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Insurgency in Laos
Date 1975 -present[1] (substantially quelled)
Location Hmong: Central and Northern Laos (1975-present)
Royalist, Right-wing: Southern Laos (1980s-early 1990)
Status Ongoing, yet Lao-Vietnamese collaboration has led to a close end to any notable confrontation within Lao borders. Pockets of resistance still exist. Hmong who fled to Thailand have since been forcibly repatriated; others immigrated to the U.S. as well as French Guiana. Plots for a revolution or a coup in Laos initiated by Hmong citizens living in the U.S have been alleged yet no conclusive public evidence has been brought fourth thus far.[2]
Belligerents
Laos

Vietnam
 North Vietnam (to 1976)
 Soviet Union (to 1978)

Hmong insurgents

Ethnic Liberation Organization of Laos
(1984-)
United Front for the Liberation of Laos (1980-)


File:Flag of Laos (1952-1975).svg Royal Lao Democratic Government (1982)


Chao Fa (to 1984)
Lao National Liberation Movement
Lao United Independence Front
Free Democratic Lao National Salvation Force File:Democratic Kampuchea National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (1979-1983: limited involv.)

Supported by:
File:Flag of the People' China (PRC) (to 1988)
Democratic Kampuchea (to 1979)
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] Khmer Rouge (1980 to 1981)
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] Party of Democratic Kampuchea (1981 to 1990)
Thailand (Rightists: early to mid 1980s) (Hmong: to 1990)
United States (Hmong: 1990)
Neo Hom (support. 1981-)[3][4]
File:Flag of Laos (1952-1975).svg Royal Lao Government in Exile
Various Hmong exiles

Casualties and losses
Over 100,000

The insurgency in Laos refers to the ongoing, albeit sporadic, military conflict between the Lao People's Army and primarily members of the former "Secret Army" or the Hmong people, of whom have since faced governmental reprisals due to Hmong support for the American-led, anti-communist campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War. While severely depleted, the reminiscence of an early 1980s-era Royalist insurgency has been kept alive by an occasionally active guerilla force of around one thousand or so successors to that force. A right-wing insurgency with foreign support has appeared to have concluded by no later than 1990, and thus the Hmong insurgency remains by far the most active of the historical post-1975 trio of insurgencies.

Contents

Insurgent history

Hmong insurgency

The conflict stems from three events prior to Laos independence: a failed coup attempt by the Red Prince, Hmong aiding the French in Xieng Khoung against Lao and Vietnamese forces, and the French giving Hmong rights in Laos as equal to the Lao.[citation needed]

In 1946, with the end of the Japanese occupation, Prince Souphanouvong and his half-brothers Prince Souvanna Phouma and Prince Phetsarath formed two separate independence governments, briefly overthrowing the Laos King Sisavang Vong who wanted to hand the country back to the rule of imperial France. The Hmong people had, for over half a century been closely allied with the French, who treated them as equals of the Lao people. Touby Lyfoung, an important Hmong leader was decorated by the French administration for leading a combined French, Lao, and Hmong force to relieve the Village of Xieng Khoung from a combined Lao and Vietnamese force and saving the French representative in the village.

When the French withdrew from Laos shortly after their defeat in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu the Americans, deep into the years of the Domino Theory became increasingly embedded as their secret replacements. Under the leadership of the General Vang Pao, Hmong forces kept the Pathet Lao and their Vietnamese backers in check, rescued downed American pilots, and helped the US, from their base in the "Secret City" of Long Tieng to coordinate bombing missions over Vietnam. By 1975, with defeat in Vietnam, America had largely withdrawn and the Pathet Lao took control of the government. Hmong people, especially those who had participated in the military conflict were singled out for retribution. Thus began a mass exodus of over 350,000 Hmong refugees, mostly to the United States or to camps in Thailand.[5]

Of those Hmong people who remained in Laos, between over 30,000 were sent to re-education camps as political prisoners where they served indeterminate, sometimes life sentences. Enduring hard physical labor and difficult conditions, many people died.[6] Thousands more Hmong people, mainly former soldiers and their families, escaped to remote mountain regions - particularly Phou Bia, the highest (and thus least accessible) mountain peak in Laos. At first, these loosely organized groups staged attacks against Pathet Lao and Vietnamese troops. Others remained in hiding to avoid conflict. Initial military successes by these small bands led to military counter-attacks by government forces, including aerial bombing and heavy artillery, as well as the use of defoliants and chemical weapons.[7]

Today, most Hmong people in Laos live peacefully in villages and cities, but small groups of Hmong people, many of them second or third generation descendants of former CIA soldiers, remain internally displaced in remote parts of Laos, in fear of government reprisals. As recently as 2003, there were reports of sporadic attacks by these groups, but journalists who have visited their secret camps in recent times have described them as hungry, sick, and lacking weapons beyond Vietnam War era rifles.[8][9] Despite posing no military threat, the Lao government has continued to characterize these people as "bandits" and continues to attack their positions, using rape as a weapon and often killing and injuring women and children.[10] Most casualties occur while people are gathering food from the jungle, since any permanent settlement is impossible.[11]

Faced with continuing military operations against them by the government and a scarcity of food, some groups have begun coming out of hiding, while others have sought asylum in Thailand and other countries.[12] In December 2009 a group of 4,500 refugees were forcibly repatriated to Laos from camps in Thailand despite the objections of, amongst others, the United Nations and the USA.[13]

Some Hmong fled to California in the United States after the U.S. military withdrew from Vietnam and Laos, ending its wars in Indochina. In June 2005 as part of "Operation Tarnished Eagle" U.S. FBI and anti-terrorism officials allegedly uncovered a "conspiracy to murder thousands and thousands of people at one time" and violently overthrow the government of Laos. The alleged plot included ex-U.S. Army Rangers, former Green Berets and other guns for hire.[14] The plotters were accused of attempting to use rifles, Stinger surface-to-air missiles, anti-tank rockets and other arms and munitions smuggled from the U.S. via Thailand to "reduce government buildings in Vientiane to rubble", said Bob Twiss, an assistant U.S. attorney.[15] Lieutenant-Colonel Harrison Ulrich Jack, a retired California National Guard officer who reportedly served in covert operations during the Vietnam War (in Laos in co-ordination with the Hmong and other tribal groups) and former General Vang Pao were named as the probable ringleaders of the purported coup plot. Vang Pao had reportedly built up a strong network of contacts within the U.S. government and corporate circles sympathetic to his cause.[16] Some speculated that the proposed new government would be much more accepting of large foreign business and may also lead to an explosion of the drugs trade as has been the case in Afghanistan.[17]

The defendants lawyers argued that the case against all of their clients was spurious at best. "The case cannot proceed [because] the process has been so corrupted by the government's misconduct that there can never be any confidence in the validity of the charge," said Mark Reichel, one of the defense attorneys involved in the case. "[W]hile the [prosecution] tries to portray the 'conspiracy' as a dangerous and sophisticated military plan, it cannot refute the extensive evidence demonstrating otherwise - from the agent's informing the so-called conspirators that they would need an operational plan; to his providing a map of the region when they couldn't procure a useful one; to his explanation of what GPS was (including that it requires batteries); to the so-called conspirators' inability to finance the operation." [18]

On September 18, 2009, the federal government dropped all charges against Vang Pao, announcing in a release that the "continued prosecution of this defendant is no longer warranted," and that the federal government was permitted to consider "the probable sentence or other consequences if the person is convicted.” [19]

Royalist insurgency

Beginning in 1980, the anti-Communist, pro-Royalist forces organized under the so-called Lao National Liberation Front (LNLF) carried out their own insurgency in southern Laos; such of which had been initiated by a series of reasonably successful guerilla warfare attacks upon its seizure of weapons from the militaries of Laos and Vietnam. In 1982, the LNLF succeeded in briefly establishing the Royal Lao Democratic Government[20] (proclaimed in exile in Bangkok on August 18, 1982 earlier that year) in a collection of southern Lao provinces largely due to support and aid from the People's Republic of China,[21] which despite being a communist state like Laos, maintained rather hostile relations with Laos (largely due to Laos' staunch alignment with and unequivocal support for Vietnam.). During this time, the Lao government had referred to China's ruling clique as "the direct enemy of the Lao people" and further stated that relations could potentially be improved between itself and Thailand as well as with the United States, but gave no mention of a possibility for diplomatic amends with China.[22] Despite allying itself formally in writing with Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge; also communist) during the Third Congress of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, allegations would surface that the Khmer Rouge (closely allied to China, and vehemently anti-Vietnamese) had also been funding and alloting supplies to the anti-communist Royalist insurgents for use in their insurgency against the government of Laos, while the majority of purported support would be divulged during the forever displaced regime's exile along the Thai border and perhaps to a lesser degree, in Thailand itself during the 1980s. The Royalists had also cooperated and were involved to a limited degree in the attempts to overthrow the Vietnamese-installed puppet regime of the People's Republic of Kampuchea alongside the Khmer Rouge.[23] During the early 1980s, the Khmer Rouge had largely abandoned (or perhaps halted) communist ideals and were instead focused primarily on exuding Cambodian nationalist fervor and an increase in anti-Vietnamese rhetoric.

The Royalist insurgency gradually fell into disrepair and in terms of its 70s and 80s-era form, it has almost entirely vanished militarily as well as ideologically. A correlated movement of sporadic insurgents succeeded the LNLF and while divided into the congruent style of multiple minimally-proportioned bands of insurgents, have been estimated to contain a strength nearing 2,000 to 3,000 men as of the early 1990s.[24]

Right-wing insurgency

A insurgency politically correlative to the Royalist insurgency lead by the United Front for the Liberation of Laos (LPNLUF) and minor allied similar groups[25] had also transpired around the same time period, and reportedly was equipped with a strength of 40,000, Chinese and Khmer Rouge funded and trained right-wing insurgents who placed their desire to expel Vietnamese political and military standing in Laos above any other goal. While the movement managed to proclaimed their own provisional or "liberation" government (speedily disbanded by the Lao military), this insurgency proved to be as by chance less effective than the lesser-trained Royalist-focused insurgency.[26] This insurgency has no reported standing in terms of force within Laos today. While its claims have been never been verified nor widely accepted, the LPNLUF claims to have put some one-third of Laotian territory under its provisional jurisdiction before it was put down by the Lao government.[27]

The insurgents of the LNLF were largely former Royalist government officials who had fled into exile after the Kingdom of Laos' demise in 1975 in the conclusion of the Laotian Civil War and Vietnam War. The LNLF proved successful in recruiting fair numbers of rural militiamen from Champassak and Savannaket provinces. Individual units varied from as few as ten men to as many as 50,[28] and all of these operated with little coordination.

See also

  • 2007 Laotian coup d'état attempt

References

  1. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_People%27s_Army#International_presence
  2. ^ http://www.nnn.se/n-model/foreign/hmong.htm
  3. ^ http://www.globalpolitician.com/22937-laos
  4. ^ "Laos' controversial exile". BBC News. 2007-06-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6735609.stm. 
  5. ^ http://www.north-by-north-east.com/articles/05_04_2.asp
  6. ^ The Hmong: An Introduction to their History and Culture
  7. ^ Minority Policies and the Hmong in Laos(Published in Stuart-Fox, M. ed. Contemporary Laos: Studies in the Politics and Society of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (St.Lucia: Queensland University Press, 1982), pp. 199 - 219)[1]
  8. ^ Perrin, Andrew (2003-04-28). "Welcome to the Jungle". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,501030505-447253,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  9. ^ Arnold, Richard (2007-01-19). "Laos: Still a Secret War". Worldpress. http://www.worldpress.org/Asia/2641.cfm. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  10. ^ http://www.sommerfilms.org/documentaries/Hmong/index.php
  11. ^ "Lao People’s Democratic Republic". Amnesty International. 2007-03-27. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA260032007. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  12. ^ Kinchen, David (2006-11-17). "438 former "Cob Fab" removed by helicopter after they came out of hiding". Hmong Today. http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=2384. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  13. ^ http://www.tragicmountains.org/
  14. ^ See http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6721313.stm, and http://www.sacbee.com/101/story/225993.html
  15. ^ Al Jazeera English - News - Nine Charged Over Laos 'Coup Plot'
  16. ^ US agents thwart planned Laos coup plot | csmonitor.com
  17. ^ Zoroya, Gregg; Leinwand, Donna (2004-10-28). "Opium threatens Afghan security". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  18. ^ CIA's Lao ally faces 'outrageous' charge, Asia Times Online, May 8, 2009.
  19. ^ U.S. Drops Case Against Exiled Hmong Leader," The New York Times, September 18, 2009.
  20. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NgDks1hUjhMC&pg=PA603&lpg=PA603&dq=1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source=bl&ots=kWFLFLT-Kd&sig=7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl=en&ei=t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f=false
  21. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/2644329
  22. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/2644329
  23. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NgDks1hUjhMC&pg=PA603&lpg=PA603&dq=1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source=bl&ots=kWFLFLT-Kd&sig=7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl=en&ei=t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f=false
  24. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NgDks1hUjhMC&pg=PA603&lpg=PA603&dq=1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source=bl&ots=kWFLFLT-Kd&sig=7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl=en&ei=t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f=false
  25. ^ http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~slhuynh/classweb/secret_war.html
  26. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NgDks1hUjhMC&pg=PA603&lpg=PA603&dq=1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source=bl&ots=kWFLFLT-Kd&sig=7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl=en&ei=t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f=false
  27. ^ =mRImFVsuG9&sig=mA89v6ZCDLLSoUasn1dvFiH1X-A&hl=en&ei=4Z4bTLSEB8L48AaR5NGsCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=lao%20liberation%20royalist%20cambodia&f=false
  28. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NgDks1hUjhMC&pg=PA603&lpg=PA603&dq=1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source=bl&ots=kWFLFLT-Kd&sig=7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl=en&ei=t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f=false

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