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Insulin
.
Computer-generated image of six insulin molecules assembled in a hexamer, highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding.^ Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry , the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding.

^ Notably, exchange of histidine at B10 for any other amino acid completely prevents hexamer formation since this impedes the docking of the zinc ion.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of 3-dimensional radiation therapy that uses computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Insulin is stored in the body as a hexamer, while the active form is the monomer.^ On the right side is a cartoon of the insulin hexamer, believed to be the stored form.

^ Body builders are using insulin now because it is legal, so they are injecting themselves with insulin because it builds muscle, it stores protein too.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Human insulin is biologically active and best absorbed as a monomer.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]
Available structures
1ai0, 1aiy, 1aph, 1b17, 1b18, 1b19, 1b2a, 1b2b, 1b2c, 1b2d, 1b2e, 1b2f, 1b2g, 1b9e, 1ben, 1bph, 1cph, 1dph, 1ev3, 1ev6, 1evr, 1fu2, 1fub, 1g7a, 1g7b, 1guj, 1hiq, 1hit, 1hls, 1htv, 1iza, 1izb, 1j73, 1jca, 1jco, 1lph, 1m5a, 1mhi, 1mhj, 1mpj, 1mso, 1os3, 1os4, 1q4v, 1qiy, 1qiz, 1qj0, 1rwe, 1sf1, 1t0c, 1trz, 1tyl, 1tym, 1uz9, 1w8p, 1wav, 1xda, 1xgl, 1xw7, 1zeg, 1zeh, 1zni, 1znj, 2a3g, 2aiy, 2bn1, 2bn3, 2c8q, 2c8r, 2g4m, 2g54, 2g56, 2hiu, 2ins, 2omg, 2omh, 2omi, 2tci, 3aiy, 3ins, 3mth, 4aiy, 4ins, 5aiy, 6ins, 7ins, 9ins
Identifiers
Symbols INS;
External IDs OMIM176730 MGI96573 HomoloGene173 GeneCards: INS Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE INS 206598 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3630 16334
Ensembl ENSG00000129965 ENSMUSG00000000215
UniProt P01308 Q5EEX1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000207 NM_008387
RefSeq (protein) NP_000198 NP_032413
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
2.14 - 2.14 Mb
Chr 7:
142.49 - 142.49 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
.
The idealized diagram shows the fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day containing three meals.
^ We only have one hormone that lowers sugar, and that's insulin.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The irregularity of meals during the day is an indication to eliminate any NPH insulin during the day.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An insulin test is a blood test that measures the amount of insulin , a hormone that regulates blood sugar.
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

In addition, the effect of a sugar-rich versus a starch-rich meal is highlighted.
.Insulin is a hormone that has profound effects on metabolism.^ Magnesium has some profound effects on insulin and glucose metabolism.
  • TMUSCLE.com | Taming of Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.tmuscle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism.

^ Figure 1 summarizes the roles of those hormones with a direct effect on fuel metabolism in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.
  • Understanding Insulin | EricCressey.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC ericcressey.com [Source type: Academic]

.Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fat as an energy source.^ Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ I could stop using insulin at any time...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Liver first, muscle second, and then your fat cells.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When insulin is absent (or low), glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source, for example, by transfer of lipids from adipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source.^ Once glucose is inside cells, the energy is released for use by the body or converted into fat for storage.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells).^ As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems .

^ As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells).
  • Insulin Education and Insulin Comparison Chart 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.northcoastmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The signalling mechanisms controlling this are not fully understood.

.In addition, it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body.^ While insulin is certainly a powerful modulator of plasma glucose levels, one must also consider several other hormones that exert the opposite physiological effects as insulin.
  • Understanding Insulin | EricCressey.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC ericcressey.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of insulin in circulation has extremely widespread effects throughout the body.

^ Growth hormone has some small effects on its own, but the major growth factors are the IgF's that then circulate throughout the body.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes mellitus will result.^ Insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus .

^ Non-diabetics' beta cells routinely and automatically manage this by continual glucose level monitoring and insulin release.

^ A good measure of long term diabetic control (over approximately 90 days in most people) is the serum level of glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA1c ).

.Consequently insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus.^ Insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus .

^ Comparison chart of insulin types use to treat diabetes.

^ The basic underlying cause may be the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes which is a diminished capacity for insulin response in some tissues (eg, muscle, fat) to respond to insulin.

.Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on external insulin (most commonly injected subcutaneously) for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally.^ All Type 1 diabetics are insulin dependent, and some Type 2 diabetics may also need insulin .
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Do not inject cold insulin because this can be painful.
  • Humulin N (Insulin (Human Recombinant)) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: General]

^ "Inhaled human insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.".

.Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are insulin resistant, and because of such resistance, may suffer from a relative insulin deficiency.^ Because that is what causes insulin resistance.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ "Inhaled human insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.".

^ Rosenstock J. Insulin strategies in type 2 diabetes.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some patients with Type 2 diabetes may eventually require insulin if other medications fail to control blood glucose levels adequately, though this is somewhat uncommon.^ Some insulin is for maintaining proper insulin levels in the body and other insulin medications deliver immediate insulin ...
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ All Type 1 diabetics are insulin dependent, and some Type 2 diabetics may also need insulin .
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The key to treating type 2 diabetes is controlling blood sugar levels.
  • Type 2 Diabetes - Yahoo! Health 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Insulin also influences other body functions, such as vascular compliance and cognition.^ Insulin has many other effects on the body.
  • Are Your Hormones Making You Miserable? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Basically, if too much insulin is given, the blood glucose level goes so low it stimulates the production of other hormones in the body such as epinephrine, which promote the breakdown of glycogen (the chemical compound which the body uses to store glucose) and increases the blood glucose level above normal.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other diseases: Infections, ketoacidosis , pancreatitis , liver disease such as hepatic lipidosis , kidney disease, or hormonal disorders such as Cushing's disease, hyperthyroidism , and acromegaly (condition resulting from an increased production of growth hormone) can affect the metabolism and effectiveness of insulin in the body.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once insulin enters the human brain, it enhances learning and memory and in particular benefits verbal memory.^ If you ARE NOT insulin resistant, you are a good candidate to learn to use insulin, and it will benefit you very much.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In five years and many thousands of times that I have injected insulin, I only had a slight hypoglycemia ONCE, and that was at the very beginning, when I was still learning...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Insulin is a peptide hormone composed of 51 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 5808 Da.^ Insulin is composed of 51 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 5808 Da .

^ Acids destroy insulin receptor sites on the cellular membrane so body cells cannot properly use the hormone.

^ The remaining polypeptides (51 amino acids in total), the B- and A- chains, are bound together by disulfide bonds .

.It is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.^ Islet of Langerhans: the cells within the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagon.

^ Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

The name comes from the Latin insula for "island". .Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal.^ Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal.
  • Insulin Education and Insulin Comparison Chart 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.northcoastmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of insulin varies from animal...
  • Insulin - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some scientists are trying to "package" insulin using special coatings, or by altering the insulin structure to get it through the stomach.
  • Insulin and Medications - Youth Zone - American Diabetes Association 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC web.diabetes.org [Source type: General]

.Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in 'strength' (in carbohydrate metabolism control effects) in humans because of those variations.^ Source: Insulin for treatment of cats may be derived from the pancreas of pigs (pork insulin), pancreas of cattle (beef insulin), or combinations of the two; or it can be genetically engineered to be identical to human insulin.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If your mother, while you were in the womb was eating a high carbohydrate diet which is turning into sugar, we have been able to show that the fetus in animals becomes more insulin resistant.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, among those with IDDM, optimal metabolic control may be achievable in only a few, unless the treatment is intensified.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Porcine (pig) insulin is especially close to the human version.^ Porcine ( pig ) insulin is especially close to the human version.

^ Source: Insulin for treatment of cats may be derived from the pancreas of pigs (pork insulin), pancreas of cattle (beef insulin), or combinations of the two; or it can be genetically engineered to be identical to human insulin.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1981, Novo Nordisk was able to chemically and enzymatically convert bovine and porcine insulins into a clone of human insulin.

Contents

Gene

.The proinsulin precursor of insulin is encoded by the INS gene.^ In beta cells, insulin is synthesized from the proinsulin precursor molecule by the action of proteolytic enzymes, known as prohormone convertases (PC1 and PC2), as well as the exoprotease carboxypeptidase E .

[3][4]

Alleles

A variety of mutant alleles with changes in the coding region have been identified. .There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region.^ I’m sorry for you non-smokers out there that are reading through this, but this is the coolest thing I’ve ever bought.

[3]

Regulation

.There are several regulatory sequences in the promoter region of the human insulin gene, to which transcription factors bind.^ That is one of the factors that determines insulin sensitivity is how much can get there.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, like regular human insulin, both insulin lispro and insulin aspart products contain zinc as a stabilizing ligand which, as outlined above, promotes hexamer formation.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several types of insulin used in the treatment of cats with diabetes mellitus.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

In general, the A-boxes bind to Pdx1 factors, E-boxes bind to NeuroD, C-boxes bind to MafA and cAMP response elements to CREB.
There are also silencers that inhibit transcription.
.
Regulatory sequences and their transcription factors for the insulin gene.^ The sequence of insulin is highly conserved in mammalian species, and is homologous with the insulin-like growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II. .
  • The role of insulin and C-peptide determination in diagnosis of diabetes - USA 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC las.perkinelmer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin also has profound effects on the transcription of numerous genes, effects that are primarily mediated by regulated function of sterol-regulated element binding protein, SREBP .

^ The relationship between glucose and insulin is quite complex and involves the interaction of many metabolic and regulatory factors.
  • Assessing Insulin Sensitivity 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.musc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]
Regulatory sequence binding transcription factors
ILPR Par1
A5 Pdx1
negative regulatory element (NRE)[6] glucocorticoid receptor, Oct1
Z (overlapping NRE and C2) ISF
C2 Pax4, MafA(?)
E2 USF1/USF2
A3 Pdx1
CREB RE -
CREB RE CREB, CREM
A2 -
CAAT enhancer binding (CEB) (partly overlapping A2 and C1) -
C1 -
E1 E2A, NeuroD1, HEB
A1 Pdx1
G1 -

Protein structure

.Within vertebrates, the amino acid sequence of insulin is extremely well preserved.^ In contrast, both pure human insulin and pure insulin lispro possess identical pIs (5.5) because of identical amino acid compositions.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The functional importance of each amino acid residue in the human insulin molecule for biological activity and/or higher-order assembly was revealed through the study of modified human insulins.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NutraSweet (aspartame) does not increase the flow of insulin as NutraSweet contains two amino acids (aspartic acid and phenylalanine) that are the building blocks of protein, not sugar .
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.Bovine insulin differs from human in only three amino acid residues, and porcine insulin in one.^ The insulin of various mammals differs by only one or several amino acids.
  • Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin (5808 Da) is a peptide hormone composed of 51 amino acid residues.
  • BioVendor R&D - Molecules \ Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.biovendor.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The study in 16 healthy volunteers compared 0.3 U/kg of insulin glulisine with 0.3 U/kg of regular human insulin and insulin lispro in a randomized, three-way crossover trial.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even insulin from some species of fish is similar enough to human to be clinically effective in humans.^ Even insulin from some species of fish is similar enough to human to be effective in humans.

^ Fish insulin is also close enough to human insulin to be effective.
  • Insulin | health benefits, biological functions, side effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.vitamins-supplements.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was similar for regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Insulin in some invertebrates is quite similar in sequence to human insulin, and has similar physiological effects.^ This was similar for regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Total insulin exposure was consistent with previous studies in healthy volunteers and demonstrated similar INS-AUC total values for both insulin glulisine and regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The concentration-time profiles (INS-AUC 2 , INS-C max and INS-t max ) for both insulin glulisine and regular human insulin were similar across subjects with or without renal impairment ( figure 3 d).
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The strong homology seen in the insulin sequence of diverse species suggests that it has been conserved across much of animal evolutionary history.^ Your weight, how much physical activity you get, and your family history all affect the way your body responds to insulin.
  • Type 2 Diabetes - Yahoo! Health 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal.

.The C-peptide of proinsulin (discussed later), however, differs much more amongst species; it is also a hormone, but a secondary one.^ The environment of that cell is going to be very much dictated by, number one, hormones, and what you eat.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I had to choose which one hormone to take I would have a hard choice between insulin and growth hormone, because I like them both very much...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements of the atoms within the molecules and that may have different physical/chemical properties.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Insulin is produced and stored in the body as a hexamer (a unit of six insulin molecules), while the active form is the monomer.^ When your blood sugar is lower, it means your body produces more insulin (and this is crucial – more on this in a moment).

^ Your body produces insulin to carry glucose inside your cells to release energy for the cells.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ But most importantly, it means your body is slowly learning to produce insulin on its own again… and for some people, this has “cured” their Diabetes completely.

.The hexamer is an inactive form with long-term stability which serves as a way to keep the highly reactive insulin protected, yet readily available.^ In the case of delivering insulin in the form of multiple injections using a syringe (MDI), basal dose of insulin corresponds to the dosage(s) of intermediate or long-acting insulin.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Intensive insulin regimens used in long-term management of IDDM are rather advanced versions of the open-loop system.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Long term risks include development of type II diabetes, and a lifetime dependancy on synthetic insulin.

.The hexamer-monomer conversion is one of the central aspects of insulin formulations for injection.^ One treatment for diabetes is insulin injections .
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, more rapid deployment of monomers from hexamers is attained for both insulin analogue products when compared with regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One alternative is jet injection (also sometimes used for vaccinations), which has different insulin delivery peaks and durations as compared to needle injection.

.The hexamer is far more stable than the monomer, which is desirable for practical reasons, however the monomer is a much faster reacting drug because diffusion rate is inversely related to particle size.^ Bernstein is much more strict than I am...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fortunately, too, I was still using "R" insulin because I was learning, and not Humalog, which I knew is faster and more powerful.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Resistance to insulin occurs because there has been too much insulin floating around in your blood stream for too long, so to REVERSE RESISTANCE TO INSULIN you must REVERSE THE REASON why there was too much insulin floating around in your blood stream.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.A fast reacting drug means that insulin injections do not have to precede mealtimes by hours, which in turn gives diabetics more flexibility in their daily schedule.^ Multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) .
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One treatment for diabetes is insulin injections .
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ On conventional therapy, he takes a total daily insulin dose of 0.8 U/kg in two injections.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7] Insulin can aggregate and form fibrillar interdigitated beta-sheets. .This can cause injection amyloidosis, and prevents the storage of insulin for long periods.^ The sixth reason why I use insulin is because it helps to prevent high blood glucose levels which cause a loss of NEURONS...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The increased insulin level causes glucose absorption and storage in cells, reducing glycogen to glucose conversion, reducing blood glucose levels, and so reducing insulin release.

^ Currently, inhaled insulin is short acting and is typically taken before meals; an injection of long-acting insulin at night is often still required.

[8]

Synthesis, physiological effects, and degradation

Synthesis

.Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released when any of the several stimuli is detected.^ Beta cells, which produce insulin, burn out as a result of overwork and also due to the higher blood glucose levels, which then means that the pancreas becomes less and less capable of releasing enough insulin precisely when needed, which again results in higher blood glucose levels, which again results in a higher blood insulin level, which again results in more resistance to insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Growth hormone is good for me, so I don't want my pancreas to release somatostatin, so insulin helps my body not to block growth hormone.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The pancreas wears out in time, both because it has been forced to produce insulin, and maybe because the high glucose levels harm it.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.The stimuli include ingested protein and glucose in the blood produced from digested food.^ You eat a diet that promotes elevated glucose, and you produce increased glycated proteins and A.G.E.'s, you are increasing your rate of inflammation of any kind.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hereditary causes include mutations of insulin receptor, glucose transporter, and signaling proteins, although the common forms are largely unidentified.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood glucose is regulated by the pancreas, which should produce several hormones, including insulin (which makes glucose levels go DOWN) and glucagon (which makes glucose levels go UP.) The food we eat is converted to a form of energy called glucose.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Carbohydrate can be polymers of simple sugars or the simple sugars themselves. .If the carbohydrate includes glucose then that glucose will be absorbed into the blood stream and blood glucose level will begin to rise.^ Self-monitored blood glucose levels .
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Defined target blood glucose levels .
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The algorithm is then completed by adding to or subtracting from the usual dose in a stepwise manner, to accommodate prevailing blood glucose levels that are stepwise above or below the target range, respectively.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In target cells, insulin initiates a signal transduction, which has the effect of increasing glucose uptake and storage.^ Insulin binds and acts mainly through the insulin receptor and also acts via the insulinlike growth factor–1 (IGF-1) receptor; cellular actions of insulin involve a wide variety of effects on postreceptor signaling pathways within target cells.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This occurs because as we lose beta cells, blood glucose levels rise more often and more insulin is needed to bring blood glucose levels down.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.Finally, insulin is degraded, terminating the response.^ The mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance syndromes include genetic or primary target cell defects, autoantibodies to insulin, and accelerated insulin degradation.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.
Insulin undergoes extensive posttranslational modification along the production pathway.
^ The modifications in insulin glulisine have significant consequences for the viability of the commercial insulin glulisine product.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Production and secretion are largely independent; prepared insulin is stored awaiting secretion.^ Production and secretion are largely independent; prepared insulin is stored awaiting secretion.

^ Eating your protein first will stimulate the hormone glucagon, causing the release of stored carbohydrate in the liver, and reducing insulin secretion.
  • Insulin Resistance | Vital Earth Minerals 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.vitalearth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more normal insulin levels are… the more the body will use stored body fat for fuel The slower the rate that carbohydrates enter the bloodstream, the lower insulin production will be.
  • Insulin Resistance | Vital Earth Minerals 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.vitalearth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both C-peptide and mature insulin are biologically active.^ Both C-peptide and mature insulin are biologically active.

^ Insulin glargine and Insulin detemir -- both insulin analogs which start working within 1 to 2 hours and continue to be active, without peaks or dips, for about 24 hours.

^ In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide .
  • insulin -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

Cell components and proteins in this image are not to scale.
.In mammals, insulin is synthesized in the pancreas within the beta cells (β-cells) of the islets of Langerhans.^ Improves target cell response to insulin without increasing insulin secretion from pancreas.
  • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta cells, which produce insulin, burn out as a result of overwork and also due to the higher blood glucose levels, which then means that the pancreas becomes less and less capable of releasing enough insulin precisely when needed, which again results in higher blood glucose levels, which again results in a higher blood insulin level, which again results in more resistance to insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Your pancreas produces insulin to move glucose into cells where it is metabolized into energy which fuels the body.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.One million to three million islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) form the endocrine part of the pancreas, which is primarily an exocrine gland.^ Also called endocrine pancreas cell and islet cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Also called endocrine pancreas cell and islet of Langerhans cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare cancer that forms in the islets of Langerhans cells (a type of cell found in the pancreas).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The endocrine portion only accounts for 2% of the total mass of the pancreas.^ The endocrine portion only accounts for 2% of the total mass of the pancreas.

^ A mass of abnormal cells that forms in the endocrine (hormone-producing) tissues of the pancreas.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Within the islets of Langerhans, beta cells constitute 60–80% of all the cells.^ Islet of Langerhans: the cells within the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagon.

^ Within the islets of Langerhans, beta cells constitute 60–80% of all the cells.

^ Beta cells are found in areas of the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans.
  • CDC's Diabetes Program - Publications & Products - Take Charge of Your Diabetes - Glossary 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In beta cells, insulin is synthesized from the proinsulin precursor molecule by the action of proteolytic enzymes, known as prohormone convertases (PC1 and PC2), as well as the exoprotease carboxypeptidase E.^ What is the action of insulin on your fat cells?
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Injected insulin keeps my pancreas from producing and releasing insulin on that occasion, so my pancreas does not burn out its own insulin producing beta cells as quickly as it would have .
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This occurs because as we lose beta cells, blood glucose levels rise more often and more insulin is needed to bring blood glucose levels down.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

[9] These modifications of proinsulin remove the center portion of the molecule (ie, C-peptide), from the C- and N- terminal ends of proinsulin. .The remaining polypeptides (51 amino acids in total), the B- and A- chains, are bound together by disulfide bonds/disulphide bonds.^ Insulin glulisine differs from regular human insulin by the substitution of amino acid residues at positions 3 and 29 of the B chain (3 B -Asp → 3 B -Lys and 29 B -Lys → 29 B -Glu) [ figure 1 ].
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Confusingly, the primary sequence of proinsulin goes in the order "B-C-A", since B and A chains were identified on the basis of mass, and the C peptide was discovered after the others.^ Confusingly, the primary sequence of proinsulin goes in the order "B-C-A", since B and A chains were identified on the basis of mass, and the C peptide was discovered after the others.

^ Since the exact DNA sequence of each chain is known, they synthesize each mini-gene's DNA in an amino acid sequencing machine.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After preproinsulin, the chain evolves into proinsulin, still a single chain but without the signaling sequence.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

The endogenous production of insulin is regulated in several steps along the synthesis pathway:
.It has been shown that insulin and its related proteins, are also produced inside the brain and that reduced levels of these proteins are linked to Alzheimer's disease.^ This level of insulin administration produced a 32% reduction in protein breakdown (4).
  • Insulin insulin Anabolic SteroidProfiles - Steroid . com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.steroid.com [Source type: General]

^ A naturally produced molecule called resveratrol, found in the skin of red grapes, has been shown to lower insulin levels in mice when injected directly into the brain, even when the animals ate a high-fat diet.
  • Insulin News - insciences 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC insciences.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At these sites insulin facilitates the transport of glucose and amino acids across the cell membrane to be used inside the cell for energy and protein synthesis.

[10][11][12]

Release

.Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans release insulin in two phases.^ Beta cells are found in areas of the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans.
  • CDC's Diabetes Program - Publications & Products - Take Charge of Your Diabetes - Glossary 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beta cells sense this increase and release insulin.

^ Beta cells sense this increase and releases insulin.

.The first phase insulin release is rapidly triggered in response to increased blood glucose levels.^ Insulin then lowers the levels of blood glucose.
  • LOWER YOUR CARBOHYDRATES AND LOWER YOUR INSULIN LEVELS 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC rheumatic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin Resistance 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.noaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased blood glucose levels after a meal is a stimulus for prompt release of insulin from the pancreas.

^ And these rise the levels of insulin well before the actual glucose increased in the blood.

The second phase is a sustained, slow release of newly formed vesicles that are triggered independently of sugar. The description of first phase release is as follows:
.
  • Glucose enters the beta cells through the glucose transporter GLUT2
  • Glucose goes into glycolysis and the respiratory cycle where multiple high-energy ATP molecules are produced by oxidation
  • Dependent on ATP levels, and hence blood glucose levels, the ATP-controlled potassium channels (K+) close and the cell membrane depolarizes
  • On depolarization, voltage controlled calcium channels (Ca2+) open and calcium flows into the cells
  • An increased calcium level causes activation of phospholipase C, which cleaves the membrane phospholipid phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate into inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol.
  • Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) binds to receptor proteins in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER).^ Your body secretes insulin to help glucose in your blood to enter your body cells and produce energy.
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When red blood cells are forming, glucose molecules attach.
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Self-monitored blood glucose levels .
    • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

    This allows the release of Ca2+ from the ER via IP3 gated channels, and further raises the cell concentration of calcium.
  • Significantly increased amounts of calcium in the cells causes release of previously synthesized insulin, which has been stored in secretory vesicles
.This is the main mechanism for release of insulin.^ Mechanism of glucose dependent insulin release Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans are sensitive to variations in blood glucose levels through the following mechanism (see figure to the right): .

^ Significantly increased amounts of calcium in the cells causes release of previously synthesised insulin, which has been stored in secretory vesicles This is the main mechanism for release of insulin and regulation of insulin synthesis.

^ JANUVIA (a medication with a similar glucose-stimulated insulin release promotion mechanism) and ACTOS Byetta has been linked to acute ...
  • Byetta Insulin - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition some insulin release takes place generally with food intake, not just glucose or carbohydrate intake, and the beta cells are also somewhat influenced by the autonomic nervous system.^ Insulin is a hormone that is formed and released by beta cells residing in the pancreas.
  • Insulin (Humulin®, Iletin®, Vetsulin™) 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

^ So insulin will be released to take that sugar and store it.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Also called ANS and autonomic nervous system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The signaling mechanisms controlling these linkages are not fully understood.^ The signalling mechanisms controlling this are not fully understood.

^ As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells).
  • Insulin Education and Insulin Comparison Chart 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.northcoastmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells).
  • Insulin - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other substances known to stimulate insulin release include amino acids from ingested proteins, acetylcholine, released from vagus nerve endings (parasympathetic nervous system), released by enteroendocrine cells of intestinal mucosa and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP).^ Injected insulin keeps my pancreas from producing and releasing insulin on that occasion, so my pancreas does not burn out its own insulin producing beta cells as quickly as it would have .
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This occurs because as we lose beta cells, blood glucose levels rise more often and more insulin is needed to bring blood glucose levels down.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.Three amino acids (alanine, glycine and arginine) act similarly to glucose by altering the beta cell's membrane potential.^ As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells).
  • Insulin Education and Insulin Comparison Chart 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.northcoastmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At these sites insulin facilitates the transport of glucose and amino acids across the cell membrane to be used inside the cell for energy and protein synthesis.

^ Action In general, insulin acts to reduce extracellular (including blood plasma) levels of glucose by interacting in some way yet unknown with various cell membranes.
  • insulin Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Acetylcholine triggers insulin release through phospholipase C, while the last acts through the mechanism of adenylate cyclase.^ The first of these act similarly as glucose through phospholipase C, while the last acts through the mechanism of adenylate cyclase .

^ BR CBT 3 Elevated levels of glucose in the blood plasma trigger the release of insulin from the pancreas.
  • question about insulin... | Study Question Q&A | Student Doctor Network 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC forums.studentdoctor.net [Source type: General]

^ Short-acting insulin – Effect occurs with in 30 minutes after subcutaneous injection and lasts for around 6 hours.

.The sympathetic nervous system (via Alpha2-adrenergic stimulation as demonstrated by the agonists clonidine or methyldopa) inhibit the release of insulin.^ The sympathetic nervous system (via α 2 -adrenergic agonists such as norepinephrine ) inhibits the release of insulin.

^ One of the strongest stimulants of the sympathetic nervous system is high levels of insulin.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the strongest stimulants of the sympathetic nervous system is a high level of insulin.
  • Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it is worth noting that circulating adrenaline will activate Beta2-Receptors on the Beta cells in the pancreatic Islets to promote insulin release.^ Insulin is a hormone that is formed and released by beta cells residing in the pancreas.
  • Insulin (Humulin®, Iletin®, Vetsulin™) 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

^ Beta cells sense this increase and releases insulin.

^ Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreas.

.This is important since muscle cannot benefit from the raised blood sugar resulting from adrenergic stimulation (increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis from the low blood insulin: glucagon state) unless insulin is present to allow for GLUT-4 translocation in the tissue.^ Damage begins with even slight changes in insulin and blood sugar.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Insulin Glucose Challenge Test – This should be done with a 2-hour glucose challenge, 75 grams measuring fasting, 1- and 2-hour blood sugar AND insulin.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Conversely, insulin in circulating blood is the dominant regulator of glucose production, glucose uptake and the resultant level blood level of glucose.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, beginning with direct innervation, norepinephrine inhibits insulin release via alpha2-receptors, then subsequently, circulating adrenaline from the adrenal medulla will stimulate beta2-receptors thereby promoting insulin release.^ Glucagon stimulates insulin release?
  • question about insulin... | Study Question Q&A | Student Doctor Network 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC forums.studentdoctor.net [Source type: General]

^ This excess insulin stimulates the ovaries to produce large amounts of the male hormone testosterone, which may prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg each month, thus causing infertility.
  • PCOS | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC pcos.insulitelabs.com [Source type: General]

^ Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis in isolated limb infusion experiments , these anabolic properties seem to be the result of insulin binding to IGF-1 receptors.
  • Basskilleronline.com - Acnemans Insulin FAQ 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.basskilleronline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the glucose level comes down to the usual physiologic value, insulin release from the beta cells slows or stops.^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin secretion from β-cells is principally regulated by plasma glucose levels.

^ As Glucose levels rise, Insulin levels will rise and when Glucose levels go down, less Insulin is released from the Pancreas and hence Insulin levels go down.
  • Insulin Resistance 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC equinemedsurg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If blood glucose levels drop lower than this, especially to dangerously low levels, release of hyperglycemic hormones (most prominently glucagon from Islet of Langerhans' alpha cells) forces release of glucose into the blood from cellular stores, primarily liver cell stores of glycogen.^ That makes it useless for lowering blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin and Medications - Youth Zone - American Diabetes Association 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC web.diabetes.org [Source type: General]

^ Glycogen stored in liver cells (unlike glycogen stored in muscle cells) can be converted to glucose, and released into the blood, when glucose from digestion is low or absent, and the glycerol backbone in triglycerides can also be used to produce blood glucose.

^ Hyperglycemic (high blood glucose) .
  • IOH causes of insulin shock, prevention, treatment, coma 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: General]

.By increasing blood glucose, the hyperglycemic hormones prevent or correct life-threatening hypoglycemia.^ The sixth reason why I use insulin is because it helps to prevent high blood glucose levels which cause a loss of NEURONS...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In nearly every study which employed intensified insulin therapy in IDDM, there has been an increase in episodes of both mild hypoglycemia and of potentially life-threatening hypoglycemia.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.Release of insulin is strongly inhibited by the stress hormone norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which leads to increased blood glucose levels during stress.^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And when glucose levels are low, my pituitary releases growth hormone...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Self-monitored blood glucose levels .
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Evidence of impaired first phase insulin release can be seen in the glucose tolerance test, demonstrated by a substantially elevated blood glucose level at 30 minutes, a marked drop by 60 minutes, and a steady climb back to baseline levels over the following hourly time points.^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Take another blood test after 30 days and 60 days.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Self-monitored blood glucose levels .
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

Oscillations

.Insulin release from pancreas oscillates with a period of 3–6 minutes.^ BR CBT 3 Elevated levels of glucose in the blood plasma trigger the release of insulin from the pancreas.
  • question about insulin... | Study Question Q&A | Student Doctor Network 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC forums.studentdoctor.net [Source type: General]

^ The role of insulin Insulin is a hormone that is released by the beta cells of the pancreas, a glandular organ located in the abdomen, in response to a rise in the level of glucose in the blood.

^ Growth hormone is good for me, so I don't want my pancreas to release somatostatin, so insulin helps my body not to block growth hormone.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Even during digestion, generally one or two hours following a meal, insulin release from pancreas is not continuous, but oscillates with a period of 3–6 minutes, changing from generating a blood insulin concentration more than ~800 pmol/l to less than 100 pmol/l.^ Damage begins with even slight changes in insulin and blood sugar.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Your insulin should be less than 5 fasting and should never rise above 30 after one to two hours.
  • Are Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Really Reversible? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet, the stepwise changes in the insulin dose should follow a reasonable slope; the slope is likely to be exponential rather than linear (smaller changes in low than in high glucose ranges).
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

[13] .This is thought to avoid downregulation of insulin receptors in target cells and to assist the liver in extracting insulin from the blood.^ Insulin binds and acts mainly through the insulin receptor and also acts via the insulinlike growth factor–1 (IGF-1) receptor; cellular actions of insulin involve a wide variety of effects on postreceptor signaling pathways within target cells.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This occurs because as we lose beta cells, blood glucose levels rise more often and more insulin is needed to bring blood glucose levels down.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

[13] .This oscillation is important to consider when administering insulin-stimulating medication, since it is the oscillating blood concentration of insulin release which should, ideally, be achieved, not a constant high concentration.^ What should I avoid while using concentrated insulin?
  • Health: insulin regular, concentrated (U-500); Insulin is only part of a complete program ... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]

^ How should I use concentrated insulin?
  • Health: insulin regular, concentrated (U-500); Insulin is only part of a complete program ... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]

^ What is the most important information I should know about concentrated insulin?
  • Health: insulin regular, concentrated (U-500); Insulin is only part of a complete program ... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]

[13] .It is also important to consider in that all methods of insulin replacement can never hope to replicate this delivery mechanism precisely.^ When insulin is prescribed, it is important that the method of delivery be individualized.

^ It is another method of insulin delivery.

^ If all of that didn´t whet your appetite, then consider the fact that insulin, GH, and IGF are undetectable on drug tests!
  • Insulin insulin Anabolic SteroidProfiles - Steroid . com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.steroid.com [Source type: General]

.This may be achieved by delivering insulin rhythmically to the portal vein or by islet cell transplantation to the liver.^ Insulin is released from the pancreatic islets into portal venous circulation in response to a variety of regulatory elements, such as circulating levels of nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin infusion pumps will deliver bolus doses in tenths of units, but many people may prefer to use only whole numbers or increments of 0.5 units.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It may include radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, or treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[13] Future insulin pumps hope to address this characteristic. (See also Pulsatile Insulin.)

Signal transduction

.There are special transporter proteins in cell membranes through which glucose from the blood can enter a cell.^ Initiates the signal that opens the cell membrane for glucose transportation.

^ There are special transporter proteins in cell membranes through which glucose from the blood can enter a cell.

^ This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.These transporters are, indirectly, under blood insulin's control in certain body cell types (e.g., muscle cells).^ These transporters are, indirectly, under insulin control in certain body cell types (eg, muscle cells).

^ Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic underlying cause may be the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes which is a diminished capacity for insulin response in some tissues (eg, muscle, fat) to respond to insulin.

.Low levels of circulating insulin, or its absence, will prevent glucose from entering those cells (e.g., in Type 1 diabetes).^ Insulin then lowers the levels of blood glucose.
  • LOWER YOUR CARBOHYDRATES AND LOWER YOUR INSULIN LEVELS 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC rheumatic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypoglycaemia is a low blood glucose level.

^ Type 2 diabetes is caused, not by the absence of insulin, but by insulin's not working properly.
  • Diabetes Or Just Normal Thirst? - DrGreene.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

.However, more commonly there is a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin (e.g., the reduced insulin sensitivity characteristic of Type 2 diabetes), resulting in decreased glucose absorption.^ Insulin resistance: Decreased insulin sensitivity.

^ As a result, their bodies need more insulin to help glucose enter cells.

^ I had type-1 diabetes for 36 years, but not any more.

.In either case, there is 'cell starvation', weight loss, sometimes extreme.^ In either case, there is 'cell starvation', weight loss, sometimes extreme.

^ If anyone is interested… there is a book called, "Good Calories, Bad Calories" by Gary Taubes that gives some good information in regards to insulin and weight loss.
  • Insulin and Fat Loss. A Simple Explanation. | Fitness Black Book 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC fitnessblackbook.com [Source type: General]

^ Fortunately, thanks to the Insulin Resistance Action Plan, there is now a unique weight loss program that actually REVERSES Insulin Resistance.
  • Stop Insulin Resistance | The Healthy, Natural Way to Reverse Insulin Resistance, Lose Weight and Lower Glucose Levels with an Insulin Resistance Diet and Neutraceutical Supplements 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC stopinsulinresistance.com [Source type: General]
  • Stop Insulin Resistance | The Healthy, Natural Way to Reverse Insulin Resistance, Lose Weight and Lower Glucose Levels with an Insulin Resistance Diet and Neutraceutical Supplements 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.stopinsulinresistance.com [Source type: General]

.In a few cases, there is a defect in the release of insulin from the pancreas.^ In a few cases, there is a defect in the release of insulin from the pancreas.

^ BR CBT 3 Elevated levels of glucose in the blood plasma trigger the release of insulin from the pancreas.
  • question about insulin... | Study Question Q&A | Student Doctor Network 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC forums.studentdoctor.net [Source type: General]

^ Injected insulin keeps my pancreas from producing and releasing insulin on that occasion, so my pancreas does not burn out its own insulin producing beta cells as quickly as it would have .
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.Either way, the effect is, characteristically, the same: elevated blood glucose levels.^ This stimulus can have the effect of raising blood glucose.
  • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.kidsource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either way, the effect is, characteristically, the same: elevated blood glucose levels.

^ Insulin then lowers the levels of blood glucose.
  • LOWER YOUR CARBOHYDRATES AND LOWER YOUR INSULIN LEVELS 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC rheumatic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin Resistance 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.noaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Activation of insulin receptors leads to internal cellular mechanisms that directly affect glucose uptake by regulating the number and operation of protein molecules in the cell membrane that transport glucose into the cell.^ Insulin binds and acts mainly through the insulin receptor and also acts via the insulinlike growth factor–1 (IGF-1) receptor; cellular actions of insulin involve a wide variety of effects on postreceptor signaling pathways within target cells.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates insulin-responsive gene transcription involved in glucose production, transport, and utilization, thereby lowering blood glucose concentrations and reducing hyperinsulinemia.
  • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These agents are insulin-sensitizing drugs that increase the disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues and act by activating a specific nuclear receptor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
  • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The genes that specify the proteins that make up the insulin receptor in cell membranes have been identified and the structure of the interior, cell membrane section, and now, finally after more than a decade, the extra-membrane structure of receptor (Australian researchers announced the work 2Q 2006).^ Exercising or working more than usual.
  • Humulin N (Insulin (Human Recombinant)) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: General]

^ Cells that make insulin.
  • CDC's Diabetes Program - Publications & Products - Take Charge of Your Diabetes - Glossary 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Two types of tissues are most strongly influenced by insulin, as far as the stimulation of glucose uptake is concerned: muscle cells (myocytes) and fat cells (adipocytes).^ What is the action of insulin on your fat cells?
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin sensitizer with major effect in stimulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
  • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thiazolidinediones have a major effect in the stimulation of glucose uptake, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.
  • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The former are important because of their central role in movement, breathing, circulation, etc, and the latter because they accumulate excess food energy against future needs.^ The former are important because of their central role in movement, breathing, circulation, etc, and the latter because they accumulate excess food energy against future needs.

^ So we are only here because our ancestors were able to store nutrients, and they were able to store nutrients because they were able to elevate their insulin in response to any elevation in energy that the organism encountered.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ First, the cells are not getting the sugar they need for normal energy.
  • Optimum Health Blog | All posts tagged 'insulin' 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC optimumhealthblog.com [Source type: General]

.Together, they account for about two-thirds of all cells in a typical human body.^ Together, they account for about two-thirds of all cells in a typical human body.

^ However, all patients should be educated about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and steps they can take to prevent and treat hypoglycemic episodes.
  • ISPUB - Initiating Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Practical Approach 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each evening I’d see two different Pulmonologists (Lung Docs), and they’d ask me questions about this and that, and tell me I was staying yet another day.
  • Insulin Junky 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC insulinjunky.com [Source type: Original source]

Physiological effects

.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1) which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2).
^ Insulin binds and acts mainly through the insulin receptor and also acts via the insulinlike growth factor–1 (IGF-1) receptor; cellular actions of insulin involve a wide variety of effects on postreceptor signaling pathways within target cells.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ Conversely, insulin in circulating blood is the dominant regulator of glucose production, glucose uptake and the resultant level blood level of glucose.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include:
  • Control of cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently glucose in muscle and adipose tissue (about ⅔ of body cells).
  • Increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake.
  • Modification of the activity of numerous enzymes.
The actions of insulin on cells include:
.
  • Increased glycogen synthesis – insulin forces storage of glucose in liver (and muscle) cells in the form of glycogen; lowered levels of insulin cause liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and excrete it into the blood.^ That makes it useless for lowering blood glucose levels.
    • Insulin and Medications - Youth Zone - American Diabetes Association 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC web.diabetes.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It's also unique in that it's been shown to increase glucose storage in muscle tissue, and not in adipose tissue.
    • TMUSCLE.com | Taming of Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.tmuscle.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    .This is the clinical action of insulin which is directly useful in reducing high blood glucose levels as in diabetes.
  • Increased fatty acid synthesis – insulin forces fat cells to take in blood lipids which are converted to triglycerides; lack of insulin causes the reverse.
  • Increased esterification of fatty acids – forces adipose tissue to make fats (i.e., triglycerides) from fatty acid esters; lack of insulin causes the reverse.
  • Decreased proteolysis – decreasing the breakdown of protein.
  • Decreased lipolysis – forces reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse.
  • Decreased gluconeogenesis – decreases production of glucose from non-sugar substrates, primarily in the liver (remember, the vast majority of endogenous insulin arriving at the liver never leaves the liver); lack of insulin causes glucose production from assorted substrates in the liver and elsewhere.
  • Decreased autophagy - decreased level of degradation of damaged organelles.^ This additional insulin makes more glucose available for energy production.
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Self-monitored blood glucose levels .
    • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Postprandial levels inhibit autophagy completely.[14]
  • .
  • Increased amino acid uptake – forces cells to absorb circulating amino acids; lack of insulin inhibits absorption.
  • Increased potassium uptake – forces cells to absorb serum potassium; lack of insulin inhibits absorption.^ In contrast, both pure human insulin and pure insulin lispro possess identical pIs (5.5) because of identical amino acid compositions.
    • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The functional importance of each amino acid residue in the human insulin molecule for biological activity and/or higher-order assembly was revealed through the study of modified human insulins.
    • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology have enabled the production of human insulin analogues with improved physicochemical properties that increase absorption.
    • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    Insulin's increase in cellular potassium uptake lowers potassium levels in blood.
  • Arterial muscle tone – forces arterial wall muscle to relax, increasing blood flow, especially in micro arteries; lack of insulin reduces flow by allowing these muscles to contract.
  • Increase in the secretion of hydrochloric acid by Parietal cells in the stomach.

Degradation

.Once an insulin molecule has docked onto the receptor and effected its action, it may be released back into the extracellular environment, or it may be degraded by the cell.^ Insulin binds and acts mainly through the insulin receptor and also acts via the insulinlike growth factor–1 (IGF-1) receptor; cellular actions of insulin involve a wide variety of effects on postreceptor signaling pathways within target cells.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin is released from the pancreatic islets into portal venous circulation in response to a variety of regulatory elements, such as circulating levels of nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This may stop the growth of cancer cells and blood vessels that have the receptors for PDGF. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Degradation normally involves endocytosis of the insulin-receptor complex followed by the action of insulin degrading enzyme.^ If their insulin levels were high but their glucose was in the normal range, then they should not have had any problems if we follow your way of thinking.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Modifications of the primary insulin structure in insulin glulisine do not involve the peptide bonds that are sensitive to insulin protease degradation.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Physicochemical basis for the rapid time-action of LysB28ProB29-insulin: dissociation of a protein-ligand complex.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most insulin molecules are degraded by liver cells.^ In beta cells, insulin is synthesized from the proinsulin precursor molecule by the action of proteolytic enzymes, known as prohormone convertases (PC1 and PC2), as well as the exoprotease carboxypeptidase E .

^ Increased glycogen synthesis – insulin forces storage of glucose in liver (and muscle) cells in the form of glycogen; lowered levels of insulin cause liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and excrete it into the blood.

^ Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fat as an energy source.
  • Insulin - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been estimated that an insulin molecule produced endogenously by the pancreatic beta cells is degraded within approximately one hour after its initial release into circulation (insulin half-life ~ 4–6 minutes).^ A pancreatic cell that produces hormones (e.g., insulin and glucagon) that are secreted into the bloodstream.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin is released from the pancreatic islets into portal venous circulation in response to a variety of regulatory elements, such as circulating levels of nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones.
  • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

[15]

Hypoglycemia

.Although other cells can use other fuels for a while (most prominently fatty acids), neurons depend on glucose as a source of energy in the non-starving human.^ It takes fatty acids into the cell.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The sixth reason why I use insulin is because it helps to prevent high blood glucose levels which cause a loss of NEURONS...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A drug that is used together with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They do not require insulin to absorb glucose, unlike muscle and adipose tissue, and they have very small internal stores of glycogen.^ Certain tissues require some glucose.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It's also unique in that it's been shown to increase glucose storage in muscle tissue, and not in adipose tissue.
  • TMUSCLE.com | Taming of Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.tmuscle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The glycogen stored in the muscles is inaccessible to the brain.
  • LOWER YOUR CARBOHYDRATES AND LOWER YOUR INSULIN LEVELS 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC rheumatic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Glycogen stored in liver cells (unlike glycogen stored in muscle cells) can be converted to glucose, and released into the blood, when glucose from digestion is low or absent, and the glycerol backbone in triglycerides can also be used to produce blood glucose.^ Once glucose is inside cells, the energy is released for use by the body or converted into fat for storage.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ When your blood glucose returns to a normal range 70 - 105 milligrams per deciliter, your pancreas produces a hormone called glucagon that stimulates the release of glycogen (stored glucose) from liver and from muscles if you are exercising.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.Sufficient lack of glucose and scarcity of these sources of glucose can dramatically make itself manifest in the impaired functioning of the central nervous system; dizziness, speech problems, and even loss of consciousness, can occur.^ Exhaustion of these sources can, either temporarily or on a sustained basis, if reducing blood glucose to a sufficiently low level, first and most dramatically manifest itself in impaired functioning of the central nervous system – dizziness, speech problems, even loss of consciousness, are not unknown.

^ Ellis] Chuck: But have you thoroghly examined these studies to see what the glucose levels were for the subjects that had high insulin levels accompanied with health problems?
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As exercise progresses, skeletal muscle glycogen depletion occurs and the muscles must look to plasma glucose as a fuel source.
  • Understanding Insulin | EricCressey.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC ericcressey.com [Source type: Academic]

.Low glucose is known as hypoglycemia or, in cases producing unconsciousness, "hypoglycemic coma" (sometimes termed "insulin shock" from the most common causative agent).^ Obesity is the most common cause of insulin resistance.
  • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When glucose is low, insulin is, of course, low.
  • Insulin insulin Anabolic SteroidProfiles - Steroid . com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.steroid.com [Source type: General]

^ This is known as hypoglycemia or, in cases producing unconsciousness, "hypoglycemic coma" (formerly termed "insulin shock" from the most common causative agent).

.Endogenous causes of insulin excess (such as an insulinoma) are very rare, and the overwhelming majority of insulin-excess induced hypoglycemia cases are iatrogenic and usually accidental.^ There is no doubt that hypoglycemia causes the release of growth hormone, because this is actually a test for growth hormone deficiency, it is called "the insulin tolerance test".
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ An overdose of insulin can cause hypoglycemia, but the correct dose of insulin does not cause hypoglycemia.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Doctors also tell me that using insulin is dangerous, because it might cause hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose levels).
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.There have been a few reported cases of murder, attempted murder, or suicide using insulin overdoses, but most insulin shocks appear to be due to errors in dosage of insulin (e.g., 20 units of insulin instead of 2) or other unanticipated factors (didn't eat as much as anticipated, or exercised more than expected, or unpredicted kinetics of the subcutaneously injected insulin itself).^ It is dangerous in case of mistake (most especially 'too much' insulin).

^ Certain cells more than others, so there is a discrepancy.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In some people more than others.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

Possible causes of hypoglycemia include:
.
  • External insulin (usually injected subcutaneously).
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents (e.g., any of the sulfonylureas, or similar drugs, which increase insulin release from beta cells in response to a particular blood glucose level).
  • Ingestion of low-carbohydrate sugar substitutes in people without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes.^ Sugar is a carbohydrate and 1 level teaspoon has 4 grams of carbohydrate.
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Because blood glucose is low, insulin levels in my blood are extremely low, "out of the chart"...
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So insulin will be released to take that sugar and store it.
    • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .Animal studies show these can trigger insulin release, albeit in much smaller quantities than sugar, according to a report in Discover magazine, August 2004, p 18. (This can never be a cause of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes since there is no endogenous insulin production to stimulate.^ Rosenstock J. Insulin strategies in type 2 diabetes.
    • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ellis] Chuck: But have you thoroghly examined these studies to see what the glucose levels were for the subjects that had high insulin levels accompanied with health problems?
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Dushay J, Abrahamson MJ. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: a comprehensive review.
    • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    )

Diseases and syndromes

There are several conditions in which insulin disturbance is pathologic:
.
  • Diabetes mellitus – general term referring to all states characterized by hyperglycemia.^ General approach to the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
    • Type 2 Diabetes - Yahoo! Health 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Diabetes mellitus – general term referring to all states characterized by hyperglycemia.

    ^ The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complication in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
    • Intensive Insulin Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .
    • Type 1 – autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.
    • Type 2 – multifactoral syndrome with combined influence of genetic susceptibility and influence of environmental factors, the best known being obesity, age, and physical inactivity, resulting in insulin resistance in cells requiring insulin for glucose absorption.^ This is known as insulin resistance.

      ^ Type 1 – autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.

      ^ Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis.
      • Insulin Resistance Syndrome 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

      .This form of diabetes is strongly inherited.
    • Other types of impaired glucose tolerance (see the diabetes article).
  • Insulinoma - a tumor of pancreatic beta cells producing excess of insulin or reactive hypoglycemia.
  • Metabolic syndrome – a poorly understood condition first called Syndrome X by Gerald Reaven, Reaven's Syndrome after Reaven, CHAOS in Australia (from the signs which seem to travel together), and sometimes prediabetes.^ Beta cell burnout is the direct cause of diabetes Type II .
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ellis] Chuck: But have you thoroghly examined these studies to see what the glucose levels were for the subjects that had high insulin levels accompanied with health problems?
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Their insulin receptor sites on cells seem to be less responsive to insulin and higher levels of insulin are needed to move glucose into a cell.
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    .It is currently not clear whether these signs have a single, treatable cause, or are the result of body changes leading to type 2 diabetes.^ What causes type 2 diabetes?
    • Type 2 Diabetes - Yahoo! Health 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Type 1 diabetes (also called diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes) is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the cells that produce insulin, resulting in no, or a low amount of, insulin.
    • Insulin Replacement Therapy 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.montefiore.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These treatments have significant drawbacks that may complicate insulin use in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    • ISPUB - Initiating Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Practical Approach 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    .It is characterized by elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia (disturbances in blood cholesterol forms and other blood lipids), and increased waist circumference (at least in populations in much of the developed world).^ Increased blood pressure.
    • Insulin Resistance 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.noaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is characterized by elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia (disturbances in blood cholesterol forms and other blood lipids), and increased waist circumference (at least in populations in much of the developed world).

    ^ A clustering of metabolic problems associated with insulin resistance, including elevated plasma glucose, lipid regulation problems (elevated triglycerides, increased small low-density lipoproteins, and decreased high-density lipoproteins), high blood pressure, a prothrombic state, and obesity (especially central obesity) occurs commonly together.
    • Insulin Resistance:   Lifestyle and Nutritional Interventions 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.chiro.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The basic underlying cause may be the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes which is a diminished capacity for insulin response in some tissues (e.g., muscle, fat) to respond to insulin.^ The underlying causes of insulin-resistant states can be categorized as follows: .
    • Insulin Resistance: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The basic underlying cause may be the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes which is a diminished capacity for insulin response in some tissues (eg, muscle, fat) to respond to insulin.

    ^ All Type 1 diabetics are insulin dependent, and some Type 2 diabetics may also need insulin .
    • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    .Commonly, morbidities such as essential hypertension, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome – a complex syndrome in women in the reproductive years where there is anovulation and androgen excess commonly displayed as hirsutism.^ Diamant M, Tushuizen ME. The metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction: common highway to type 2 diabetes and CVD. Curr Diab Rep .
    • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Excess weight and foods high in fat intake are risk factors for heart disease and many types of cancer .
    • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Guzick D. Polycystic ovary syndrome: symptomatology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
    • Insulin Resistance: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    In many cases of PCOS insulin resistance is present.

As a medication

Insulin ampule
.Biosynthetic "human" insulin is now manufactured for widespread clinical use using genetic engineering techniques using recombinant DNA technology.^ Protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology have enabled the production of human insulin analogues with improved physicochemical properties that increase absorption.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Body builders are using insulin now because it is legal, so they are injecting themselves with insulin because it builds muscle, it stores protein too.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.More recently, researchers have succeeded in introducing the gene for human insulin into plants and in producing insulin in plants, specifically safflower.^ The more rapid absorption and action of insulin glulisine should translate into better postprandial glucose control when compared with regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Your pancreas produces insulin to move glucose into cells where it is metabolized into energy which fuels the body.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

[16][17] It is anticipated that this technique will reduce production costs.
.Several of these are slightly modified versions of human insulin which, while having a clinical effect on blood glucose levels as though they were exact copies, have been designed to have somewhat different absorption or duration of action characteristics.^ I know what glucose levels I will get if I do NOT use insulin, and I know what glucose level I will get if I DO use insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These hormones help control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ellis] Chuck: But have you thoroghly examined these studies to see what the glucose levels were for the subjects that had high insulin levels accompanied with health problems?
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.They are usually referred to as 'insulin analogues'. For instance, the first available, insulin lispro, does not exhibit a delayed absorption effect found in 'regular' insulin, and begins to have effect in as little as 15 minutes.^ Injection site effects on the pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics of insulin lispro and regular insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with insulin aspart and insulin lispro products, the insulin glulisine product displays faster absorption and onset of action, with a shorter duration of action than that of regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The more rapid absorption and action of insulin glulisine should translate into better postprandial glucose control when compared with regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other rapid acting analogues are NovoRapid and Apidra with similar profiles.^ Action profile of the rapid acting insulin analogue: human insulin B28Asp.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rapid-acting insulin analogues can be used much closer to mealtimes and offer a good alternative to regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Image Tools These early studies demonstrated that the absorption profiles of the two rapidly absorbed insulin analogues were essentially similar and distinct from that of regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.All are rapidly absorbed due to a mutation in the sequence that prevents the insulin analogue in forming hexamers.^ Furthermore, the action-time profiles of the rapidly absorbed insulin analogues were almost superimposable and distinctly different from that of regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin glulisine is the newest rapidly absorbed and rapidly acting insulin analogue, and more closely mimics physiological insulin than regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, more rapid deployment of monomers from hexamers is attained for both insulin analogue products when compared with regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Instead, the insulin molecule is a monomer which is more rapidly absorbed. .Using it therefore does not require the pre-planning required for other insulins which begin to take effect much later (up to many hours) after administration.^ The glucose is converted to glycogen in the tissues and later used up when required.
  • Insulin - Anabolic Profile on Steroids Rx.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.steroidsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insulin has many other effects on the body.
  • Are Your Hormones Making You Miserable? 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Insulin injection is used to take t...
  • Insulin Injection | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Another type is extended release insulin; the first of these was 'insulin glargine'. These have a steady effect for the entire time they are active, without the peak and drop of effect in other insulins; typically, they continue to have an insulin effect for an extended period from 18 to 24 hours.^ Hoogma RP, Schumicki D. Safety of insulin glulisine when given by continuous subcutaneous infusion using an external pump in patients with type 1 diabetes.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In late 2006 I began to use Lantus, 24 hour insulin , together with Humalog, fast acting and short duration insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) of insulin aspart versus multiple daily injection of insulin aspart/insulin glargine in type 1 diabetic patients previously treated with CSII. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (3): 533-8 Cited Here...
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Similar another protracted insulin analogue 'Levemir' is based on a fatty acid acylation approach.^ Image Tools These early studies demonstrated that the absorption profiles of the two rapidly absorbed insulin analogues were essentially similar and distinct from that of regular human insulin.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heise T, Heinemann L. Rapid and long-acting analogues as an approach to improve insulin therapy: an evidence-based medicine assessment.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.A fatty acid (myristyric acid) is attached to this analogue which in turn associates the insulin molecule to the abundant serum albumin.^ The functional importance of each amino acid residue in the human insulin molecule for biological activity and/or higher-order assembly was revealed through the study of modified human insulins.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Altering the association properties of insulin by amino acid replacement.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate-limiting factor for the absorption of regular human insulin is the degree and strength of self-association of insulin molecules in injectable and, presumably, inhaled insulin products.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

This in turn extends the effect and in addition it reduces the risk of hypoglycemia. .Both protracted analogues only need to be taken once-daily and is very much used in the type 2 diabetes market as the basal insulin.^ Rosenstock J. Insulin strategies in type 2 diabetes.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hoogma RP, Schumicki D. Safety of insulin glulisine when given by continuous subcutaneous infusion using an external pump in patients with type 1 diabetes.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacokinetics, prandial glucose control, and safety of insulin glulisine in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.A mix combination of a rapid acting and a protracted insulin is also available for the patients making it more likely for the patient to achieve an insulin profile that mimics that of the body´s own insulin release.^ Action profile of the rapid acting insulin analogue: human insulin B28Asp.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This additional insulin makes more glucose available for energy production.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and also causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike many medicines, insulin currently cannot be taken orally.^ Unlike many medicines, insulin cannot be taken orally.

^ Insulin can never be taken orally.
  • Insulin - Anabolic Profile on Steroids Rx.com 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.steroidsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, inhaled insulin is short acting and is typically taken before meals; an injection of long-acting insulin at night is often still required.

.Like nearly all other proteins introduced into the gastrointestinal tract, it is reduced to fragments (even single amino acid components), whereupon all 'insulin activity' is lost.^ It acts like other Regular insulins.
  • Insulin 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC cgibin.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like nearly all other proteins introduced into the gastrointestinal tract , it is reduced to fragments (even single amino acid components), whereupon all 'insulin activity' is lost.

^ Amino acids are the basic units that build all proteins.
  • How insulin is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, steps, product, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of insulin, Quality Control 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Insulin: How Products are Made 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.There has been some research into ways to protect insulin from the digestive tract, so that it can be administered orally or sublingually.^ And there are some pretty strong studies that show that one of the strongest correlations to breast and colon cancer are with levels of insulin.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Orally administered insulin can result in massive insulin antibody production from plasma cells (in lamina propria).
  • Oral and Rectal Insulin (Jan 2009) Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.townsendletter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another company, Oramed Pharmaceuticals based in Jerusalem, Israel, is also developing an orally-administered form of insulin.

While experimental, several companies now have various formulations in human clinical trials[18].[citation needed]
.Insulin is usually taken as subcutaneous injections by single-use syringes with needles, an insulin pump, or by repeated-use insulin pens with needles.^ Poulsen C, Langkjaer L, Worsoe C. Precipitation of insulin products used for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subjects were administered subcutaneous injections of insulin glulisine immediately prior to or 15 minutes after the start of a standardized meal, or regular human insulin 30 minutes prior to or immediately before a standardized meal.
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Insulin Gl... : Clinical Pharmacokinetics 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of a syringe and needle to push fluids or drugs into the body; often called a "shot."
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

History

Discovery and characterization

.In 1869 Paul Langerhans, a medical student in Berlin, was studying the structure of the pancreas under a microscope when he identified some previously un-noticed tissue clumps scattered throughout the bulk of the pancreas.^ Hi, I am a registered nursing (RN) student who is looking for some information to do with a case study we are working on.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ The sentinel lymph node is identified by removing lymph nodes that are stained with the blue dye and looking for cancer cells under a microscope.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The tissue is then examined under a microscope to check for signs of disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The function of the "little heaps of cells," later known as the Islets of Langerhans, was unknown, but Edouard Laguesse later suggested that they might produce secretions that play a regulatory role in digestion.^ Your body secretes insulin to help glucose in your blood to enter your body cells and produce energy.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ A rare cancer that forms in the islets of Langerhans cells (a type of cell found in the pancreas).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They might plateau at three hundred pounds, two hundred and twenty pounds, one hundred and fifty pounds, but they will eventually plateau as the fat cells protect themselves and become insulin resistant.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

Paul Langerhans' son, Archibald, also helped to understand this regulatory role. The term insulin origins from Insel, the German word for islet/island.
In 1889, the Polish-German physician Oscar Minkowski in collaboration with Joseph von Mering removed the pancreas from a healthy dog to test its assumed role in digestion. Several days after the dog's pancreas was removed, Minkowski's animal keeper noticed a swarm of flies feeding on the dog's urine. .On testing the urine they found that there was sugar in the dog's urine, establishing for the first time a relationship between the pancreas and diabetes.^ If there is a lot of food around they are going to reproduce quickly and die quickly, if not they will just bide their time until conditions are better.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ My mom has diabetes type II, but is confused on how to count sugar grams in foods and how carbohydrates map to sugar grams if they do.
  • Diabetes - Ask the Dietitian® 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ When there are multiple intraductal breast papillomas, they are usually found farther from the nipple.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In 1901, another major step was taken by Eugene Opie, when he clearly established the link between the Islets of Langerhans and diabetes: Diabetes mellitus … is caused by destruction of the islets of Langerhans and occurs only when these bodies are in part or wholly destroyed. Before his work, the link between the pancreas and diabetes was clear, but not the specific role of the islets.^ One part of the involuntary nervous system helps the body rest, relax, and digest food and another part helps a person fight or take flight in an emergency.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare cancer that forms in the islets of Langerhans cells (a type of cell found in the pancreas).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I know I am still not diabetic, because I know my pancreas is still working well enough, but I also know it is not working as well as I have seen in young persons, so I know some damage has already been sustained.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.
The structure of insulin. The left side is a space-filling model of the insulin monomer, believed to be biologically active.
^ The contra lateral side was totally clear, just contact of insulin in the artery caused it to fill up with plaque.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

Carbon is green, hydrogen white, oxygen red, and nitrogen blue. .On the right side is a ribbon diagram of the insulin hexamer, believed to be the stored form.^ I am telling you the reasons why I take insulin, and I absolutely believe that I am right to take it, but I do not recommend that anybody else should do what I do only because I do it.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin's evolutionary purpose, among others at least known right now, we are looking at others, is to store excess nutrients.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

A monomer unit is highlighted with the A chain in blue and the B chain in cyan. Yellow denotes disulfide bonds, and magenta spheres are zinc ions.
Over the next two decades, several attempts were made to isolate whatever it was the islets produced as a potential treatment. In 1906 George Ludwig Zuelzer was partially successful treating dogs with pancreatic extract but was unable to continue his work. Between 1911 and 1912, E.L. Scott at the University of Chicago used aqueous pancreatic extracts and noted a slight diminution of glycosuria but was unable to convince his director of his work's value; it was shut down. Israel Kleiner demonstrated similar effects at Rockefeller University in 1919, but his work was interrupted by World War I and he did not return to it.
.Nicolae Paulescu, a professor of physiology at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, was the first one to isolate insulin, which he called at that time pancrein, and published in 1921 the work that he had carried out in Bucharest.^ The pancreas wears out in time, both because it has been forced to produce insulin, and maybe because the high glucose levels harm it.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To find out if you are a good candidate, you must first find out if you are resistant to insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After you have injected insulin ONE time, then you can come and give me advice ."
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.Use of his techniques was patented in Romania, though no clinical use resulted.^ A technique used to cause an immune response that results in resistance to a specific disease, especially an infectious disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[19]
In October 1920 Canadian Frederick Banting was reading one of Minkowski's papers and concluded that it is the very digestive secretions that Minkowski had originally studied that were breaking down the islet secretion(s), thereby making it impossible to extract successfully. He jotted a note to himself — Ligate pancreatic ducts of the dog. Keep dogs alive till acini degenerate leaving islets. Try to isolate internal secretion of these and relieve glycosurea.
The idea was that the pancreas's internal secretion, which supposedly regulates sugar in the bloodstream, might hold the key to the treatment of diabetes. .A surgeon by training, Banting knew that certain arteries could be tied off that would lead to atrophy of most of the pancreas while leaving the islets of Langerhans intact.^ A rare cancer that forms in the islets of Langerhans cells (a type of cell found in the pancreas).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Also called endocrine pancreas cell and islet of Langerhans cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.He theorized that a relatively pure extract could be made from the islets once most of the rest of pancreas was gone.^ A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the Spring of 1921 Banting traveled to Toronto to explain his idea to J.J.R. Macleod who was Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto, and asked Macleod if he could use his lab space to test the idea. Macleod was initially skeptical, but eventually agreed to let Banting use his lab space while he was on vacation for the summer. .He also supplied Banting with ten dogs to experiment on, and two medical students, Charles Best and Clark Noble, to use as lab assistants, before leaving for Scotland.^ I am certain that I had much higher glucose levels before I began to experiment with insulin, because I switched to low carb when I began to experiment with the glucose meter, so I was already using the glucose meter.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Since Banting only required one lab assistant, Best and Noble flipped a coin to see which would assist Banting for the first half of the summer. Best won the coin toss, and took the first shift as Banting's assistant. Loss of the coin toss may have proved unfortunate for Noble, given that Banting decided to keep Best for the entire summer, and eventually shared half his Nobel Prize money and a large part of the credit for the discovery of insulin with the winner of the toss. Had Noble won the toss, his career might have taken a different path.[20] .Banting's method was to tie a ligature (string) around the pancreatic duct, and, when examined several weeks later, the pancreatic digestive cells had died and been absorbed by the immune system, leaving thousands of islets.^ It can find and kill certain white blood cells that prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This process is used to diagnose specific types of leukemia and lymphoma by comparing the cancer cells to normal cells of the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ IMMU-106 binds to the protein CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of immune system cell), and some types of lymphoma cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They then isolated an extract from these islets, producing what they called isletin (what we now know as insulin), and tested this extract on the dogs.^ Why are they called IgF's or insulin like growth factors?
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Body builders are using insulin now because it is legal, so they are injecting themselves with insulin because it builds muscle, it stores protein too.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And how can you know that you did not take too much insulin unless you test yourself afterwards?
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Banting and Best were then able to keep a pancreatectomized dog named Alpha alive for the rest of the summer by injecting her with the crude extract they had prepared. .Removal of the pancreas in test animals essentially mimics diabetes, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.^ The sixth reason why I use insulin is because it helps to prevent high blood glucose levels which cause a loss of NEURONS...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If you are already diabetic, of course you have no choice: you either keep your glucose levels under control, or you will die sooner.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Beta cells, which produce insulin, burn out as a result of overwork and also due to the higher blood glucose levels, which then means that the pancreas becomes less and less capable of releasing enough insulin precisely when needed, which again results in higher blood glucose levels, which again results in a higher blood insulin level, which again results in more resistance to insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

.Alpha was able to remain alive because the extracts, containing isletin, were able to lower her blood glucose levels.^ The sixth reason why I use insulin is because it helps to prevent high blood glucose levels which cause a loss of NEURONS...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You can't just go by so-called blood sugar which is just blood glucose, because we just don't measure blood fructose or blood galactose, but they are all bad for you.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why I stuck to this, because I saw it gives me much better control of glucose levels, and I think that is extremely important, in the long run...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Banting and Best presented their results to Macleod on his return to Toronto in the fall of 1921, but Macleod pointed out flaws with the experimental design, and suggested the experiments be repeated with more dogs and better equipment. He then supplied Banting and Best with a better laboratory, and began paying Banting a salary from his research grants. Several weeks later, it was clear the second round of experiments was also a success; and Macleod helped publish their results privately in Toronto that November. .However, they needed six weeks to extract the isletin, which forced considerable delays.^ Six more weeks they were both under 200, off of the medications.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Banting suggested that they try to use fetal calf pancreas, which had not yet developed digestive glands; he was relieved to find that this method worked well.^ They are trying to find the variable that would confer longevity among these people.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ My pancreas is still working as well or better than when I started using insulin in 2002.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Worse yet, they are able to use sophisticated measurements, and if that fetus happens to be a female, they find that the eggs of that fetus are more insulin resistant.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

With the supply problem solved, the next major effort was to purify the extract. In December 1921, Macleod invited the biochemist James Collip to help with this task, and, within a month, the team felt ready for a clinical test.
.On January 11, 1922, Leonard Thompson, a 14-year-old diabetic who lay dying at the Toronto General Hospital, was given the first injection of insulin.^ I know somebody who went to see Dr. Bernstein personally, and this person told me that there is somebody who is an assistant to Dr. Bernstein who is not a diabetic and who also uses insulin...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But I have not gotten even close to overdosing or hypoglycemia in 14,000 shots in 7 years that I have been using insulin.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If I was a diabetic and needed to find a doctor, I would look for a doctor who is diabetic himself, and who takes insulin himself...
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

However, the extract was so impure that Thompson suffered a severe allergic reaction, and further injections were canceled. .Over the next 12 days, Collip worked day and night to improve the ox-pancreas extract, and a second dose was injected on January 23. This was completely successful, not only in having no obvious side-effects, but in completely eliminating the glycosuria sign of diabetes.^ The next day he was scheduled to have his second by-pass surgery.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ On this issue of taking insulin when I am not a diabetic, I know that the correct dose of insulin has not done anything BAD to my pancreas, as I have heard doctors preach, incorrectly.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm fairly knowledgeable about both natural healing and some areas in the fields of medical science, having worked as a biomedical engineer for over 12 years.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Children dying from diabetic keto-acidosis were kept in large wards, often with 50 or more patients in a ward, mostly comatose. Grieving family members were often in attendance, awaiting the (until then, inevitable) death.
In one of medicine's more dramatic moments Banting, Best, and Collip went from bed to bed, injecting an entire ward with the new purified extract. Before they had reached the last dying child, the first few were awakening from their coma, to the joyous exclamations of their families[citation needed].
.Banting and Best never worked well with Collip, regarding him as something of an interloper, and Collip left the project soon after.^ He was quite well off and was going to see the best doctors in Chicago, and they couldn't figure out what was wrong with him initially.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

Over the spring of 1922, Best managed to improve his techniques to the point where large quantities of insulin could be extracted on demand, but the preparation remained impure. .The drug firm Eli Lilly and Company had offered assistance not long after the first publications in 1921, and they took Lilly up on the offer in April.^ I recommend you should start with "Humulin R" by Eli Lilly, where "R" stands for "regular" (not "rapid" as I first thought.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

In November, Lilly made a major breakthrough and were able to produce large quantities of highly refined, 'pure' insulin. Insulin was offered for sale shortly thereafter.
.Purified animal-sourced insulin was the only type of insulin available to diabetics until genetic breakthroughs occurred later with medical research.^ Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects Atkins diet and low carbohydrate diet resources provided free for information purposes, NOT as medical advice.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It doesn't take much, if you have a type I diabetic who is not producing any insulin they can tell you what foods do to their blood sugar.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I stumbled upon your website while researching insulin availability in Mexico.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

The amino-acid structure of insulin was characterized in the 1950s and the first synthetic insulin was produced simultaneously in the labs of Panayotis Katsoyannis at the University of Pittsburgh and Helmut Zahn at RWTH Aachen University in the early 1960s.[21][22]
.The first genetically-engineered, synthetic "human" insulin was produced in a laboratory in 1977 by Herbert Boyer using E. coli.^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin is one of the first hormones that any organism ever developed, and as I mentioned in genetics, things are built upon what was there before.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] .Partnering with Genentech founded by Boyer, Eli Lilly went on in 1982 to sell the first commercially available biosynthetic human insulin under the brand name Humulin.^ That is only slightly elevated, but it doesn't take much in some people, all we had to do was get his insulin level down to 8 initially and then it went down to six and that got his triglycerides down to under 200.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ You will need: a vial of "R" Regular Insulin (eg., "Humulin" by Eli Lilly) A bottle of normal Coca Cola or other refreshment, with sugar.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I recommend you should start with "Humulin R" by Eli Lilly, where "R" stands for "regular" (not "rapid" as I first thought.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

[24] .The vast majority of insulin currently used worldwide is now biosynthetic recombinant "human" insulin or its analogs.^ Body builders are using insulin now because it is legal, so they are injecting themselves with insulin because it builds muscle, it stores protein too.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Insulin is a direct substitute for human insulin, which is used to get blood glucose out of the blood system and into the cells.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If I had known then what I know now, I would have convinced my mother to use insulin also.
  • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

Nobel prizes

The Nobel Prize committee in 1923 credited the practical extraction of insulin to a team at the University of Toronto and awarded the Nobel Prize to two men; Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1923 for the discovery of insulin. Banting, insulted that Best was not mentioned, shared his prize with Best, and Macleod immediately shared his with James Collip. The patent for insulin was sold to the University of Toronto for one dollar.
Surprisingly, while Paulescu's pioneering work was being completely ignored by the Nobel prize committee, Professor Ian Murray was particularly active in working to correct the historical wrong against Paulescu. Murray was a professor of physiology at the Anderson College of Medicine in Glasgow, Scotland, the head of the department of Metabolic Diseases at a leading Glasgow hospital, vice-president of the British Association of Diabetes, and a founding member of the International Diabetes Federation. In an article for a 1971 issue of the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Murray wrote:
"Insufficient recognition has been given to Paulesco, the distinguished Roumanian scientist, who at the time when the Toronto team were commencing their research had already succeeded in extracting the antidiabetic hormone of the pancreas and proving its efficacy in reducing the hyperglycaemia in diabetic dogs."
Furthermore, Murray reported:
"In a recent private communication Professor Tiselius, head of the Nobel Institute, has expressed his personal opinion that Paulesco was equally worthy of the award in 1923."[19]
.The primary structure of insulin was determined by British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger.^ Because they have an almost identical molecular structure to insulin.
  • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

It was the first protein to have its sequence be determined. He was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work.
In 1969, after decades of work, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the spatial conformation of the molecule, the so-called tertiary structure, by means of X-ray diffraction studies. She had been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for the development of crystallography.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow received the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of the radioimmunoassay for insulin.

See also

References

  1. ^ PDB 1ai0; Chang X, Jorgensen AM, Bardrum P, Led JJ (August 1997). "Solution structures of the R6 human insulin hexamer,". Biochemistry 36 (31): 9409–22. doi:10.1021/bi9631069. PMID 9235985. 
  2. ^ Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Hatke A, Schultes B, Fehm HL, Born J, Kern W. (November 2004). "Intranasal insulin improves memory in humans.". Psychoneuroendocrinology 29 (10): 1326–34. PMID 15288712. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: INS insulin". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3630. 
  4. ^ Bell GI, Pictet RL, Rutter WJ, Cordell B, Tischer E, Goodman HM (March 1980). "Sequence of the human insulin gene". Nature 284 (5751): 26–32. doi:10.1038/284026a0. PMID 6243748. 
  5. ^ Melloul D, Marshak S, Cerasi E (2002). "Regulation of insulin gene transcription". Diabetologia 45 (3): 309–26. doi:10.1007/s00125-001-0728-y. PMID 11914736. 
  6. ^ Jang WG, Kim EJ, Park KG, Park YB, Choi HS, Kim HJ, Kim YD, Kim KS, Lee KU, Lee IK (2007). "Glucocorticoid receptor mediated repression of human insulin gene expression is regulated by PGC-1alpha". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 352 (3): 716–21. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.074. PMID 17150186. 
  7. ^ Dunn MF (August 2005). "Zinc-ligand interactions modulate assembly and stability of the insulin hexamer -- a review". Biometals 18 (4): 295–303. doi:10.1007/s10534-005-3685-y. PMID 16158220. 
  8. ^ Ivanova MI, Sievers SA, Sawaya MR, Wall JS, Eisenberg D (November 2009). "Molecular basis for insulin fibril assembly". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (45): 18990–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910080106. PMID 19864624. 
  9. ^ Steiner DF, Oyer PE (February 1967). "The biosynthesis of insulin and a probable precursor of insulin by a human islet cell adenoma". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 57 (2): 473–480. doi:10.1073/pnas.57.2.473. PMID 16591494. 
  10. ^ de la Monte SM, Wands JR (February 2005). "Review of insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression, signaling, and malfunction in the central nervous system: relevance to Alzheimer's disease". J. Alzheimers Dis. 7 (1): 45–61. PMID 15750214. http://iospress.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=1387-2877&volume=7&issue=1&spage=45. 
  11. ^ Steen E, Terry BM, Rivera EJ, Cannon JL, Neely TR, Tavares R, Xu XJ, Wands JR, de la Monte SM (February 2005). "Impaired insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression and signaling mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease--is this type 3 diabetes?". J. Alzheimers Dis. 7 (1): 63–80. PMID 15750215. http://iospress.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=1387-2877&volume=7&issue=1&spage=63. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Hellman B, Gylfe E, Grapengiesser E, Dansk H, Salehi A (2007). "[Insulin oscillations--clinically important rhythm. Antidiabetics should increase the pulsative component of the insulin release]" (in Swedish). Lakartidningen 104 (32-33): 2236–9. PMID 17822201. 
  13. ^ Bergamini E, Cavallini G, Donati A, Gori Z (October 2007). "The role of autophagy in aging: its essential part in the anti-aging mechanism of caloric restriction". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1114: 69–78. doi:10.1196/annals.1396.020. PMID 17934054. 
  14. ^ William C. Duckworth, Robert G. Bennett and Frederick G. Hamel (1998). "Insulin Degradation: Progress and Potential". Endocrine Reviews 19 (5): 608–624. doi:10.1210/er.19.5.608. PMID 9793760. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/5/608#F1. 
  15. ^ From SemBiosys, A New Kind Of Insulin INSIDE WALL STREET By Gene G. Marcial(AUGUST 13, 2007)
  16. ^ http://www.i-sis.org.uk/gmSaffloweHumanPro-Insulin.php
  17. ^ NDTV Profit December 11, 2009-Biocon May Launch Oral Insulin
  18. ^ a b Ian Murray (1971). "Paulesco and the Isolation of Insulin" (PDF). Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 26 (2): 150–157. PMID 4930788. http://jhmas.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/XXVI/2/150.pdf. 
  19. ^ Wright JR (December 2002). "Almost famous: E. Clark Noble, the common thread in the discovery of insulin and vinblastine". CMAJ 167 (12): 1391–6. PMID 12473641. 
  20. ^ Goro, Fritz (1964-05-08). "First Man-made Protein in History". Life (New York, NY: Time, Inc.) 56 (1): 47. doi:10.1080/15216540310001659029. PMID 14992380. http://books.google.com/books?id=lkEEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA47&vq=insulin&pg=PA47#v=onepage&q=insulin&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 
  21. ^ Federwisch, Matthias; Dieken, Markus Leyck; De Meyts, Pierre, eds (2002). Insulin & Related Proteins – Structure to Function and Pharmacology. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. ix. ISBN 1-4020-0655-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ula72_FSwy8C&lpg=PP11&dq=Panayotis%20Katsoyannis&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0&pg=PP11#v=onepage&q=Panayotis%20Katsoyannis&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 
  22. ^ "First Successful Laboratory Production of Human Insulin Announced". News Release. Genentech. 1978-09-06. http://www.gene.com/gene/news/press-releases/display.do?method=detail&id=4160. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 
  23. ^ a b Tof I (1994). "Recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin". Little Tree Publishing. http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 

Further reading

  • Reaven, Gerald M.; Ami Laws (ed.) (1999--04-15). Insulin Resistance: The Metabolic Syndrome X (1st ed.). Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. doi:10.1226/0896035883. ISBN 0-89603-588-3. 
  • Leahy, Jack L.; William T. Cefalu (ed.) (2002-03-22). Insulin Therapy (1st ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0711-7. 
  • Kumar, Sudhesh; Stephen O'Rahilly (ed.) (2005-01-14). .Insulin Resistance: Insulin Action and Its Disturbances in Disease.^ That insulin resistance is associated with the hyperinsulinemia that produces all of the co-called chronic diseases of aging or at least contributes to them.
    • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Insulin resistance is the basis of all of the chronic diseases of aging, because the disease itself is actually aging.
    • Low Carb Research & Studies - Insulin and It's Metabolic Effects 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.lowcarb.ca [Source type: Original source]

    Chichester, England: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-85008-6.
     
  • Ehrlich, Ann; Carol L. Schroeder (2000-06-16). Medical Terminology for Health Professions (4th ed.). Thomson Delmar Learning. ISBN 0-7668-1297-9. 
  • Draznin, Boris; Derek LeRoith (September 1994). Molecular Biology of Diabetes: Autoimmunity and Genetics; Insulin Synthesis and Secretion. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. doi:10.1226/0896032868. ISBN 0-89603-286-8. 
  • Famous Canadian Physicians: Sir Frederick Banting at Library and Archives Canada
  • McKeage K, Goa KL (2001). ."Insulin glargine: a review of its therapeutic use as a long-acting agent for the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs 61 (11): 1599–624. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161110-00007.^ The fifth very, very important reason why I use insulin is because I want to avoid getting Diabetes Type II. Both of my parents were diabetics, and according to doctors, I would probably become a diabetic by age 65.
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In late 2006 I began to use Lantus, 24 hour insulin , together with Humalog, fast acting and short duration insulin.
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You truly understand insulin, and you understand Type 2 diabetes better than many American physicians .
    • Using Insulin: The Non-Diabetic Use of Insulin for Anti-Aging 13 January 2010 7:17 UTC www.rajeun.net [Source type: Original source]

    PMID 11577797.
     

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also insulin

German

Noun

Insulin n. (genitive Insulins, no plural)
  1. insulin (polypeptide hormone)

Simple English

Insulin is a hormone, made by the pancreas, in the body that controls the glucose level in the blood.

People who cannot make insulin in their bodies, or who make it but their body cannot use it properly, have the disease diabetes. Insulin breaks down sugars and starches.

Some people with diabetes can take in insulin from outside their bodies instead of producing their own insulin.

History

Insulin was first found to affect the levels of glucose in the body in 1921 when Dr. Frederick Banting and Dr. Charles Best experimented whilst trying to find a cure for diabetes. In these experiments they used dogs.

They first knew insulin would control diabetes in a person when they injected some insulin into a 14 year old boy named Leonard Thompson[1] who was dying of diabetes. After the injection he survived.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Insulin, which are similar to those in the above article.








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