Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States: Wikis


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National Collegiate Athletic Association
Abbreviation NCAA
Formation February 3, 1906 (Intercollegiate Athletic Association)
1910 (NCAA)
Legal status Association
Headquarters Indianapolis, Indiana
Region served United States of America, Canada[1]
Membership 1,281 (schools, conferences or other associations)
President Jim Isch (interim)
Main organ Executive Committee
Budget $5.64 Billion (2007-08 Budget)[2]
Website (administrative) (sports)

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a semi- voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.[3] Its headquarters are located in Indianapolis, Indiana, and was under the leadership of president Myles Brand until his death on September 16, 2009 from pancreatic cancer.[4]

In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all.[5] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).



The NCAA's predecessor, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS), was established on March 31, 1906, to set rules for amateur sports in the United States. When then-president Theodore Roosevelt's own son, Ted, broke his nose playing football at Harvard, Roosevelt became aware of the growing number of serious injuries and deaths occurring in collegiate football. He brought the presidents of five major institutions, Army (West Point), Navy (Annapolis), Harvard, Princeton, and Yale to several meetings at the White House in October 1905 to discuss steps to make college athletics safer.[6] The IAAUS was created as an outcome of those meetings and became the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910.

Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead an organization named the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. By 1982, however, all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics and most members of the AIAW joined the NCAA.


The current NCAA headquarters office in Indianapolis

The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1952 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri native Walter Byers, moved the organization's headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago (where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairmount Building at 101 West 11th Street in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from direct influence of any individual conference and to keep it centrally located.

The Fairfax was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted Final Four games in 1940, 1941 and 1942.

After Byers moved to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, 1964.

The Fairfax office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers' staff consisted of four people (an assistant, two secretaries and a bookkeeper).[7]

In 1964 it moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre.

In 1973 it moved to 6299 Nall at Shawnee Mission Parkway in suburban Mission, Kansas in a $1.2 million building on 3.4 acres.

In 1989 it moved six miles further south into the suburbs to 6201 College Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres and had 130,000 square feet of space.[8]

The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas suburban location noting that its location on the south edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors' centre.[9]

In 1997 it asked for bids for a new headquarters.

Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis.

Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center complex and would locate the visitors' centre in Union Station (Kansas City). However Kansas City's main sports venue Kemper Arena was nearly 30 years old.[9]

Indianapolis argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.[9]

Further the 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed the 17,000-seat Kemper.

In 1999 the NCAA moved its 300 member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story, 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[10]

Football television controversy

By the 1980s, televised college football was a significant source of income for the NCAA. If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated US$73.6 million for the Association and its members. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan—-protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions and creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment—-combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract.


The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools. These may be broken down further into sub-committees. Legislation is then passed on to the Management Council, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval.

The NCAA staff itself provides support, acting as guides, liaison, research and public and media relations. Former Indiana University president Myles Brand was the most recent head of the NCAA. In the wake of his death, executives with the organization will oversee day-to-day operations until the Executive Committee names Brand's successor.[11]

Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include basketball, baseball (men), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men).

The NCAA is not the only collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such organizations exist, with the largest being the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). The Canadian equivalent to NCAA is the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS).


Presidents of NCAA (called executive director until 1998)


Division history

Years Division
1906-1955 None
1956-1972 NCAA University Division (Major College), NCAA College Division (Small College)
1973-present NCAA Division I, Division II, Division III
1978-2006 NCAA Division I-A, NCAA Division I-AA (football only)
2006-present Football Bowl Subdivision, Football Championship Subdivision (Division I football only)


NCAA National Championship trophies, rings, watches won by UCLA teams

All sports

Championships are awarded in the following NCAA sports:

Presently, UCLA, Stanford and Southern California have the most NCAA championships; UCLA holds the most, winning a combined 104 team championships in men's and women's sports, with Stanford coming in second with 97.[13]

During the 2008-09 school year, the Pac-10 conference captured 11 NCAA titles, outstripping any other conference. It was followed by the ACC and Big Ten with five championships, and by the Big 12 and SEC conferences with four each.[14]

The NCAA currently awards 87 national championships yearly; 44 women's, 40 men's, and three coed championships where men and women compete together (Fencing, Rifle, and Skiing). For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards wooden trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first, second, and third place teams respectively; similar to the Olympics. In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place). Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations. Starting with the 2001 season, and later in 2008, the trophies were given an extensive facelift. Starting in the 2007 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold plated for the winner and silver plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive a very elaborate trophy sponsored by Siemens with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

Football Bowl Subdivision

The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament for Division I FBS football. In the past, the "national championship" went to teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll. Currently, the Bowl Championship Series—an association of the conferences who compete in Division I FBS and four bowl games—has arranged to place the top two teams (based on a formula blending human polls and computer rankings [15]) into a national title game. The winner of the BCS title game must be ranked first in the final Coaches' Poll and receives the AFCA Coaches' Trophy (presently sponsered by Dr. Pepper); since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not say NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do. The AP and other organizations are still free to name as national champions other teams than the one that won the BCS championship, although all conferences (and by extension their teams) are contractually agreed to the BCS formula and champion the USA Today Coaches' poll is required to vote the winner of the “BCS National Championship Game” the #1 team in the nation in the final poll. All conferences have sanctioned this practice and championship (with various changes to the present form seen today) for the several contractual periods since 1998. [16]


Division I conferences

NCAA 2006 championship banners hang inside the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis

Conferences with automatic entry to the Bowl Championship Series are denoted with an asterisk (*). Conferences within the Football Bowl Subdivision but not the BCS are denoted with a pound sign (#).

Division I FCS football-only conferences

Division I hockey-only conferences

Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents


The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards,[17] including:


The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS College Sports Network, ESPN, and ESPN Plus for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[18] ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships and CBS to 67. The following are the most prominent championships and rightsholders:

  • CBS: Men's basketball (NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament and NCAA Men's Division II Basketball Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I)
  • ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (division I for both sexes)

Westwood One has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours to the men's College World Series (baseball). DirecTV has an exclusive package expanding CBS' coverage of the men's basketball tournament.

Video games based on popular NCAA sports such as football and basketball are licensed by Electronic Arts.

Most NCAA events are also available online either through its own site (as in March Madness on Demand) or from

On or about March 1, 2008, the NCAA launched its revamped website with the address, changed from The site offers streamlined navigation and a quick reference to many popular links at the bottom of each page.

On March 16, 2009, the NCAA announced a partnership with Replay Photos and the Associated Press to create the NCAA Photo Store website with the address The site updates photos from NCAA events as they are taken and makes them immediately available for sale. The site offers pictures of all 88 NCAA Championships across all three divisions.[19]


To participate in college athletics in the freshmen year the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) states that students must meet three requirements; graduate from high school, complete the minimum required academic courses, and have qualifying grade-point average (GPA) and SAT or ACT scores (Hishinuma and Fremstad 589-591).

The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math natural or physical science or another academic course such as foreign language (2009-2010 Guide for the College Bound Athletes).

To meet the requirements for grade point average and SAT scores students the lowest possible GPA a student may be eligible with is a 2.000 with an SAT score of 900. The lowest SAT score a student may be eligible with is 700 with a GPA of 2.500(Hishinuma and Fremstad 589-591).

Rules violations

Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership.

Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions.

Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty.

In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it didn't do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered; it has only two winning seasons and one bowl appearance since then. The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005.

Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause order" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[20] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order usually has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order.

Currently, Dave Bliss, former basketball coach at Baylor University, has the longest show cause order. As a result of his involvement in serious rules violations, Bliss is effectively banned from coaching at the major college level until the 2015-16 season.

The NCAA also has the power to declare players ineligible. In extreme cases, a player can be banned from competing for any NCAA member school. The only known instance where this has happened was in 1989, when Kentucky Wildcats basketball player Eric Manuel was banned after the NCAA ruled he had cheated on a college entrance exam.

Division I-A institutions on probation

The following Division I-A institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[21]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Baylor University Football, Men's Basketball 22 June 2010
Brigham Young University Men's Volleyball 10 March 2011
California State University, Fresno (Fresno State) Men's Basketball 25 April 2010
Florida International University Baseball, Football, Men's Basketball, Men's Cross Country, Men's Soccer, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Golf, Women's Soccer, Women's Softball, Women's Swimming, Women's Tennis, Women's Volleyball 5 May 2012
Florida State University Baseball, Men's Basketball, Football, Men's Golf, Men's Swimming, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Basketball, Women's Cross Country, Women's Swimming, Women's Softball 4 March 2013
Indiana University, Bloomington Men's Basketball 24 November 2011
Middle Tennessee State University Women's Volleyball 21 May 2010
University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (under appeal) Football, Softball, Baseball, Women's Gymnastics, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Women's Soccer, Women's Volleyball, Men's Golf, Women's Golf, Men's Swimming, Women's Swimming, Men's Tennis, Women's Tennis, Men's Indoor & Outdoor, Women's Indoor & Outdoor Track 11 June 2012
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track 24 October 2010
University of Central Florida Football 10 February 2012
University of Memphis Men's Basketball, Women's Golf 19 August 2012
University of New Mexico Football 19 August 2011
University of Oklahoma Football 23 May 2010

Division I-AA institutions on probation

The following Division I-AA institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Alabama State University Football 9 December 2011
Coastal Carolina University Women's Golf 16 December 2010
College of the Holy Cross Men's Soccer 15 October 2011
Eastern Washington University Football 10 February 2012
Georgetown University Baseball 1 September 2012
Georgia Southern University Men's Basketball 19 January 2012
Northeastern University Men's Basketball 23 April 2011
Prairie View A&M University Women's Basketball 7 January 2012
Southeast Missouri State University Women's Basketball 17 June 2010
Texas Southern University Women's Softball, Men's Tennis, Women's Tennis 15 July 2012
University at Albany Football 26 January 2011
University of New Hampshire Men's Ice Hockey 23 April 2011
University of Richmond Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Baseball, Football, Women's Golf, Women's Lacrosse, Women's Indoor Track, Mixed Outdoor Track 23 May 2010

Division I-AAA institutions on probation

The following Division I-AAA institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[23]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
California State University, Long Beach (Long Beach State) Men's Basketball 5 March 2011
Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi Men's Tennis, Women's Volleyball 24 March 2013
University of South Alabama Men's Tennis 11 May 2012

Division II institutions on probation

The following Division II institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[24]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Abilene Christian University Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Indoor & Outdoor Track 11 February 2011
Brigham Young University–Hawaii Women's Softball, Women's Basketball, Women's Soccer, Men's Basketball, Men's Soccer, Men's Tennis 25 August 2012
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania Football 27 June 2010
Lane College Football, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball 26 February 2012
Miles College Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Women's Volleyball, Men's Cross Country, Women's Cross Country, Baseball, Football, Women's Softball, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Indoor Track, Mixed Outdoor Track 3 November 2013
Missouri Western State University Women's Basketball 7 July 2011
Saint Leo University Men's Cross Country 18 October 2011
Salem International University Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Baseball, Men's Soccer, Women's Soccer 20 November 2011
St. Augustine's College (Raleigh) Men's Basketball, Football, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Men's Volleyball, Women's Softball, Women's Volleyball, Women's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Men's Tennis 2 October 2011
University of Central Oklahoma Football 19 February 2011
University of West Georgia Men's Golf, Women's Golf, Men's Cross Country, Women's Cross Country, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Football, Women's Volleyball, Baseball, Women's Softball, Women's Soccer 20 January 2014
University of the District of Columbia All Sports 27 October 2013

Division III institutions on probation

The following Division III institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[25]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Buffalo State College Women's Lacrosse, Women's Basketball, Men's Ice Hockey, Women's Ice Hockey 27 January 2012
Southern Vermont College Baseball, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Women's Soccer 22 September 2011
State University of New York at Geneseo Men's Ice Hockey 27 January 2012
Wesley College (Delaware) Football 9 September 2011


The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA has said their objective is for the venture to help improve the fairness, quality and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[26][27]


Company Category Since
AT&T Wireless services '01
Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages '02
GM (Pontiac) Car & parts '98
Enterprise Rent-A-Car Car rental '05
The Hartford Mutual funds and related financial services '04
Hershey's Candy '09
LG Electronics '09
Lowe's Home improvement '05
Sheraton Hotels & resorts '08
State Farm Insurance Auto & home insurance '05
  • AT&T, Coca-Cola and GM are NCAA Corporate Champions. Other sponsors are NCAA Corporate Partners.[28]


Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include:

  • Former NCAA President Walter Byers in his book "Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting the Student-Athlete" refers to the NCAA's operation by stating that "Today the NCAA Presidents Commission is preoccupied with tightenning a few loose bolts in a worn machine, firmly committed to the neo-plantation belief that the enormous proceeds from college games belong to the overseers (administrators) and supervisors (coaches). The plantation workers performing in the arena may only receive those benefits authorized by the overseers."
  • Following losing the 1953 case The University of Denver v Nemeth, where it was found that a student and athlete was owed workers compensation, it has been argued that the NCAA created the term "Student-Athlete". This was done according to Andrew Zimbalist in his book Unpaid Professionals (1999) to prevent similar future litigation loses.
  • In 2007 the case of White et. al. v NCAA was brought by former NCAA student-athletes: Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris and Chris Craig, as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or Grant in Aid, was a violatation of Federal Anti-trust Agreements. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA Member schools would be free to offer any financial aide packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set-up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for reciept of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit." More information about this settlement is available at
  • The National Collegiate Players Association (NCPA) is a group started by former UCLA football players with the purpose of organizing student-athletes. Their goal is to change NCAA rules they view as unjust. Today this continues by: 1. Raising the scholarship amount 2. Holding schools responsible for their players' sports- related medical injuries 3. Increasing graduation rates. The NCPA's website can be found at

See also


  1. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Canadian college granted entrance into NCAA DII
  4. ^ NCAA's Myles Brand dies of cancer
  5. ^ "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. 
  6. ^ The NCAA's First Century In The Arena
  7. ^ " Growth of NCAA Apparent; But Optimism Stll Abounds - NCAA News - June 15, 1973" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  8. ^ NCAA will move in 1989 to Overland Park, Kansas - NCAA News - May 4, 1988<
  9. ^ a b c "Final Four: Indianapolis competes with Dallas, Denver and Kansas City for the NCAA's new headquarters - Indiana Business Magazine - March 1, 1997". Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  11. ^ Wieberg, Steve (2009-09-16). "NCAA President Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer." USA Today. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
  12. ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand’s focus, NCAA News, September 22, 2009
  13. ^ "Ucla Official Athletic Site - Athletics News". Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  14. ^ "PAC-10 News: PAC-10 Leads the Way with 11 NCAA Team Championships" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ NCAA Awards Webpage . Retrieved 2006-11-07.
  18. ^ NCAA Broadcast Information -
  19. ^ "NCAA Photo Store News Release". Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  20. ^ NCAA News Release; Baylor University, Former Basketball Coaches Penalized for Multiple Violations of NCAA Rules [2]
  21. ^ NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  22. ^ NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  23. ^ NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  24. ^ NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  25. ^ NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  26. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  27. ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies
  28. ^ "NCAA Corporate Champions and Corporate Partners". 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  29. ^ " - SI Writers - Rick Reilly - SI's Rick Reilly: Corrupting Our Utes - Wednesday August 06, 2003 09:53 AM". Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  30. ^ a b The Best Female and Best Male College Basketball and Best College Football Player ESPY Awards — awarded from 1993 to 2001 — were absorbed in 2002 by the Best Female and Best Male College Athlete ESPY Awards.

External links


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