The Full Wiki

Interleukin 8: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

edit
Interleukin 8

PDB rendering based on 1IL8.
Available structures
1icw, 1ikl, 1ikm, 1il8, 1ilp, 1ilq, 1qe6, 2il8, 3il8
Identifiers
Symbols IL8; 3-10C; AMCF-I; CXCL8; GCP-1; GCP1; K60; LECT; LUCT; LYNAP; MDNCF; MONAP; NAF; NAP-1; NAP1; SCYB8; TSG-1; b-ENAP
External IDs OMIM146930 HomoloGene47937 GeneCards: IL8 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IL8 211506 s at.png
PBB GE IL8 202859 x at.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3576 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000169429 n/a
UniProt P10145 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000584 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_000575 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
74.83 - 74.83 Mb
n/a
PubMed search [1] n/a

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. It is also synthesized by endothelial cells, which store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies.[1][2] In humans, the interleukin-8 protein is encoded by the IL8 gene.[3]

There are more receptors of the surface membrane capable to bind IL-8. The most frequently studied types are the G protein coupled serpentine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Expression and affinity to IL-8 is different in the two receptors (CXCR1 > CXCR2). Toll-like receptors are the receptors of the innate immune system. These receptors recognize antigen patterns (like LPS in gram negative bacteria). Through a chain of biochemical reactions IL-8 is secreted and is an important mediator of the immune reaction in the innate immune system response.

Contents

Function

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. This chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemoattractant, and is also a potent angiogenic factor. Both monomer and homodimer forms of IL-8 were reported as potent inducers of CXCR1 and CXCR2, the homodimer proved to be more potent, however, methylation of Leu25 can block activity of the dimers. IL-8 is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, a common respiratory tract disease caused by viral infection. This gene and other ten members of the CXC chemokine gene family form a chemokine gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 4q.[3][4]

Primary function of IL-8 is the induction of chemotaxis in its target cells (e.g. neutrophil granulocytes). In neutrophils series of cell-physiological responses required for migration and its target function phagocytosis are also induced like increase of intracellular Ca2+, exocytosis (e.g. histamine release), respiratory burst. IL-8 can be secreted by any cells with toll-like receptors which are involved in the innate immune response. IL-8's primary function is to recruit neutrophils to phagocytose the antigen which trigger the antigen pattern toll-like receptors.

When first encountering an antigen, the primary cells to encounter it are the macrophages who phagocytose the particle. Upon processing, they release chemokines to signal other immune cells to come in to the site of inflammation. IL-8 is one such chemokine. It serves as a chemical signal that attracts neutrophils at the site of inflammation, and therefore is also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor.

Target cells

While neutrophil granulocytes are the primary target cells of IL-8 there is a relative wide range of cells (endothelial cells, macrophages, mast cells, keratinocytes) responding to this chemokine, too. The chemoattractant activity of IL-8 in similar concentrations to vertebrates was proved in Tetrahymena pyriformis, which refers to a phylogenetically well conserved structure and function in the case of this chemokine.[5]

Clinical significance

Interleukin-8 is often associated with inflammation. As an example, it has been cited as a proinflammatory mediator in gingivitis[6] and psoriasis.[2]. The fact that Interleukin-8 secretion is increased by oxidant stress and conversely, Interleukin-8, by causing recruitment of inflammatory cells induces a further increase in oxidant stress mediators, makes it a key parameter in localized inflammation.[7]

If a pregnant mother has high levels of interleukin-8, she has a higher risk of inducing schizophrenia in her offspring.[8] High levels of Interleukin 8 have been shown to reduce the chance of good treatment responses to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.[9]

Nomenclature

IL-8 was renamed CXCL8 by the Chemokine Nomenclature Subcommittee of the International Union of Immunological Societies,[10] although its approved HUGO gene symbol remains IL8.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998). "Endothelial cell "memory" of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade bodies". J. Exp. Med. 188 (9): 1757–62. doi:10.1084/jem.188.9.1757. PMID 9802987.  
  2. ^ Utgaard JO, Jahnsen FL, Bakka A, Brandtzaeg P, Haraldsen G (November 1998). "Rapid secretion of prestored interleukin 8 from Weibel-Palade bodies of microvascular endothelial cells". J. Exp. Med. 188 (9): 1751–6. doi:10.1084/jem.188.9.1751. PMID 9802986.  
  3. ^ a b Modi WS, Dean M, Seuanez HN, Mukaida N, Matsushima K, O'Brien SJ (January 1990). "Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF/IL-8) resides in a gene cluster along with several other members of the platelet factor 4 gene superfamily". Hum. Genet. 84 (2): 185–7. doi:10.1007/BF00208938. PMID 1967588.  
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: IL8 interleukin 8". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3576.  
  5. ^ Köhidai L, Csaba G (July 1998). "Chemotaxis and chemotactic selection induced with cytokines (IL-8, RANTES and TNF-alpha) in the unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis". Cytokine 10 (7): 481–6. doi:10.1006/cyto.1997.0328. PMID 9702410.  
  6. ^ Haake, SK, Huang, GTJ: Molecular Biology of the host-Microbe Interaction in Periodontal Diseases (Selected Topics). In Newman, Takei, Carranza, editors: Clinical Periodontology, 9th Edition. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders Co. 2002. page 162.
  7. ^ Vlahopoulos S, Boldogh I, Casola A, Brasier AR (September 1999). "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: evidence for an antioxidant sensitive activating pathway distinct from nuclear translocation". Blood 94 (6): 1878–89. PMID 10477716.  
  8. ^ Brown AS, Hooton J, Schaefer CA, Zhang H, Petkova E, Babulas V, Perrin M, Gorman JM, Susser ES (May 2004). "Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring". Am J Psychiatry 161 (5): 889–95. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.5.889. PMID 15121655.  
  9. ^ Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Zhang PY, Wu GY, Shen YC (July 2004). "Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and during treatment with risperidone and haloperidol: relationship to outcome in schizophrenia". J Clin Psychiatry 65 (7): 940–7. PMID 15291683. http://www.jclinpsychiatry.com/abstracts/abstracts.asp?abstract=200407/070407.htm.  
  10. ^ Bacon K, Baggiolini M, Broxmeyer H, Horuk R, Lindley I, Mantovani A, Maysushima K, Murphy P, Nomiyama H, Oppenheim J, Rot A, Schall T, Tsang M, Thorpe R, Van Damme J, Wadhwa M, Yoshie O, Zlotnik A, Zoon K (October 2002). "Chemokine/chemokine receptor nomenclature". J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 22 (10): 1067–8. doi:10.1089/107999002760624305. PMID 12433287.  

Further reading

  • Baggiolini M, Clark-Lewis I (1992). "Interleukin-8, a chemotactic and inflammatory cytokine". FEBS Lett. 307 (1): 97–101. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80909-Z. PMID 1639201.  
  • Wahl SM, Greenwell-Wild T, Hale-Donze H, et al. (2000). "Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (3): 303–10. PMID 10985244.  
  • Starckx S, Van den Steen PE, Wuyts A, et al. (2003). "Neutrophil gelatinase B and chemokines in leukocytosis and stem cell mobilization". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (2): 233–41. doi:10.1080/10428190290005982. PMID 11999552.  
  • Smirnova MG, Kiselev SL, Gnuchev NV, et al. (2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of the otitis media with effusion". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 13 (2): 161–72. PMID 12101072.  
  • Struyf S, Proost P, Van Damme J (2004). "Regulation of the immune response by the interaction of chemokines and proteases". Adv. Immunol. 81: 1–44. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(03)81001-5. PMID 14711052.  
  • Chakravorty M, Ghosh A, Choudhury A, et al. (2004). "Ethnic differences in allele distribution for the IL8 and IL1B genes in populations from eastern India". Hum. Biol. 76 (1): 153–9. doi:10.1353/hub.2004.0016. PMID 15222686.  
  • Yuan A, Chen JJ, Yao PL, Yang PC (2006). "The role of interleukin-8 in cancer cells and microenvironment interaction". Front. Biosci. 10: 853–65. doi:10.2741/1579. PMID 15569594.  
  • Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): 1093–101. doi:10.2174/138955705774933383. PMID 16375755.  

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message