You will see in lesson 3 that indirect development is also common for the insects of hexapoda although they do not go through a nauplius larval stage.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nymphs are similar in form to the adult except for the presence of wings, which are not developed until adulthood.^ The process of developing from a larva to the recognizable adult form is called metamorphosis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overall form of the nymphs and the adults is not drastically different and most of the body parts are the same between the two.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are classified based on the presence or absence of wings, the architecture of the wings (folding or non-folding) and the extent of transformation during development (metamorphosis).
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With each molt, nymphs grow larger and become more similar in appearance to adult insects.^ They must understand that the vast divergence of cultures, will, ironically, only grow greater the more denationalized and further regionalized they become, if history is our guide.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Larger, rapidly-growing colonies work faster, damage often more severe.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects reproduce by sexual reproduction or parthenogenesis and they undergo periodic molts as they grow.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like other insects that develop through incomplete metamorphosis, this Southern Hawker dragonfly molts its exoskeleton (shown above) several times during its pre-adult life.

Complete metamorphosis

Gulf Fritillary life cycle, an example of holometabolism.
.Holometabolism, or complete metamorphosis, is where the insect changes all in four stages, an egg or embryo, a larva, a pupa, and the adult or imago.^ A possible answer is suggested by comparisons between hemimetabolic insects that develop through several instars, each providing an immature version of the adult, and holometabolic insects that undergo a more or less complete metamorphosis from larva to adult through postembryonic pupal development.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tree damage is caused by the insect larvae, or caterpillars, which emerge from their eggs beginning in early spring and continuing through mid-May.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Metamorphosis in which the insects go through gradual changes as they slowly develop from juvenile forms, called nymphs, to the adult form.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In these species, egg hatches to produce a larva, which is generally worm-like in form.^ Neither species bears a stinger, instead when alarmed they produce an odor, like that of rotten coconut to deter predators.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From a realistic point of view, these will be the species most likely to be seriously affected negatively by management practices.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All participants submitting acceptable material will be eligible to receive a recognition in the form of a specially produced medal.

.This worm-like form can be one of several varieties: eruciform (caterpillar-like), scarabaeiform (grub-like), campodeiform (elongated, flattened, and active), elateriform (wireworm-like) or vermiform (maggot-like).^ It looks like there are very few active stations from Finland in the GHCN with Helsinki (see also GISS graph for Helsinki ) being one of them.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While I can see why you may like him for basically paving the road for younger conservatives, Goldwater was only an active leader of conservatives for one year or so.

^ It has a worm-like body, a large head and large limbs, and an elongate cylindrical tail of less than 1.5 times its body length.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The larva grows and eventually becomes a pupa, a stage marked by reduced movement and often sealed within a cocoon.^ Often these beetles require the presence of actively growing fungi to concentrate limiting nutrients within the wood (Crowson 1981; Martin 1987).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pupa is dark brown and often found in a loose cocoon in a fold of leaf.

.There are three types of pupae: obtect, exarate or coarctate.^ There are three species in this terrestrial genus segregated from Stenorrhynchos Common Name or Meaning The Two Colored Flower Orchid Type Species = !
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

.Obtect pupae are compact, with the legs and other appendages enclosed.^ Lastly, members of the subphylum hexapoda have three pairs of appendages that are modified to function as walking legs as well as several other sets modified for other purposes.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exarate pupae have their legs and other appendages free and extended.^ Lastly, members of the subphylum hexapoda have three pairs of appendages that are modified to function as walking legs as well as several other sets modified for other purposes.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coarctate pupae develop inside the larval skin.[8]:151 .Insects undergo considerable change in form during the pupal stage, and emerge as adults.^ A fairly drastic change in form during the transition from larvae to adults.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects that do not undergo a metamorphic change during their development are called ametabolous insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects that do not undergo a metamorphic change during their development.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Butterflies are a well known example of an insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, although most insects use this life cycle.^ A possible answer is suggested by comparisons between hemimetabolic insects that develop through several instars, each providing an immature version of the adult, and holometabolic insects that undergo a more or less complete metamorphosis from larva to adult through postembryonic pupal development.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of the life cycle and habitats of insects to help solve crimes, particular homicides.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, even within this well-known group as a whole, the second, third and fourth most speciose genera have not yet been revised.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some insects have evolved this system to hypermetamorphosis.
.Some of the oldest and most successful insect groups, such Endopterygota, use a system of complete metamorphosis.^ Most insects go through some form of metamorphosis.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malphigian tubules Coxal glands Crustaceans and some arachnids have an excretory system that uses coxal glands (also called green glands, antennal glands or maxillary glands).
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:143 .Strangely though, complete metamorphosis is unique to certain insect orders, like Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera, and no other arthropods undergo it, but incomplete metamorphosis.^ I can read the Torah like no other.

^ V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A possible answer is suggested by comparisons between hemimetabolic insects that develop through several instars, each providing an immature version of the adult, and holometabolic insects that undergo a more or less complete metamorphosis from larva to adult through postembryonic pupal development.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

Senses and communication

.Many insects possess very sensitive and/or specialized organs of perception.^ Agonum belleri , a carabid ground-beetle, is a well-known inhabitant of sphagnum bogs; it is a very unique species, considered by many specialists to be in its own unique subgenus.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another feature of the pedipalps of many species is the presence of sense organs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many pest insects are food sources for birds and other insect feeding species.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some insects such as bees can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths, or detect polarized light, while the antennae of male moths can detect the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometers.^ In many spider species the pedipalps of the males are modified at the ends to function in transferring sperm to the females.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in some places of the world men have the liberty of many wives: in other places, such liberty is not allowed.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ability to sense many aspects of their environment is a fundamental component of the ability of some insects to have fairly complex responses to or interactions with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .There is a pronounced tendency for there to be a trade-off between visual acuity and chemical or tactile acuity, such that most insects with well-developed eyes have reduced or simple antennae, and vice-versa.There are a variety of different mechanisms by which insects perceive sound, while the patterns are not universal, insects can generally hear sound if they can produce it.^ Protura and diplura generally do not have eyes or antennae.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two different mechanisms of insect flight: indirect flight and direct flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a variety of types of feeding among the insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Different insect species can have varying hearing, though most insects can hear only a narrow range of frequencies related to the frequency of the sounds they can produce.^ They may be accessed by the "Bibliography" tab at the top of most pages, or via the "Related Topics" box in the sidebar.
  • Duke University 1 February 2010 1:50 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neither species bears a stinger, instead when alarmed they produce an odor, like that of rotten coconut to deter predators.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different sibling species are likely in these localities, since the biology of S. metallicum is variable and it occurs extensively where onchocerciasis is absent.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.Like mosquitoes have been found to hear up to 2 MHz., and yet some grasshoppers can hear up to 50 MHz.^ I found this in our closet where we store blankets, pillows, shoes, books and some old clothing that had recently been brought up from our basement.

^ Anyway, TADS3 seems just like TADS2, although some of the error messages that showed up the first time only were cool.

[28] .Certain predatory and parasitic insects can detect the characteristic sounds made by their prey or hosts, respectively.^ I cannot be certain about the insect on the right, I can only guess that it might be a parasitic wasp in the family Braconidae or Ichneumonidae.

^ Organs made up of an eardrum-like membrane; used by insects that detect sound.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, insects that can detect sound such as grasshoppers, moths and butterflies, generally use tympanal organs located on various parts of the body, depending on the species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, some nocturnal moths can perceive the ultrasonic emissions of bats, which helps them avoid predation.^ This may sound like some gruesome stuff but for the families of victims and potential future victims of a predator, any information that can help the investigation of the crime is vital.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:87–94 .Insects that feed on blood have special sensory structures that can detect infrared emissions, and use them to home in on their hosts.^ D) Fleas Fleas are small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals and people.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special spell named 'Dragon Break' can combat the evil, and only one with the blood of an Earthmate running through his/her veins can use the Spell.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These all feed on plant material of some kind; most species found in homes are seed feeders (such as in whole grains, nuts, etc.

.Some insects display a rudimentary sense of numbers,[29] such as the solitary wasps that prey upon a single species.^ Insecticides are one possible solution to the problem of some crop-damaging insects but there are a number of serious problems with this approach.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some species of insects that can also reproduce asexually.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ability to sense many aspects of their environment is a fundamental component of the ability of some insects to have fairly complex responses to or interactions with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mother wasp lays her eggs in individual cells and provides each egg with a number of live caterpillars on which the young feed when hatched.^ Tiny wasps lay their eggs in aphids.

^ Adults are generally monitored using yellow sticky traps or by carefully turning over leaves to examine the underside where whiteflies typically feed and lay eggs.

^ The newly hatched young are vulnerable, blind, and hairless, and are fed by the mother’s milk.

.Some species of wasp always provide five, others twelve, and others as high as twenty-four caterpillars per cell.^ Medline ↵ Breidbach O. , Kutsch W. , eds( 1995 ) Common and special features of the nervous system of Onychophora: A comparison with Arthropoda, Annelida, and some other invertebrates.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Areas with high species richness may not coincide with areas of high endemism (Prendergast and others 1993; Kerr 1997).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dominik (1966) found that, among the species of beetles attacking building timbers, some attacked wood heavily infected with fungi, some attacked sound, uninfected wood, and others attacked either infected or uninfected wood.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of caterpillars is different among species, but always the same for each sex of larva.^ Species within these different orders vary primarily on the number and structure of their appendages.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subscript numbers indicate cells produced by different branches of the same vein.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are, of course, a number of different types of species such a list should include (there may be other types that I havent thought of): .
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The male solitary wasp in the genus Eumenes is smaller than the female, so the mother of one species supplies him with only five caterpillars; the larger female receives ten caterpillars in her cell.^ Most occur only in females of a species, but some occur only in males.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many spider species the pedipalps of the males are modified at the ends to function in transferring sperm to the females.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weight varies considerably from 700 g (1.54 lb) to 2.4 kg (5.3 lb) with males being larger than females: males average 50 cm (20 in) total length while females average 43 cm (17 in).

Light production and vision

Insects have compound eyes and two antennae.
.A few insects, such as members of the families Poduridae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Mycetophilidae (Diptera), and the beetle families Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae are bioluminescent.^ Members of the subphylum chelicerata such as spiders and ticks are often confused with non-flying insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in chewing insects such as dragonflies and beetles, the mandibles are often quite large and protrude out from the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such he became member the Consistoire (Consistory) of the Paris Reformed Church together with the twenty- four wealthiest heads of Protestant families and the pastors of the local Churches.

.The most familiar group are the fireflies, beetles of the family Lampyridae.^ STORED PRODUCT PESTS IN ARIZONA Most stored product pests can be grouped as beetles, moths, or mites.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D) Wood-boring Beetles Bees The most common wood boring beetles can be classed in three groups: the true powderpost beetle (lyctid), the false powder beetle (bostrichid), and the deathwatch beetle (anobiid).
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species are able to control this light generation to produce flashes.^ Theoretically it is based on the presumption that, over time, all individual component forest species become to some extent coevolved to produce the forest processes observed today.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Control Box - A control box used for dimming lights for special effects.

^ This Species with mottled leaves producing a tall spike, generally only with one large flower.

.The function varies with some species using them to attract mates, while others use them to lure prey.^ Medline ↵ Breidbach O. , Kutsch W. , eds( 1995 ) Common and special features of the nervous system of Onychophora: A comparison with Arthropoda, Annelida, and some other invertebrates.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They frequently find their way indoors during their searches for prey, and some species do indeed have a very characteristic odor.

^ It's placed in the southern area of the city and has a special function for the people living in other boroughs around, due th..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cave dwelling larvae of Arachnocampa (Mycetophilidae, Fungus gnats) glow to lure small flying insects into sticky strands of silk.^ A Indian Meal Moth infestation can be identified by the presence of small flour moths flying in or near areas where food is stored, or small worm larvae in cereal and bread products.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

[30] .Some fireflies of the genus Photuris mimic the flashing of female Photinus species to attract males of that species, which are then captured and devoured.^ Most occur only in females of a species, but some occur only in males.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new species of the genus Lithoglyptes Aurivillius, 1892 (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Acrothoracica) from the Fiji Sea, with some data on its ultrastructure // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I hesitate to be certain, as the colour pattern of several species, including some in the closely related genus Neoscona , can be quite similar.

[31] .The colors of emitted light vary from dull blue (Orfelia fultoni, Mycetophilidae) to the familiar greens and the rare reds (Phrixothrix tiemanni, Phengodidae).^ The light bulb is white, but the light coming from it is not tinted by the white like one might see radiating from a red or blue bulb, but is instead, "transparent."

^ The small special growths are often a light yellow, green, red, or brownish colour and are normally on the top surface of the leaves.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ The digestive system is shown in green, the circulatory system is shown in red and the nervous system is shown in blue.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.Most insects, except some species of cave dwelling crickets, are able to perceive light and dark.^ There are some species of insects that can also reproduce asexually.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some insect species the transition to adulthood involves relatively minor changes but in the majority of species, it is a drastic and profound transformation.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is light yellowish/brown or tan in color with darker bands and spots, and about 1 inch long when mature; these are the most common crickets.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many species have acute vision capable of detecting minute movements.^ Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including both simple and compound eyes for vision and antennae that are used to “smell” or detect chemicals in the environment.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eyes include simple eyes or ocelli as well as compound eyes of varying sizes.^ The simple eyes called ocelli and compound eyes of an insect are shown above in Figure 7.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have already learned that arthropods may have simple eyes and compound eyes for sensing light and forming images as well as bristles on the surface of their bodies for sensing touch.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head houses three sets of appendages modified for feeding (mouthparts), one set of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes and several simple eyes called ocelli.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many species are able to detect light in the infrared, ultraviolet and the visible light wavelengths. .Color vision has been demonstrated in many species and phylogenetic analysis suggests that UV-green-blue trichromacy existed from at least the Devonian period between 416 and 359 million years ago.^ My sister got Lyme disease several years ago in Southern California- it DOES exist west of the Rockies!

^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest discovered fossil of the modern Platypus dates back to about 100,000 years ago, during the Quaternary period.

[33]

Sound production and hearing

.Insects were the earliest organisms to produce and sense sounds.^ Some insects produce sounds in order to communicate.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insects make sounds mostly by mechanical action of appendages.^ Like all arthropods, insects have segmented bodies, jointed appendages and an exoskeleton made mostly of chitin.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In grasshoppers and crickets, this is achieved by stridulation. .Cicadas make the loudest sounds among the insects by producing and amplifying sounds with special modifications to their body and musculature.^ Some insects produce sounds in order to communicate.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects make up a class within the subphylum hexapoda and they include most hexapod species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It takes a lot of plant material to feed the herbivorous insects that make up roughly half of all insect species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The African cicada Brevisana brevis has been measured at 106.7 decibels at a distance of 50 cm (20 in).^ Sand Cat The Sand Cat (Felis margarita) is a small wild cat (length 50 cm, plus 30 cm tail) distributed over African and Asian deserts.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an average of more than 5 to 10 aphids per leaf are found on 20 to 50 leaves taken throughout the field, control measures may be needed.

[34] .Some insects, such as the hawk moths and Hedylid butterflies, can hear ultrasound and take evasive action when they sense that they have been detected by bats.^ Although they are carnivorous and predacious, they have a preference for sweets, particularly honeydew of sap-sucking insects such as aphids, mealybugs, leafhoppers and whiteflies.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And first, if it be a law that obliges all the subjects without exception, and is not written, nor otherwise published in such places as they may take notice thereof, it is a law of nature.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To control the insect, it is best to spray with Take Down Garden Spray when they are in the crawling state.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.Some moths produce ultrasonic clicks that were once thought to have a role in jamming bat echolocation.^ From Desire, ariseth the Thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we ayme at; and from the thought of that, the thought of means to that mean; and so continually, till we come to some beginning within our own power.

^ From desire ariseth the thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we aim at; and from the thought of that, the thought of means to that mean; and so continually, till we come to some beginning within our own power.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Here’s some food for thought: Once upon a time when mixed politics and religion…AND people were burned at the stake.

.The ultrasonic clicks were subsequently found to be produced mostly by unpalatable moths to warn bats, just as warning colorations are used against predators that hunt by sight.^ Legal action will be taken against anyone found using copyrighted RuneHQ content elsewhere.
  • Rune Headquarters : Monster Database 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.runehq.com [Source type: General]

^ While no doubt some levels of corporate efficiency are good in government, I recall a Founding Father once warning against a government that was too efficient, that could move too swiftly.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The caterpillar uses the leaf for protection against the weather, predators, and chemical sprays.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

[35] .Some otherwise palatable moths have evolved to mimic these calls.^ It is completely amazing what some so-called IT professionals consider a good job - because the thing is, so many of these vulnerabilities could be so easily prevented.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ These Articles, are they, which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature: whereof I shall speak more particularly, in the two following Chapters.

^ And these are also called images, not for the resemblance of any corporeal thing, but for the resemblance of some fantastical inhabitants of the brain of the maker.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.Problems listening to this file?^ Problems listening to these files?
  • Detailed Artist Information for Michael Jackson, free music videos, and concert tickets 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.sonicswap.com [Source type: General]
  • Chleuh Portal 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC joomla.anezi.net [Source type: General]

See media help.
.Very low sounds are also produced in various species of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea, and Neuroptera.^ This compact species from Borneo produces very fragrant, star shaped flowers.

^ This dendrobium species produces very fragrant, beautiful white flowers with a yellow throat.

^ Fleas capable of biting man and potentially infected rodents may be regarded as possible vectors, but flea species vary very much in their ability to transmit the disease.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.These low sounds are simply the sounds made by the insect's movement.^ Organs made up of an eardrum-like membrane; used by insects that detect sound.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Through microscopic stridulatory structures located on the insect's muscles and joints, the normal sounds of the insect moving are amplified and can be used to warn or communicate with other insects.^ Figure 1 represents: (1) a structure into which most communities can be accommodated, and (2) a structure that is adapted for invertebrate bio-indicator use.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Word of MUMPS spread mostly through the medical community, and by the early 1970s was in widespread use, often being locally modified for their own needs.

^ In other words, the list of species that an environmentalist might find useful, if it could be shown that such a location actually supported viable populations of a sensitive arthropod.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most sound-making insects also have tympanal organs that can perceive airborne sounds.^ Organs made up of an eardrum-like membrane; used by insects that detect sound.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects make up a class within the subphylum hexapoda and they include most hexapod species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, insects that can detect sound such as grasshoppers, moths and butterflies, generally use tympanal organs located on various parts of the body, depending on the species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species in Hemiptera, such as the corixids (water boatmen), are known to communicate via underwater sounds.^ These all feed on plant material of some kind; most species found in homes are seed feeders (such as in whole grains, nuts, etc.

^ Because some mosquito species fly long distances from breeding sites, a community-wide effort may be needed to reduce mosquitoes to tolerable levels.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a list can never be complete (just as there is no end to adaptive management); some better-known taxonomic groups will by practical necessity become working surrogates (= focal species) for total diversity.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Most insects are also able to sense vibrations transmitted through surfaces.^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crustaceans respire either by diffusion through the surface of their bodies (small species), with gills (most aquatic species) or rarely with very primitive lungs.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though most plants and vertebrates have passed through all three phases of taxonomic development, few insects have.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, an insect is caught in a spider web and struggles to escape.^ Pat This could be a funnel web spider (family Agelenidae ) in the genus Tegenaria see http://tinyurl.com/c2jgc9 for an example.

The vibrations it produces are sensed by the spider, who is alerted to its presence. .Through these vibrations, the spider can tell where on the web the insect is located, as well as how big it is.^ Can you tell me what these are and how to get rid of them?

^ Can you tell me what kind of spiders these are.

^ Could you please tell me what they are and how I can prevent/control more from appearing as well as possible causes as to their appearance in the first place?

[8]:87–94
.Communication using surface-borne vibrational signals is more widespread among insects because of size constraints in producing air-borne sounds.^ Some insects produce sounds in order to communicate.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects that use indirect flight generally have more fine control of their movements.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This time, we used barrier / surface insect spray in the pantry only to find them back again the next day.

.When compared with the size of the insects, communication range can be up to 1000 times the length of the body.^ By examining the life stage of insects found on a murdered body (stage of embryogenesis or larval stage) the time of death can often be determined.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locusts are large dark-bodied insects that are up to one and a half inches long, with transparent wings.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ It has a worm-like body, a large head and large limbs, and an elongate cylindrical tail of less than 1.5 times its body length.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So in order to surface-borne vibrational signals, insects of smaller size will use surface-borne vibrational signals, but it is also less diffuse and the signal is confined within the surface and is therefore on one hand easier to locate, but on the other hand is also less likely to attract the predators.^ Each brain, heart, and body within this very rich and scented-like-flower petals phenomena, are one organism.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if the building were built over or close to a strong existing colony, perhaps located in a buried stump or roots, substantial damage from termites could be noticeable within a year.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .Insects cannot effectively produce low-frequency sounds, and high-frequency sounds tend to disperse more in a dense environment (such as foliage), so insects living in such environments communicate primarily using substrate-borne vibrations.^ Due to SEC regulations governing the promotion of such a fund we cannot at this time say more.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ A colony of social insects (termites, ants, wasps, or bees) maintains its social cohesiveness primarily through the utilization of such chemicals.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any caterpillar (larval stage of moth) that feeds on the surface of watermelon fruit is considered a rindworm, although many of these insects feed primarily on stems and foliage.

[39] .Insects use as diverse an array of mechanisms to produce vibration as they do to produce sound.^ Brown, K.S., Jr. Diversity, distributiuon and sustainable use of Neotropical forests: insects as bioindicators for conservation monitoring.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanism of insect flight; muscles do not attach to the wings, instead they attach to the walls of the thorax.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some insects produce sounds in order to communicate.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species use vibrations for communicating within members of the same species, such as to attract mates as in the songs of the shield bug Nezara viridula.^ Because there are both theoretical and procedural difficulties in monitoring directly for the rarest species, such common focal species would be used in the original sense of indicators.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E and 4 H) and almost anosmic species of the same order that have reduced calyces, such as diving beetles (Figs.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there many additional undescribed species within the poorly-studied mosaic of serpentine communities?
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Vibrations can also be used to communicate between entirely different species; lycaenid (gossamer-winged butterfly) caterpillars which are myrmecophilous (living in a mutualistic association with ants) communicate with ants in this way.^ Ants generally communicate using pheromones.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which localities still maintain viable populations of about 300 different pollinating native bee species in the lower elevation oak savanna and prairie communities?
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The association of the species is not based on a priori knowledge of specific limiting environmental features shared between the species.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .The Madagascar hissing cockroach has the ability to press air through its spiracles to make a hissing noise as a sign of aggression;[42] the Death's-head Hawkmoth makes a squeaking noise by forcing air out of their pharynx when agitated, which may also reduce aggressive worker honey bee behavior when the two are in close proximity.^ And thus the promise of our Saviour was accomplished by way of Vision: For it was a Vision, as may probably bee inferred out of St. Luke, that reciteth the same story (ch.

^ Carpenter bees get their name from their ability to drill through wood and nest in the hole.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This wayward section of webbing may be punched out again with area between where two blanks were already processed punched out as a bowtie shaped blank.

[43]

Chemical communication

.In addition to the use of sound for communication, a wide range of insects have evolved chemical means for communication.^ In the example of arthropods, this means knowledge of the community structures naturally occurring under a range of ecological states.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemicals that are secreted to the outside of the bodies of insects for caste regulation, attraction, communication, trail-marking, etc., are called pheromones .
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honeybees have evolved a fascinating form of communication using body movement.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These chemicals, termed semiochemicals, are often derived from plant metabolites include those meant to attract, repel and provide other kinds of information.^ And those that are appointed to receive the petitions or other informations of the people, and are, as it were, the public ear, are public ministers and represent their sovereign in that office.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These include crop rotation, the introduction of natural predators of the offending insects, and breeding to select for plants that are resistant to certain insect infestations.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what then would become of these terms, of entity, essence, essential, essentiality, that are derived from it, and of many more that depend on these, applied as most commonly they are?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Pheromones, a type of semiochemical, are used for attracting mates of the opposite sex, for aggregating conspecific individuals of both sexes, for deterring other individuals from approaching, to mark a trail, and to trigger aggression in nearby individuals.^ Unlike other communist systems, both men and women could vote and individuals could own private property.

^ He glances occasionally at a door nearby marked INFIRMARY, then looks up as the Captain approaches and shakes his hand.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

^ And when the Endeavour is fromward something, it is generally called AVERSION. These words Appetite, and Aversion we have from the Latines; and they both of them signifie the motions, one of approaching, the other of retiring.

.Allomonea benefit their producer by the effect they have upon the receiver.^ Now those things whereof we make benefit are either subject to us, and the profit they yield followeth the labour we bestow upon them as a natural effect; or they are not subject to us, but answer our labour according to their own wills.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The giving and receiving is of mutual benefit when agreement and honor is acted upon.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now those things whereof we make benefit, are either subject to us, and the profit they yeeld, followeth the labour we bestow upon them, as a naturall effect; or they are not subject to us, but answer our labour, according to their own Wills.

Kairomones benefit their receiver instead of their producer. Synomones benefit the producer and the receiver. .While some chemicals are targeted at individuals of the same species, others are used for communication across species.^ Medline ↵ Breidbach O. , Kutsch W. , eds( 1995 ) Common and special features of the nervous system of Onychophora: A comparison with Arthropoda, Annelida, and some other invertebrates.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bill defines 'grassroots lobbying' as "the voluntary efforts of members of the general public to communicate their own views on an issue to federal officials or to encourage other members of the general public to do the same."
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The conduits and ways by which it is conveyed to the public use are of two sorts: one, that conveyeth it to the public coffers; the other, that issueth the same out again for public payments.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The use of scents is especially well known to have developed in social insects.^ The most primitive lobopods, the Onychophora (velvet worms), possess these structures as well as the most advanced social insects.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are doubtless many more, but rare insects are also usually the least well-known.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]:96–105

Social behavior

A cathedral mound created by termites (Isoptera).
.Social insects, such as termites, ants and many bees and wasps, are the most familiar species of eusocial animal.^ Eusocial insects include species of ants, termites, bees and wasps.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A colony of social insects (termites, ants, wasps, or bees) maintains its social cohesiveness primarily through the utilization of such chemicals.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, other insects such as ants or wasps are drawn to the honeydew.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

[44] .They live together in large well-organized colonies that may be so tightly integrated and genetically similar that the colonies of some species are sometimes considered superorganisms.^ Insects and other organisms that live together in well-organized and tightly integrated colonies are called eusocial animals.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Live together in well-organized and tightly integrated colonies.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glossina species are large (6-15 mm), narrow-bodied flies, brownish or greyish in colour, with a stout proboscis that projects well forward in front of the head.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is sometimes argued that the various species of honey bee are the only invertebrates (and indeed one of the few non-human groups) to have evolved a system of abstract symbolic communication where a behavior is used to represent and convey specific information about something in the environment.^ Specifically, the or an administrator of an information system.
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be said that at least *trash* represents something that was at one time of use.

^ This is considered a form of abstract symbol communication meaning that they use a behavior to represent information (in this case a location) about something in the environment.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this communication system, called dance language, the angle at which a bee dances represents a direction relative to the sun, and the length of the dance represents the distance to be flown.^ He thus planned for La Réunion to be a loosely structured experimental commune administered by a system of direct democracy.

^ The angle of the dance indicates the particular direction of the food source relative to the sun and the length of the dance correlates with how far away the food is, as shown in Figure 16 .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The angle (alpha) of the “waggle,” represented by the wavy section of the bee’s path, from the sun indicates the direction of the food source.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:309–311
.Only insects which live in nests or colonies demonstrate any true capacity for fine-scale spatial orientation or homing.^ These insects all live in paper nests they build and then abandon at the end of the season.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Insects and other organisms that live together in well-organized and tightly integrated colonies are called eusocial animals.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the lifecycle of scale insects, their only movement is during their nymph period.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.This can allow an insect to return unerringly to a single hole a few millimeters in diameter among thousands of apparently identical holes clustered together, after a trip of up to several kilometers' distance.^ We sprayed them w insect spray which temporarily killed them, then they returned a few weeks later and again.

^ Because there are no solid studs to prevent lateral movement of the dust, a single hole is enough for a horizontal distance of about 10 ft (3 m).
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several of the bumps can be clustered together making the scale look larger.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

.In a phenomenon known as philopatry, insects that hibernate have shown the ability to recall a specific location up to a year after last viewing the area of interest.^ San Diego Mesa College San Diego Mesa College (known more informally as Mesa College or Mesa) is a public, two-year community college located in San Diego, California.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I learned way back when that some of the stations, originally located outside cities, were eventually surrounded by built up areas when the cities expanded.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think this is very important because the surface warming of the last 30 years might be wiped out completely – and end up similar to the satellite record.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .A few insects seasonally migrate large distances between different geographic regions (e.g., the overwintering areas of the Monarch butterfly).^ The county's distance from the large metro areas ..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insect fauna of Imgye-myeon area in summer season.
  • A Catalog of the Syrphidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Korea* 29 September 2009 17:38 UTC www.kangwon.ac.kr [Source type: Academic]

^ Termites feed on wood, and throughout a large area of the world they are the most destructive insects to wood structures.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:14

Care of young

.Most insects lead short lives as adults, and rarely interact with one another except to mate or compete for mates.^ The lead single from Dangerous , the danceable hard rock song "Black or White" was one of Jackson's most successful recordings.
  • Mixed Martials Arts | Subfighter Mixed Martial Arts Social Network 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.subfighter.com [Source type: General]
  • Celebrities pictures, your guide to all the hot celebrities 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC celebritiesguide.com [Source type: General]
  • Chleuh Portal 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC joomla.anezi.net [Source type: General]

^ Pack rats live alone except when mating or rearing young.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her stint in the adult film indsutry was a short one, spanning from 1990 to 1992; during this time, she married pornographic actor Woody Long.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small number exhibit some form of parental care, where they will at least guard their eggs, and sometimes continue guarding their offspring until adulthood, and possibly even feeding them.^ The common traits of eusocial insects are: (1) cooperative caring for the young, (2) a division of labor in which more or less sterile individuals work on behalf of fecund individuals, and (3) an overlap of at least 2 generations in life stages so that during some period of their life, the offspring can assist their parents.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When one is being betrayed by a parent, they leave their body, some never to return.

^ The Savages of America, are not without some good Morall Sentences; also they have a little Arithmetick, to adde, and divide in Numbers not too great: but they are not therefore Philosophers.

.Another simple form of parental care is to construct a nest (a burrow or an actual construction, either of which may be simple or complex), store provisions in it, and lay an egg upon those provisions.^ You have already learned that arthropods may have simple eyes and compound eyes for sensing light and forming images as well as bristles on the surface of their bodies for sensing touch.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But sins may bee pardoned to the repentant, either Gratis, or upon such penalty, as God is pleased to accept.

^ For best practical purposes in the beginning-for those intent on actually the rituals contained herein-it is advisable to take espicial care in the construction of the magickal defences.

The adult does not contact the growing offspring, but it nonetheless does provide food. .This sort of care is typical of bees and various types of wasps.^ There are also many species among the wasps and bees that are in various stages of sociality between solitary and eusocial (Wilson, 1971).
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]

Locomotion

Flight

Basic motion of the insect wing in insect with an indirect flight mechanism scheme of dorsoventral cut through a thorax segment with
a wings
b joints
c dorsoventral muscles
d longitudinal muscles.
.Insects are the only group of invertebrates to have developed flight.^ Insects are the only invertebrates that are capable of flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the only invertebrates that can fly and the fossil record indicates that they had been enjoying the benefits of flight for over 100 million years before reptiles joined them in their aerial habitats.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the fact that social insects account for only a small percentage of the structural pests, 2 groups of social insects, termites and ants, are among the first 3 in importance.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The evolution of insect wings has been a subject of debate.^ Pterygota includes winged insects and insects that have lost their wings during the course of evolution but arose from a winged ancestor (described as secondarily wingless ).
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some entomologists suggest that the wings are from paranotal lobes, or extensions from the insect's exoskeleton called the nota, called the paranotal theory.^ Recall that the wings are extensions of the thorax exoskeleton.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to the optimism of high reliability theory, normal accident theory suggests that, at least in some settings, major accidents become inevitable and, thus, in a sense, "normal."
  • AHRQ Patient Safety Network - Glossary 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.psnet.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparisons between insect groups suggest that within an order there are highly conserved features of mushroom body shape and lobe arrangements (Figs.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

Other theories are based on a pleural origin. The pleuron is membrane on the sides of the thorax. .These theories include suggestions that wings originated from modified gills, spiracular flaps or as from an appendage of the epicoxa.^ Appendages modified as legs all protrude from the thorax as do the wings.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These changes often include the budding and growth of their wings.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The evolutionary history of the mushroom bodies within the Insecta suggests that these centers did not originate as olfactory neuropils (Fig.
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies — Learning & Memory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.learnmem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The epicoxal theory suggests the insect wings are modified epicoxal exites, a modifed appendage at the base of the legs or coxa.^ Appendages modified as legs all protrude from the thorax as do the wings.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that they have four pairs of appendages modified to function as walking legs, but in all they have six pairs of appendages.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lastly, members of the subphylum hexapoda have three pairs of appendages that are modified to function as walking legs as well as several other sets modified for other purposes.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] In the Carboniferous age, some of the Meganeura dragonflies had as much as a 50 cm (20 in) wide wingspan. The appearance of gigantic insects has been found to be consistent with high atmospheric oxygen. .The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere found from ice core-samples was as high as 35% compared to the current 21%.^ This same pattern is found in the spider and beetle analyses, though with not quite as high a percentage of rare species.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have you taken any polls in which you found that some high percentage of looters, rapists, or murderers have listened to Frank Zappa?

.The respiratory system of insects constrains their size, however the high oxygen in the atmosphere allowed larger sizes.^ Instead, insects have a highly efficient respiratory system that is composed of trachea.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small openings to the outside of an insect body that takes air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spiracles are small openings to the outside of an insects body that take air into the tracheal respiratory system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .The largest flying insects today are much smaller and include several moth species such as the Atlas moth and the White Witch (Thysania agrippina).^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eusocial insects include species of ants, termites, bees and wasps.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the subphylum chelicerata such as spiders and ticks are often confused with non-flying insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insect flight has been a topic of great interest in aerodynamics due partly to the inability of steady-state theories to explain the lift generated by the tiny wings of insects.^ Mechanism of insect flight; muscles do not attach to the wings, instead they attach to the walls of the thorax.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For insects with an indirect flight mechanism there are no muscles attached directly to the wings.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanism of insect flight; muscles insert into the hinged base of the wing and cause the wings to flap by initiating movements in the base.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike birds, many small insects are swept along by the prevailing winds[49] although many of the larger insects are known to make migration.^ Only a small percentage of those monitored are known to be “melting.” Many are simply receding, which is different than melting, some are advancing, some are stable.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many pest insects are food sources for birds and other insect feeding species.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any caterpillar (larval stage of moth) that feeds on the surface of watermelon fruit is considered a rindworm, although many of these insects feed primarily on stems and foliage.

.Aphids, are known to be transported long distances by low-level jet streams.^ Because some mosquito species fly long distances from breeding sites, a community-wide effort may be needed to reduce mosquitoes to tolerable levels.
  • How To Bug Proof Your Home 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An earthquake generates infrasound a long, low wave that travels great distances in the air, under water, and furthest and fastest through the ground.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[50] .As such, fine line patterns associated with converging winds within weather radar imagery, like the WSR-88D radar network, often represent large groups of insects.^ They start small, often in multiples and grouped, basically much like mosquito bites, but swell fairly rapidly into large raised welts that itch alot.

^ For example, in chewing insects such as dragonflies and beetles, the mandibles are often quite large and protrude out from the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the characteristics of insects and explain the distinctions between different groups within the insect class.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]

Walking

.Many adult insects use six legs for walking and have adopted a tripedal gait.^ These insects/larvae are small, black, with tiny hair on their body, a few legs in the front and it looks like they drag their body when they walk.

The tripedal gait allows for rapid walking while always having a stable stance and has been studied extensively in cockroaches. The legs are used in alternate triangles touching the ground. .For the first step, the middle right leg and the front and rear left legs are in contact with the ground and move the insect forward, while the front and rear right leg and the middle left leg are lifted and moved forward to a new position.^ Cabbage loopers move in a characteristic looping motion, alternately stretching forward and arching its back as it brings the back prolegs close to its front legs.

^ And if it be in no particular man, but left to a new choyce; then is the Common−wealth dissolved; and the Right is in him that can get it; contrary to the intention of them that did institute the Common−wealth, for their perpetuall, and not temporary security.

^ Our first step toward helping you make better decisions, is YorZ.com - a service focused on helping you find the job or the right candidate.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.When they touch the ground to form a new stable triangle the other legs can be lifted and brought forward in turn and so on.^ They also form a ball when you touch them.

^ DeJesus turns to block Cobb while the others continue to wrestle the bodybag into the Lift Lock.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

^ There be other names of government in the histories and books of policy; as tyranny and oligarchy; but they are not the names of other forms of government, but of the same forms misliked.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[52] The purest form of the tripedal gait is seen in insects moving at high speeds. However, this type of locomotion is not rigid and insects can adapt a variety of gaits. .For example, when moving slowly, turning, or avoiding obstacles, four or more feet may be touching the ground.^ Subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae), for example, may excavate their nest in wood found after digging into the ground, or between a piece of wood and damp ground, or in a crevice in wood on damp ground.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can endure this in order to make a frontal counterattack or simply move away quickly before its feet hit the ground, attacking instead from the side.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He turns from the others and moves slowly toward the noise.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

Insects can also adapt their gait to cope with the loss of one or more limbs.
Cockroaches are among the fastest insect runners and, at full speed, adopt a bipedal run to reach a high velocity in proportion to their body size. .As cockroaches move very quickly, they need to be video recorded at several hundred frames per second to reveal their gait.^ Ad hoc tweaking takes time and I think that they felt the need to respond quickly – a political response to an embarrassing situation.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual bugs are very thin and move quickly.

^ Tips for Farm Help When Monsters help with farm labour, they do so in a very specific manner, beginning in the northeast corner of your field, moving square by square towards the west.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

.More sedate locomotion is seen in the stick insects or walking sticks (Phasmatodea).^ An example of a large insect, the walking stick, is shown in Figure 1 .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few insects have evolved to walk on the surface of the water, especially the bugs of the Gerridae family, commonly known as water striders.^ The watering will bring the bugs to the surface.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Tabitha This is an insect in the order Psocoptera, family Liposcelidae, commonly known as a booklouse.

^ Graham (1967) made a list of the families and genera of arboricolous insects known to have mutualistic associations with fungi.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few species of ocean-skaters in the genus Halobates even live on the surface of open oceans, a habitat that has few insect species.^ This term means that they look almost exactly the same as species that only exist as fossils and there are very few living species that are closely related to them.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although insects can be found in most habitats on Earth, the majority of species are terrestrial or aerial.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new species of the barnacle genus Lithoglyptes Aurivillius, 1892 from the tidal waters of Java, Indian Ocean (Cirripedia: Acrothoracida) // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

[53]

Use in robotics

Insect walking is of particular interest as an alternative form of locomotion in robots. The study of insects and bipeds has a significant impact on possible robotic methods of transport. .This may allow new robots to be designed that can traverse terrain that robots with wheels may be unable to handle.^ His fourth book, THE BODY QUANTUM was described as "introducing a new model into medicine that may allow us to re­envision the body."

[52]

Swimming

The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing its paddle-like hindleg adaptation.
.A large number of insects live either parts or the whole of their lives underwater.^ Of public ministers, some have charge committed to them of a general administration, either of the whole dominion or of a part thereof.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ministers For The Generall Administration Of Publique Ministers, some have charge committed to them of a general Administration, either of the whole Dominion, or of a part thereof.

^ A large number of visitors that have contributed pictures of insect bites but are not sure exactly what bit them; if you have been bitten, but are not sure by what, then this page is for you.

.In many of the more primitive orders of insect, the immature stages are spent in an aquatic environment.^ These are springtails, primitive arthropods (authorities differ as to whether or not they are true insects) in the order Collembola.

^ In addition to many basic behaviors that are shared by other invertebrates such as mating, there are some insect species that are capable of more advanced forms of interaction with each other and with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the invertebrates that we have examined so far go through one or more larval stages during their development from an embryo to an adult.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some groups of insects, like certain water beetles, have aquatic adults as well.^ The native elm bark beetle consists of two separate breeding groups.One group over-winters as larvae in the breeding tunnels, while the second group over-winters as adults.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Thank you, Patrechia This is a giant water bug (Hemiptera/Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a general predator on other aquatic insects as well as tadpoles and small minnows - see no.

^ They are general predators on other aquatic insects as well as on tadpoles and small minnows - see nos.

[18]
.Many of these species have adaptations to help in under-water locomotion.^ For many of these species, this is a critical resource.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these species, probably a large majority, are rare (and presumably have been rare for millennia) for reasons unrelated to management activities but determined by naturally limited habitat associations.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Water beetles and water bugs have legs adapted into paddle-like structures.^ Figure 1 represents: (1) a structure into which most communities can be accommodated, and (2) a structure that is adapted for invertebrate bio-indicator use.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trees under stress are more likely to be targets of the Elm Bark Beetle, so it is important to ensure that elm trees receive adequate water.
  • Treehelp.com - Insects Controlled 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.treehelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Its now grown into what seems like a large hard lump…its on my upper leg/thigh area.

.Dragonfly naiads use jet propulsion, forcibly expelling water out of their rectal chamber.^ So the Geometrician, from the Construction of Figures, findeth out many Properties thereof; and from the Properties, new Ways of their Construction, by Reasoning; to the end to be able to measure Land and Water; and for infinite other uses.

^ So the geometrician, from the construction of figures, findeth out many properties thereof; and from the properties, new ways of their construction, by reasoning; to the end to be able to measure land and water; and for infinite other uses.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[54] .Some species like the water striders are capable of walking on the surface of water.^ There are also some freshwater species such as the crayfish and even a few terrestrial species like sand fleas.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have a large rift system that brought water to the surface, so it seems likely that this happened," Ms Chen explained.

^ When special habitats, with their associated endemic arthropod associations, occur under the forest canopy (like some swamps, bogs and waterfall splash-zones, etc.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They can do this because their claws are not at the tips of the legs as in most insects, but recessed in a special groove further up the leg; this prevents the claws from piercing the water's surface film.^ Pray tell, what nationality AM I? I’m really curious, because I think there might have been a mix-up at the passport office… they claimed I WAS an american… .

^ To be insecticidal, enough silica aerogel must be deposited on a surface so that an insect crawling over it will pick up a lethal quantity on its lower body surfaces; for termites, a barely visible film suffices.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 5 part 1] Wood-Destroying Insects and Fungi 30 January 2010 2:22 UTC www.insects.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They seem to be slightly aquatic because when I'm trying to wash them down the drain, they don't seem to be throw off by the water.

[18] .Other insects such as the Rove beetle Stenus are known to emit pygidial gland secretions that reduce surface tension making it possible for them to move on the surface of water by Marangoni propulsion (also known by the German term Entspannungsschwimmen).^ San Pellegrino San Pellegrino (also known as S. Pellegrino, SANPELLEGRINO, S. PELLEGRINO, or frequently misspelled Sam Pellegrino) is a carbonated, natural, mineral water, produced and bottled at San Pellegrino Terme, near Milan, Italy.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sponging insects such as flies, digestive enzymes are secreted onto the solid food source to allow it become somewhat of a liquid.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in chewing insects such as dragonflies and beetles, the mandibles are often quite large and protrude out from the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55][56]

Evolution

Evolution has produced astonishing variety in insects. Pictured are some of the possible shapes of antennae.
.The evolutionary relationships of insects to other animal groups remain unclear.^ Animals live in relationship to those other animals.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, I have fo und that I can't be aware of the suffering of an animal, or a group of animals, turn my back to this suffering, and remain at peace.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even plants with tiny flowers normally subjected to habitual self-pollination benefit from the outcrossing provided by bee (and other insect groups) pollination.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although more traditionally grouped with millipedes and centipedes, evidence has emerged favoring closer evolutionary ties with crustaceans.^ If there are keystone species in PNW forest ecology, they are likely to emerge from this special group (BSHT) because of their long evolutionary history within the region.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Pancrustacea theory, insects, together with Remipedia and Malacostraca, make up a natural clade.^ In this seen from the movie ‘Tommy’ the Fool looks deep into the O-ZERO, and beholds the three splits of his archetyplea nature come together to make a 1-ONE. The Magician.

^ Therefore all the sentences of precedent judges that have ever been cannot all together make a law contrary to natural equity.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] .Other terrestrial arthropods, such as centipedes, millipedes, scorpions and spiders, are sometimes confused with insects since their body plans can appear similar, sharing (as do all arthropods) a jointed exoskeleton.^ Arthropods include insects, spiders, lobsters, centipedes and many, many other diverse species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the overall body plan of an insect.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic structures of insects are similar to those of all arthropods.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, upon closer examination their features differ significantly; most noticeably they do not have the six legs characteristic of adult insects.^ However, most humans are not aware of what they are eating.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be interesting even at the most basic level to see if those classified as rural showed significantly different variance than those in urban areas.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most often, however, startup teams are formed by people who either currently work together (at the company they’re planning to leave) or who have worked together in the past.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[58]
 







Myriapoda



Diplopoda (Millipedes)


Chilopoda (Centipedes)




Chelicerata



Eurypterida (Sea scorpions: Extinct)


Xiphosura (Horseshoe crabs)


Pycnogonida (Sea spiders)



Trilobites (Extinct)


A phylogenetic tree of the arthropods and related groups[59]
.The higher-level phylogeny of the arthropods continues to be a matter of debate and research.^ There is probably a far higher level of available arthropod biomass in the ground-surface stratum than in either the foliage-gleaning or the fly-catching strata.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The biomass and nutrients encompassed in arthropods is passed on to the next higher level of the trophic pyramid as well.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008, researchers at Tufts University uncovered what they believe is the world's oldest known full-body impression of a primitive flying insect, a 300 million-year-old specimen from the Carboniferous Period.^ These are springtails, primitive arthropods (authorities differ as to whether or not they are true insects) in the order Collembola.

^ Geologically it is one of the oidest, since volcanic rocks of about 4 millions years old have been found.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] .The oldest definitive insect fossil is the Devonian Rhyniognatha hirsti, from the 396 million year old Rhynie chert.^ Geologically it is one of the oidest, since volcanic rocks of about 4 millions years old have been found.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest discovered fossil of the modern Platypus dates back to about 100,000 years ago, during the Quaternary period.

It may have superficially resembled a modern-day silverfish insect. .This species already possessed dicondylic mandibles (two articulations in the mandible), a feature associated with winged insects, suggesting that wings may already have evolved at this time.^ Two of the major features of eusocial insects are: .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In carnivorous chewing insects, the mandibles may be modified to function as weapons, while herbivorous chewing insects generally have flattened mandibles suitable for grinding plant tissue.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And though this law may be drawn by consequence from some of those that are there already mentioned, yet the times require to have it inculcated and remembered.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the first insects probably appeared earlier, in the Silurian period.^ Thus, we should probably allow some additional "credit" to InLinks after the first from any single blog.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[1][61]
.The origins of insect flight remain obscure, since the earliest winged insects currently known appear to have been capable fliers.^ Insects are the only invertebrates that are capable of flight.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the truly aquatic species of invertebrates are relatively well-known, few of them will appear on any sensitive short list since most are both relatively widespread and frequent.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanism of insect flight; muscles do not attach to the wings, instead they attach to the walls of the thorax.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some extinct insects had an additional pair of winglets attaching to the first segment of the thorax, for a total of three pairs.^ Most malacostraca have three body regions with a head of five segments fused to a thorax of eight segments and an abdomen of six segments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure The body plan of a typical insect showing the division of the body into three major regions: head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2009, there is no evidence that suggests that the insects were a particularly successful group of animals before they evolved to have wings.^ It seems to me that it would serve the animal communication community well if there were an honest discussion as to why so many communicators can eat an animal that they can talk to.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But this again has no place but in a State Civill, because before such estate, there is no Dominion of Persons.

^ The following challenge can be made: no one knows how much potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper was in the seeds before they were germinated.

[62]
.Late Carboniferous and Early Permian insect orders include both extant groups and a number of Paleozoic species, now extinct.^ Thank you, Dave This is a terrestrial crustacean in the order Isopoda; common names for this group include woodlice, sowbugs, pillbugs, and slaters.

^ Species within these different orders vary primarily on the number and structure of their appendages.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Springtails are a small group of hexapods in terms of species number (about 6000) but they are incredibly large in numbers of individuals.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this era, some giant dragonfly-like forms reached wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (22 to 28 in) making them far larger than any living insect.^ While President Ford, history notes, was a good man, President Reagan loved Americans; President Ford liked Americans, though that is still far better than what we have today.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ You just seem to be some twerp who more than likely gets off with Larry Craig in the bog.

^ More than half of all known living organisms are insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This gigantism may have been due to higher atmospheric oxygen levels that allowed increased respiratory efficiency relative to today.^ Due to the unique temporal and spatial scales involved with soils, arthropods may be the most efficient indicator taxon (Benckiser 1997).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lack of flying vertebrates could have been another factor. .Most extinct orders of insects developed during the Permian era that began around 270 million years ago.^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest discovered fossil of the modern Platypus dates back to about 100,000 years ago, during the Quaternary period.

^ It is estimated that up to four million people die each year as a result of these insect-borne diseases spread by the organisms shown in Figure 18 .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the early groups became extinct during the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth, around 252 million years ago.^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DOC It was when it counted a couple of million years ago when the seas came in and drove us into the water.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

^ It would be 50 million more years before the first vertebrate would join these early land arthropods.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.The remarkably successful Hymenopterans appeared as long as 146 million years ago in the Cretaceous era, but achieved their wide diversity more recently in the Cenozoic era, which began 66 million years ago.^ That was more than thirty years ago.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said he is considering the chances of a successful bid for Governor of Arkansas in 2006 (word of this began leaking out as long ago as 2003 with the original assumption that he would run in ’04 ).
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ DOC It was when it counted a couple of million years ago when the seas came in and drove us into the water.
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

.A number of highly-successful insect groups evolved in conjunction with flowering plants, a powerful illustration of coevolution.^ Iris flower parts stamen ireland riots september 1913 irene robocker afghan iridium fuel nuclear warhead power plants.
  • Character, cast, and production information, as well as episode guide, and commentary. 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC induced.zirox.waw.pl [Source type: General]

^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even plants with tiny flowers normally subjected to habitual self-pollination benefit from the outcrossing provided by bee (and other insect groups) pollination.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
.Many modern insect genera developed during the Cenozoic.^ Many of the invertebrates that we have examined so far go through one or more larval stages during their development from an embryo to an adult.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects that do not undergo a metamorphic change during their development are called ametabolous insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects that do not undergo a metamorphic change during their development.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insects from this period on are often found preserved in amber, often in perfect condition.^ ACL is found in well-established settlements, often in urban conditions; there is no known silvatic reservoir and transmission is peridomestic.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By examining the life stage of insects found on a murdered body (stage of embryogenesis or larval stage) the time of death can often be determined.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The body plan, or morphology, of such specimens is thus easily compared with modern species.^ The trapped specimens can be weighed to get an estimate of biomass, and analysis at the resolution of morphospecies of the component groups can easily indicate significant changes in species richness.
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^ However, insects that can detect sound such as grasshoppers, moths and butterflies, generally use tympanal organs located on various parts of the body, depending on the species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study of fossilized insects is called paleoentomology.^ The study of insects is called entomology.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coevolution

.Insects were among the earliest terrestrial herbivores and acted as major selection agents on plants.^ In carnivorous chewing insects, the mandibles may be modified to function as weapons, while herbivorous chewing insects generally have flattened mandibles suitable for grinding plant tissue.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include crop rotation, the introduction of natural predators of the offending insects, and breeding to select for plants that are resistant to certain insect infestations.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although insects can be found in most habitats on Earth, the majority of species are terrestrial or aerial.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] Plants evolved chemical defenses against this herbivory and the insects in turn evolved mechanisms to deal with plant toxins. .Many insects make use of these toxins to protect themselves from their predators.^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include crop rotation, the introduction of natural predators of the offending insects, and breeding to select for plants that are resistant to certain insect infestations.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arthropods such as insects have a rigid, impermeable exoskeleton that provides support and protection from both predators and water loss.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such insects often advertise their toxicity using warning colors.^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the subphylum chelicerata such as spiders and ticks are often confused with non-flying insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in chewing insects such as dragonflies and beetles, the mandibles are often quite large and protrude out from the head.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] This successful evolutionary pattern has also been utilized by mimics. .Over time, this has led to complex groups of coevolved species.^ By way of recognition he was the youngest person to be made special correspondent in the Times Group.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the amount of change in species abundance, diversity, and ecosystem interactions, and the time course of the change vary with the individual taxonomic groups of species.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vectors of the former group are much more widespread and important, with a great complexity of sibling species.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.Conversely, some interactions between plants and insects, like pollination, are beneficial to both organisms.^ Habitat fragmentation and plant-pollinator interactions.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some ecosystem processes, like cross-pollination of understory plants, are facilitated by edge-effects, but other faunal components may be equally hindered.
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^ I think the conversation choices (both menus and "talk to") really helped give me a feel for the player character, and the interactions with Emily helped make me feel we had a specific goal.

.Coevolution has led to the development of very specific mutualisms in such systems.^ The apterygota are a small subclass that includes species such as bristletails that undergo very little change during development aside from a size increase and sexual maturation.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The larva of the cucumber beetle feeds on roots and stems and can cause severe damage to very small plants, but less damage to larger plants with more fully developed root systems.

^ While quantum mechanics describes the world of the very small, it also is needed to explain certain " macroscopic quantum systems" such as superconductors and superfluids .

Taxonomy and systematics

 
Classification
Insecta
Dicondylia
Pterygota
.Cladogram of living insect groups,[65] with numbers of species in each group.^ Springtails are a small group of hexapods in terms of species number (about 6000) but they are incredibly large in numbers of individuals.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isopods are the most diverse group and they include a number of terrestrial species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification of insects is also particularly complex because of the vast number of species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] Note that Apterygota, Palaeoptera and Exopterygota are possibly paraphyletic groups.
.Traditional morphology-based or look-based systematics has included in Hexapoda, usually given the rank of superclass,[8]:180 four groups: insects (Ectognatha), springtails (Collembola), Protura and Diplura, the latter three being grouped together as Entognatha on the basis of internalized mouth parts.^ The other three classes of hexapoda are collembola, protura and diplura.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Widespread in Colombia, Venezuela, and possibly in parts of French Guyana, Guyana and Suriname, although there are no recent records from these latter three countries.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These are springtails, primitive arthropods (authorities differ as to whether or not they are true insects) in the order Collembola.

.Supraordinal relationships have undergone numerous changes with the advent of methods based on evolutionary history and genetic data.^ Nascetti G, Zangari F, Canestrelli D 2005 The spectacled salamanders, Salamandrina terdigitata (Lacepede, 1788) and S. perspicillata (Savi, 1821): 1) Genetic differentiation and evolutionary history.
  • AmphibiaWeb Species Lists 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.amphibiaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How are they subdivided into smaller groups based on shared characteristics and evolutionary history?
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recent theory is that Hexapoda is polyphyletic, or where the last common ancestor was not a member of the group, with the entognath classes having separate evolutionary histories from Insecta.^ Hexapoda Table 1 lists the classes within each of these subphyla and shows an example of a typical member of each subphylum.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of this class are characterized by having a modified pair of appendages called forcipules on their heads that function as poison claws.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all of these species, with the exception of around 1000, are members of the class insecta, which will be discussed in the next lesson.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .As many of the traditional look-based taxa have been shown to be paraphyletic, so not using taxa like subclass, superorder and infraorder and rather on monophyletic groupings: groupings with one common ancestor for taxa have proven to be better.^ Use this one as much as you like.

^ This looks like a larva of a beetle in the family Dermestidae (hide/skin/carpet beetles), possibly in the genus Anthrenus , that has lost many of its setae (body hairs).

^ Like many other tribal groups in Northeast India, the practice jhum, or shifting cultivation.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following list represents the best supported monophyletic groupings for the Insecta.^ To sum up before we begin, a list of the games follows ranked from best to, ah, least-best.

^ The following represents my best recollection of the concerns the panel expressed at the original meetings in Portland (both the questions and predicted outcomes represent panel agreement).
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insects can be divided into two groups historically treated as subclasses: wingless insects, known as Apterygota, and winged insects, known as Pterygota.^ Currently, there are two major subclasses within the insect class: apterygota and pterygota.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Class Insecta Subclass apterygota - wingless Subclass pterygota – winged (or secondarily wingless) Infraclass paleoptera – non-folding wings Infraclass neoptera – folding wings Superorder exopterygota - hemimetabolous Superorder endopterygota - holometabolous The chart can contain a variety of different components.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pterygota includes winged insects and insects that have lost their wings during the course of evolution but arose from a winged ancestor (described as secondarily wingless ).
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Apterygota consist of two primitively wingless orders: bristletails (Archaeognatha) and silverfish (Thysanura). .Archaeognatha make up the Monocondylia based on the shape of their mandibles, while Thysanura and Pterygota are grouped together as Dicondylia.^ You may have noticed how a group of ants making their way to a crumb on the ground will generally travel lined up one in front of the other.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your character still leaves it up to another group to do anything important, which makes for pretty drab play.

^ Recently, studies comparing the molecular make up of each of these groups have called this tree into question.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is possible that the Thysanura themselves are not monophyletic, with the family Lepidotrichidae a sister group to the Dicondylia (Pterygota and the remaining Thysanura).[67][68]
.Paleoptera and Neoptera are the winged orders of insects separated by the presence of hardened body parts called sclerites; also, in Neoptera, muscles that allow their wings to fold flatly over the abdomen.^ The wings of insects in the palaeoptera infraclass do not fold back onto the abdomen.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sac is just its abdomen; its venom glands are in the narrower head part at the front of its body.

^ With Practice the vibration level of the astral body is raised, allowing it to separate from the physical.

.Neoptera can further be divided into incomplete metamorphosis-based (Polyneoptera and Paraneoptera) and complete metamorphosis-based groups.^ Based originally on small differences in the complex male and female genitalia, this division into three groups is broadly supported by chromosome and enzyme-electrophoretic studies.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How are they subdivided into smaller groups based on shared characteristics and evolutionary history?
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently analyze all species into component groups based on a concern for rarity or threat.
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.It has been proven hard to make clear of the relationships between the orders in Polyneoptera because of the constant new findings, and changing of the taxa based on them.^ It could be my aftershave that makes them want me, I wear Sex Panther which is illegal in nine countries, but it was probably because I was hard to get.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Tenen feels there areprinciples of law and order in the relationship between humans andthe cosmos that, up till now, only Pythagoreans and Kabbalists havesuspected.

^ In Theravada temples heis portrayed as a king rather than a monk because of his role as aruler in the new world order."BANGKOK, Sept.

.For example, Paraneoptera has turned out to be more closely related to Endopterygota than to the rest of the Exopterygota.^ One important outcome of these studies may be that myriapods are more closely related to chelicerata and crustaceans are more closely related to hexapods than previously thought.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And for the following words, "I will give thee the Keyes of Heaven, it is no more than what our Saviour gave also to all the rest of his Disciples (Matth.

^ If the changes are related to the post-2000 error, wouldn’t recent years be affected as much as, or even more, than records from a century ago?
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recent molecular finding that the traditional louse orders Mallophaga and Anoplura are derived from within Psocoptera has led to the new taxon Psocodea.^ Within the Golden Dawn itself, its teachings claimed to be derived from a similar body of initiates which in that tradition were called the Secret Chiefs .

[69] Phasmatodea and Embiidina have been suggested to form Eukinolabia.[70] Mantodea, Blattodea & Isoptera are thought to form a monophyletic group termed Dictyoptera.[71]
It is likely that Exopterygota is paraphyletic in regards to Endopterygota. .Matters that have had a lot of controversy include Strepsiptera and Diptera grouped together as Halteria based on a reduction of one of the wing pairs – a position not well-supported in the entomological community.^ Based originally on small differences in the complex male and female genitalia, this division into three groups is broadly supported by chromosome and enzyme-electrophoretic studies.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It matters not that the families use a good curriculum and test well, play sports, and interact with friends and their community.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It is administered by the San Diego Community College District which includes San Diego Mesa College and San Diego Miramar College as well.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] The Neuropterida are often lumped or split on the whims of the taxonomist. .Fleas are now thought to be closely related to boreid mecopterans.^ One important outcome of these studies may be that myriapods are more closely related to chelicerata and crustaceans are more closely related to hexapods than previously thought.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .Many questions remain to be answered when it comes to basal relationships amongst endopterygote orders, particularly Hymenoptera.^ A mere 10 years later, Albert Einstein would put forth his theory of special relativity, and part of the question would be answered--to the astonishment of many--in the affirmative.

^ In this lesson we will take a closer look at the members of this vast phylum in order to answer these questions.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply The fact remains that the sites do not meet up (many don’t even come close to meeting up) to the standards.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study of the classification or taxonomy of any insect is called systemic entomology.^ The study of insects is called entomology.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells are named according to a system of insect wing nomenclature called the Comstock-Needham system.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Normally, if one chooses to work with a more specific order or even a family, the systemics would be added to the study of that order or family, an example would be systemic dipterology.^ Thanks D.M. This is indeed a cockroach, but a dorsal view would be very helpful in making a more specific identification.

^ Persons ordering more than one Double-Strike in either ordering format will be given the greatest variety possible.

^ One important outcome of these studies may be that myriapods are more closely related to chelicerata and crustaceans are more closely related to hexapods than previously thought.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Relationship to humans

Aedes aegypti, a parasite, and vector of dengue fever and yellow fever.
.Many insects are considered pests by humans.^ We will consider the relationships of humans and insects in this section.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects.

^ Any caterpillar (larval stage of moth) that feeds on the surface of watermelon fruit is considered a rindworm, although many of these insects feed primarily on stems and foliage.

.Insects commonly regarded as pests include those that are parasitic (mosquitoes, lice, bed bugs), transmit diseases (mosquitoes, flies), damage structures (termites), or destroy agricultural goods (locusts, weevils).^ Is this a bed bug, or a weevil?

^ Ticks are parasites that can act as vectors to carry and transmit diseases between their prey.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the diseases transmitted through tick bites include: .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many entomologists are involved in various forms of pest control, as in research for companies to produce insecticides, but increasingly relying on methods of biological pest control, or biocontrol.^ Tsetse: the future for biological methods in integrated control .
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of this method, many other more environmentally sound methods of insect pest control can be used.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During arthropod evolution, one variation in the body plan that arose involved the loss or modification of many of these appendages to carry out different functions.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biocontrol uses one organism to reduce the population density of another organism — the pest — and is considered a key element of integrated pest management.^ Indeed, one key element we all have in common is the sincere curiosity about how the other has arrived at his position.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Another is when many use the same words to signify, by their connexion and order one to another, what they conceive or think of each matter; and also what they desire, fear, or have any other passion for.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Deutsch has suggested that one reason we have detected no extraterrestrial civilizations may be that, using time machines, they have left this universe, preferring to live in another.

[74][75]
.Despite the large amount of effort focused at controlling insects, human attempts to kill pests with insecticides can backfire.^ In the latter case, the principal weapon for the control of malaria transmission has been the use of residual insecticides on the interior surfaces of human dwellings.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of this method, many other more environmentally sound methods of insect pest control can be used.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The news broadcast was showing elephants helping humans to remove large amounts of wreckage from a heavily damaged area.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.If used carelessly the poison can kill all kinds of organisms in the area, including insects' natural predators such as birds, mice, and other insectivores.^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include crop rotation, the introduction of natural predators of the offending insects, and breeding to select for plants that are resistant to certain insect infestations.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, many of the stations in China, Indonesia, Brazil and elsewhere are in urban areas (such as Shanghai or Beijing).
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects of DDT's use exemplifies how some insecticides can threaten wildlife beyond intended populations of pest insects.^ Insecticides are one possible solution to the problem of some crop-damaging insects but there are a number of serious problems with this approach.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service and Biodiversity Conservation Branch Department of Primary Industries and Water are collaborating to monitor the effects of the infection on the Platypus population in Tasmania.

^ How many folks think it odd a wildlife bioligist doesn’t see the reason for doing a survey of the measurement stations used to collect scientific data?
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76][77]
.
Because they help flowering plants to cross-pollinate, some insects are critical to agriculture.
^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And so perhaps are some of those Books which are called Apocrypha, if left out of the Canon, not for inconformity of Doctrine with the rest, but only because they are not found in the Hebrew.

^ Because damage to seedlings can be severe, plants should be monitored regularly as soon as they emerge or are transplanted.

This European honey bee is gathering nectar while pollen collects on its body.
.Although pest insects attract the most attention, many insects are beneficial to the environment and to humans.^ The ability to sense many aspects of their environment is a fundamental component of the ability of some insects to have fairly complex responses to or interactions with their environments.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects.

^ Most of these are not associated with transmission of sleeping sickness, although many transmit animal trypanosomiasis to game and domestic livestock.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some insects, like wasps, bees, butterflies, and ants, pollinate flowering plants.^ Eusocial insects include species of ants, termites, bees and wasps.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It looks like maybe either a bee of some sort or an ant.

^ Some ecosystem processes, like cross-pollination of understory plants, are facilitated by edge-effects, but other faunal components may be equally hindered.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pollination is a mutualistic relationship between plants and insects.^ Analyze and discuss the complex relationships between humans and insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even plants with tiny flowers normally subjected to habitual self-pollination benefit from the outcrossing provided by bee (and other insect groups) pollination.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As insects gather nectar from different plants of the same species, they also spread pollen from plants on which they have previously fed.^ These are springtails, primitive arthropods (authorities differ as to whether or not they are true insects) in the order Collembola.

^ Despite the morphological similarity of sibling species, they show ecological and behavioural contrasts which give rise to differences in their vectorial capacity.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead they look almost exactly the same as fossils of horseshoe crab species that existed over 400 million years ago.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This greatly increases plants' ability to cross-pollinate, which maintains and possibly even improves their evolutionary fitness.^ Some ecosystem processes, like cross-pollination of understory plants, are facilitated by edge-effects, but other faunal components may be equally hindered.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even plants with tiny flowers normally subjected to habitual self-pollination benefit from the outcrossing provided by bee (and other insect groups) pollination.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This large (over 17,000 species) and well-preserved evolutionary record has contributed greatly to the study of animal and plant fossils, a field known as paleontology.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ultimately affects humans since ensuring healthy crops is critical to agriculture.^ While insects are essential to the survival of humans because they mediate the reproduction of our agricultural crops through pollination, they have also been great sources of human suffering.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other side of this issue is that most flowering plants, including many that are components of agricultural crops, are critically dependent on insects to mediate their reproduction through pollination.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are a few insects that cause great harm to humans by spreading disease or destroying agricultural crops, humans would likely not be able to exist on the planet without insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A serious environmental problem is the decline of populations of pollinator insects, and a number of species of insects are now cultured primarily for pollination management in order to have sufficient pollinators in the field, orchard or greenhouse at bloom time.^ Which localities still maintain viable populations of about 300 different pollinating native bee species in the lower elevation oak savanna and prairie communities?
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Gavrilets (1999) found that Rapid speciation is most likely for populations that are subdivided into a large number of small subpopulations.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research suggests this has been a gradual adaptation to harsh environmental conditions on the part of the small number of surviving monotreme species rather than a historical characteristic of monotremes.

[78]:240–243 .Insects also produce useful substances such as honey, wax, lacquer and silk.^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I stopped wearing leather, wool, silk, and no longer use honey.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, insects that can detect sound such as grasshoppers, moths and butterflies, generally use tympanal organs located on various parts of the body, depending on the species.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Honey bees have been cultured by humans for thousands of years for honey, although contracting for crop pollination is becoming more significant for beekeepers.^ They must understand that the vast divergence of cultures, will, ironically, only grow greater the more denationalized and further regionalized they become, if history is our guide.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall each year there are a handful of human deaths attributed to scorpion bites and much more rarely (less than 1 per year) a death is attributed to a spider bite.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losses of just a few critical pollinating species, such as bees, could have a significant impact on human food production.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The silkworm has greatly affected human history, as silk-driven trade established relationships between China and the rest of the world.^ Analyze and discuss the complex relationships between humans and insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a correct relationship is established between personality, operating through the pituitary body, and the soul, operating through the pineal gland, a magnetic field is created.

^ For the sake of these 36 hidden saints, God preserves the world even if the rest of humanity has degenerated to the level of total barbarism.

The common fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used organisms in biological research.
.Insects play important roles in biological research.^ The study of model organisms is a powerful field of biological research and through the contributions of Drosophila melanogaster, insects have been a major force in this work.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ List several sensory organs of insects, describe how they function and explain the role these organs may have played in the evolutionary success of insects.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The role they played in insect success: being able to sense changes in your environment are essential for mounting a behavioral response.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, because of its small size, short generation time and high fecundity, the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism for studies in the genetics of higher eukaryotes.^ The study of model organisms is a powerful field of biological research and through the contributions of Drosophila melanogaster, insects have been a major force in this work.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insect class includes one such model organism that has made an even more significant contribution to our understanding of animal biology than C. elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (commonly referred to simply as drosophila) shown in Figure 19 .
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the long egg-laying period, overlapping generations (larvae of different sizes) are present.

.D. melanogaster has been an essential part of studies into principles like genetic linkage, interactions between genes, chromosomal genetics, development, behavior, and evolution.^ The arbitration between farmers was a great way of getting me into the part, and there were some subtle hints about what things were for and when to use them throughout.

.Because genetic systems are well conserved among eukaryotes, understanding basic cellular processes like DNA replication or transcription in fruit flies can help to understand those processes in other eukaryotes, including humans.^ T oday we remember those who fought valiantly for freedom in a way like no other.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Some ecosystem processes, like cross-pollination of understory plants, are facilitated by edge-effects, but other faunal components may be equally hindered.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the basic community composition has altered (relatively easy to determine), then it is very likely that a majority of the rare species will have changed as well.
  • Soil Arthropod Monitoring 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.ent.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .The genome of D. melanogaster was sequenced in 2000, reflecting the organism's important role in biological research.^ Drosophila is one of the most studied organisms in biological research and these studies have made particularly important and extensive contributions to our understanding of the molecular genetics and development of animals.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study of model organisms is a powerful field of biological research and through the contributions of Drosophila melanogaster, insects have been a major force in this work.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Worms and Mollesks chapter you learned about a particular roundworm species called C. elegans that has served as a model organism in biological scientific research.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80]
A robberfly with its prey, a hoverfly. Insectivorous relationships such as these help control insect populations.
.Insectivorous insects, or insects which feed on other insects, are beneficial to humans because they eat insects that could cause damage to agriculture and human structures.^ The guilt and judgment we feel over others who have a different view than ours about what they eat can separate us from each other.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I began to see that other disenfranchised people from society were carrying a Code of Guilt that they could precisely identify.

^ Compare the characteristics of insects that are beneficial to humans with those that are harmful.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, aphids feed on crops and cause problems for farmers, but ladybugs feed on aphids, and can be used as a means to get significantly reduce pest aphid populations.^ An example of this occurred as recently as 2004 when swarms of desert locust caused over $2.5 billion worth of crop damage to over 20 countries in West and North Africa.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas where mole crickets are known to cause problems, a preplant application of a soil insecticide that is incorporated into the soil is the most useful control measure.

^ S. E. Webb Insects and mites can cause severe problems in the production of watermelon, squash, cucumber, and cantaloupe either through direct damage to the crop or through transmission of disease agents, such as the aphid-borne mosaic viruses.

.While birds are perhaps more visible predators of insects, insects themselves account for the vast majority of insect consumption.^ The vast majority of the members of this very large family are general predators on other small arthropods, and thus usually considered beneficial.

Without predators to keep them in check, insects can undergo almost unstoppable population explosions.[8]:328–348[8]:400[81][82]
.Many insects, especially beetles, are scavengers that feed on dead animals and fallen trees and thereby recycle biological materials into forms found useful by other organisms.^ "Incisive Media indicated it plans to use the acquisition to expand into the U.S. B-to-B publishing market, and to expand the search engine strategies conferences into other markets.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The female softens the ground in the burrow with dead, folded, wet leaves and she fills the nest at the end of the tunnel with fallen leaves and reeds for bedding material.

^ Many adaptations of these three pairs of mouthparts are found in the insect class to accommodate the different ways of obtaining nutrients listed above.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Insects are responsible for much of the process by which topsoil is created.[8]:3, 218–228 The ancient Egyptian religion considered dung beetles sacred, and represented them as beetle-shaped amulets, or scarabs. .Dung beetles have been used in countries including Australia as an agent of biological pest control to reduce the populations of pestilent flies and parasitic worms.^ In addition larvicidal measures including biological control have been employed as well as environmental management to reduce breeding places.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sandstone universities In Australia, the term "sandstone university" is used to refer to an informally-defined group comprising the country's oldest tertiary institutions.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centipedes Choosing a pro, Classified ads , Clothes moths Clover Mites Cockroaches , Controlling pests , D elusionary parasitosis Employment ads , Finding a Pro , Fleas , Flies Flour Beetles Get rid of : Bedbugs Carpenter Ants Gnats .

.The Australian Dung Beetle Project successfully introduced 23 species of dung beetle, including Onthophagus gazella and Euoniticellus intermedius from South Africa and Europe.^ The Park houses a fabulous array of wild and endangered animals including species from the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, N..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two new species from South Africa, with first record of Ilyocryptus from rockpools // Arthropoda Selecta.
  • Arthropoda Selecta 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC kmk.entomology.ru [Source type: Original source]

This resulting in a 90% reduction in bush flies as well as improved soil fertility and quality.[83]

Entomophagy

.In some parts of the world, insects are used for human food, while being a taboo in other places.^ It's all part of being human!
  • "Leviathan", shooting draft, revised by Jeb Stuart 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

^ And in some places of the world men have the liberty of many wives: in other places, such liberty is not allowed.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This hurt was about what some humans told me was not right but animals accepted as part of life.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.In some cultures, insects, especially deep-fried cicadas, are considered to be delicacies, while in other places they form part of the normal diet as they have a high protein content for their mass.^ Metamorphosis in which the insects go through gradual changes as they slowly develop from juvenile forms, called nymphs, to the adult form.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are general predators on other aquatic insects as well as on tadpoles and small minnows - see nos.

^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?

.In most first-world countries, however, entomophagy, or the consumption of insects, is taboo.^ Although this country is the most prudent country in the world.

^ Santa Fe within Mexico City Santa Fe is the most developed area in Mexico City, first/world class district.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bembicines are predators on various groups of insects, and are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, primarily in North and South America.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .Despite this disposition, peoples in these cultures tend to accidentally consume between 50 and 90 insects in a given year.^ Despite their lack of success in past years, they are still heavily supported by the people of Abadan, and ..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these loans, according to Forbes, Jackson was still making as much as $75 million a year from his publishing partnership with Sony alone.

^ These dems not only hate our old people, they hate our young people and every American in between.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.There are proponents of developing this use to provide a major source of protein in human nutrition.^ Members of the class malacostraca are a major source of food for humans and are also an important part of the economy.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purity and spiritual development does not provide any internal 'shadows' that negatives can use to attach, hide and exist within a person's mind.

[8]:10–13 .Since it is impossible to entirely eliminate pest insects from the human food chain, insects are present in many foods, especially grains.^ He has been an instructor for ANA Summer Seminars since 1996, has given Numismatic Theatre presentations and made many educational appearances at other shows and club meetings.

^ Many different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis are available that are highly specific for caterpillar pests and will not harm beneficial insects.

^ These can be pantry pests, feeding on a variety of stored food products, primarily those made of or containing grain of some kind.

.Food safety laws in many countries do not prohibit insect parts in food, but rather limit the quantity.^ When employers limit the number and length of bathroom breaks, not only are they threatening workers' health and safety, they are breaking the law.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For otherwise it were as much against the law of Nations, to persecute a Christian stranger, for professing the Religion of his owne country, as an Infidell; or rather more, in as much as they that are not against Christ, are with him.

^ All of this is happening today as many governors around the country have yet to sign a version Jessica’s Law into law.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.According to cultural materialist anthropologist Marvin Harris, the eating of insects is taboo in cultures that have other protein sources such as fish or livestock.^ According to this obligation, I can acknowledge no other Books of the Old Testament, to be Holy Scripture, but those which have been commanded to be acknowledged for such, by the Authority of the Church of England.

^ Having talked with plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and insects, I dont think the only way I can honor a life form that I have talked with is to refrain from eating it.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore such Liberty is in some places more, and in some lesse; and in some times more, in other times lesse, according as they that have the Soveraignty shall think most convenient.

.Insects are also used in medicine, for example fly larvae (maggots) were formerly used to treat wounds to prevent or stop gangrene, as they would only consume dead flesh.^ He understood his flesh would be consumed.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You will be able to destroy this Generator only through use of Magic or through the aid of a Monster Ally who can hover or fly above the ground.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example in 1988 they ruled that the convicted murderer had instead only to be 16 at the time of offense in order to receive the death penalty.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

This treatment is finding modern usage in some hospitals. .Adult insects, such as crickets, and insect larvae of various kinds are also commonly used as fishing bait.^ In insects such as this one, the mandibles are strictly used as weapons and no longer function in feeding.
  • Arthropods and Insects - CK12 - Flexbooks 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using an open playlisting format paves the way for various kinds of development (more on that in a minute).
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s easy to come up with a list of uses for either photographs or the audits and various aspects of such.
  • Does Hansen's Error "Matter"? « Climate Audit 6 February 2010 11:23 UTC climateaudit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]

In culture

.Scarab beetles held religious and cultural symbolism in Old Egypt, Greece and some shamanistic Old World cultures.^ Leeson, H. S. Some notes on the recorded distribution of Old World species of Ornithodoros.
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some potential triatomine vectors also occur in Africa, Asia and Australia, but the causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi , has not been reported from the Old World ( Map 33 ).
  • Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors 15 September 2009 3:58 UTC ciesin.org [Source type: Academic]

The ancient Chinese regarded cicadas as symbols of rebirth or immortality. In Mesopotamian literature, the epic poem of Gilgamesh has allusions to Odonata which signify the impossibility of immortality. Amongst the Aborigines of Australia of the Arrarrente language groups, honey ants and witchety grubs served as personal clan totems. .In the case of the 'San' bush-men of the Kalahari, it is the praying mantis which holds much cultural significance including creation and zen-like patience in waiting.^ Like the Cajon Pass to the northwest, it was also created by the San Andreas Fault.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]:9

See also

References

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  5. ^ a b Erwin, Terry L. (1997). Biodiversity at its utmost: Tropical Forest Beetles. pp. 27–40.  In: Reaka-Kudla, M. L., D. E. Wilson & E. O. Wilson (eds.). Biodiversity II. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.. 
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External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Arthropods article)

From Wikiquote

Diaprepes abbreviatus, the citrus root weevil (class Insecta, order Coleoptera)
.This page is for quotes about arthropods, (animals of the phylum Arthropoda), both in general and about specific taxa.^ Students spend 18 months learning about animals and husbandry issues through both clas..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

  • To a good approximation, all species are insects.
  • Happy the Cicadas live, since they all have voiceless wives.
    • Xenarchus (Grecian poet)[2]
  • The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine!
    Feels at each thread, and lives along the line.
  • An inordinate fondness for beetles
    • The (possibly apocryphal) response J. B. S. Haldane gave when asked what could be inferred about the mind of the Creator from the works of Creation. [3]

Unsourced

.
  • Nothing more than a little shrimp-like animal, standing on its head in a limestone house and kicking food into its mouth
  • Don't accept the chauvinistic tradition that labels our era the age of mammals.^ Hindutva proponents stand for more than t..
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It contains a little more than 35 million people.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In fact, it had more births than bigger cities like Barcelona in 2004 .The most imp..
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is the age of arthropods. They outnumber us by any criterion – by species, by individuals, by prospects for evolutionary continuation.
  • If we live out our span of life on earth without ever knowing a crab intimately we have missed having a jolly friendship. Life is a little incomplete if we can look back and recall these small people only as supplying the course after soup and with the Chablis. - William Beebe, Nonsuch: Land of Water, 1932
  • What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the Master calls a butterfly.
  • There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it's going to be a butterfly. .
  • A fly, Sir, may sting a stately horse and make him wince; but one is but an insect, and the other is a horse still.^ In the United States, sand fly may refer to those horse flies also known as "greenheads" (family Tabanidae), o..
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • God in His wisdom made the fly. And then forgot to tell us why.
  • I never could have thought of it, to have a little bug all lit and made to go on wings.
    • Elizabeth Madox Roberts, "Firefly"
  • The butterfly counts not months but moments, and has time enough.
    • Rabindranath Tagore "Stray Birds"'

References

  1. Quoted in Dawkins, R. (1989) The Selfish Gene p. 251
  2. Quoted in Darwin, C. (1876) Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex
  3. Hutchinson, G. Evelyn (1959). "Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why Are There So Many Kinds of Animals?". The American Naturalist 93 (870): pp. 145–159.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

Insects
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
Linnaeus, 1758

Insects, the biological class Insecta, are part of the phylum Arthropoda. They are small terrestrial invertebrates which have a hard exoskeleton.

Insects are the largest group of animals on earth by far: there are more than 800,000 different kinds (or species) which have been described. New species of insects are continually being found: entomologists think there are millions of species still not yet discovered. There are more insects than all other kinds of animals.[1]

Insects have six legs; and most have wings. Insects were the first animals capable of flight. As they develop from eggs, insects undergo metamorphosis. Insects live all over the planet: almost all are terrestrial (live on land). Few insects live in the oceans or in very cold places, such as Antarctica. The most species live in tropical areas.

Some people call all insects "bugs", but this is not correct. Only some insects are true bugs, which is a special group of insects. People who study insects are called entomologists.

Contents

Insect bodies

File:Insect anatomy
Insect anatomy
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
1. antenna
2. ocelli (lower)
3. ocelli (upper)
4. compound eye
5. brain (cerebral ganglia)
6. prothorax
7. dorsal blood vessel
8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle)
9. mesothorax
10. metathorax
11. forewing
12. hindwing
13. mid-gut (stomach)
14. dorsal tube (Heart)
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, rectum & anus)
17. anus
18. oviduct
19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia)
20. Malpighian tubes
21. tarsal pads
22. claws
23. tarsus
24. tibia
25. femur
26. trochanter
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
28. thoracic ganglion
29. coxa
30. salivary gland
31. subesophageal ganglion
32. mouthparts
.

Insects have exoskeletons (skeletons on the outside). Their skeletons are made out of thin, hard pieces or plates, like armour. All together, these pieces make a hard layer around the insect’s body. The exoskeleton protects the insect.

Just like our muscles connect to our bones to make us walk and stand up, the muscles of an insect connect to the exoskeleton to make it walk and move. Their muscles are on the inside of their skeleton.

Insects are cold-blooded, which means that they can not control their body temperature. This means that insects are not very good at surviving the cold. In the winter, most insects go into something called diapause, which is insect version of hibernation. Some insects, like cockroaches, can not go into diapause and they will die if it gets too cold outside. This is why cockroaches love living in people's warm houses!

The body of an insect has three main parts: a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. On the head are an insect’s eyes, its antennae (they feel and smell things), and its mouth. On the thorax, insects have wings and legs. All insects have six legs (three pairs) and usually four wings (two pairs). The abdomen is the back part of the insect. Inside the abdomen is the stomach, the heart, and the excretory system where body wastes pass out of the insect. Bees also have a stinger at the back of the abdomen.

How insects grow

[[File:|thumb|A mantis nymph looks just like a mantis adult but much smaller.]] Most insects start as an egg that a female (mother) insect lays. These eggs are small; but they can usually be seen with the naked eye. Although the adults are larger, they do need a magnifying glass or a binocular microscope to see the complex details. A professional entomologist uses a binocular microscope to identify insects, plus a printed reference work.[2] There are far too many insects for anyone to remember them all, and most entomologists specialise in just one or two orders.

After the eggs hatch, two kinds of development may occur. Some insects have what is called incomplete metamorphosis. This means that a small insect, called a nymph comes out of the egg, and the nymph looks almost the same as the adult insect. As the nymph grows, it does not change the way it looks, but only how big it is. It goes through a number of stages, called 'instars'. Grasshoppers grow in this way.

Other insects have complete metamorphosis, which means that the small larva which comes out of the egg looks very different from the adult insect. Insects that have complete metamorphosis usually come out of the egg as a larva, which usually looks like a worm. The larva eats food and gets bigger until it turns into a pupa. Butterfly pupae (plural for pupa) are often inside cocoons. Inside the cocoon the insect changes the way it looks and often grows wings. When the cocoon opens, the adult insect comes out. Many insects have complete metamorphosis, for example beetles, butterflies and moths, and flies.

Kinds of insects

[[File:|thumb|A beetle (ladybird or ladybug). The red part is the hard front pair of wings.]] Different kinds of insects can be divided into groups called orders. There are many insect orders. The biggest insect orders are listed below:

  • Beetles (order Coleoptera) have the front pair of wings changed into a hard shell to protect the back wings.
  • Butterflies and moths (order Lepidoptera) have large, often colourful wings.
  • Flies (order Diptera) have only two wings.
  • Ants, bees, and wasps (order Hymenoptera) sometimes have stingers and sometimes live in large colonies (like ant hills).
  • True bugs (order Hemiptera) have a mouth that is long and narrow, like a drinking straw. This kind of mouth is called a beak.
  • Grasshoppers (order Orthoptera) can usually jump with their legs. Eat grass and grain plants.
  • Odonata, dragonflies and damselflies are top predators of other insects. Both aquatic nymphs and flying adults are carnivorous.

Contrary to what some people believe, spiders, scorpions, and similar animals are not insects; they are arachnids. Arachnids are arthropods that have 4 pairs of legs. Centipedes are arthropods with many legs and are also not insects.

Insects and people

People often think of insects as being either good or bad. “Good” insects are beneficial to people, meaning they do things that help people. “Bad” insects are called pests.

Pests can be harmful to people in different ways. Some are parasites, such as lice and bed bugs. Some of these parasite insects can spread diseases, such as mosquitoes spreading malaria. Other pest insects do not directly hurt people. Termites and some beetles eat wood and sometimes eat buildings, such as houses. However, termites also help break down the trees and branches that fall on the forest floor. Many insects eat agricultural products (plants meant for people to eat). Grasshoppers are one example of pest insects that eat plants in agriculture.

Many insects help people. Some kinds of insects, such as bees, make food (honey) that people can eat. The larvae of some moths make silk, which people use to make clothing. In some parts of the world, people actually eat insects. Eating insects for food is called entomophagy.

Insects help people in other ways. Many bees and flies pollinate plants. This means the insects help the plants make seeds by moving pollen from one flower to another. Some good insects eat pest insects, such as lady beetles (or ladybirds or ladybugs) eating aphids. Many insects eat dead plants and animals. This is good because, if they did not eat all the dead things, there would be dead plants and animals everywhere.

People often use poisons called insecticides to kill pest insects. Insecticides do not always work. Sometimes the pest insects become resistant to the insecticides, which means the insecticides can not hurt them anymore. Both the Colorado potato beetle and the diamondback moth are insects that are resistant to many insecticides. Insecticides do not only kill pest insects; sometimes many helpful insects are killed too. When helpful insects are killed, such as those that eat pest insects, the pest insects may come back in larger numbers than before because they are not being eaten by helpful insects anymore.

(Simplified) Taxonomy

This taxonomy lists some of the better known groups of insects.

References

  1. Hall, Derek 2005. Encyclopedia of insects & spiders. Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-793-2 / 1-84013-793-2
  2. Either a key (a special book to helps identify insects) such as Richards O.W. 1977. Hymenoptera: Introduction and key to families (Handbooks for the identification of British insects). Royal Entomological Society, London; or a large reference work, such as Carde, Ring T. and Resh, Vincent H. (eds) 2003. Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press N.Y. ISBN 0-12-586990-8 / 0-12-586990-8
Look up Insecta in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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frr:Insekten


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Insect, which are similar to those in the above article.








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