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Interleukin 3: Wikis


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Interleukin 3 (colony-stimulating factor, multiple)
Symbols IL3; IL-3; MCGF; MGC79398; MGC79399; MULTI-CSF
External IDs OMIM147740 HomoloGene47938 GeneCards: IL3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IL3 207906 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3562 16187
Ensembl ENSG00000164399 ENSMUSG00000018914
UniProt P08700 P01586
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000588 NM_010556
RefSeq (protein) NP_000579 NP_034686
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
131.42 - 131.43 Mb
Chr 11:
54.08 - 54.08 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Interleukin 3 (colony-stimulating factor, multiple), also known as IL3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.[1][2]



Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. It acts by binding to the Interleukin-3 receptor.

IL-3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells (as opposed to lymphoid progenitor cells where differentiation is stimulated by IL-7) as well as stimulates proliferation of all cells in the myeloid lineage (erythrocytes, thrombocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells). It is secreted by activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 amino acids long, and the naturally occurring IL-3 is glycosylated. The human IL-3 gene is located on chromosome 5, only 9 kilobases from the GM-CSF gene, and its function is quite similar to GM-CSF.


Interleukin-3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. He found a T cell derived factor that induced the synthesis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hematopoietic cells and termed it interleukin-3.[3][4]


Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA.[5][6]


  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: IL3 interleukin 3 (colony-stimulating factor, multiple)".  
  2. ^ Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, Chung MP, Kovacic S, Witek-Giannotti JS, Leary AC, Kriz R, Donahue RE, Wong GG (October 1986). "Human IL-3 (multi-CSF): identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3". Cell 47 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90360-0. PMID 3489530.  
  3. ^ Ihle JN, Pepersack L, Rebar L (June 1981). "Regulation of T cell differentiation: in vitro induction of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice by a unique lymphokine". J. Immunol. 126 (6): 2184–9. PMID 6971890.  
  4. ^ Ihle JN, Weinstein Y, Keller J, Henderson L, Palaszynski E (1985). "Interleukin 3". Meth. Enzymol. 116: 540–52. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(85)16042-8. PMID 3003517.  
  5. ^ Stomski, F C; Sun Q, Bagley C J, Woodcock J, Goodall G, Andrews R K, Berndt M C, Lopez A F (Jun. 1996). "Human interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces disulfide-linked IL-3 receptor alpha- and beta-chain heterodimerization, which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 16 (6): 3035–46. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 8649415.  
  6. ^ Woodcock, J M; Zacharakis B, Plaetinck G, Bagley C J, Qiyu S, Hercus T R, Tavernier J, Lopez A F (Nov. 1994). "Three residues in the common beta chain of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors are essential for GM-CSF and IL-5 but not IL-3 high affinity binding and interact with Glu21 of GM-CSF". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 13 (21): 5176–85. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 7957082.  

Further reading

  • Wagemaker G, Burger H, van Gils FC, et al. (1991). "Interleukin-3.". Biotherapy (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2 (4): 337–45. PMID 2268499.  
  • Martinez-Moczygemba M, Huston DP (2003). "Biology of common beta receptor-signaling cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF.". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112 (4): 653–65; quiz 666. doi:10.1016/S0091 (inactive 2008-06-23). PMID 14564341.  
  • Mroczko B, Szmitkowski M (2005). "Hematopoietic cytokines as tumor markers.". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 42 (12): 1347–54. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2004.253. PMID 15576295.  
  • Kitamura T, Sato N, Arai K, Miyajima A (1991). "Expression cloning of the human IL-3 receptor cDNA reveals a shared beta subunit for the human IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors.". Cell 66 (6): 1165–74. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90039-2. PMID 1833064.  
  • Urdal DL, Price V, Sassenfeld HM, et al. (1989). "Molecular characterization of colony-stimulating factors and their receptors: human interleukin-3.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 554: 167–76. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb22418.x. PMID 2544122.  
  • Otsuka T, Miyajima A, Brown N, et al. (1988). "Isolation and characterization of an expressible cDNA encoding human IL-3. Induction of IL-3 mRNA in human T cell clones.". J. Immunol. 140 (7): 2288–95. PMID 3127463.  
  • Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, et al. (1986). "Human IL-3 (multi-CSF): identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3.". Cell 47 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90360-0. PMID 3489530.  
  • Le Beau MM, Epstein ND, O'Brien SJ, et al. (1987). "The interleukin 3 gene is located on human chromosome 5 and is deleted in myeloid leukemias with a deletion of 5q.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (16): 5913–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.16.5913. PMID 3497400.  
  • Dorssers L, Burger H, Bot F, et al. (1987). "Characterization of a human multilineage-colony-stimulating factor cDNA clone identified by a conserved noncoding sequence in mouse interleukin-3.". Gene 55 (1): 115–24. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(87)90254-X. PMID 3497843.  
  • Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pahwa S, et al. (1995). "HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (33): 19364–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.33.19364. PMID 7642615.  
  • Than S, Oyaizu N, Pahwa RN, et al. (1994). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 on cytokine production from cord-blood T cells.". Blood 84 (1): 184–8. PMID 8018916.  
  • Le Beau MM, Espinosa R, Neuman WL, et al. (1993). "Cytogenetic and molecular delineation of the smallest commonly deleted region of chromosome 5 in malignant myeloid diseases.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (12): 5484–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5484. PMID 8516290.  
  • Stomski FC, Sun Q, Bagley CJ, et al. (1996). "Human interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces disulfide-linked IL-3 receptor alpha- and beta-chain heterodimerization, which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (6): 3035–46. PMID 8649415.  
  • Feng Y, Klein BK, McWherter CA (1996). "Three-dimensional solution structure and backbone dynamics of a variant of human interleukin-3.". J. Mol. Biol. 259 (3): 524–41. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1996.0337. PMID 8676386.  
  • Vanhaesebroeck B, Welham MJ, Kotani K, et al. (1997). "P110delta, a novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase in leukocytes.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): 4330–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.9.4330. PMID 9113989.  
  • Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, et al. (1997). "The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined by mutagenesis and molecular modeling.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (36): 22630–41. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.36.22630. PMID 9278420.  
  • Sanchez X, Suetomi K, Cousins-Hodges B, et al. (1998). "CXC chemokines suppress proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells by activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 2.". J. Immunol. 160 (2): 906–10. PMID 9551928.  
  • Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, et al. (1998). "Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 840: 107–16. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09554.x. PMID 9629242.  
  • Nilsen EM, Johansen FE, Jahnsen FL, et al. (1998). "Cytokine profiles of cultured microvascular endothelial cells from the human intestine.". Gut 42 (5): 635–42. PMID 9659156.  


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