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Assam Conflict
North East States
Date 1964-present
Location Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram, Northeast India
Result Conflict ongoing
Flag of India.svg India Ulfa logo.svg ULFA

Front Nacional Democratic Bodoland.svg NDFB
Bandera UNLF.svg UNLF
HPC (until 1992)

India Deepak Kapoor Ulfa logo.svg Arabinda Rajkhowa  #

Ulfa logo.svg Paresh Baruah
Ulfa logo.svg Anup Chetia
Front Nacional Democratic Bodoland.svg Sabin Boro
Bandera UNLF.svg Kalalung Kamei
Bandera UNLF.svg Arambam Samerendra
Angami Zapu Phizo #
Biswamohan Debbarma
Ranjit Debbarma

Various groups are involved in the Insurgency in Northeast India, India's north east states, which are connected to the rest of India by a narrow strip of land known as the Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck. Much of the region is notably ethnically and linguistically different from the rest of India. In the region several armed factions operate. Some groups call for a separate state, others for autonomy while some extreme groups demand nothing but complete independence.

Northeastern India consists 7 states (also known as the seven sisters): Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. Tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst the tribal people, who are natives of these states, and migrant peoples from other parts of India.

The states have accused New Delhi of ignoring the issues concerning them. It is this feeling which has led the natives of these states to seek greater participation in self-governance. There are existing territorial disputes between Manipur and Nagaland.

There is a rise of insurgent activities and regional movements in the northeast, especially in the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Tripura. Most of these organizations demand independent state status or increased regional autonomy and sovereignty.

India accuses the People's Republic of China of sponsoring these movements but has never provided evidence. Regional tensions have eased off as of late, with Indian and state governments' concerted effort to raise the living standards of the people in these regions. However, militancy still exists within the region. Among the rebellions in the area are Tripura Rebellion and Assam Conflict.



Organizations listed as terrorist groups by India
Northeastern India
National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
Naga National Council-Federal (NNCF)
National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang
United Liberation Front of Asom
People's Liberation Army
Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
Zomi Revolutionary Front
Al-Badr Mujahideen
Al Barq (ABQ)
Al Fateh Force (AFF)
Al Jihad Force (AJF)/Al Jihad
Al Mujahid Force (AMF)
Al Umar Mujahideen (AUR/Al Umar)
Awami Action Committee (AAC)
Dukhtaran-e-Millat (DEM)
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HUM)
Ikhwan-ul-Musalmeen (IUM)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen Almi (JUMA)
Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party (JKDFP)
Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF)
Jammu and Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami (JKJEI)
Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET)
Kul Jammat Hurriyat Conference (KJHC)
Mahaz-e-Azadi (MEA)
Muslim Janbaaz Force (MJF/Jaanbaz Force)
Muslim Mujahideen (MM)
Hizbul Mujahideen
United Jihad Council
Students Islamic Movement of India Tehreek-e-Jihad (TEJ)
Pasban-e-Islami (PEI/Hizbul Momineen HMM)
Shora-e-Jihad (SEJ)
Tehreek-ul-Mujahideen (TUM)
North India
Babbar Khalsa
Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan
Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Dashmesh Regiment
International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
Kamagata Maru Dal of Khalistan
Khalistan Armed Force
Khalistan Liberation Force
Khalistan Commando Force
Khalistan Liberation Army
Khalistan Liberation Front
Khalistan Liberation Organisation
Khalistan National Army
Khalistan Guerilla Force
Khalistan Security Force
Khalistan Zindabad Force
Shaheed Khalsa Force
Central India
People's war group
Balbir militias
Ranvir Sena

Assam has been the hotbed of militancy for a number of years due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include the anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s and the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as Very Active.



The United Liberation Front of Asom was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through an armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost out its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested.


The National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, aims to set up an autonomous region Bodoland.


Insurgent groups in Manipur are also classified as Very Active and stem largely from the delay in statehood.

Peoples Liberation Army

The Peoples Liberation Army is a leftist organisation formed in 1978 with the aim of liberating Manipur from India.


The United National Liberation Front was created in 1964 and demands an independent socialist state of Manipur.


People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak is an armed insurgent group in Manipur demanding a separate and independent homeland.


Nagaland was one of several princely states in India before Independence in 1947. Insurgent groups classified as Active, mainly demand full independence. The Naga National Council led by Phizo was the first group to dissent in 1947 and in 1956 they went underground.


The National Socialist Council of Nagaland was formed in 1980 to establish a Greater Nagaland, encompassing parts of Manipur, Nagaland, the north Cachar hills (Assam). The NSCN split in 1988 to form two groups namely NSCN(IM) & NSCN(K). As of now, both the groups are in ceasefire with the Indian government. However, they continue to be actively involved in illegal activities including extortion, kidnapping, inter-factional clashes, bootlegging and recruitment.


The National Socialist Council of Nagaland—Khaplang is the second faction with the same aim of a Greater Nagaland and was formed in 1988.


The insurgent groups in Tripura were emerged in the end of the 1970s, as ethnic tensions between the Bengali immigrants and the tribal native population. Their status is classified as Very Active

National Liberation Front of Tripura

The National Liberation Front of Tripura was formed in March 1989

All Tripura Tiger Force

The All Tripura Tiger Force was formed in 1990 with the sole aim of the expulsion of all Bengali speaking immigrants.


Problems in Meghalaya arise from the divide between tribals and non tribal settlers, identity issues and growing corruption. The activity status is classified as Active.


The Achik National Volunteer Council was formed in 1995 with the intentions of forming an Achik Land in the Garo Hills.


The Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council aims to free the state from Garo domination and was formed in 1992.


Mizoram's tensions are largely due to the simmering Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people. In 1986, the Mizo accord was which brought peace to the region. Insurgency status is classified as Partially Active

Hmar People's Convention-Democracy - HPC(D)

The People's Convention-Democracy was formed in 1995 to create an independent Hmar State. It is the offspring of the Hmar People's Convention(HPC), which entered into agreement with the Government of Mizoram which results in the formation of Sinlung Hills Development Council. However, of late, they have merged with other Hmar revolutionary groups in neighbouring Manipur and Assam with the aim of bringing the Hmars under one administrative unit.


The Bru National Liberation Front was formed in 1997 to protect the rights and dignity of the Reangs. The BNLF have surrendered with 757 of their comrades to the Mizoram Government on October 21, 2006.

See also



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