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Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery
.
Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside.
^ Photo: An integrated circuit from the inside.
  • Integrated circuits: A simple introduction to silicon semiconductors and how they work 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: General]

^ Berlin says that integrated circuits are at the core of the microchip industry mantra of "smaller, faster, cheaper" and can likely be found in anything with an on-off switch.
  • Integrated circuit turns 50 - Articles - Digital Life - smh.com.au 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ An integrated circuit, or IC, is small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory.
  • What is Integrated Circuit? Find the definition for this term 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.iwebtool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the integrated circuit to the pins of the package.^ The ultimate integrated circuit packaging.
  • Calculator Electronics - Integrated Circuits 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.vintagecalculators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elements of the circuit were connected by wires.
  • Search Results 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Web Listings Integrated circuit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the integrated circuit to the pins of the package .
  • Integrated Circuit Packages – Web Listings 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

The window allows the memory contents of the chip to be erased, by exposure to strong ultraviolet light in an eraser device.
.In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC, microcircuit, microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.^ Buy: Want to buy Integrated Circuits (ICs) .
  • Integrated Circuits - AsianNet Buy Leads - Integrated Circuits Buyers, Buy Offer, Buy TEnder, China Buyers, Taiwan Buyers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.asiannet.com [Source type: General]

^ In the semiconductor integrated circuit of the invention, the substrate contacts are placed at random.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics.^ Basic electronic block integrated circuit?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the basic electronic building block of an integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ We offering integrated circuits, industrial integrated circuits and electronic integrated circuits.

^ In which control integrated circuit are used?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the function of an integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board.^ In the semiconductor integrated circuit of the invention, the substrate contacts are placed at random.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ IC, electronic component,semiconductor, integrated circuit.
  • electronic integrated circuits, electronic integrated circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Introduction

Synthetic detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect, down to the polysilicon (pink), wells (greyish), and substrate (green).
.Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes, and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication.^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Semiconductor integrated circuit with nonvolatile memory .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How are integrated circuits made?
  • Integrated circuits: A simple introduction to silicon semiconductors and how they work 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: General]

.The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using electronic components.^ IC, electronic component,semiconductor, integrated circuit.
  • electronic integrated circuits, electronic integrated circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Integrated circuit electronic grid ...
  • Integrated circuit electronic grid ... - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.it [Source type: News]

^ An electronic circuit consisting of components and connectors contained on a semiconductor chip.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.^ Owner of layout-design of integrated circuit .
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ Certificate of layout-design of integrated circuit .
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ Definition of layout-design of integrated circuit .
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

.There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance.^ There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ IC ( integrated circuit ) A solid-state device with miniaturized discrete active components on a single semiconductor material, invented by Jack Kilby .
  • Pro Audio Reference I 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such a case, if there are two or more creators, etc., of the circuit layout, they shall jointly obtain registration for establishment.
  • Japan: Integrated Circuits (Circuit Layout), Law (Consolidation), 31/05/1985 (12/11/1993), No. 43 (No. 89) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Reference]

.Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a time.^ Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a time.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ KILBY, Jack Kilby was particularly concerned with the invention and development of the integrated circuit , also called a microchip because all circuit components, such as transistors, are packed onto a single chip of semiconductor material half the size of a paper clip.
  • Search Results 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These miniature circuits have demonstrated low cost, high reliability, low power requirements, and high processing speeds compared to the vacuum tubes and transistors which preceded them.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a circuit as a packaged IC die than as a discrete circuit.^ Today's integrated circuit products are constructed from a complex series of layers of semi-conductors, metals, insulators and other materials on a substrate.
  • ARVIC - Chapter Six - Integrated Circuit Topography - An overview in laymans terms 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.arvic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each good die (plural dice, dies, or die) is then connected into a package using aluminum (or gold) wires which are welded to pads, usually found around the edge of the die.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Today's integrated circuit products are constructed from a complex series of layers of semiconductors, metals, dielectrics (insulators) and other materials on a substrate.
  • Canadian Intellectual Property Office - Integrated Circuit Topographies:Integrated Circuit Topographies 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cipo.ic.gc.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts) because the components are small and close together.^ They also consume very little power.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power, because the components are small and close together.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These miniature circuits have demonstrated low cost, high reliability, low power requirements, and high processing speeds compared to the vacuum tubes and transistors which preceded them.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.As of 2006, chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 350 mm2, with up to 1 million transistors per mm2.^ As of 2006, chip areas range from a few square mm to around 350 mm2, with up to 1 million transistors per mm2.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To create the neuro-chip, researchers squeezed more than 16,000 electronic transistors and hundreds of capacitors onto a silicon chip just 1 millimeter square in size.
  • FOXNews.com - Brain Cells Fused With Computer Chip - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The 180-mil-square [0.18 inches-square (4.6 mm-square)] chip contains the logic for a four function 12-digit calculator - more than 2,100 transistors in 360 gates plus 160 flip-flops.
  • Calculator Electronics - Integrated Circuits 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.vintagecalculators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Invention

Jack Kilby's original integrated circuit
.The idea of an integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer (1909-2002), who published it at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.C. on May 7, 1952.[1] He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas.^ IC, electronic component,semiconductor, integrated circuit.
  • electronic integrated circuits, electronic integrated circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Classification of integrated circuit components may be by: ...
  • Logic Integrated Circuits – Web Listings 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Find obsolete integrated circuit components to work with existing equipment; 3.
  • Integrated Circuit Components Information | Business.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

Dummer unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956.
.The integrated circuit can be credited as being invented by both Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments[2] and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor [3] working independently of each other.^ Two engineers, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, thought there might be.
  • Kilby, Noyce, and the Integrated Circuit | OSP Magazine 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.ospmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first integrated circuit built by Jack Kilby .
  • TI launches Kilby Labs, marks 50 years of integrated circuits | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog - CNET News 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Robert Noyce also filed for an integrated circuit patent while employed by Fairchild Semiconductor Corp.
  • Jack Kilby, integrated circuit pioneer, dead at 81 | Hardware - InfoWorld 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

.Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and successfully demonstrated the first working integrated circuit on September 12, 1958.[2] In his patent application of February 6, 1959, Kilby described his new device as “a body of semiconductor material ...^ Jack Kilby filed the first patent for an Integrated Circuit on the 6th of February 1959.

^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What was the semiconductor material being used at first in making electronic devices?
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated.” .[4] Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit.^ In the year 2000, Jack Kilby, the inventor of integrated circuit, became one of the recipients of the Nobel prize in Physics.
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Semiconductor integrated circuit device invention .
  • Semiconductor integrated circuit device invention 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

[5]
.Robert Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby.^ Kilby came up with the idea to combine this circuitry on one chip.
  • Celebrating the IC's 50th anniversary | Hardware - InfoWorld 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ He did it half a year later than Jack Kilby.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next step came less than a year later.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Noyce's chip solved many practical problems that Kilby's had not.^ Noyce's circuit solved several practical problems that Kilby's circuit had, mainly the problem of interconnecting all the components on the chip.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noyce's chip had solved many practical problems that the microchip developed by Kilby had not.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Noyce's chip, made of silicon, overcame some practical problems that Kilby's germanium-based device did not.
  • TI launches Kilby Labs, marks 50 years of integrated circuits | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog - CNET News 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.Noyce's chip, made at Fairchild, was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium.^ Noyce's chip, made at Fairchild, was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kilby used germanium and Noyce used silicon for the semiconductor material."
  • Google Answers: Creation of Computer Chip 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simultaneously, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments independently developed a similar idea based on the planar process, though his was based on a germanium chip, rather than Noyce's silicon.
  • The First Integrated Circuit Chip: Celebrating the 50th Anniversary - Exhibits - Gizmodo 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]

.Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device [6] showing five transistors on a common substrate arranged in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement.^ Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate arranged in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some integrated circuits are analog devices; an operational amplifier is an example.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the semiconductor integrated circuit of the invention, the substrate contacts are placed at random.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Jacobi discloses small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent.^ Jacobi discloses small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By the way, the well-known DC/DC converter is disclosed in, e.g., Catalog of a product MB39A123 by Fujitsu Limited, Catalog of a product MB3825A by Fujitsu Limited, and Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT AND SEMICONDUCTOR APPARATUS INTEGRALLY HAVING SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT - Patent application 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A commercial use of his patent has not been reported.^ A commercial use of his patent has not been reported.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each one containing a single miniaturized component.^ A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each one containing a single miniaturized component.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ IC Lead Frame The lead frame is one of the key parts in integrated circuit,which supports core wafer,dissipates heat generate...
  • Integrated Circuits - Integrated Circuits and more 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ The process that produced these early ICs was known as small scale integration, or SSI. By the mid-1960s, medium scale integration, MSI, produced ICs with hundreds of components.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.Components could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid.^ Components could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Before the integrated circuit, assembly workers had to construct circuits by hand, soldering each component in place and connecting them with metal wires.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.This idea, which looked very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby, and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy).^ This idea, which looked very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby, and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Jack Kilby hit on the idea of building an electrical circuit out of one substance and decided to use germanium.

^ It was in a deserted laboratory at Texas Instrument's brand new Semiconductor Building where Jack Kilby first hit on the idea of the integrated circuit.
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.
The aforementioned Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p-n junction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-n junction (the diode) as a key concept behind the IC.[8]
.See: Other variations of vacuum tubes for precursor concepts such as the Loewe 3NF.^ However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. The aforementioned Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p-n junction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-n junction (the diode) as a key concept behind the IC. See: Other variations of vacuum tubes for precursor concepts such as the Loewe 3NF. Generations SSI, MSI, LSI The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other nodes such as CMOS , MOSFET , and digital circuit design provide complementary information about how integrated circuits perform their various tasks.
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several other devices having only slight specification variations are available from TIL. See the Artifact Historical File for additional information.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

Generations

SSI, MSI and LSI

.The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors.^ His integrated circuit, first demonstrated on Sept.
  • USATODAY.com - Father of integrated circuit dies 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ Bipolar integrated circuits contain bipolar junction transistors as their principle elements.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first integrated circuits contained only up to a dozen components.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.Called "Small-Scale Integration" (SSI), digital circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens provided a few logic gates for example, while early linear ICs such as the Plessey SL201 or the Philips TAA320 had as few as two transistors.^ An IC that contains from 10 to 100 transistors is said to use medium-scale integration.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Describe digital integrated circuits.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What are the two integrated circuit classifications?
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

The term Large Scale Integration was first used by IBM scientist Rolf Landauer when describing the theoretical concept, from there came the terms for SSI, MSI, VLSI, and ULSI.
.SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and vice-versa.^ SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and vice-versa.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.Both the Minuteman missile and Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers for their inertial guidance systems; the Apollo guidance computer led and motivated the integrated-circuit technology[citation needed], while the Minuteman missile forced it into mass-production.^ Integrated circuits: a technology fable .
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This made the integrated circuit more suitable for mass production.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Minuteman missile and Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers for their inertial guidance systems; the Apollo guidance computer led and motivated the integrated-circuit technology, while the Minuteman missile forced it into mass-production.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.These programs purchased almost all of the available integrated circuits from 1960 through 1963, and almost alone provided the demand that funded the production improvements to get the production costs from $1000/circuit (in 1960 dollars) to merely $25/circuit (in 1963 dollars).^ Integrated circuits changed all that.
  • Integrated circuits: A simple introduction to silicon semiconductors and how they work 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: General]

^ Shanti Devices Engaged in production of all kinds of integrated circuits.
  • Integrated Circuits - Integrated Circuits Manufacturers,Integrated Circuits Suppliers & Exporters 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: General]

^ These programs purchased almost all of the available integrated circuits from 1960 through 1963, and almost alone provided the demand that funded the production improvements to get the production costs from $1000/circuit (in 1960 dollars) to merely $25/circuit (in 1963 dollars).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.May 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They began to appear in consumer products at the turn of the decade, a typical application being FM inter-carrier sound processing in television receivers.^ IrDA products began to appear in 1995.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They began to appear in consumer products at the turn of the decade, a typical application being FM inter-carrier sound processing in television receivers.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Application server 110 typically includes a server application 112 that may include software and data to be executed in the processing unit of a server node.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip, called "Medium-Scale Integration" (MSI).^ Chinese integrated circuit industry is stepping into the scaled and intensive development phase.
  • Research Report of Chinese Integrated Circuit Industry, 2009 - market research report on Reportlinker 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.reportlinker.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip, called "Medium-Scale Integration" (MSI).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Called "Small-Scale Integration" (SSI), they used circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (because of fewer separate components), and a number of other advantages.^ They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (because of fewer separate components), and a number of other advantages.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other more complex authentication and encryption schemes may also be used.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ It is often combined with other ICs and discrete components on one or more circuit boards to form a more complex system, such as a COMPUTER, (q.v.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to "Large-Scale Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.^ Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to "Large-Scale Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal .
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) was simply the next step beyond LSI, to thousands of transistors on a chip.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the first microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the early 1970s, had under 4000 transistors.^ Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the first microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the early 1970s, had under 4000 transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See integrated circuit ; see chip .
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An integrated circuit is an electronic circuit , such as a microprocessor , that is self-contained on a chip .
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.True LSI circuits, approaching 10000 transistors, began to be produced around 1974, for computer main memories and second-generation microprocessors.^ True LSI circuits, approaching 10000 transistors, began to be produced around 1974, for computer main memories and second-generation microprocessors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Microprocessor circuits - Memory circuits .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the first microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the early 1970s, had under 4000 transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

VLSI

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die.
.The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was "very large-scale integration" (VLSI).^ The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was "Very Large-Scale Integration" (VLSI).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The process that produced these early ICs was known as small scale integration, or SSI. By the mid-1960s, medium scale integration, MSI, produced ICs with hundreds of components.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Instead, parallelism through multi-core processing has become the technology choice to continue processor performance scaling.
  • Silicon Chip: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

The development started with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s, and continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2009.
.There was no single breakthrough that allowed this increase in complexity, though many factors helped.^ There was no single breakthrough that allowed this increase in complexity, though many factors helped.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But the improvement is no longer coming from increasing clock rates due to the associated power, heat and design complexity costs.
  • Silicon Chip: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The development of MOS technology has allowed extremely complex functions to be performed on a single chip.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Manufacturers moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs, so that they could make chips with more transistors and maintain adequate yield.^ Manufacturing moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs, allowing them to produce chips with more transistors with adequate yield, as summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The research, published online this week in the journal Lab on a Chip , could revolutionize the fields of medical and environmental sampling by making analyses sensitive, portable, and fast.
  • Silicon chip beams light through a liquid-core waveguide to detect one particle at a time 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of manufacturing an integrated circuit will make more sense if one first understands some of the basics of how these components are formed.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.The path of process improvements was summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).^ Manufacturing moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs, allowing them to produce chips with more transistors with adequate yield, as summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This process, and the expected progress over the next few years, is well described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Under the terms of the patent purchase agreement, MOSAID will purchase from Samsung a portfolio of patents related to semiconductor device, circuit and processing technologies.

.Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish these designs in a reasonable time.^ Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish these designs in a reasonable time.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Both these productions mark the reasons for developing our own biotechnology politics, in language and in other practice.
  • Donna Haraway - The Ironic Dream of a Common Language for Women in the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.egs.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The more energy efficient CMOS replaced NMOS and PMOS, avoiding a prohibitive increase in power consumption.^ The more energy efficient CMOS replaced NMOS and PMOS, avoiding a prohibitive increase in power consumption.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The company snagged a $44 million Pentagon contract to continue work that could also mean smaller, more energy-efficient machines.
  • computer chip – News Stories About computer chip - Page 1 | Newser 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

^ It will be demonstrated that with this architecture, a proper design of the tank allows fulfilling the restrictive DCS-1800 phase noise requirements without an excessive increase in power consumption.
  • An integrated downconverter circuit in 0.8 m SiGe technology for DCS-1800 applications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC mobiledevdesign.com [Source type: Academic]

.Better texts such as the landmark textbook by Mead and Conway helped schools educate more designers, among other factors.^ Better texts such as the landmark textbook by Mead and Conway helped schools educate more designers, among other factors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The legal protection of layout-designs of integrated circuits is provided for in this Act, other Acts and regulations issued by the Government of the Republic or the Ministers on the basis of and for the implementation of such Acts.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ Also called Green Refrigerator, the design is very legerity, more features better than Compressor refrigerator.
  • Integrated Circuits, Integrated Circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers, Exporters - AsianNet Best Products Online 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC bestproducts.asiannet.com [Source type: General]
  • Integrated Circuits - AsianNet Global Suppliers - Asia, Asian, China, Taiwan, Integrated Circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers, B2B Trade Directory, Integrated Circuits Parts & Accessories, Integrated Circuits Components & Materials, China Exporters, Taiwan Exporters 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.asiannet.com [Source type: General]

.In 1986 the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced, which contained more than one million transistors.^ In 1989 shamika yapa the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced, which contained more than one million transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Now we have more than one million transistors on a single computer chip!
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integrating 65 nanometre technology from TSMC, the world's largest semiconductor foundry, the test chip is designed for data security applications and contains around 22 million transistors.
  • gulfnews : DCD designs region's first integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

.Microprocessor chips passed the million transistor mark in 1989 and the billion transistor mark in 2005[9].^ Microprocessor chips passed the million transistor mark in 1989 and the billion transistor mark in 2005 .
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The companies will reportedly provide $2 million annually for five years, to speed the development of chips that can contain dozens—or even hundreds—of microprocessors...
  • computer chip – News Stories About computer chip - Page 1 | Newser 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

^ Logic circuits will have more than 25 million transistors per square centimeter and 4-gigabit (GB) memory chips will be commercially available (1 GB = 1 billion bits of information).
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trend continues largely unabated, with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors [10].^ The trend continues largely unabated, with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors .
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The number of transistors on an IC has also grown to more than 10 million from the single such device on Kilby’s first IC. In research laboratories, some memory ICs with more than 1 billion transistors have been built.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to "Large-Scale Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC

.To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for "ultra-large-scale integration" was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.^ ULSI, WSI, SOC, 3D-IC To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for "Ultra-Large Scale Integration" was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Now we have more than one million transistors on a single computer chip!
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain: SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip Integrated Services Digital Network - ISDN See ISDN .
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a system of building very-large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single "super-chip". Through a combination of large size and reduced packaging, WSI could lead to dramatically reduced costs for some systems, notably massively parallel supercomputers.^ This will reduce the cost of the core chip because of economies of scale.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a system of building very-large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single "super-chip".
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal .
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.The name is taken from the term Very-Large-Scale Integration, the current state of the art when WSI was being developed.^ The name is taken from the term Very-Large-Scale Integration, the current state of the art when WSI was being developed.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ULSI, WSI, SOC, 3D-IC To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for "Ultra-Large Scale Integration" was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A compact, electrically driven light source integrated on silicon is a key component for large-scale integration of electronic and photonic integrated circuits.
  • Optics InfoBase: Optics Express - Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.opticsexpress.org [Source type: Academic]

.A system-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all the components needed for a computer or other system are included on a single chip.^ The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that processes all information in the computer.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ELECTRONIC COMPNENT integrated circuit IC component IC CHIP BGA...
  • electronic integrated circuits, electronic integrated circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Other types of logic chips are also needed in electronic systems.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The design of such a device can be complex and costly, and building disparate components on a single piece of silicon may compromise the efficiency of some elements.^ The design of such a device can be complex and costly, and building disparate components on a single piece of silicon may compromise the efficiency of some elements.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The number of transistors on an IC has also grown to more than 10 million from the single such device on Kilby’s first IC. In research laboratories, some memory ICs with more than 1 billion transistors have been built.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one example, the user may then provide such information through a GUI (not shown) on the information apparatus 100, which then transmits the information to the selected output device 106.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.However, these drawbacks are offset by lower manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly reduced power budget: because signals among the components are kept on-die, much less power is required (see Packaging).^ However, these drawbacks are offset by lower manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly reduced power budget: because signals among the components are kept on-die, much less power is required (see Packaging, above).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ST’s L5961 allows a designer to significantly reduce the number of components on the PCB, offering immediate benefits such as cost reduction, lower complexity and [...

^ News Service for budding Asian integrated circuit designers promises these companies lower costs and faster turnaround time.
  • integrated circuit stories - ZDNet Asia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: General]

.A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit.^ Component Masters Importer and supplier of integrated circuits, industrial integrated circuits and electronic integrated circuits.
  • Integrated Circuits - Integrated Circuits Manufacturers,Integrated Circuits Suppliers & Exporters 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: General]

^ IC, electronic component,semiconductor, integrated circuit.
  • electronic integrated circuits, electronic integrated circuits Manufacturers & Suppliers 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.Communication between layers uses on-die signaling, so power consumption is much lower than in equivalent separate circuits.^ Communication between layers uses on-die signaling, so power consumption is much lower than in equivalent separate circuits.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, these drawbacks are offset by lower manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly reduced power budget: because signals among the components are kept on-die, much less power is required (see Packaging, above).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ According...Trademark Office: "A multiple integrated circuit chip structure provides interchip communication between integrated circuit chips of the structure with...
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Judicious use of short vertical wires can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster operation.^ Judicious use of short vertical wires can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster operation.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Just as John Atanasoff had used small capacitors as storage devices, it was found that lengths of IC "wire" also store charge, and could be used as memory.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using light, not wires, to connect chips could make computers 1,000 times faster .
  • computer chip – News Stories About computer chip - Page 1 | Newser 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

Advances in integrated circuits

The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip.
.Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors or "cores", which control everything from computers to cellular phones to digital microwave ovens.^ Analog versus digital circuits - Microprocessor circuits .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Evolution of the digital integrated circuit .
  • Evolution of the digital integrated circuit | Electrical Apparatus | Find Articles at BNET 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that processes all information in the computer.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Digital memory chips and ASICs are examples of other families of integrated circuits that are important to the modern information society.^ Evolution of the digital integrated circuit .
  • Evolution of the digital integrated circuit | Electrical Apparatus | Find Articles at BNET 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Describe digital integrated circuits.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Semiconductor integrated circuit with nonvolatile memory .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.While the cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is quite high, when spread across typically millions of production units the individual IC cost is minimized.^ Owner of layout-design of integrated circuit .
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ Certificate of layout-design of integrated circuit .
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ APA Style: integrated circuit (IC) .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The performance of ICs is high because the small size allows short traces which in turn allows low power logic (such as CMOS) to be used at fast switching speeds.^ High speed network switch .
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because of their high speed, gallium arsenide digital ICs are sometimes used in supercomputers.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The performance of ICs is high because the small size allows short traces which in turn allows low power logic (such as CMOS) to be used at fast switching speeds.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years, allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip.^ ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years, allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Manufacturing moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs, allowing them to produce chips with more transistors with adequate yield, as summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Owing to limitations in size, only very small capacitances can be created on an IC. * More rarely, inductive structures can be built as tiny on-chip coils, or simulated by gyrators.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.This increased capacity per unit area can be used to decrease cost and/or increase functionality—see Moore's law which, in its modern interpretation, states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years.^ What are the two integrated circuit classifications?
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How many transistors are used in modern integrated circuits?
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See integrated circuit ; see chip .
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, as the feature size shrinks, almost everything improves—the cost per unit and the switching power consumption go down, and the speed goes up.^ In general, as the feature size shrinks, almost everything improvesthe cost per unit and the switching power consumption go down, and the speed goes up.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Over the years, the minimum feature size has gotten smaller and smaller, and accordingly microprocessor speed has increased and the density of memory chips has grown.
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, a method of implementing a layout while maintaining high speed and lower power consumption by supplying separate substrate potentials to different substrates at the operation time is proposed.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, ICs with nanometer-scale devices are not without their problems, principal among which is leakage current (see subthreshold leakage for a discussion of this), although these problems are not insurmountable and will likely be solved or at least ameliorated by the introduction of high-k dielectrics.^ However, ICs with nanometer-scale devices are not without their problems, principal among which is leakage current (see subthreshold leakage for a discussion of this), although these problems are not insurmountable and will likely be solved or at least ameliorated by the introduction of high-k dielectrics.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Students will gain skills in device and small scale integrated circuit simulation and, CMOS IC layout.
  • Digitial Integrated Circuit Design I 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC web.cecs.pdx.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dupuis was an IC engineering technician at that time and saved these as some of the first TTL device, probably for Honeywell.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Since these speed and power consumption gains are apparent to the end user, there is fierce competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries.^ Since these speed and power consumption gains are apparent to the end user, there is fierce competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the designations 286, 386, and 486 were well known to computer users as reflecting increasing levels of computing power and speed.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These miniature circuits have demonstrated low cost, high reliability, low power requirements, and high processing speeds compared to the vacuum tubes and transistors which preceded them.
  • How integrated circuit is made - material, making, used, processing, components, dimensions, composition, industry, machine, How Integrated Circuit Components Are Formed, Design, Raw Materials 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

.This process, and the expected progress over the next few years, is well described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).^ This process, and the expected progress over the next few years, is well described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Manufacturing moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs, allowing them to produce chips with more transistors with adequate yield, as summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Perhaps in the next few years, you can call your overseas friend and seeing his/her smiling face in the screen on your cell phone.
  • History of Integrated Circuit (IC) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Popularity of ICs

.Only a half century after their development was initiated, integrated circuits have become ubiquitous.^ Popularity of ICs M Microchip revolution Only a half century after their development was initiated, integrated circuits have become ubiquitous.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Commonly used in the development of integrated circuits (ICs), SPICE has become such an industry standard that simulation is often referred to as "SPICEing a circuit."
  • Circuit Design White Papers ( Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Circuit Design, IC Design, Circuit Synthesis, Logic Design, Printed Circuit Design, Semiconductor Design ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

^ Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and successfully demonstrated the first working integrated circuit on September 12, 1958.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies.^ Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuits are also found in almost every modern electrical device such as cars, television sets, CD players, cellular phones, etc.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other ICs, such as the microprocessors used in computers , are digital devices.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.That is, modern computing, communications, manufacturing and transport systems, including the Internet, all depend on the existence of integrated circuits.^ The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that processes all information in the computer.
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Integrated Circuit Systems, success was all in the timing.
  • Integrated Circuit Systems Inc. | Company News & Executive Profiles | BNET 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: General]

^ That is, modern computing, communications, manufacturing and transport systems, including the Internet, all depend on the existence of integrated circuits.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

Classification

A CMOS 4000 IC in a DIP
.Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).^ Many ICs (called mixed-signal ICs) contain combinations of analog and digital circuits.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analog versus digital circuits - Microprocessor circuits .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory circuits - Digital signal processors .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters.^ The step (a) contains a step of extracting a logical circuit only between flip-flop circuits and only the logical circuits extracted in the extracting step are classified.
  • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from a few thousand to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Are integrated circuits analog or digital?
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration.^ The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These requirements are often at odds with an additional requirement for low power dissipation.
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These board designs originated in the SC Group Integrated Circuits.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals.^ Other ICs, such as the microprocessors used in computers , are digital devices.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Receiver IC combines RF analog and digital signal processing.
  • SD Card Reader Integrated Circuit adds hi-speed USB to portable applications., Maxi 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

.Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals.^ Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Receiver IC combines RF analog and digital signal processing.
  • SD Card Reader Integrated Circuit adds hi-speed USB to portable applications., Maxi 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Power-management ICs manufacturers .
  • Ic Computer Chip Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation, mixing, etc.^ They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation, mixing, etc.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this sense, constant envelope modulation schemes like GMSK have distinct advantages for power amplifier performance, since they can operate at near peak efficiency.
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The interface 212 may perform functions such as analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, modulation, demodulation, compression, decompression, encoding, decoding, and other data or format conversation functions.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch.^ Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designing ICs - Analog design .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Confidential use upon which the layout-design of an integrated circuit is not available to third persons is not deemed to be commercial exploitation.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

.ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters.^ Analog versus digital circuits - Microprocessor circuits .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Basic IC types - Analog versus digital circuits .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These may be combined on the chip to make a wide variety of digital and analog circuits.
  • integrated circuit Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.^ Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Test cost can account for over 25% of the cost of fabrication on lower cost products, but can be negligible on low yielding, larger, and/or higher cost devices.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

Manufacturing

Fabrication

.
Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed).
^ Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Manufacture Fabrication M Semiconductor fabrication Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed).
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These efforts include the use of thick gold metallization [26], multiple metal layers in parallel [27], bulk micromachining techniques for the removal of resistive material underneath the inductor [28], and spun-on thick dielectrics [29].
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

The sand-colored structures are metal interconnect, with the vertical pillars being contacts, typically plugs of tungsten. The reddish structures are polysilicon gates, and the solid at the bottom is the crystalline silicon bulk.
Schematic structure of a CMOS chip, as built in the early 2000s. .The graphic shows LDD-MISFET's on an SOI substrate with five metallization layers and solder bump for flip-chip bonding.^ This method is an example of flip-chip bonding, contrasted with solder bump .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of this kind of flip-chip mounting are beam lead and solder bump .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A flip-chip type of package in which the internal die terminals form a grid-style array, and are in contact with solder balls ( solder bumps ), which carry the electrical connection to the outside of the package.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

It also shows the section for FEOL (front-end of line), BEOL (back-end of line) and first parts of back-end process.
.The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were identified as the most likely materials for a solid state vacuum tube by researchers like William Shockley at Bell Laboratories starting in the 1930s.^ The most common semiconductor material is silicon.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were identified as the most likely materials for a solid state vacuum tube by researchers like William Shockley at Bell Laboratories starting in the 1930s.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solid-state devices proved to be much sturdier, easier to work with, more reliable, much smaller, and less expensive than vacuum tubes.
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s.^ Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s.
  • LSI Journal: Large Scale Integration electronic integrated circuit Journal 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC lsij.com [Source type: Reference]

.Today, silicon monocrystals are the main substrate used for integrated circuits (ICs) although some III-V compounds of the periodic table such as gallium arsenide are used for specialized applications like LEDs, lasers, solar cells and the highest-speed integrated circuits.^ IC 's are photolithographically deposited onto the surface of semiconductors like Silicon and Gallium Arsenide .
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Table of Contents: integrated circuit (IC) Main .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ APA Style: integrated circuit (IC) .
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

It took decades to perfect methods of creating crystals without defects in the crystalline structure of the semiconducting material.
Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in a layer process which includes these key process steps:
  • Imaging
  • Deposition
  • Etching
The main process steps are supplemented by doping and cleaning.
.Mono-crystal silicon wafers (or for special applications, silicon on sapphire or gallium arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate.^ A specialized diode used in the electronics industry and in radio frequency applications because of its fast switching speed and high frequency capability.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ICs made with gallium arsenide are used in aircraft navigation, satellite communication, defense, and other applications where speeds of more than 10 GHz are required.
  • INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most purposes, the starting wafer is crystal line silicon .
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Photolithography is used to mark different areas of the substrate to be doped or to have polysilicon, insulators or metal (typically aluminium) tracks deposited on them.^ CVD is usually used to deposit insulating materials and polysilicon, though it can be used to deposit many metals also.
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sputtering is used to deposit materials ranging from metals to insulator s.
  • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ceramic used for insulators in electron tubes or substrates in thin-film circuits.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.
  • Integrated circuits are composed of many overlapping layers, each defined by photolithography, and normally shown in different colors.^ An integrated circuit differing in any manner from the catalog specifications was classified as a special device.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Today, most integrated circuits need more than one layer of wires.
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The MAC layer varies for different network types and is defined by standards IEEE 802.3 through IEEE 802.5.
    • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Some layers mark where various dopants are diffused into the substrate (called diffusion layers), some define where additional ions are implanted (implant layers), some define the conductors (polysilicon or metal layers), and some define the connections between the conducting layers (via or contact layers).^ Advanced circuits may need up to five different layers of metal to form all the necessary connections.
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The intelligence inherent in PCB CAD software which maintains the correct connections between pins of components as defined by the schematic.
    • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Further, as for placement of substrate contacts, hitherto, the distance between the substrate contacts has not been defined and the number of substrate contacts may become more than the necessary number for implementing the essential characteristics of a semiconductor integrated circuit; there is also a problem of furthermore increasing the area of the semiconductor integrated circuit.
    • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    .All components are constructed from a specific combination of these layers.
  • In a self-aligned CMOS process, a transistor is formed wherever the gate layer (polysilicon or metal) crosses a diffusion layer.
  • Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to the area of the "plates", with insulating material between the plates.^ Wherever a "wire" or "line" of polysilicon crosses a line of silicon with ions diffused into it, a transistor is formed.
    • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All the materials that can be charged by rubbing are insulators.
    • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When all the components have been made and the circuit is complete a layer of metal is added.
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The History of the Integrated Circuit 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Capacitors of a wide range of sizes are common on ICs.
  • Meandering stripes of varying lengths are sometimes used to form on-chip resistors, though most logic circuits do not need any resistors.^ The number of logical stages forming the logical circuit varies depending on the function.
    • SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE, SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN METHOD, AND SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN APPARATUS - Patent Application 20080238486 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ ALSO CALLED: Framers, MAC, Media Access Controllers, SERDES (Serializer/Deserializer), and IC DEFINITION: An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated.
    • Integrated Circuits - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An integrated circuit (IC) is a complete, very compact circuit made up from tiny resistors, diodes, transistors and capacitors.
    • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The ratio of the length of the resistive structure to its width, combined with its sheet resistivity, determines the resistance.
.Since a CMOS device only draws current on the transition between logic states, CMOS devices consume much less current than bipolar devices.^ A device, as a two-element electron tube or a semiconductor, through which current can pass freely in only one direction.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Her current research interests include the integration of SiGe and CMOS devices into RF receivers for WLAN applications.
  • An integrated downconverter circuit in 0.8 m SiGe technology for DCS-1800 applications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC mobiledevdesign.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So the difference in frequency ranges between the desired signal and potentially interfering undesired signals is less than 10 3 .
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.A random access memory is the most regular type of integrated circuit; the highest density devices are thus memories; but even a microprocessor will have memory on the chip.^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Semiconductor integrated circuit with nonvolatile memory .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A type of housing for integrated circuits.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

(See the regular array structure at the bottom of the first image.) .Although the structures are intricate – with widths which have been shrinking for decades – the layers remain much thinner than the device widths.^ Typically, an application server 110 is a much more powerful computing device than a mobile information apparatus 100.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.The layers of material are fabricated much like a photographic process, although light waves in the visible spectrum cannot be used to "expose" a layer of material, as they would be too large for the features.^ It has beginnings in the middle of the microwave spectrum and goes up to an ambiguous area at the beginning of visible light.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus photons of higher frequencies (typically ultraviolet) are used to create the patterns for each layer.^ Analog, or linear, circuits typically use only a few components and are thus some of the simplest types of ICs.
  • integrated circuit (IC) (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because each feature is so small, electron microscopes are essential tools for a process engineer who might be debugging a fabrication process.^ A complete electronic circuit fabricated as an inseparable assembly of circuit elements in a single small structure.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.Each device is tested before packaging using automated test equipment (ATE), in a process known as wafer testing, or wafer probing.^ In order to do a speed sort or speed bin, we need to use ATE (automatic test equipment), also known as tester.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The reason for using the prototype line is not known, but it was usually to check a new or revised design or a process change.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The method of claim 14 further comprising processing the output data before delivering the output data to the output device.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

The wafer is then cut into rectangular blocks, each of which is called a die. .Each good die (plural dice, dies, or die) is then connected into a package using aluminium (or gold) bond wires which are welded and/or Thermosonic Bonded to pads, usually found around the edge of the die.^ A blob of non-conductive plastic, often black in color, which protects the chip and wire bonds on a packaged IC and also on a chip on board .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I/O pads 750, located on the silicon die 705, are connected to the substrate bonding pads 760 via bond wires 780.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Upon separation of the individual die (normally by chemical etching instead of the conventional scribe-and-break technique), the cantilevered beam is left protruding from the edge of the chip and can be bonded directly to interconnecting pads on the circuit substrate without the need for individual wire interconnections.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.After packaging, the devices go through final testing on the same or similar ATE used during wafer probing.^ Electrically addressable passive device, method for electrical addressing of the same and uses of the device and the method .
  • Integrated circuit structure including three-dimensional memory array (US6385074) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Commonly used to mean a packaged semiconductor device.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other memory devices used during the period include mercury or glass delay lines, and magnetic core memory.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Test cost can account for over 25% of the cost of fabrication on lower cost products, but can be negligible on low yielding, larger, and/or higher cost devices.^ This speed allows the use of a low-cost UART chip; however, higher non-UART extensions for 1.15 and 4 Mbps have also been defined.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is well-suited for providing output capability to small and lower-cost mobile devices with limited memory space, power supply and processing capability to still be able to output or print to an output device.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ While all combinations of IM distortion products are possible, this test usually measures only the low-frequency second-order product falling at f2-f1, i.e., at 1 kHz.
  • Pro Audio Reference I 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2005, a fabrication facility (commonly known as a semiconductor lab) costs over a billion US Dollars to construct[11], because much of the operation is automated.^ It costs just US$149 and even after Australian dollar conversion that price is very attractive.
  • Silicon Chip Electronics Magazine for Hobby Electronics, Computing, Kits and Projects. 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC www.siliconchip.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most advanced processes employ the following techniques:
.
  • The wafers are up to 300 mm in diameter (wider than a common dinner plate).
  • Use of 65 nanometer or smaller chip manufacturing process.^ TI number: G00327 Integrated Circuit - This ROM type was designed and built for use in the TI SPEAK & SPELL. The symbolization in front of the date code identifies the wafer processing facility (Dallas MOS 2) and chip revision.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Another aspect of this invention is placing a large and slow memory as well as a smaller and faster memory behind a common interface chip and using the faster memory as a cache for the slower memory.
    • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ TI number: G00326 Integrated Circuit - This ROM type was designed and built for use in the TI SPEAK & SPELL. The symbolization in front of the date code identifies the wafer processing facility (Dallas MOS 2) and chip revision.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .Intel, IBM, NEC, and AMD are using 45 nanometers for their CPU chips.^ And at some point the two processors will coexist (intel and AMD architectures are already allowing for multiple unrelated processors, since GPUs are better at parallelization than CPUs).
    • Code-breaking quantum algorithm run on a silicon chip - tech - 04 September 2009 - New Scientist 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In IBM's ceramic BGA's, the solder used in solder balls has a higher melting point than that used in soldering the ball to the chip substrate and the BGA to a board.
    • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Intel TSMC AMD IBM Toshiba Texas Instruments Motorola Samsung Bell Labs (historic...
    • integrated circuit@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    IBM and AMD are in development of a 45 nm process using immersion lithography.
  • Copper interconnects where copper wiring replaces aluminium for interconnects.
  • Low-K dielectric insulators.
  • Silicon on insulator (SOI)
  • Strained silicon in a process used by IBM known as strained silicon directly on insulator (SSDOI)

Packaging

Early USSR made integrated circuit
.The earliest integrated circuits were packaged in ceramic flat packs, which continued to be used by the military for their reliability and small size for many years.^ A type of integrated circuit packaging that is extremely thin and flat.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The integrated circuit buffer device of claim 1, wherein the data stream is transmitted using a number of representational signal levels, wherein the number of representational signal levels is greater than two.
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Time Remaining: 1 day IC chip, integrated circuit partsParticularly in the series of computer chips, new and original in factory original package....
  • Wholesale integrated circuit - Buy Low Price integrated circuit Lots on Alibaba.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

.Commercial circuit packaging quickly moved to the dual in-line package (DIP), first in ceramic and later in plastic.^ Synchronous memory packaged in single/dual in-line memory module and method of fabrication .
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The series 51 were RCTL logis circuits that were introduced in early 1962 as the first TI catalog line.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Usually packaged in a plastic or ceramic case with external connector pins.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1980s pin counts of VLSI circuits exceeded the practical limit for DIP packaging, leading to pin grid array (PGA) and leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages.^ A flip-chip type of package in which the internal die terminals form a grid-style array, and are in contact with solder balls ( solder bumps ), which carry the electrical connection to the outside of the package.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Later, a chip carrier was developed to replace the package for all testing.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Time Remaining: 1 day IC chip, integrated circuit partsParticularly in the series of computer chips, new and original in factory original package....
  • Wholesale integrated circuit - Buy Low Price integrated circuit Lots on Alibaba.com 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

.Surface mount packaging appeared in the early 1980s and became popular in the late 1980s, using finer lead pitch with leads formed as either gull-wing or J-lead, as exemplified by small-outline integrated circuit -- a carrier which occupies an area about 30 – 50% less than an equivalent DIP, with a typical thickness that is 70% less.^ Commonly used in the development of integrated circuits (ICs), SPICE has become such an industry standard that simulation is often referred to as "SPICEing a circuit."
  • Circuit Design White Papers ( Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Circuit Design, IC Design, Circuit Synthesis, Logic Design, Printed Circuit Design, Semiconductor Design ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

^ Gallium Arsenide components can have rise times around 100-picoseconds (millionths of millionths of seconds), 30 to 50 times faster than some CMOS components.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ INTEGRATED PASSIVES - Passive electronic circuit elements ( e.g ., capacitors, resistors, and inductors ) integrated into a printed circuit board (becoming part of the circuit board itself), as opposed to being "surface-mounted" as discrete elements on the circuit boards.

.This package has "gull wing" leads protruding from the two long sides and a lead spacing of 0.050 inches.^ The leads are spaced at 0.050 inches, so this package is not considered fine-pitch.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Q QFP —Quad Flat Pack, a fine-pitch SMT package that is rectangular or square with gull-wing shaped leads on all four sides.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier —An SMT chip package that is rectangular or square- shaped with leads on all four sides.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the late 1990s, PQFP and TSOP packages became the most common for high pin count devices, though PGA packages are still often used for high-end microprocessors.^ The hardware lines used by PC peripherals (such as printers or modems) to communicate to the microprocessor that the device is ready to send or receive data.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even for devices with only two pins and no polarity, such as resistors, the netlist extracted from a schematic will have a pin 1 and pin 2 for each resistor, even though the schematic might not show a pin number label as such.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors ( CPUs ), audio and video equipment, and automobiles.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intel and AMD are currently transitioning from PGA packages on high-end microprocessors to land grid array (LGA) packages.
.Ball grid array (BGA) packages have existed since the 1970s.^ B ball grid array — (Abbrev.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ BGA — micro Ball Grid Array .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A fine pitch ball grid array .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.Flip-chip Ball Grid Array packages, which allow for much higher pin count than other package types, were developed in the 1990s.^ B ball grid array — (Abbrev.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ BGA — micro Ball Grid Array .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A fine pitch ball grid array .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.In an FCBGA package the die is mounted upside-down (flipped) and connects to the package balls via a package substrate that is similar to a printed-circuit board rather than by wires.^ Printed circuit board.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A copper object on a printed circuit board.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer chip on printed circuit board .
  • Computer chip Stock Photos and Images. 3889 Computer chip pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.FCBGA packages allow an array of input-output signals (called Area-I/O) to be distributed over the entire die rather than being confined to the die periphery.^ The write voltage, particularly if greater than VDD, may be generated by an on-chip voltage generator, such as a charge pump, which may require an undesirably large amount of die area, particularly relative to a higher bit density three-dimensional memory array formed entirely in layers above a semiconductor substrate.
  • Integrated circuit structure including three-dimensional memory array (US6385074) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the term implies, the output signal level is a linear function of the input signal level.
  • Integrated Circuits - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A circuit condition whereby an increase in the driving or input signal no longer produces a change in the output.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.Traces out of the die, through the package, and into the printed circuit board have very different electrical properties, compared to on-chip signals.^ Printed circuit board.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer chip on printed circuit board .
  • Computer chip Stock Photos and Images. 3889 Computer chip pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ PC board — Printed Circuit board .
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.They require special design techniques and need much more electric power than signals confined to the chip itself.^ Square D Critical Power Competency Center WHITE PAPER: This paper presents the fundamentals of power system grounding, definitions and requirements of the National Electrical Code with respect to grounding, the need for low voltage ground fault protection and how it is implemented.
  • Integrated Circuits - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 29 September 2009 17:46 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The encryption/decryption chip was implemented using special low-power design techniques to minimise power consumption.
  • gulfnews : DCD designs region's first integrated circuit 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

^ A type of rectifier that uses a three-phase AC electric power source to produce a relatively smooth DC. Three-phase rectifiers provide much smoother DC output voltage than single-phase rectifiers.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.When multiple dies are put in one package, it is called SiP, for System In Package.^ One way to ameliorate this is to put multiple DRAM core chip dies in a single package.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ For the purpose of this discussion, we shall consider putting two DRAM core chip dies in a single package, each die being a 256 Mb density device.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The DRAM core chip and the interface chip of this invention may be attached together in a number of different ways: [0142] One or more DRAM core chip dies and one or more interface chip dies may be electrically connected to each other and the whole combination be put into a single package (e.g., a single DRAM core chip die with a single interface chip die, multiple DRAM core chip dies with a single interface chip die, or a single DRAM core chip die with multiple interface chip dies).
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.When multiple dies are combined on a small substrate, often ceramic, it's called an MCM, or Multi-Chip Module.^ One way to ameliorate this is to put multiple DRAM core chip dies in a single package.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Initially, DEC built transistorized logic modules called Flip Chips (printed circuit boards), which could be used to build specialized control logic.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I2C is a multi-master bus, which means that multiple chips can be connected to the same bus and each one can act as a master by initiating a data transfer.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The boundary between a big MCM and a small printed circuit board is sometimes fuzzy.^ Printed circuit board.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A copper object on a printed circuit board.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer chip on printed circuit board .
  • Computer chip Stock Photos and Images. 3889 Computer chip pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 25 September 2009 0:52 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Chip labeling and manufacture date

.Most integrated circuits large enough to include identifying information include four common sections: the manufacturer's name or logo, the part number, a part production batch number and/or serial number, and a four-digit code that identifies when the chip was manufactured.^ Describe digital integrated circuits.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See integrated circuit ; see chip .
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction to Digital Integrated Circuits   [ archives ] .

.Extremely small surface mount technology parts often bear only a number used in a manufacturer's lookup table to find the chip characteristics.^ So, we can use bin A parts for this manufacturer by attaching the appropriate interface chips to the bin A parts.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The 1620 did not have a normal ALU -- instead, it used table lookup, and the table was user- programmable.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TI number: G00391 Integrated Circuit Display, Bipolar - These displays, contained in a small box were used as IC marketing aids in the mid to late 1960's.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

The manufacturing date is commonly represented as a two-digit year followed by a two-digit week code, such that a part bearing the code 8341 was manufactured in week 41 of 1983, or approximately in October 1983.

Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

Prior to 1984, it was not necessarily illegal to produce a competing chip with an identical layout. .As the legislative history for the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, or SCPA, explained, patent and copyright protection for chip layouts, or topographies, were largely unavailable.^ If an applicant files a claim, on the basis of subsection 9 (2) of this Act, for the determination of the date of commencement of legal protection of the layout-design of an integrated circuit based on the date of the first commercial exploitation, the Patent Office shall determine such date.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ If a legal act regulating the legal protection of layout-designs of integrated circuits is contrary to an international agreement ratified by the Riigikogu 2 , the provisions of the international agreement apply.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ This Act regulates the legal protection of layout-designs of integrated circuits.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

.This led to considerable complaint by U.S. chip manufacturers—notably, Intel, which took the lead in seeking legislation, along with the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA)--against what they termed "chip piracy."^ This series rapidly became the industry standard for digital applications and was copied by other semiconductor manufacturers.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A formal name for a component commonly termed chip or IC , that is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 1984 addition to US law, the SCPA, made all so-called mask works (i.e., chip topographies) protectable if registered with the U.S. Copyright Office.^ An applicant may file an appeal against a decision to register the layout-design of an integrated circuit made by the Patent Office, if the Patent Office has not deemed the date of the first commercial exploitation of the layout-design of the integrated circuit to be the date of commencement of legal protection.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ Let us assume that the Mode[1:0] inputs to the DRAM core chip are controlled by a register in the interface chip.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Upon grant of legal protection for a layout-design of an integrated circuit, registration entry shall be made in the register.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

Similar rules apply in most other countries that manufacture ICs. (This is a simplified explanation - see SCPA for legal details.)

Other developments

.In the 1980s, programmable integrated circuits were developed.^ Commonly used in the development of integrated circuits (ICs), SPICE has become such an industry standard that simulation is often referred to as "SPICEing a circuit."
  • Circuit Design White Papers ( Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Circuit Design, IC Design, Circuit Synthesis, Logic Design, Printed Circuit Design, Semiconductor Design ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

^ TI number: G00382 Integrated Circuits - These devices are prototypes of the TMS3536 Video Display Processor developed by TI France.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ GaAs integrated circuit programmable delay line element .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.These devices contain circuits whose logical function and connectivity can be programmed by the user, rather than being fixed by the integrated circuit manufacturer.^ Integrated circuit device .
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Integrated circuit buffer device .
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An integrated circuit device is disclosed.
  • Integrated circuit device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.This allows a single chip to be programmed to implement different LSI-type functions such as logic gates, adders and registers.^ This allows the same interface chip to be used across several different segments within a market.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In another implementation shown by FIG. 3B, the functionalities of output controller 104 and printer controller 1010 (FIG. 10) may be combined into a single controller, sometimes referred to as combined controller 104(B).
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, a logic circuit that occupied a whole PC board can be reduced to fit on a single chip of silicon.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Current devices named FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) can now implement tens of thousands of LSI circuits in parallel and operate up to 550 MHz.^ For example, an output controller 104 may include components using one or more or combinations of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a digital signal processor (DSP), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), firmware, system on a chip, and various communication chip sets.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ General purpose, multiple precision parallel operation, programmable media processor .
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TRIAC. A gated switching device that will conduct current in either direction.
  • What is the definition of integrated circuit? 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.The techniques perfected by the integrated circuits industry over the last three decades have been used to create microscopic machines, known as MEMS.^ The integrated circuit buffer device of claim 1, wherein the data stream is transmitted using a number of representational signal levels, wherein the number of representational signal levels is greater than two.
  • Integrated circuit buffer device - Google Patent Search 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TI number: G00250 Integrated Circuit Shipping Sleeve - The item is one of the early shipping sleeves used for IC's.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ TI number: G00252 Carriers, Integrated Circuit - This carrier was designed and put into production use in 1963.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These devices are used in a variety of commercial and military applications.^ If the layout-design of an integrated circuit has not been commercially used in any part of the world prior to its filing for registration in the register, the filing date of the application is deemed to be the commencement of legal protection.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of these devices for portable applications introduces another dimension of performance requirements, ultra-low-power .
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ INSECT CYBORG - An insect having a mixture of organic and mechanical parts that could be used for military applications.

.Example commercial applications include DLP projectors, inkjet printers, and accelerometers used to deploy automobile airbags.^ Output controller 104 typically includes a memory unit, or may share a memory unit with, for example, printer controller 1010.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ If the layout-design of an integrated circuit has not been commercially used in any part of the world prior to its filing for registration in the register, the filing date of the application is deemed to be the commencement of legal protection.
  • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

^ A printer is used as a primary output device 106 in this example.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.In the past, radios could not be fabricated in the same low-cost processes as microprocessors.^ If you're looking for a mains "switch" which can be operated from some distance away, this low-cost, simple project could be just what you want.
  • Silicon Chip Electronics Magazine for Hobby Electronics, Computing, Kits and Projects. 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC www.siliconchip.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But since 1998, a large number of radio chips have been developed using CMOS processes.^ TI number: G00327 Integrated Circuit - This ROM type was designed and built for use in the TI SPEAK & SPELL. The symbolization in front of the date code identifies the wafer processing facility (Dallas MOS 2) and chip revision.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the early 1990s, parallel processing has largely turned to inexpensive clusters of PCs operating with standard or slightly enhanced networking hardware.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another aspect of this invention is placing a large and slow memory as well as a smaller and faster memory behind a common interface chip and using the faster memory as a cache for the slower memory.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Examples include Intel's DECT cordless phone, or Atheros's 802.11 card.^ As an example, the wireless interface may be a short-range radio interface such as those implemented according to the Bluetooth or IEEE 802.11 standard.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ This group currently includes Bluetooth, Home radio frequency (Home RF) and implementations based on IEEE 802.11 standard.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of payment or deposit may include cash, credit card, bankcard, charge card, smart card, electronic cash, among others.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Future developments seem to follow the multi-core multi-microprocessor paradigm, already used by the Intel and AMD dual-core processors.^ A type of flip-chip technology which is used in Intel's Pentium III™ and in Motorola's PowerPC 603™ and PowerPC 604™ RISC Microprocessors.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

Intel recently unveiled a prototype, "not for commercial sale" chip that bears a staggering 80 microprocessors. .Each core is capable of handling its own task independently of the others.^ In other words, the DRAM core chips contain all the necessary circuits and capabilities needed to access the internal array used to store the data.
  • United States Patent Application: 0070014168 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

.This is in response to the heat-versus-speed limit that is about to be reached using existing transistor technology.^ IBOC ( in-band on-channel ) Original name for the digital radio technology that allows simultaneous analog and digital broadcasting using existing band allocations.
  • Pro Audio Reference I 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, all theses existing and future wireless technologies may be implemented in the present invention without limitation, and therefore, in no way depart from the scope of present invention.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Infosys Technologies Limited F3Q10 (Qtr End 12/31/09) Earnings Call Transcript on Jan 12, 2010 about INFY .
  • Integrated Circuit Systems Inc. | Company News & Executive Profiles | BNET 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: General]

.This design provides a new challenge to chip programming.^ The master slice idea was to provide a means of producing a new custom IC with a minimum of design time.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Parallel programming languages such as the open-source X10 programming language are designed to assist with this task.^ The helper application or applications may perform one or more of the following tasks among others: [0234]Open, parse, or interpret a particular digital document format or language.
  • United States Patent Application: 0090070411 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Design of Programming Languages   [ archives ] .

[12]

Silicon labelling and graffiti

.To allow identification during production most silicon chips will have a serial number in one corner.^ The fact that they have both type numbers and serial numbers indicated that they had met production specifications.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ TI number: G00123 Integrated Circuit - These IC's are early production samples of the 'calculator on a chip' circuit announced by TI in September, 1971.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Single-sided boards, the most common style in mass-produced consumer electronic products, have all conductors on one side of the board.
  • Glossary of Key Terminology Used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.goldengategraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

It is also common to add the manufactuers logo. .Ever since ICs were created, some chip designers have used the silicon surface area for surreptitious, non-functional images or words.^ Furthermore, unlike some circuitry, IC designs cannot be simulated by a breadboard mock-up because their design is integrated, rather than discrete in nature.
  • Circuit Design White Papers ( Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Circuit Design, IC Design, Circuit Synthesis, Logic Design, Printed Circuit Design, Semiconductor Design ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

^ Test chips are expected to be fully functional (and actually are more than half of the time), and are typically used to analyze performance and yield before some final circuit tweaking and full production.
  • CmpSci 535 Lecture 1 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.cs.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This speed allows the use of a low-cost UART chip; however, higher non-UART extensions for 1.15 and 4 Mbps have also been defined.
  • Computer, Telephony and Electronics Glossary and Dictionary 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.csgnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are sometimes referred to as Chip Art, Silicon Art, Silicon Graffiti or Silicon Doodling.^ Letters to the Editor are submitted on the condition that Silicon Chip Publications Pty Ltd may edit and has the right to reproduce in electronic form and communicate these letters.
  • Silicon Chip Electronics Magazine for Hobby Electronics, Computing, Kits and Projects. 20 November 2009 22:46 UTC www.siliconchip.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Key industrial and academic data

Notable ICs

Manufacturers

VLSI conferences

VLSI journals

See also

General topics
Related devices and terms
IC device technologies
Other

References

Academic
  • Intel 65-Nanometer Technology
  • Baker, R. J. (2008). .CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation, Revised Second Edition.^ A request for the registration of a layout-design of an integrated circuit shall set out: .
    • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Application for Registration of Layout-Design of Integrated Circuit and Filing Thereof .
    • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The owner of a layout-design of an integrated circuit has exclusive right to the registered layout-design of an integrated circuit.
    • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

    Wiley-IEEE. ISBN 978-0-470-22941-5.
      http://CMOSedu.com/
  • Hodges, D.A., Jackson H.G., and Saleh, R. (2003). .Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits.^ A request for the registration of a layout-design of an integrated circuit shall set out: .
    • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Author of Layout-Design of Integrated Circuit and Owner of Layout-Design of Integrated Circuit .
    • Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection Act (consolidated textApril 2004) 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.legaltext.ee [Source type: Reference]

    ^ As with CMOS digital integrated circuits, the relentless progress of integrated circuit technology has had a profound impact on the performance and functionality of RF devices.
    • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

    McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-228365-3.
  • Rabaey, J.M., Chandrakasan, A., and Nikolic, B. (2003). .Digital Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition. ISBN 0-13-090996-3
  • Mead, C. and Conway, L. (1980).^ As with CMOS digital integrated circuits, the relentless progress of integrated circuit technology has had a profound impact on the performance and functionality of RF devices.
    • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ MOS, devices has improved so much that mainstream silicon digital integrated circuit technology is now able to address the requirements of the wireless transceiver.
    • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Technology for Low-Power Wireless Communications 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CalView EE241 - Advanced Digital Integrated Circuits   [ archives ] .

    Introduction to VLSI Systems. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-04358-0.
Precursors and patents
  1. ^ "The Hapless Tale of Geoffrey Dummer", (n.d.), (HTML), Electronic Product News, accessed July 8, 2008.
  2. ^ a b The Chip that Jack Built, (c. 2008), (HTML), Texas Instruments, accessed May 29, 2008.
  3. ^ http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Robert_Noyce Robert Noyce, (n.d.), (online), IEEE Global History Network, accessed December 15, 2008.
  4. ^ Winston, Brian. Media technology and society: a history: from the telegraph to the Internet, (1998), Routeledge, London, ISBN 041514230X ISBN 978-0415142304, p. 221
  5. ^ Nobel Web AB, (October 10, 2000),(The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000, Retrieved on May 29, 2008
  6. ^ DE patent 833366 W. Jacobi/SIEMENS AG: „Halbleiterverstärker“ priority filing on April 14, 1949, published on May 15, 1952.
  7. ^ George Rostky, (n. d.),"Micromodules: the ultimate package", (HTML), EE Times, accessed July 8, 2008.
  8. ^ Kurt Lehovec's patent on the isolation p-n junction: U.S. Patent 3,029,366 granted on April 10, 1962, filed April 22, 1959. Robert Noyce credits Lehovec in his article – "Microelectronics", Scientific American, September 1977, Volume 23, Number 3, pp. 63–9.
  9. ^ Peter Clarke, EE Times: Intel enters billion-transistor processor era, 14 November 2005
  10. ^ Antone Gonsalves, EE Times, Samsung begins production of 16-Gb flash, 30 April 2007
  11. ^ For example, Intel Fab 28 cost 3.5 billion USD, while its neighboring Fab 18 cost 1.5 billion USD http://www.theinquirer.net/default.aspx?article=29958
  12. ^ Biever, C. "Chip revolution poses problems for programmers", New Scientist (Vol 193, Number 2594)
Dr. Umar Ghaffar Eme College

External links

General
.
  • Krazit, Tom "- AMD's new 65-nanometer chips sip energy but trail Intel," C-net, 2006-12-21. Retrieved on January 8, 2007
  • a large chart listing ICs by generic number and A larger one listing by mfr.^ TI number: G00176 Integrated Circuit - Devices are from the first production run of IC's in the TI San Salvador plant - January, 1974.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ TI number: G00258 Integrated Circuits - This unmounted display contains a standard DIP plastic IC and one encapsulated in clear plastic so that the chip, bonding wires and lead frame structure is seen.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ TI number: G00199 Integrated Circuit, Bipolar - Item is an example of late 1984 new products in the TI bipolar IC line.
    • The Chip Collection - TI Integrated Circuit Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 18 January 2010 12:17 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    number, both including access to most of the datasheets for the parts.
  • Practical MMIC Design published by Artech House ISBN 1-59693-036-5
Author S.P. Marsh
Patents
  • US3,138,743 – Miniaturized electronic circuit – J. S. Kilby
  • US3,138,747 – Integrated semiconductor circuit device – J. S. Kilby
  • US3,261,081 – Method of making miniaturized electronic circuits – J. S. Kilby
  • US3,434,015 – Capacitor for miniaturized electronic circuits or the like – J. S. Kilby
Audio video
Silicon graffiti
Integrated circuit die photographs

Simple English

File:Intel D4040 2293B
Intel D4040, an early microprocessor, the first computer processor in a single integrated circuit
[[File:|right|thumb|200px|Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery]]

Contents

Introduction

An integrated circuit (more often called an IC, microchip, silicon chip, computer chip, or chip) is a piece of specially prepared silicon (or another semiconductor) into which a very complex electronic circuit is etched using photographic technique. Silicon chips can contain computer processors, memory and special devices. The chip is very fragile and so is normally surrounded by a tough plastic package, and electrical contact with the chip are provided through metal legs sticking out of the package. There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the ICs are printed as a complete unit by photolithography and not constructed as one transistor at a time. Performance is higher since the components switch quickly, consuming little power. ICs work as they are designed. Let's suppose that you designed a chip as a calculator, which only works as a calculator.

Invention

An integrated circuit was independently co-invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce around the same time in late 1950's.

Generations

name period numbers of transistors on each chip(approximately)
SSI(Small-Scale Integration) early 1960s one chip contains only a few transistors
MSI(Medium-Scale Integration) late 1960s hundreds of transistors on each chip
LSI(Large-Scale Integration) mid 1970s tens of thousands of transistors per chip
VLSI(Very Large-Scale Integration) early 1980s

~ present(?)

about hundreds of thousands of transistors

~ several billion transistors

ULSI(Ultra-Large Scale Integration) not yet(?) more than 1 million transistors

※The difference between VLSI and ULSI is obscure.

Classification

File:DIP package
Side view of dual in-line package (DIP).
File:PQFP 44L.gif
Picture of Plastic Quad Flat Pack(PQFP).

Integrated circuits can be classified into DIP(Dual in-line package), PLCC(Plastic leaded chip carrier), TSOP(Thin small-outline package), PQFP(Plastic Quad Flat Pack) and etc by chip package type.

Other pages

Microprocessor


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Integrated circuit, which are similar to those in the above article.








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