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Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet
.The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide.^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Also known as the Internet protocol suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Also known as an Internet Protocol (IP) address.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General term used to describe the industry composed of products and technologies used to link networks together.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Relatively few IPv6-capable applications understand address scope syntax at the user level, thus rendering link-local addressing inappropriate for many user applications.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet and other TCP/IP networks are providing today support for most distributed applications, such as file transfer, electronic mail, remote access using TELNET, and the constantly growing World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most traditional communications media, such as telephone and television services, are reshaped or redefined using the technologies of the Internet, giving rise to services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Web sites, blogging, and web feeds. .The Internet has enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking sites.^ A pedestrian definition of VPN will be connecting two private networks through the public or shared network that is the Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maybe I just like the idea of a news source that has no human interaction, at least on it's final level.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ If an organization could not have enough IP addresses, then it could share them or create them over the local network through the use of a Proxy server and then map the internal IP addresses to the real IP addresses over the Internet thereby making the online communication process streamlined.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s when the United States funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault-tolerant and distributed computer networks.^ Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (beginning of the internet) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (started internet) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The TCP/IP protocols were initially developed as part of the research network developed by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA or ARPA ).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This research and a period of civilian funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation spawned worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and led to the commercialization of an international network in the mid 1990s, and resulted in the following popularization of countless applications in virtually every aspect of modern human life.^ SIP facilitates application development, and minimal call state duration is maintained in the network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This feature is particularly crucial with applications that are sensitive to high levels of delay resulting from network congestion.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every TCP/IP protocol is charged with performing a certain subset of the total functionality required to implement a TCP/IP network or application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet.^ Integrated Services Digital Network (Internet connection terminology - faster than using a modem, slower than T-1 connection.
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (CIRD is an internetworking routing protocol; it is a way of using the existing 32-bit Internet address space more efficiently commonly used by Internet Service Providers.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPSec generally, and IPv6 I nternet Protocol security (IPsec) is a framework of open standards for protecting communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks using cryptographic security services.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards.^ IEEE 802.11 is a standard protocol for port-based Network Access Control and it provides authentication to devices attached to a LAN port.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. body and standards-setting organization, not arm of the government.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This scheme imparts a logical symmetry to the process of external network access by the resources connected to the LAN. In actual practice a pure NAT implementation is rarely used.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).^ The IPv4 address space is limited and there is general consensus that the IPv4 address space, managed by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the Regional Internet Registries (RIR)s, is headed towards exhaustion.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tech note : Provider Independent Address Space (PI-addresses) are Internet Protocol addresses assigned by Regional Internet Registries directly to an end-user organization, without going through an Internet Service Provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely-affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-forces-protocol-22 Expert Review .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Documents written by the research and development community to describe Internet protocols and standards submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for review.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Terminology

.The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, IP handles complex networks the same way it handles small networks: one hop at a time.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet is a global data communications system.^ Protocol On the Internet "protocol" usually refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Internet certainly provides such a national and global infrastructure and, in fact, interplanetary Internet communication has already been seriously discussed.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

.It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers.^ They are typically responsible for allowing connections to be established and maintained between software services on possibly distant machines.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) is the primary transport layer (layer four) protocol, and is responsible for connection establishment and management and reliable data transport between software processes on devices.
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^ Multihoming also can describe connectivity between Internet Service Providers and "upstream" Network Service Providers (ISP’s).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP provides a one-to-one, connection-oriented, reliable communications service.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example the HTTP protocol defines the format for communication between web browsers and web servers, the IMAP protocol defines the format for communication between IMAP email servers and clients, and the SSL protocol defines a format for encrypted communications over the Internet.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.^ Interconnected system of computers that can communicate with each other and share files, data, and resources.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

[1] The term the Internet, when referring to the Internet, has traditionally been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. .There is a trend to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without the capital.^ There are several key issues that should be considered when reviewing the design of the next generation internet protocol.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA or DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.^ Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (beginning of the internet) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The TCP/IP protocols were initially developed as part of the research network developed by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA or ARPA ).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (started internet) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

[2][3] .ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IPv6 layer creates IPv6 packets with source and destination address information that is used to route the data through the network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The IPTO's purpose was to find ways to address the US Military's concern about survivability of their communications networks, and as a first step interconnect their computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and SAC HQ. J. C. R. Licklider, a promoter of universal networking, was selected to head the IPTO. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology.^ However, such a routing table would not provide any information about any remote networks or devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twin reasons for the widespread popularity and subsequent adoption of the network address translation process were a shortage of IPv4 address space and the security concerns.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TIP: In reality, just about every IP device also has a "loopback" network, used for testing and debugging purposes.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. .In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.^ Each user then math- ematically combines the other's public information along with their own secret information to compute a shared secret value.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Each user then mathematically combines the other's public information along with their own secret information to compute a shared secret value.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

Professor Leonard Kleinrock with one of the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA
.At the IPTO, Licklider's successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran,[4] who had written an exhaustive study for the United States Air Force that recommended packet switching (opposed to circuit switching) to achieve better network robustness and disaster survivability.^ VoIP (read : packet-switched technology) is generally better at carrying more traffic than circuit-switched networks, thanks to statistical multiplexing’s inherently better use of available bandwidth.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The voice data flows over a general-purpose packet-switched network, instead of traditional dedicated, circuit-switched voice transmission lines.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, the Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) connection is established via signaling.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

Roberts had worked at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory originally established to work on the design of the SAGE system. .UCLA professor Leonard Kleinrock had provided the theoretical foundations for packet networks in 1962, and later, in the 1970s, for hierarchical routing, concepts which have been the underpinning of the development towards today's Internet.^ The reality today, however, is an Internet that does not differentiate between real-time (RT) and non-real time (NRT) packets.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were developed together, with TCP/IP providing the mechanism for implementing the Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Reliability flag is used to request that IP route this packet over a network that provides the most reliable service (perhaps as indicated by overall up-time, or by the number of secondary routes).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sutherland's successor Robert Taylor convinced Roberts to build on his early packet switching successes and come and be the IPTO Chief Scientist. .Once there, Roberts prepared a report called Resource Sharing Computer Networks which was approved by Taylor in June 1968 and laid the foundation for the launch of the working ARPANET the following year.^ Provides file and printer sharing among networks of Personal Computers (PCs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer that provides resources to be shared on network, such as files (file server) or terminals (terminal server).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An example of this is VoIP: a VoIP application on a computer (a "softphone") or VoIP phone registers with a SIP server, and then the SIP server tells the application or phone when there's an incoming call.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on October 29, 1969. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics centre at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department.^ Numerical measurement of throughput of system or network.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Data path between two nodes.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Class C networks Class C addresses have their first two bits set to "1" and their third bit set to "0".
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971.
.The ARPANET was one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet.^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP Addressing At this point one should realize that IP, the Internet Protocol, is a network layer (OSI layer 3) protocol, used to route packets between hosts on different networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only is TCP/IP the underlying language of the Internet, it is also used in most private networks today.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In an independent development, Donald Davies at the UK National Physical Laboratory also discovered the concept of packet switching in the early 1960s, first giving a talk on the subject in 1965, after which the teams in the new field from two sides of the Atlantic ocean first became acquainted.^ There are really two concepts at work here: the size of the original IP datagram and the size of the packets that are used to relay the datagram from the source to the destination.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first decade of operation of the TCP/IP-based Internet, by the late 1980s, it became apparent that methods had to be developed to conserve address space.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technique for examining incoming packets where Ethernet switch looks only at first few bytes of packet before forwarding or filtering it.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.It was actually Davies' coinage of the wording "packet" and "packet switching" that was adopted as the standard terminology.^ A standard implementation of cell relay, a packet switching technique using packets of a fixed length, called cells.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Protocol standard governing packet-switched networks.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

Davies also built a packet switched network in the UK called the Mark I in 1970. [5]
.Following the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service.^ The voice data flows over a general-purpose packet-switched network, instead of traditional dedicated, circuit-switched voice transmission lines.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Reliability flag is used to request that IP route this packet over a network that provides the most reliable service (perhaps as indicated by overall up-time, or by the number of secondary routes).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A set of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards that define a framework for the transmission of real-time voice communications through Internet protocol (IP)-based packet-switched networks.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978.^ Public, wide-area packet-switched data service developed by Bellcore that provides DS-1 to DS-3 switched access.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

The collection of X.25-based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981. The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around 1976.
A plaque commemorating the birth of the Internet at Stanford University
.X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period.^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
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^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
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^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early ARPANET ran on the Network Control Program (NCP), a standard designed and first implemented in December 1970 by a team called the Network Working Group (NWG) led by Steve Crocker.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IEEE 802.11 is a standard protocol for port-based Network Access Control and it provides authentication to devices attached to a LAN port.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, this fledgling network, called the ARPAnet , was designed to use a number of protocols that had been adapted from existing technologies.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To respond to the network's rapid growth as more and more locations connected, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the now widely used TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University.^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Association may have zero or more connections.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems.^ A (security protocol, SPI) pair may uniquely identify an SA. The uniqueness of the SPI is implementation dependent, but could be based per system, per protocol, or other options.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ ISAKMP provides a common security association and key establishment protocol for this wide range of security protocols, applications, security requirements, and network environments.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It does not matter how good a new protocol is if there is no practical way to transition the current operational systems running IPv4 to the new protocol.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was operational by January 1, 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols.^ The SIP protocol is a TCP/IP-based Application Layer protocol.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP/IP includes a large set of protocols that operate at the network layer and above.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, one might expect that the TCP/IP suite would have a single main transport protocol to perform those functions, just as it has IP as its core protocol at the network layer.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1985, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of the NSFNET, a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called "fuzzballs" by their inventor, David L. Mills.^ Computer + Science NETwork (academic network) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, this fledgling network, called the ARPAnet , was designed to use a number of protocols that had been adapted from existing technologies.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following year, NSF sponsored the conversion to a higher-speed 1.5 megabit/second network. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made by Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF.
.The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988. The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve.^ Open System Interconnections (Topology standards for networking) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Layer 3 of the Open Systems Interconnection 7-layer networking model).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The importance of IPSec in IPv6 has grown in recent years as U.S. Department of Defense and federal government have mandates to buy IPv6-capable systems and to transition to IPv6-capable networks within a few years, .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In that same year, three commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) were created: UUNET, PSINet and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET.^ Multihoming also can describe connectivity between Internet Service Providers and "upstream" Network Service Providers (ISP’s).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would not only provide your Notes users with preferential service over less-critical traffic, but it would also cause that traffic to be routed over faster network segments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet.^ Such network may be the Internet or a corporate network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s.^ Computer that stores data for network users and provides network access to that data.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remote router then has to forward the data to yet another router across the carrier network, which has to send the data to its dial-up peer, which will finally deliver the datagram to the destination system.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular.^ For this reason, one might expect that the TCP/IP suite would have a single main transport protocol to perform those functions, just as it has IP as its core protocol at the network layer.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of an array of standardized commercial routers from many companies, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local-area networking, and the widespread implementation and rigorous standardization of TCP/IP on UNIX and virtually every other common operating system.^ Allows files to be shared seamlessly across TCP/IP networks .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They work together to allow TCP/IP as a whole to operate.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official name of TCP/IP, as used in Internet standards documents.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
.Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s.^ More precisely, Mobile IP is a standard protocol that builds on the Internet Protocol by making mobility transparent to applications and higher level protocols like TCP. Mobile IP is thus the underlying technology for support of various mobile data and wireless networking applications.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pedestrian definition of VPN will be connecting two private networks through the public or shared network that is the Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 6 August 1991, CERN, a pan European organization for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project.^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Web was invented by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System.^ Default routes can be built manually (using the tools provided with the IP software in use on the local system), or can be assigned during system boot (using a protocol such as BOOTP or DHCP).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmissions are managed using a special sliding window system, with unacknowledged transmissions detected and automatically retransmitted.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As was discussed in "Local Versus Remote Delivery " earlier in this chapter, the routing table on a system can be built using several different tools.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. .In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet.^ Implementations based on previous versions of ISAKMP Internet- Drafts MUST set the Minor Version to 1.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The previous version of the Internet Protocol is version 4 (referred to as IPv4).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a growing interest in IPv6, and the migration from IPv4 may be the most topical issue in the IP community in the coming months and years.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAC is most widely used in reference to Local Area Networks (LANs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate).^ Such network may be the Internet or a corporate network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IANA will not normally assign a DOI value without referencing some public specification, such as Maughan, et.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100 percent per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997.[6] This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

[7] The estimated population of Internet users is 1.67 billion as of June 30, 2009.[8]

Technology

Protocols

.The complex communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture.^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Included here are the all-important Internet Protocol (IP) at layer 3 and Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) at layer 4, which combine to give TCP/IP its name.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) is the primary transport layer (layer four) protocol, and is responsible for connection establishment and management and reliable data transport between software processes on devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success.^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP uses an anarchic and highly-distributed model, with every device an equal peer to every other device on the global Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Body of software in switching system that executes PNNI protocol and provides routing service.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).^ We provide this service in coordination with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas, and its Working Groups.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-forces-protocol-22 Expert Review .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

[9] .The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture.^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-20 0-1023: Standards Action.
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-behave-turn-16 Standards Action .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Documents written by the research and development community to describe Internet protocols and standards submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for review.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications, each called a Request for Comments (RFC), freely available on the IETF web site.^ RFC 4783 IETF Standards Action RFC .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Defined in Request for Comments (RFC) 1094.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ RFC 4861 IETF RFC Publication .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

.The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards.^ All Internet standards are written as RFCs.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SIP is designed in conformity with the Internet model, and its end-to-end signalling method means that all the logic is stored in end devises, except the routing of SIP messages.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies.^ Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet Drafts.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The Internet Standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite.^ Also known as the Internet protocol suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Also known as an Internet Protocol (IP) address.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The virtual terminal protocol in the Internet suite of protocols.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122, RFC 1123).^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP/IP Architecture and the TCP/IP Model (Page 1 of 3) The OSI reference model consists of seven layers that represent a functional division of the tasks required to implement a network .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate.^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information exchanged between corresponding entities, using lower layer connection, to coordinate their joint operation.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP Services In the section describing the OSI Reference Model I mentioned that the theoretical operation of the model is based on the concept of one layer providing services to the layers above it .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the top is the Application Layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications, e.g., a web browser program.^ These IP packets are sent using the framing mechanisms defined for the specific network medium in use on the local network, and are subject to network events such as fragmentation or loss.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPv6 uses the same types of routing protocols used in IPv4 networks, but with a few modifications to account for specific IPv6 requirements.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a subnet mask shows that 8 bits are used for the host portion of the address block, a maximum of 256 possible host addresses are available for that specific network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Below this top layer, the Transport Layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., client-server model) with appropriate data exchange methods.^ The top layer of the network protocol stack.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Netware network layer (Layer 3) protocol for transferring data from servers to workstations.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ SIP follows the client/server model.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Underlying these layers are the core networking technologies, consisting of two layers.^ An IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node, or host.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome to networking layer limbo, also known as OSI layer two-and-a-half.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP/IP Architecture and the TCP/IP Model (Page 1 of 3) The OSI reference model consists of seven layers that represent a functional division of the tasks required to implement a network .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and allows them to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks.^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node, or host.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate benefit of NAT is that it allows a single internet connection with a single IP address to be shared.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lastly, at the bottom of the architecture, is a software layer, the Link Layer, that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link, such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection.^ A network that provides regional connectivity within a metropolitan area (such as city).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An interconnection device that connects individual Local Area Networks (LANs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An Internet protocol for host dial-up connection.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The model, also known as TCP/IP, is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail.^ Technically-speaking, the current IPv4-based IP network does not have built-in Quality of service (QoS) and, therefore, several quality (latency, jitter, echo, etc.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, IP, with a connectionless, best-effort delivery model, does not guarantee delivery of packets, in a timely fashion, or at all!
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer; it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, but they are not compatible in the details of description, nor implementation, but many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking.^ Layer 2 of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Layer 3 of the Open Systems Interconnection 7-layer networking model).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A layer in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet.^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IP enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself.^ Just as IP has provided the common networking layer for the Internet, a common security establishment protocol is needed if security is to become a reality on the Internet.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All of these are necessary to establish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Service or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary OSI network layer (layer three) protocol that provides addressing, datagram routing and other functions in an internetwork.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use.^ This is why the first real version of IP is version 4 and not version 1.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPv4 is currently the dominant Internet Protocol version, and was the first to receive widespread use.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notes Although the Type-of-Service flags have been available since IP v4 was first published, there are only a handful of applications that actually use them today.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet hosts.^ Internet addresses are needed not only for unique enumeration of hosted interfaces, but also for routing purposes, therefore a high fraction of them are always unused or reserved.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet Protocol (IP) knows each logical host interface by a number, the IP address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP Addressing At this point one should realize that IP, the Internet Protocol, is a network layer (OSI layer 3) protocol, used to route packets between hosts on different networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion which is estimated to enter its final stage in approximately 2011.[10] A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mid 1990s which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic.^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Address Space .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Address Space .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

.IPv6 is currently in commercial deployment phase around the world and Internet address registries (RIRs) have begun to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.^ Host Mobility (route to current location) • Auto-Readdressing (route to new address) The new routing functionality is obtained by creating sequences of IPv6 addresses using the IPv6 Routing option.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signalling Layer – Signal processing, signal conversion, resource management, and bearer control occur at this layer, which is the signalling platform .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is basically the IP address of the mobile node current point of attachment to the Internet) .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. It essentially establishes a "parallel" version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software.^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPv6 connectivity between IPv6 sites and hosts across the IPv4 Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for every networking device that needs to communicate on the IPv6 Internet.^ The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has traditionally been highly critical of NAT, but despite that, it developed a technique called Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT, RFC 2766) as a means for hosts that run IPv6 to communicate with hosts that run IPv4.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ RFC 3056 details this IPv6 transition technology, which allows IPv6 sites to communicate with each other over IPv4 networks without explicit tunnel setup.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most modern computer operating systems are already converted to operate with both versions of the Internet Protocol.^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Network infrastructures, however, are still lagging in this development.^ Most environments, however, do not currently have their network infrastructures configured to route multicast packets; multicasting on single subnet will work, but global multicasting might not.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network.^ The data to sign is exchange-specific.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ IPsec utilizes a number of protocols to perform various functions, specifically : • Internet Key Exchange (IKE and IKEv2) : is the mechanism that is used to set up Security Association (SA) between two entities in an IP-based VPN (Virtual Private Network) application.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We saw that hardware-specific protocols are used by devices when they need to exchange data directly, that the Internet Protocol is used to get IP datagrams across the different network segments to their final destination, and that TCP and UDP provide transport and connection management services to the application protocols used by end-user applications.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies.

Structure

The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively. .It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks.^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dual IP layer architecture contains both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers with a single implementation of Transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2 (successor of the Abilene Network), and the UK's national research and education network JANET.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These in turn are built around smaller networks (see also the list of academic computer network organizations).^ By looking at the "Active Routes" list, we can see the routers and networks that this device knows about explicitly.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Implement this plan, and see if Arab public opinion hasn't turned around in 5 years time..."
  • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Internet's backbone routers are configured explicitly not to route packets with these addresses, so they are completely useless outside of an organization's internal network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system".[12] The Internet is extremely heterogeneous; for instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABR supports Variable Bit Rate (VBR) data traffic with flow control, a minimum guaranteed data transmission rate, and specified performance parameters.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Used for supporting connection-oriented variable bit rate VBR-NRT data traffic and signaling messages.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. .For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity.^ In this example, the routers could forward data across the WAN only at whatever rate was allowed by the WAN itself.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principles of the routing and addressing methods for traffic in the Internet reach back to their origins the 1960s when the eventual scale and popularity of the network could not be anticipated.^ This would not only provide your Notes users with preferential service over less-critical traffic, but it would also cause that traffic to be routed over faster network segments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twin reasons for the widespread popularity and subsequent adoption of the network address translation process were a shortage of IPv4 address space and the security concerns.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SIP is designed in conformity with the Internet model, and its end-to-end signalling method means that all the logic is stored in end devises, except the routing of SIP messages.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, the possibility of developing alternative structures is investigated.[13]

Governance

ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey, California, United States
.The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks.^ IP uses an anarchic and highly-distributed model, with every device an equal peer to every other device on the global Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many network address reservations have been made from the Class C pool, substantially reducing the number of Internet-legal Class C networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The suite as a whole is anchored at layer three by the Internet Protocol (IP) , which many people consider the single most important protocol in the world of networking .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It operates without a central governing body. .However, to maintain interoperability, all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California.^ The IPv4 address space is limited and there is general consensus that the IPv4 address space, managed by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the Regional Internet Registries (RIR)s, is headed towards exhaustion.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Included here are the all-important Internet Protocol (IP) at layer 3 and Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) at layer 4, which combine to give TCP/IP its name.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters.^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet Protocol (IP) knows each logical host interface by a number, the IP address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This "home" may be identified by a name, an IP address, or a combination of IP address and TCP/UDP port.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Globally unified name spaces, in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned, are essential for the global reach of the Internet.^ IPv6 offers a significantly larger address space that allows greater flexibility in assigning unique addresses over the Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A unique number assigned to a Permanent Virtual Connection (PVC) endpoint in a Frame Relay network.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The IPv4 address space is limited and there is general consensus that the IPv4 address space, managed by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the Regional Internet Registries (RIR)s, is headed towards exhaustion.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ ISAKMP combines the security concepts of authentication, key management, and security associations to establish the required security for government, commercial, and private communications on the Internet.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Used for unicast communication across the IPv4 Internet over network address translators (NATs).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US government continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system.^ Assuming DNS name of another system by corrupting name service cache of victim system or compromising domain name server for valid domain.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The names associated with the keys are IP addresses and domain names which have meaning to entities accessing the DNS for this information.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When the certificate is verified, the name is verified and that name will have meaning within the realm of that CA. An example is the DNS security extensions which make DNS servers CAs for the zones and nodes they serve.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet.^ Global Address Configuration - The host configures itself with its globally unique Internet address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP requires the location of any host connected to the Internet to be uniquely identified by an assigned IP address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Sub-Top Level Aggregation (TLA) Identifier Assignments .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

.On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.^ ISAKMP combines the security concepts of authentication, key management, and security associations to establish the required security for government, commercial, and private communications on the Internet.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the present converged world of IT, a working knowledge of IP and other related protocols are essential, and hopefully, we will be able to generate discussions in this column, on emerging technologies in the IP world.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICMP enables the generation of error messages, test packets and informational messages related to Internet protocol.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

Modern uses

.The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and web applications.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate benefit of NAT is that it allows a single internet connection with a single IP address to be shared.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, especially through mobile Internet devices.^ According to industry estimates, in the wireless domain, more than a billion mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), and other wireless devices will require Internet access, and each will need its own unique IP address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mobile Station (MS) connects the Access Service Network (ASN) through the R1 interface—which is based on 802.16d/e.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It allows the various devices to access the network from anywhere within a 'hotspot'.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a wireless network supporting that device's technology.^ Allows hot plugging of network devices - The network devices can be 'hot-plugged' to the Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This feature was critical to allow network connectivity to an increasing number of mobile devices.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It allows the various devices to access the network from anywhere within a 'hotspot'.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP uses an anarchic and highly-distributed model, with every device an equal peer to every other device on the global Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Service providers may restrict the services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SAPs with associated primitives between the MIHF and MIHU’s thus gives MIHU’s access to the services provided by MIHF. .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet has also become a large market for companies; some of the biggest companies today have grown by taking advantage of the efficient nature of low-cost advertising and commerce through the Internet, also known as e-commerce.^ While the ubiquitous nature of the Internet is a huge advantage for data networking.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in large companies, a case may be made for going “stateful”, with all the tweaking advantages of DHCPv6!
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is the fastest way to spread information to a vast number of people simultaneously. The Internet has also subsequently revolutionized shopping—for example; a person can order a CD online and receive it in the mail within a couple of days, or download it directly in some cases. .The Internet has also greatly facilitated personalized marketing which allows a company to market a product to a specific person or a specific group of people more so than any other advertising medium.^ The SIG was formed by a group of electronics manufacturers like Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba in 1998 and today it has more than 7500 companies worldwide.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multihoming includes a wide range of networking techniques that allow organizations to connect to internal or external destinations through more than one path.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to industry estimates, in the wireless domain, more than a billion mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), and other wireless devices will require Internet access, and each will need its own unique IP address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of personalized marketing include online communities such as MySpace, Friendster, Facebook, Twitter, Orkut and others which thousands of Internet users join to advertise themselves and make friends online.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these users are young teens and adolescents ranging from 13 to 25 years old.^ Any IP address in the range of 192.0.0.x -223.225.255.x is considered a Class C address with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, but again many of these addresses are considered invalid by Internet routers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these steps will take time - in many cases multiple years.” .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, any IP address in the range of 0.x.x.x -127.x.x.x is considered a Class A address with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0, although many of these addresses are considered invalid by Internet routers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In turn, when they advertise themselves they advertise interests and hobbies, which online marketing companies can use as information as to what those users will purchase online, and advertise their own companies' products to those users.^ A term used in frame relay that defines the information rate the network is committed to providing the user.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ It is important to note that not all of the TCP/IP products on the market today use these values.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farmers markets provide a means for local producers of agricultural products to sell those products directly to the consumer.

The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. .Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place.^ The rest would wait to attack Fort Clinton until the first group had reached Fort Montgomery."

^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate benefit of NAT is that it allows a single internet connection with a single IP address to be shared.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other programs, Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org. .Internet "chat", whether in the form of IRC chat rooms or channels, or via instant messaging systems, allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day.^ Notes Strict Source Routing allows an originating system to list the specific routers that a datagram must visit on the way to its destination.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best way to diagnose these problems is to send large ICMP Echo Request messages to the remote system, forcing fragmentation to occur on the network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the growth of the BGP routing tables in the Internet, the way to get multihomed in IPv6 is required to allow route aggregation in order to preserve the scalability of the interdomain routing system.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail.^ Back to Index   Email -- (Electronic Mail) Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In many cases the term means 1024 kilobytes , which is a more than an even million.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Some viruses do more than simply replicate themselves, they might display messages, install other software or files, delete software of files, etc.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.Extensions to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, "whiteboard" drawings to be shared or voice and video contact between team members.^ If the Message ID validation fails, the message is discarded and the following actions are taken: (a) The event, INVALID MESSAGE ID, MAY be logged in the appropriate system audit file.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Server system service provides RPC support and file, print, and named pipe sharing over the network.
  • Service overview and network port requirements for the Windows Server system 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC support.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These routing decisions are made by the routers in between the source and destination systems.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Version control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other's work or having members wait until they get "sent" documents to be able to make their contributions.^ Having larger network classes allows routers to work with smaller routing tables.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many instances, the stateless Autoconfiguration features will attract a small- to medium-sized company without any sophisticated network administration needs, while also allowing staff members to float in and out of the network as required without too much work on the part of the network administration.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a set of protocols that serves the important task of linking together these two layers and allowing them to work together.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information.^ Each user then math- ematically combines the other's public information along with their own secret information to compute a shared secret value.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Any other useful information (like errors) are written to this window as well.
  • Sybase Stored Procedures for the World Wide Web 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC sybernet.sri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each user then mathematically combines the other's public information along with their own secret information to compute a shared secret value.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.^ The Internet is a collection of networks, including the Arpanet, NSFnet, regional networks such as NYsernet, local networks at a number of University and research institutions, and a number of military networks.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a lot of work has gone into developing IPv6, no wide-scale deployment has occurred; because of this, IPv6 has been excluded from this text.
  • Troubleshooting TCP/IP - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The planning effort served to develop consensus on some issues, including the recognition that punitive action in the North would be, at best, complementary to successful counterinsurgency in the South.
  • The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, Chapter 2, "Military Pressures Against North Vietnam, February 1964-January 1965," pp. 106-268 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy grow.^ As businesses rely more and more on the Internet, having multiple points of connection to the Internet is becoming an integral part of business network strategy.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UDP is barely more than a wrapper protocol that provides a way for applications to access the Internet Protocol.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As this Internet dependence becomes more critical, prudent management suggests there be no single point of failure that can break all Internet connectivity.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the flash mob 'events' of the early 2000s to the use of social networking in the 2009 Iranian election protests, the Internet allows people to work together more effectively and in many more ways than was possible without it.^ These IP packets are sent using the framing mechanisms defined for the specific network medium in use on the local network, and are subject to network events such as fragmentation or loss.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world.^ Computer that stores data for network users and provides network access to that data.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each user then math- ematically combines the other's public information along with their own secret information to compute a shared secret value.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements.^ If a designer chooses to start from scratch, the following MUST be defined: o A "situation": the set of information that will be used to determine the required security services.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Departments within large organizations may require a number of security associations to separate and protect data (e.g.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) : this is the portion of IPsec used to provide data privacy, data origin authentication, and connectionless integrity.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries.^ The Web was conceived by Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues at CERN (now called the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in 1989 as a shared information space which would support collaborative work.

^ This is particularly true of protocols that work with addresses or configuration information, including DHCP. For this reason, a new version of DHCP is required for IPv6.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their Knowledge center comprises the work of many anglers who wish to share their knowledge and fishing experiences with others.

An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. .These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world.^ An information infrastructure that often combines private and public facilities to cover all of the locations operated by a single company or corporate enterprise with a single communications fabric.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Home Diaries dKosopedia Search Create account Login Lose Your Password?
  • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this case, the mail server could get the information by looking at the message itself.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.^ Therefore, while you will never see these addresses used as destinations on the Internet, if your organization establishes a private connection to a partner organization that is using the same block of addresses you are, your firms will not be able to communicate.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used to inform a router that the current IP packet has some peculiarities that should be studied before it is forwarded on.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet.^ IPSec traditionally implements secure remote access connections using virtual private network (VPN) tunneling protocols such as Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secure private network using unsecured public networks as carriers.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Remote site VPN’s are usually used to link private networks from various remote locations, while site-to-site VPN’s are used to connect a branch office to a corporate headquarters network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including e-mail and other applications, while away from the office.^ Other systems access the data over the network.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The application protocols run "on top" of TCP/IP. That is, when they want to send a message, they give the message to TCP. TCP makes sure it gets delivered to the other end.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each network must have at least one file server, and access to other resources is dependent on connecting to and logging into file server.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.This concept is also referred to by some network security people as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes.^ Secure virtual private network (secure VPN) .
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Here are some steps you can take to make sure your wired or wireless home router and by extension, your network is as secure as possible.

^ Allows addresses on a private network to be automatically translated to different addresses on a public network, providing address sharing and security benefits.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Services

Information

.Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web, or just the Web, interchangeably, but the two terms are not synonymous.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Handover (or handoff, as used interchangeably in this paper) is mainly of two types, namely : .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The World Wide Web is a global set of documents, images and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.URIs allow providers to symbolically identify services and clients to locate and address web servers, file servers, and other databases that store documents and provide resources and access them using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the primary carrier protocol of the Web.^ Location Server : Location server is used to store the addresses registered to a Registrar.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HTTP in turn uses services provided by lower-level protocols.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WWW services are provided through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) , a TCP/IP application layer protocol.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HTTP is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The NAT process generates sufficient IP addresses to be used locally that are subsequently mapped to the real IP addresses for communications over the Internet.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Web services may also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.^ This may be useful with applications that exchange sensitive data over the open Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nonces may be transmitted as part of the key exchange data, or as a separate payload.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.World Wide Web browser software, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Apple Safari, and Google Chrome, let users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents.^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Packet loss for non-real-time applications, such as Web browsers and file transfers, is undesirable, but not critical.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These documents may also contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations.^ These Data Attributes are not an ISAKMP payload, but are contained within ISAKMP payloads.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These protocols and applications may be session- oriented or sessionless.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These factors or a combination of them may degrade voice quality to a degree that users find objectionable.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, users worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. .Compared to printed encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information.^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay.^ Combining the Key Exchange and Authentication-related information into one message reduces the number of round-trips at the expense of not providing identity protection.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Combining the Key Exchange and Authentication-related information into one message reduces the number of round-trips at the expense of not providing identity pro- tection.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available.^ Notes Although the Type-of-Service flags have been available since IP v4 was first published, there are only a handful of applications that actually use them today.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freely available authentication system, developed at Bellcore (based on paper by Leslie Lamport of DEC) that avoids many types of password attacks.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ With this in mind, many organizations have initiated work to build a system that focuses on linking the Layer 3 technology of IPv6 with the Layer 2 technology of IEEE 802.16.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however.^ This information has been used by law enforcement authorities to identify criminal suspects; however dynamically-assigned IP addresses can make this difficult.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries.^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ HELL.com it used to be the greatest thing in the world, it was a portal to some of the most creative web sites that i had ever seen, now they sell webmail.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ Some networks are still quite large, requiring many thousands of network numbers, while some are quite small, consisting of only a handful of PCs.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result.^ An information infrastructure that often combines private and public facilities to cover all of the locations operated by a single company or corporate enterprise with a single communications fabric.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ C36 ] Communications problems are experienced not just around the Pentagon but also in the broader Washington area, with some senior government officials being affected (see (After 8:55 a.m.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. .Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated.^ FTP Publishing Service provides FTP connectivity.
  • Service overview and network port requirements for the Windows Server system 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC support.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Website The entire collection of web pages and other information (such as images, sound, and video files, etc.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings.^ For example, a VPN might offer priority access to bandwidth and other network resources, whereas a private network offers guaranteed access at all times.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following day, Arlington County Fire Chief Ed Plaugher will similarly tell reporters: “[T]here are some small pieces of aircraft visible from the interior during this firefighting operation… but not large sections.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts.^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gateways are often normal computers that happen to have more than one network interface.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than ISPs having to track and advertise thousands of network routes, they only have to advertise a few super-routes.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.^ Type your question or key words in English: (Recommended for finding a product in our web store or FAQ pages).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The pace of service integration (convergence) with new and existing networks continues to increase as VoIP products and services develop.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server.^ The index page for http (web) pages, also index.html .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be an external file that is called by the web page.
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unix server extension for HTML files .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

.More recently, websites are more often created using content management or wiki software with, initially, very little content.^ Security Association Modification Security Association modification within ISAKMP is accomplished by creating a new SA and initiating communications using that new SA. Deletion of the old SA can be done anytime after the new SA is established.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ While most IT practitioners are aware of the importance of the Internet Protocol (IP), recent developments and discussions on and around this all-important protocol makes it mandatory for all practising IT managers to have a more intimate knowledge of the protocol and its attendant uses, limitations, and facilities.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such aggressive memory management techniques SHOULD be employed by protocols using ISAKMP that do not go through an initial, anti- clogging only phase, as was done in [Karn] .
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organization or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form.^ In order to verify your suspicions, you should test connectivity using another system with a different network adapter (since your adapter may be the true culprit).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notes Since the datagram may be sent over a variety of different devices on the way to its final destination, all of the intermediary systems (as well as the destination) must support the same version of IP as the one used to create the datagram in the first place.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can't do the HTML code thing to make this an active link, I'm just not good at these things, but here's a link to the new self-erasing DVD that Disney is going to use as a rental system, kinda cool.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

.There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.^ The performance improvement gained by offline processing can make browsing much less expensive for people with disabilities who may be browsing slowly.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Posting A single message entered into a network communications system.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Open Source Software Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

Communication

.E-mail is an important communications service available on the Internet.^ A consistent method of choosing from a variety of security services and mechanisms and to exchange attributes required by the mechanisms is important to security in the complex structure of the Internet.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ IPSec generally, and IPv6 I nternet Protocol security (IPsec) is a framework of open standards for protecting communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks using cryptographic security services.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, organizations, including Internet service providers and telephone companies, have multiple external communications, not just for fault tolerance, but for reasonable load distribution.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet.^ The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to transfer electronic mail between mail servers, and is used by mail clients to send mail.
  • Troubleshooting TCP/IP - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The best way to diagnose these problems is to send large ICMP Echo Request messages to the remote system, forcing fragmentation to occur on the network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The computer mail system is simply a way for you to add a message to another user's mail file.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today it can be important to distinguish between internet and internal e-mail systems.^ The reality today, however, is an Internet that does not differentiate between real-time (RT) and non-real time (NRT) packets.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control.^ The destination Internet address is the address of the other machine.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such network may be the Internet or a corporate network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As many businesses use the Internet to reach out to their customers either through e-mail or their own Web sites, having an Internet technologies degree with a concentration in marketing can make you very appealing to employers.
  • Internet Technologies Degree - Internet Technologies Guide 20 November 2009 7:20 UTC www.careersandeducation.com [Source type: Academic]

.During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough.^ Because during war time it seemed that all our thought, ingrained moral principles which you have, seem to be thrown overboard and you...we...we are in quite a different mentality.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is common for Ajax applications to update the Ajax content multiple times without the surrounding page needing to be updated even once.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ And I could see that with all the enormous expenditure, the enormous effort put in the United States, even so it will take quite a long time.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them.^ A gateway is a system that connects a network with one or more other networks.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (For more information, see Autonomous Systems .
  • System Management Guide: Communications and Networks - TCP/IP Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ncsa.illinois.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Other systems access the data over the network.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pictures, documents and other files can be sent as e-mail attachments.^ The Web browser is an HTTP client and initiates the communication with a request for a file or other resource sent over the Internet to a Web site , which is an HTTP server.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

E-mails can be cc-ed to multiple e-mail addresses.
.Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet.^ The Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) defines the procedures for authenticating a communicating peer, creation and management of Security Associations, key generation techniques, and threat mitigation (e.g.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Nodes do not send traffic to a central host for processing and relay services, but instead communicate directly with the destination system, if possible.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are necessary to establish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Service or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ V oice o ver I nternet P acket (VoIP) is the technology for transmitting voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers.^ Personally I like the idea of the 10 commandments in congress.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

.In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone.^ For this reason, many systems do not recognize or use it.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The importance of IPSec in IPv6 has grown in recent years as U.S. Department of Defense and federal government have mandates to buy IPv6-capable systems and to transition to IPv6-capable networks within a few years, .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VOIP -- (Voice Over IP) A specification and various technologies used to allow making telephone calls over IP networks, especially the Internet .
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL.^ Such data network may be the Internet, a corporate Intranet, or a managed network used by a long distance and international traditional provider.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V oice o ver I nternet P acket (VoIP) is the technology for transmitting voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate benefit of NAT is that it allows a single internet connection with a single IP address to be shared.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service.^ Costs for VOIP calls can be a lot lower than for traditional telephone calls.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Today, VoIP has emerged as a reliable technology that is commercially viable, competing (and winning) against traditional phone services in business and consumer-class markets.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although voice over IP (VoIP) has been in existence for many years, it has only recently begun to take off as a viable alternative to traditional public switched telephone networks (PSTN).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available.^ However, the sep- aration is critical for interoperability between systems with differing security requirements, and should also simplify the analysis of further evolution of a ISAKMP server.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Open standard, so interoperability between different devices is easy to implement .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPv6 includes a transition mechanism which is designed to allow users to adopt and deploy IPv6 in a highly diffuse fashion and to provide direct interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6 hosts.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer.^ Device performing the interface between X.25 data network and asynchronous device such as personal computer.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Provides file and printer sharing among networks of Personal Computers (PCs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.^ VOIP -- (Voice Over IP) A specification and various technologies used to allow making telephone calls over IP networks, especially the Internet .
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ VoIP users expect the Internet to deliver toll-quality voice with the same clarity as the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, quality of a voice call can degrade significantly if IP (voice) packets are lost or delayed at any point in the network between VoIP users.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability.^ The most common problems on a VoIP network include: .
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. .Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices.^ These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Device at end of ADSL line that stands between line and first item of equipment in subscriber premises or telephone switch.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Modulator-demodulator device for changing transmission signals from digital to analog for transmission over phone lines.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications, as a form of communication between players.^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can think of TCP as forming a library of routines that applications can use when they need reliable network communications with another computer.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Granted, most applications do not work this way, but most applications will also utilize some form of error-correction service to keep this from becoming a problem.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. Wii, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features.

Data transfer

.File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet.^ Light beams travel through the fiber-optic line, carrying large amounts of data over long distances.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In this example, the routers could forward data across the WAN only at whatever rate was allowed by the WAN itself.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allows files to be shared seamlessly across TCP/IP networks .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. .It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues.^ Each network must have at least one file server, and access to other resources is dependent on connecting to and logging into file server.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer that provides resources to be shared on network, such as files (file server) or terminals (terminal server).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks.^ This may be useful for an application such as FTP, where the user would want to download a lot of data very quickly.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But devices that have multiple network interfaces (such as routers or high-load devices like file servers) must have a dedicated IP address for every network connection.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file.^ Without authentication you are unable to trust an entity's identification, this makes access control questionable.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Without authentication you are unable to trust an entity's identification, which makes access control questionable.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed—usually fully encrypted—across the Internet. .The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests.^ If the Message ID validation fails, the message is discarded and the following actions are taken: (a) The event, INVALID MESSAGE ID, MAY be logged in the appropriate system audit file.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ An Informational Exchange with a Notification payload containing the INVALID-SIGNATURE message type MAY be sent to the initiating entity.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ An Informational Exchange with a Notification payload containing the INVALID-SIGNATURE message type MAY be sent to the transmitting entity.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission.^ There has to be a way for you to open a connection to a specified computer, log into it, tell it what file you want, and control the transmission of the file.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is here, surrounded by file cabinets, computers, and posters featuring holographic closeups of buds, that the medicine begins its long road to the sales counter.
  • The Manhattan Project of Marijuana | Feature | East Bay Express 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.eastbayexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP. - network file systems.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.^ The use of new features, such as anycast addresses, will improve network utilization, increasing the productivity of all activities that make use of the Internet, while the streamlined IPv6 packet header will have a similar effect by increasing the performance of router software.
  • Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPv6) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC mastermason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the good news is that the best products don't need marketing, and so the market incentive is still there.

^ The New York Philharmonic KidZone offers many exciting sections that will teach, entertain, and engage you in the art of Music.

.This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.^ Techniques for checkpoint 7.1 7.2 Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink (i.e., change presentation at a regular rate, such as turning on and off).
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

Streaming media refers to the act that many existing radio and television broadcasters promote Internet "feeds" of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). .They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features.^ Or they may be allocated on request for transient multicast operations (such as a video distribution).
  • Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPv6) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC mastermason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 11, 2001 ), but such comments may have been made around this time instead.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not required that you call these procedures, and in some cases (such as for reports) they may not be suitable.
  • Sybase Stored Procedures for the World Wide Web 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC sybernet.sri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses.^ These programs provide instruction in HTML coding, network protocols and Internet security.
  • Internet Technologies Degree - Internet Technologies Guide 20 November 2009 7:20 UTC www.careersandeducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any IP address in the range of 192.0.0.x -223.225.255.x is considered a Class C address with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, but again many of these addresses are considered invalid by Internet routers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Port numbers in the range 1024-49151 are called Registered Ports , and these are numbers that have been publicly defined as a convenience for the Internet community to avoid vendor conflicts.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

.This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver.^ T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LAN s to the Internet .
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Generally it is possible to have active connections to more than one computer at the same time.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modem -- (MOdulator, DEModulator) A device that connects a computer to a phone line.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services.^ Notes Although the Type-of-Service flags have been available since IP v4 was first published, there are only a handful of applications that actually use them today.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as more multimedia applications and services are being deployed across the Internet, the use of Type-of-Service flags has increased dramatically, and should continue to do so.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. .These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide.^ Higher-layer protocols use these services, allowing them to concentrate on what they are intended to accomplish.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most popular of these for private networks is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), which uses UDP broadcasts to distribute routing tables every thirty seconds.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other would be simple, providing little in the way of classic layer-four functions, but it would be fast and easy to use.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. .While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly.^ In some ways it is reassuring to see a technology that is capable of sustaining a quite dramatic growth rate, but perhaps that is not quite the complete picture.
  • Vol11-No2 « Internet Protocol Forum 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ipjforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either way, the addition of a “tab to this spot” would eliminate the need for some small tables and make general formatting much easier.
  • Have Your Say about the Future of HTML - The Web Standards Project 20 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.webstandards.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time.^ Used for supporting time-dependent slow or Variable Bit Rate Real Time (VBR-RT) connection-oriented traffic (e.g., packetized and compressed audio and video).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, any traffic that is local to your own network probably won't require fragmentation, so you can use large packets on your local network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used for supporting both connectionless and connection-oriented Variable Bit Rate Non-Real Time (VBR-NRT) traffic.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound.^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pentagon’s state-of-the-art communications hub, “Cables,” is establishing secure two-way video links with the White House and other key agencies.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Named for two key protocols of the many that comprise it, TCP/IP has been in continual development and use for about three decades.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. .It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files.^ Using these priority values, you could assign database applications a higher priority level than the streaming video traffic.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This simplified illustration shows a common examplea World Wide Web transaction using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily.[14]

Accessibility

Graph of Internet users per 100 inhabitants between 1997 and 2007 by International Telecommunication Union
The prevalent language for communication on the Internet is English. .This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as English's role as a lingua franca.^ The resulting IP packets are then sent over the Internet as independent entities, just as if they had originally been created that way.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may also be related to the poor capability of early computers, largely originating in the United States, to handle characters other than those in the English variant of the Latin alphabet.^ Organization other than those above .
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is often useful for handling asynchronous events, for example when you type a control character or other command that interrupts output.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an Islamic Jihadist movement that has been organized since the early 1990s, declared war on the United States twice, in ‘96 and ‘98.

.After English (29% of Web visitors) the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (22%), Spanish (8%), Japanese (6%), French (5%), Portuguese and German (4% each), Arabic (3%) and Russian and Korean (2% each).^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HELL.com it used to be the greatest thing in the world, it was a portal to some of the most creative web sites that i had ever seen, now they sell webmail.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

[15] .By region, 42% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia, 24% in Europe, 15% in North America, 11% in Latin America and the Caribbean taken together, 4% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania.^ North American Aerospace Defense Command, 9/18/2001 ; 9/11 Commission, 7/24/2004, pp.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Services include basic rate interface (2B+D or BRI) and primary rate interface (30B+D, Europe and 23B+D, North America or PRI).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Current standard in Europe and many countries in Asia and proposed standard for personal communication services in North America.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

[16] .The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in most widely used languages.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual transition will be most effectively initiated with a group of early adopters, usually an internal R&D or similar advanced development group used to experimenting with new technology.
  • Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPv6) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC mastermason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These guidelines do not discourage content developers from using images, video, etc., but rather explain how to make multimedia content more accessible to a wide audience.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of foreign language characters, also known as kryakozyabry) still remain.^ However, there are some devices, such as diskless workstations , that don't have any means of storing an IP address where it can be easily retrieved.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common methods of Internet access in homes include dial-up, landline broadband (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones.^ However, these protocols are not able to scale up to the quantity of routes that are found on the Internet backbone, and protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are more common in those environments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, an administrator might wish to send low-latency datagrams through a terrestial fiber-optic connection rather than through a satellite link.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for fiber-optic links with data rates up to 100 Mbps.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing.^ IANA will not normally assign a DOI value without referencing some public specification, such as Maughan, et.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She later says, “So there were many pieces that just fell into place and worked so well on that day.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based.^ These IP packets are sent using the framing mechanisms defined for the specific network medium in use on the local network, and are subject to network events such as fragmentation or loss.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these protocols are not able to scale up to the quantity of routes that are found on the Internet backbone, and protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are more common in those environments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. .Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself.^ Computer that stores data for network users and provides network access to that data.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Provides file and printer sharing among networks of Personal Computers (PCs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA.^ However, such a routing table would not provide any information about any remote networks or devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would not only provide your Notes users with preferential service over less-critical traffic, but it would also cause that traffic to be routed over faster network segments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also work going on in industry to develop X.500 Directory Services which would provide X.509 certificates to users.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based.^ NOTE: Certificate types and formats are not generally bound to a DOI - it is expected that there will only be a few certificate types, and that most DOIs will accept all of these types.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Rather than having to deal with only one or two routers, all of a sudden you may be looking at a dozen or more hops.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We've all experienced this not only with IBM and Microsoft based Server systems, but with VAX VMS, Primos, and even venerable DG and UNOx systems.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.[17] .Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services.^ High-speed PC data bus.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ But devices that have multiple network interfaces (such as routers or high-load devices like file servers) must have a dedicated IP address for every network connection.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The European standard for using optical media as the physical transport for high-speed, long-haul networks.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network.^ Allows node not directly connected to public data network to access facilities of that network through intermediary gateway node.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ File server controls user logins and access to other network clients, such as user PCs, print servers, modem/fax servers, and disk/file servers.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ It is always best to use formally-assigned, Internet-legal addresses whenever possible, even if the hosts on your network do not necessarily require direct Internet access.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these protocols are not able to scale up to the quantity of routes that are found on the Internet backbone, and protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are more common in those environments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used.^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as more multimedia applications and services are being deployed across the Internet, the use of Type-of-Service flags has increased dramatically, and should continue to do so.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not appropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as ``working draft'' or ``work in progress.''
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online.^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used to discover agents and the routes that Internet Protocol (IP) packets must traverse.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

Social impact

.The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access.^ As the Internet grows and evolves, new payloads to support new security functionality can be added without modifying the entire protocol.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Internet Protocol provides a basic delivery service for transport protocols such as TCP and UDP. IP is responsible for getting data to its destination host and network.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace have created a new form of socialization and interaction. .Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to their personal pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others.^ These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If all of the routers connecting these networks together had to be tracked by all of the other routers, there would be so much router-management traffic that nothing else could get through.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The file contains a number of very interesting strings, which make it quite obvious that this program attempts to hijack the user's personal login information as they log in to various popular Internet banking services.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

.It is also possible to find a large circle of existing acquaintances, especially if a site allows users to represent themselves by their given names, and to allow communication among existing groups of people.^ A network architecture that allows geographically distributed users to communicate as if they were on a single physical Local Area Network (LAN) by sharing a single broadcast and multicast domain.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatively, if no infrastructure exists, the PGP Web of Trust certificates can be used to provide user authentication and privacy in a community of users who know and trust each other.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatively, if no infras- tructure exists, the PGP Web of Trust certificates can be used to provide user authentication and privacy in a community of users who know and trust each other.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Sites like meetup.com exist to allow wider announcement of groups which may exist mainly for face-to-face meetings, but which may have a variety of minor interactions over their group's site.^ Smaller groups of people may meet their security require- ments by setting up ``Webs of Trust''.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials.^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A network that provides regional connectivity within a metropolitan area (such as city).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Low Power Personal Area Network Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations.
The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to Internet censorship by some states. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. .Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism.^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modification of SAs by using a "Create New SA followed by Delete Old SA" method is done to avoid potential vulnerabilities in synchronizing modification of existing SA attributes.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I also provide a brief overview of how address resolution is done for multicast addresses in IP, and the method used in the new IP version 6.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some governments, such as those of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People's Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content.^ However, these protocols are not able to scale up to the quantity of routes that are found on the Internet backbone, and protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are more common in those environments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some stuh-RANGE people in the world, and the Internet gives them a forum on which to publicize their strangeness.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ Some of these are historical, such as the fact that it is tied to the Internet as described above, while others are related to the characteristics of the protocol suite itself.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.^ Registrations in the domains listed above may be made through dozens of competitive registrars.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May have connection to Internet or may exist on Internet, achieving controlled access through passwords or other means.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.In Norway, Denmark, Finland[18] and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily, possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law, agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as more multimedia applications and services are being deployed across the Internet, the use of Type-of-Service flags has increased dramatically, and should continue to do so.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include application protocols such as HTTP , FTP and SMTP for providing end-user services, as well as administrative protocols like SNMP , DHCP and DNS .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to contain addresses of known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.^ For applications that route data packets using site-local addresses on a multihomed host, only the site-local address specified by main_site6 are used.
  • System Management Guide: Communications and Networks - TCP/IP Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ncsa.illinois.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Each machine is supposed to pay attention only to packets with its own Ethernet address in the destination field.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Routers that contain list of resources (other routers, DNS, and services) which contain IP address.
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Many countries, including the United States, have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, via the Internet, but do not mandate filtering software.^ This model goes by different names, including the TCP/IP model , the DARPA model (after the agency that was largely responsible for developing TCP/IP ) and the DOD model (after the United States Department of Defense, the D in DARPA).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many free and commercially available software programs, called content-control software, with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit a child's access to pornographic materials or depiction of violence.^ Computer that stores data for network users and provides network access to that data.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What many people don't realize is that in early versions of this technology, there was only one core protocol: TCP. And in fact, these letters didn't even stand for what they do today; they were for the Transmission Control Program .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic.^ There are no host addresses within the Class D address space, since all the hosts within a group share the group's IP address for receiver purposes.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This simple assignment allows major routers on the Internet to simply forward traffic for any network that begins with 194 to the backbone routers in Europe.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISAKMP servers) agree on how to protect further negotiation traffic between themselves, establishing an ISAKMP SA. This ISAKMP SA is then used to protect the negotiations for the Protocol SA being requested.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular.^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, any IP address in the range of 0.x.x.x -127.x.x.x is considered a Class A address with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0, although many of these addresses are considered invalid by Internet routers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas.^ In the third (3) and fourth (4) messages, the initiator and responder, respectively, exchange keying material used to arrive at a common shared secret and identification information.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a secure front end or security gateway may use the Notify message to syn- chronize SA communication.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If the responder chooses to ignore the message, the next communication from the responder to the initiator, using that security association, will fail.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The pornography and gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites.^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, if no infrastructure exists, the PGP Web of Trust certificates can be used to provide user authentication and privacy in a community of users who know and trust each other.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet, this has generally failed to stop their widespread popularity.^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If more padding is required, the No Operation option can be used again, as many times as needed.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 11, 2001 ), “the federal government failed to make any move to evacuate the White House, Capitol, State Department, or the Pentagon.” [ CNN, 9/16/2001 ] Although a slow evacuation of the White House begins around 9:20 a.m.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
One main area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. .This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games.^ First of all, it will examine the size of the data that is stored in the original packet, and then it will create as many fragments as are needed to move the original packet's data across the smaller segment.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whenever a packet gets fragmented, all of the resulting fragments use the original datagram's Fragmentation Identifier, and the destination system uses this information to collect all of the fragments together, and then reassemble the original datagram into its original form.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing games to online gambling. .This has revolutionized the way many people interact[citation needed] while spending their free time on the Internet.^ The suite as a whole is anchored at layer three by the Internet Protocol (IP) , which many people consider the single most important protocol in the world of networking .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If more padding is required, the No Operation option can be used again, as many times as needed.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kingdom Of Loathing ...as if you didn't need another way on the Internet to waste your time.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

While online gaming has been around since the 1970s,[citation needed] modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. .Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation.^ However, many of the address blocks from this range have been set aside for other uses over time.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP uses an anarchic and highly-distributed model, with every device an equal peer to every other device on the global Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also the transport protocol used for many of the Internet's most popular applications, while UDP gets second billing.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies.^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP uses an anarchic and highly-distributed model, with every device an equal peer to every other device on the global Internet.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to note that not all of the TCP/IP products on the market today use these values.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.^ The More Fragments flag is used to indicate whether or not there are any other fragments associated with the original datagram.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 700 FBI agents, assisted by hundreds of individuals from other organizations, will participate in the recovery operation.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd try bugs etc, since I don't really see any particular kind of meat as being any more disgusting than any other.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

.Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests.^ I guess I think though that for him the multiple partners thing is less about living out some fantasy and more about rejecting (for some reason) monogamous intimacy.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people are intimidated by this initially, but soon find that it is not difficult.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People use chat, messaging and e-mail to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals.^ During the program I realized I couldn't use or wasn't willing to use it in some of the ways I had intended.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ Some people may think it's stupid; I suppose it depends on whether or not you like the drawing style and sometimes crude humor (which I do).
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ In response, he claims, he makes some phone calls and is on his way back to the Navy Command Center when the Pentagon is hit.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social networking websites like MySpace, Facebook and many others like them also put and keep people in contact for their enjoyment.^ And no offense to tattooed people--I think they are cool if you like them, and I like them on other people, but I could never do something that permanent to my body.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

.The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet.^ The Web browser is an HTTP client and initiates the communication with a request for a file or other resource sent over the Internet to a Web site , which is an HTTP server.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cyberslacking can become a serious drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services.[19]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Links". HTML 4.01 Specification. World Wide Web Consortium. HTML 4.01 Specification. http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/struct/links.html#h-12.1. Retrieved 2008-08-13. "[T]he link (or hyperlink, or Web link) [is] the basic hypertext construct. A link is a connection from one Web resource to another. Although a simple concept, the link has been one of the primary forces driving the success of the Web." 
  2. ^ "ARPA/DARPA". Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. http://www.darpa.mil/body/arpa_darpa.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  3. ^ "DARPA: History". Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. http://www.darpa.mil/history.html. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  4. ^ Baran, Paul (1964). On Distributed Communications. http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM3767. 
  5. ^ "Internet History". Living Internet site. http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  6. ^ Coffman, K. G; Odlyzko, A. M. (1998-10-02) (PDF). The size and growth rate of the Internet. AT&T Labs. http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/doc/internet.size.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  7. ^ Comer, Douglas (2006). The Internet book. Prentice Hall. p. 64. ISBN 0132335530. 
  8. ^ "World Internet Users and Population Stats". Internet World Stats. Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2009-06-30. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  9. ^ "IETF Home Page". Ietf.org. http://www.ietf.org/. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  10. ^ Huston, Geoff. "IPv4 Address Report, daily generated". http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  11. ^ "Notice of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Address Depletion" (PDF). https://www.arin.net/knowledge/about_resources/ceo_letter.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  12. ^ Walter Willinger, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker (2002). Scaling phenomena in the Internet, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, suppl. 1, 2573–2580
  13. ^ "Internet Makeover? Some argue it's time". The Seattle Times, April 16, 2007.
  14. ^ "YouTube Fact Sheet". YouTube, LLC. http://www.youtube.com/t/fact_sheet. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 
  15. ^ Internet World Stats, updated June 30, 2009
  16. ^ World Internet Usage Statistics News and Population Stats updated June 30, 2009
  17. ^ "Toronto Hydro to Install Wireless Network in Downtown Toronto". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19-Mar-2006.
  18. ^ "Finland censors anti-censorship site". The Register. 2008-02-18. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/02/18/finnish_policy_censor_activist/. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  19. ^ "Scotsman.com News - Net abuse hits small city firms". News.scotsman.com. http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=914&id=1001802003. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 

References

  • Media Freedom Internet Cookbook by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna, 2004
  • First Monday peer-reviewed journal on the Internet
  • How Much Does The Internet Weigh? by Stephen Cass, Discover 2007
  • Rehmeyer, Julie J. 2007. Mapping a medusa: The Internet spreads its tentacles. Science News 171(June 23):387-388. Available at Sciencenews.org
  • Castells, M. 1996. Rise of the Network Society. 3 vols. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Castells, M. (2001), “Lessons from the History of Internet”, in “The Internet Galaxy”, Ch. .1, pp 9–35. Oxford University Press.
  • RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet Hosts—Communication Layers, IETF, R. Braden (Ed.^ RFC 3292 0x000-0xAFF: IETF consensus 0xB00-0xEFF: RFC Required 0xF00-0xFFF: Reserved for vendor private use .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet Draft draft-irtf-mobopts-location-privacy-solutions-16 RFC Required .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-nea-pa-tnc-06 ] Expert Review with Specification Required .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ), .October 1989
  • RFC 1123, Requirements for Internet Hosts—Application and Support, IETF, R. Braden (Ed.^ RFC 3292 0x000-0xAFF: IETF consensus 0xB00-0xEFF: RFC Required 0xF00-0xFFF: Reserved for vendor private use .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet Draft draft-irtf-mobopts-location-privacy-solutions-16 RFC Required .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet Draft draft-ietf-nea-pa-tnc-06 ] Expert Review with Specification Required .
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    ), October 1989

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotations about the Internet

Sourced

.
  • During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet.^ The United States Congress passed a resolution on November 3, 1780, commending the three captors.

    ^ The TCP/IP protocols were initially developed as part of the research network developed by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA or ARPA ).
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present .
    • World Wide Web Resources: Titles 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to our country's economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our educational system.
    • Al Gore, in a statement often misquoted as "I invented the Internet." CNN Late Edition (9 March 1999)
  • Twenty years ago no one could have imagined the effects the Internet would have: entire relationships flourish, friendships prosper…there’s a vast new intimacy and accidental poetry, not to mention the weirdest porn. .The entire human experience seems to unveil itself like the surface of a new planet.^ Maybe I just like the idea of a news source that has no human interaction, at least on it's final level.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

  • Most of us employ the Internet not to seek the best information, but rather to select information that confirms our prejudices. .
    • Nicholas D. Kristof, Would You Slap Your Father?^ Would you please explain your Administration's views on this matter, particularly the many remarks of the Vice President?
      • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

      .If So, You’re a Liberal
      (New York Times, 27 May 2009)
  • I think that the online world has actually brought books back.^ Do you think the rest of the world is this stupid?
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think you're thinking of "Piggy".
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The package may have to go through Chicago first; the delivery agent at the New York UPS office makes that routing decision.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .People are reading because they're reading the damn screen.^ The folks on the left need to realize that all because they think it's wrong doesn't mean other people think like they do.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think things are going to heat up way beyond where they are now, because most people expect us to leave.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .That's more reading than people used to do.^ People are almost always more complex on the inside than they appear on the outside.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ I agree; I can't even fathom dating two people at once, let alone being intimately involved with more than one.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ VoIP (read : packet-switched technology) is generally better at carrying more traffic than circuit-switched networks, thanks to statistical multiplexing’s inherently better use of available bandwidth.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Bill Murray, Interview with Jessica Lee Jernigan (May 1999)
  • It's strange– you know, the Net is denounced as austere, the product of the engineering mentality, so forth and so on.^ You may not know it, but Sesame Workshop is much more than Sesame Street.

    It's the most feminine influence that Western civilization has ever allowed itself to fall under the spell of. The troubadors of the fourteenth century were as nothing compared to the boundary-dissolving, feminizing, permitting, nurturing nature of the Net. .Maybe that's why there is an overwhelming male preference for it, in its early form, because that's where that was needed.^ The plane needed the clearance because of restrictions on landing nonmilitary aircraft there, he said.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On many TCP/IP networks, there is no TCP/IP protocol running at all on this layer, because it is simply not needed.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But it is Sophia, it is wisdom, it is the penetrating archetypal female logos of the world-soul, leading us away from what was very sharp-edged and uncomfortable and repressive to our creativity and our sexuality and our relationships to each other and to the Earth.^ Diplomacy was leading us into all the behavior and relationships the New American Century was launched to sweep away.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In this section I begin our magical tour through the mystical world of TCP/IP. J I begin with an overview of TCP/IP and a brief look at its very interesting history.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Senator Obama, like any other member of the senate, is always welcome to visit our wounded warriors or our military hospitals around the world.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I hear there's rumors on the internets that we're going to have a draft.^ For an introduction to the issues re- lated to multicast security, consult the Internet Drafts, [Spar96a] and [Spar96b], describing Sparta's research in this area.
    • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ [IO-Res] Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, The Resolution of ISAKMP with Oakley, Internet-Draft: draft-ietf-ipsec-isakmp-oakley-02.txt, Work in Progress, November, 1996.
    • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet Draft draft-klensin-ftp-registry-04 Registration marked "mandatory" ('m' in the "conf" column): Standards Action.
    • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

    We're not going to have a draft, period. .
  • On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog.^ Anyway, if you're anything of a serious Zep fan, you know in your heart you gotta have this one.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ You know, I really don't find the dog-part of this story all that disgusting.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ You clearly know your shit, and you're exactly the type of person that we hoped to reach by publishing this article.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

  • The NET is a waste of time, and that's exactly what's right about it. .
    • William Gibson Title of an article for New York Times Magazine (14 July 1996)
  • Even if you do go into a coma, you can still keep posting to Usenet -- everyone else does.^ Going by your posts, you support Obama.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even if the Pentagon were being jerks and whining YOU GO ANYWAY! F-em!
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Meet the Press, 9/16/2001 ] Interestingly, New York Times columnist William Safire will report that, at approximately this time, Cheney is told that either another plane or “a helicopter loaded with explosives” is heading for the White House.
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • They can't ignore us, and they can't put us down. Thank God for the Internet, or we wouldn't know anything, and we would already be a fascist state. .
  • Some complain that e-mail is impersonal -- that your contact with me, during the e-mail phase of our relationship, was mediated by wires and screens and cables.^ Electrical cable with solid wire conductor at its center, surrounded by insulating materials and an outer metal screen conductor with an axis of curvature coinciding with inner conductor.
    • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ September 11, 2001: Pentagon Command Center Begins High Level Conference Call .
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Some would say that's not as good as conversing face-to-face. .And yet our seeing of things is always mediated by corneas, retinas, optic nerves, and some neural machinery that takes the information from the optic nerve and propagates it into our minds.^ WiMax, Wi-Fi : Technology and Implementation (Part Three) To conclude our study of WiMax and WiFi and related technologies, we shall take a peek into the Bluetooth portion of the technologies.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Renting things that break themselves in 3 days is just YET ANOTHER example of our throwaway society.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    So, is looking at words on a screen so very much inferior? I think not; at least then you are conscious of the distortions. .Whereas, when you see someone with your eyes, you forget about the distortions and imagine you are experiencing them purely and immediately.^ Stage Three Finally, you will unleash your armies of destruction, bringing about something that\'s really metal.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Permalink I'm sure you'll be the first to be grousing come 1/20/09 about your "so-called" C in C. Just like the Clinton years.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I was meaning to call you and tell you to give those kids back, but keep forgeting, it was either that or see if I could get you arrested for a few days.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

  • [T]he index of a search engine can be thought of as analogous to the stars in [the] sky. .What we see has never existed, as the light has traveled different distances to reach our eye.^ Light beams travel through the fiber-optic line, carrying large amounts of data over long distances.
    • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

    .Similarly, Web pages referenced in an index were also explored at different dates and they may not exist any more.^ The index page for http (web) pages, also index.html .
    • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, they may provide different security properties in each of the phases.
    • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
    • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
    • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Home Page (the index for a particular web site) .
    • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

    • Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Berthier Ribeiro-Neto, Modern Information Retrieval, Addison-Wesley/ACM Press, p. .382 (1999)
  • The Internet is a hole you pour your friends into for a never-ending stream of kitten photos and porn.^ Therefore, while you will never see these addresses used as destinations on the Internet, if your organization establishes a private connection to a partner organization that is using the same block of addresses you are, your firms will not be able to communicate.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Or you could type www.LocalWineEvents.com into your browser and find it all at your fingertips.

    ^ For example, if you choose to use the 36.0.0.0/8 address block on your internal network, your users will never be able to access the computers at Stanford University, the registered owner of that address block.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Of course, that's quite a bargain, for some of us.
  • The real definition of Internet is: "lots of blogs and fat people trying to have sex with you."
    • Richard "Lowtax" Kyanka, speaking at the University of Illinois [1]
  • The internet is like a big circus tent full of scary, boring creatures and pornography.
    • Richard "Lowtax" Kyanka, speaking at the University of Illinois
  • This is a little known fact technological about the Internet, but the Internet is actually made of words and enthusiasm. .
  • That's the beauty of the Web: You can roll around in a stranger's obsession without having to smell his or her house.^ Third, having an ISAKMP SA in place considerably reduces the cost of ISAKMP management activity - without the "trusted path" that an ISAKMP SA gives you, the entities (e.g.
    • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
    • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

    You can amscray whenever you want without being rude. .The site gets its "hit" and you know more about our species' diversity.^ You can read more about the site and its maintainer here .
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ You may not know it, but Sesame Workshop is much more than Sesame Street.

    ^ Learn all about our environment through interactive games and more.

Unsourced

[citation needed]
  • They want to deliver vast amounts of information over the Internet.^ "Seamless web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that puts vast amounts of information at users' fingertips."
    • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The header is the information necessary to deliver the packet to a destination address; the payload is the data that you want to deliver.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And again, the Internet is not something you just dump something on.^ Tell me you have no internet connection at all you just can't update.
    • Your computer is infected, now my internet won't work and scans find nothing 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bleepingcomputer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It's not a big truck.
    It's a series of tubes.
    .And if you don't understand those tubes can be filled and if they are filled, when you put your message in, it gets in line and it's going to be delayed by anyone that puts into that tube enormous amounts of material, enormous amounts of material.^ They think they understand it, but they don't.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am going to assist you with your problem.
    • Your computer is infected, now my internet won't work and scans find nothing 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bleepingcomputer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I don't understand why you'd do this .
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    .
  • And one of the main reasons that people put up in commercials about online chat rooms and such.^ One most people have no idea about their countries foriegn policies, goes in the too hard basket.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One reason the linked Google News search isn't coming up with many American hits is that the link searches for "Defence Science Board".
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think the very reason I am so fascinated with him is due to the robotic, inhuman vibe he puts forth when writing about this whole thing.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    .They are all, "r kidZ are B-ing sexuAlly OFFENDEd on-line on the net" when really they are just saying, "Our kids are stupid, and are no longer allowed to be social and talk to anyone ever again, because if they do, they will DIE". They give us internet-born kids too little credit.^ Realize that that's all they have to use.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I didn't realize that Anonymous was no longer anonymous.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They just didn't give a crap.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Charmin'
  • Adding radio-frequency identification and other sensors to everyday objects will create an Internet of Things, and lay the foundations of a new age of machine perception.^ Java Virtual Machine (Java is a new internet programming tool) .
    • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It uses FHSS technology—that is, it avoids interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after transmitting and receiving a packet.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Those types of things belong on E!, Style, or some other non-news outlet like Weekly World News.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Kevin Ashton, co-founder & executive director of MIT's Auto-ID Center
  • Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled piecemeal by pack rats and vandalized nightly.^ For my Honors Comp II course I'm doing a research paper with a comparison of The Battle of Algiers to Iraq, with an emphasis on the use of torture.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Center for Research Libraries Science and Technology Collection Topic Guide .
    • World Wide Web Resources: Titles 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Center for Research Libraries Top Guides: China .
    • World Wide Web Resources: Titles 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • We've all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will eventually reproduce the entire works of Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the Internet, we know this is not true. .
    • Robert Wilensky
  • When they say, "Gee, it's an information explosion!"—no, it's not an explosion, it's a disgorgement of the bowels is what it is.^ But they stay in the air.” He will provide no further information on the identities of the aircraft or why one of them is transmitting the emergency code.
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No Senate staff was on the trip, and the Obama camp says they received the Pentagon's directives on Wednesday, after they were already abroad.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Every idiotic thing that anybody could possibly write or say or think can get into the body politic now—where before things would have to have some merit to go through the publishing routine, now, anything.^ I also agree with Jeremy -- I think the multiple partners thing is also definitely tied into his desire to just get a lot of action, and I think he's right, it's a common fantasy (not one of mine)...
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Well we now know that the day before all Holiday weekends we can expect a brick to come through the windshield.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And no offense to tattooed people--I think they are cool if you like them, and I like them on other people, but I could never do something that permanent to my body.
    • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

    .And all you're getting is an explosion of useless crap, which added to the other useless crap that was being done originally, only makes it that much worse.^ New hosts, using only IPv6, can be added at any time, without dependencies on other hosts or routing infrastructure.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rather than having to deal with only one or two routers, all of a sudden you may be looking at a dozen or more hops.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you take that subnet mask and make all the bits in the third octet high .
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Why do people keep insisting that I join the twenty-first century? I live in the twenty-first century! .I just don't want to be bothered by the shitheads on the internet!^ They want to be asses, fine, they just don't get ten billion dollars a year or whatever from us any more.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are radical factions, and moderate factions, and a lot of people who don't care and just want to survive.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If addiction is judged by how long a dumb animal will sit pressing a lever to get a "fix" of something, to its own detriment, then I would conclude that netnews is far more addictive than cocaine.^ It would go a long way if you could source that claim to someone or something, because quite frankly it makes no sense.
    • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How long does it take for something bad to happen?
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How come there’s not a plane?’ I would have thought the building would have stopped it and somehow we would have seen something like part of, or half of the plane, or the lower part, or the back of the plane.
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Robert Stampfli
  • The Internet is Serious business.
    • General [M]ayhem catchphrase
  • The web is a network of computers connected by people who can't write sharing content created by people who can't compute for people who can't connect.^ Provides file and printer sharing among networks of Personal Computers (PCs).
    • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A pedestrian definition of VPN will be connecting two private networks through the public or shared network that is the Internet.
    • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Closed network of computers that uses similar technology to the Internet, such as Web servers and browsers, to make information available to controlled group of users.
    • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up internet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.The Internet is the worldwide "network of networks" that links millions of computers together via copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other telecommunications channels.^ In that time, it has evolved from an experimental technology used to hook together a handful of research computers, to the powerhouse of the largest and most complex computer network in history: the global Internet , connecting together millions of networks and end devices.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s, more and more machines and networks were connected to the evolving ARPAnet using TCP/IP protocols, and the TCP/IP Internet was born.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bluetooth belongs to a category of Short-Range Wireless (SRW) technologies originally intended to replace the cables connecting portable and fixed electronic devices.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks communicate using a set of protocols and standards, the most basic of which are TCP/IP.^ Used with IP and IPX protocols.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP protocols are not set up so that two machines that want to communicate use identical software.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most TCP/IP products use IP v4.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet and the World Wide Web are everywhere.^ World Wide Web Resources: Titles .
  • World Wide Web Resources: Titles 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World Wide Web - Westchester, NY .

They can provide answers to questions and hours of entertainment. .The Internet can allow people from all over the world to talk to each other.^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The people who came in the same year I did were all wonderful and we really helped each other.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ In fact, the Internet and TCP/IP are so closely related in their history that it is difficult to discuss one without also talking about the other.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But what exactly are the Internet and the World Wide Web?^ World Wide Web Resources: Titles .
  • World Wide Web Resources: Titles 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It also includes numerous high-level applications, some of which are well-known by Internet users who may not realize they are part of TCP/IP, such as HTTP (which runs the World Wide Web) and FTP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World Wide Web Consortium.
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

.This resource is intended to function as a general overview of the workings of the internet, which may cover social, economic, historical and other aspects.^ It is not appropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as ``working draft'' or ``work in progress.''
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the present converged world of IT, a working knowledge of IP and other related protocols are essential, and hopefully, we will be able to generate discussions in this column, on emerging technologies in the IP world.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cookie generation function must be fast to thwart attacks intended to sabotage CPU resources.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For a more detailed and step by step approach to learning about networking, consider visiting the topic on computer networking.^ And when I took forms with him as an undergraduate, I learned more in those months than I ever learned in my entire LIFE about writing.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ I discuss this issue in more detail in a topic devoted to protocols in the networking fundamentals chapter .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sections 2.3 and 2.4 provide more details about ISAKMP SAs.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

Contents

History

.The internet started out as a US Department of Defence project called APRANET, which slowly expanded with the integration of packet switching networks over circuit switching networks.^ The voice data flows over a general-purpose packet-switched network, instead of traditional dedicated, circuit-switched voice transmission lines.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the encapsulated packet reaches the mobile node's current network, the foreign agent decapsulates the packet and finds out the mobile node's home address.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, the Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) connection is established via signaling.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.APRANET could be considered the original heart of the internet, with additional bits and pieces being added on until certain standards were needed to unify them all.^ All Internet standards are written as RFCs.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ First of all, it will examine the size of the data that is stored in the original packet, and then it will create as many fragments as are needed to move the original packet's data across the smaller segment.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An additional non-information bit added to a group of bits to ensure that the total number of bits in the character is even or odd.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

These standards eventually came to be known as Protocols.
.As of July 2008, there were close to 600 million hosts connected to the world wide web, linked together by a series of switches and communication links.^ Transfers hypertext documents between hosts; implements the World Wide Web.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet is increasingly becoming a multimedia, application-rich environment, led by the huge popularity of the World Wide Web.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a set of protocols that serves the important task of linking together these two layers and allowing them to work together.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Protocols

.A protocol is a definition of the format and order of messages that are exchanged between 2 or more hosts.^ ISAKMP provides the protocol exchanges to establish a security association between negotiating entities followed by the establishment of a security association by these negotiating entities in behalf of some protocol (e.g.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This dictates the message and payload orderings in the ISAKMP exchanges.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ HDR is an ISAKMP header whose exchange type defines the payload orderings SA is an SA negotiation payload with one or more Proposal and Transform payloads.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example, if person A wanted to know the time from person B in England, person A may approach person B and ask "What is the time?". Person B may then reply with the current time.^ A typical access link may easily be run about 200 times slower than the LAN residing in the home or office (say, 512kbps for example).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some important things to note in this example is that both assume they will be communicating in English, and have a concept of time.^ In a corporate setting, for example, both parties in a negotiation must agree to the meaning of the term "proprietary information" before they can negotiate how to protect it.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In some ways they belong in both layer two and layer three, and in other ways neither.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I begin with a quick overview of the role of these two protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite, and a discussion of why they are both important.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While these are things that we as human beings may take for granted, machines have no idea what and how they will be communicating with each other until a set of rules is specified.^ And no offense to tattooed people--I think they are cool if you like them, and I like them on other people, but I could never do something that permanent to my body.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

^ All of these are necessary to es- tablish and maintain secure communications (via IP Security Ser- vice or any other security protocol) in an Internet environment.
  • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC faculty.cs.wwu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This suggests that implementations may consider retaining the last message (locally) until they are sure the SA is established.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As mentioned above, one of the most original and common protocols in use today is the TCP/IP protocol.^ One of the most important topics in any discussion of TCP/IP is IP addressing.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used with IP and IPX protocols.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Most TCP/IP products use IP v4.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.TCP/IP consists of the Transmission Control Protocol in conjuntion with the Internet Protocol.^ The network layer protocol of the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Also known as an Internet Protocol (IP) address.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ IPv4 is the current version of the Internet Protocol, the backbone of The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/ IP networking.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other protocols such as DHCP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IRC, MIME, POP3, SMTP, SSH, TELNET, RTP and many more help hold the whole thing together.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many discussions of multihoming focus on the details of implementation, using such techniques as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these protocols are not able to scale up to the quantity of routes that are found on the Internet backbone, and protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are more common in those environments.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Protocols are only a subset of the entire design of the internet.^ This concept is fundamental to the design nature of the Internet Protocol, and is the key to understanding how IP operates on complex networks.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conclusions The Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) is a well designed protocol aimed at the Internet of the future.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As the Internet grows and evolves, new payloads to support new security functionality can be added without modifying the entire protocol.
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.regenstrief.org [Source type: Reference]
  • rfc2408 - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Proposals for existing and new standards are made through Requests for Comments (RFCs), hosted by the Internet Engineering Task Force.^ Internet Engineering Task Force (governing body behind the internet protocols) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We provide this service in coordination with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Request For Comments - Documents that describe internet standards.
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

.RFCs are highly technical and detailed documents that specify each and every operation of the standard being proposed.^ Name has not been adopted by standards group, but is being discussed by ETSI. Operates over POTS and would be suitable for symmetric services to premises of individual customers.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Because of the highly vertical nature of this option, I suggest that people who are interested in using it should refer to RFC 1108, which deals with it in detail.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clause 28 of the IEEE 802.3u standard specifies MAC sublayer for identification of speed and duplex mode of connection being supported by device.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

Comments (hence the name) are sought after regarding the standard and the process carries on until most are satisfied. The standard is then published.

OSI Model

.A popular way to visualize the complexity of the Internet is to see it as a stack of layers known as the OSI model, short for Open Systems Interconnection model.^ The TCP/IP transport layer corresponds to the layer of the same name in the OSI model ( layer four ) but includes certain elements that are arguably part of the OSI session layer .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome to networking layer limbo, also known as OSI layer two-and-a-half.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specifically, it was encompassing both layer three and layer four activities (in terms of OSI Reference Model layer numbers ).
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

OSI Layers:
  • Layer 7: Application Layer – the main interface for the user(s) to interact with the application and therefore the network
  • Layer 6: Presentation Layer – transforms data to provide a standard interface for the Application layer
  • Layer 5: Session Layer – controls the dialogues (sessions) between computers
  • Layer 4: Transport Layer – provides transparent transfer of data between end users and machines
  • Layer 3: Network Layer – provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks
  • Layer 2: Data Link Layer – provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer
  • Layer 1: Physical Layer – defines all the electrical and physical specifications for devices and the communications media
See OSI model at Wikipedia for now

Learning projects

See also


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also internet

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Alternative spellings

Etymology

(1986) Coined by the U.S. Defense Department, shortening of internetwork.

Pronunciation

  • (RP) IPA: /ˈɪntəˌnɛt/, SAMPA: /"Int@%nEt/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈɪntɚˌnɛt/, /ˈɪɾ̃ɚˌnɛt/, SAMPA: /Int3`%nEt/, /"I4~%nEt/, enPR: ĭnʹtərnĕt'

Proper noun

Singular
Internet
Plural
-
Internet
  1. The specific internet consisting of a global network of computers that communicate using Internet Protocol (IP) and that use Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to identify the best paths to route those communications.

Usage notes

.
  • Usage in reference to the global network is normally capitalised, reserving internet with a lower-case i for any other set of computer networks connected by internetworking.
  • However popular usage (e.g.^ Node Any single computer connected to a network .
    • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ I Internet The global collective of computer networks.
    • World Wide Web / A Guide To Cyberspace - Dev Archives 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC archives.devshed.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Internet A global network connecting millions of computers.
    • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

    BBC and Timesonline) increasingly follows normal grammatical rules with a lower-case i.

Synonyms

Translations

Anagrams


Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Internet
Wikipedia fi

Etymology

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ˈin̪t̪e̞rne̞t̪]
  • Hyphenation: in‧ter‧net

Proper noun

Internet
  1. (Internet) the Internet

Declension

Synonyms

  • (colloquial) netti
  • (colloquial) verkko
  • (colloquial, imprecisely) veppi, weppi
  • (imprecisely) www

Icelandic

Wikipedia-logo.png
Icelandic Wikipedia has an article on:
Internet
Wikipedia is
EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. .If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.^ Note: you can still reference the original analysis page here.
  • Flight 77 and the Pentagon Crash - What Really Happened Here? 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.freedomfiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Cancel Submit Commented in: Nova Spivack - My Public Twine Add a Comment Please select a reason for reporting this page.
  • From "World Wide Web" to "Web Wide World" -- The Web Breaks Out of its Petri Dish | Twine 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.twine.com [Source type: General]

^ It is written according to a precise constraint, which I won't reveal here, but the author provides the answer if you follow the link at the bottom of the page.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. .If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!^ Note: All the applications offered are freely distributable, but if you feel that some packages might not belong here or want to have yours published, please contact me .
  • Instant Applications 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.instantapp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Proper noun

Internet
  1. (Internet) the Internet

Declension

Declension of Internet
(singular) (plural)
(indefinite) (definite) (indefinite) (definite)
nominative Internet Internetið Internet Internetin
accusative Internet Internetið Internet Internetin
dative Interneti Internetinu Internetum Internetunum
genitive Internets Internetsins Interneta Internetanna
Other words with the same declension

Synonyms

  • net, alnetið (very rare), Veraldarvefurinn (very rare)

Italian

Noun

Internet f. inv.
  1. Alternative form of internet.

Mandarin

Proper noun

Internet (Pinyin Internet, traditional and simplified Internet)
  1. Internet
    We are close to each other on the Internet though far apart.

Synonyms


Polish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Internet
Wikipedia pl
EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. .If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.^ Note: you can still reference the original analysis page here.
  • Flight 77 and the Pentagon Crash - What Really Happened Here? 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.freedomfiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Cancel Submit Commented in: Nova Spivack - My Public Twine Add a Comment Please select a reason for reporting this page.
  • From "World Wide Web" to "Web Wide World" -- The Web Breaks Out of its Petri Dish | Twine 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.twine.com [Source type: General]

^ It is written according to a precise constraint, which I won't reveal here, but the author provides the answer if you follow the link at the bottom of the page.
  • Worldwide Interweb Hobo Stew 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC bbs.tastytronic.net [Source type: General]

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /inˈtɛrnɛt/ or /intɛrˈnɛt/

Proper noun

Internet m.
  1. (Internet) the Internet

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Internet
Genitive Internetu
Dative Internetowi
Accusative Internet
Instrumental Internetem
Locative Internecie
Vocative Internecie

Derived terms


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Internet Technologies article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Scope

.This work is aimed at people already familiar with using the Internet, who want to know how and why it works.^ Who uses the Internet in China?
  • FRONTLINE: the tank man: the struggle to control information | PBS 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now you know how the Internet works.
  • How Does the Internet Work? 19 September 2009 16:14 UTC www.theshulers.com [Source type: General]

^ Explain well how internet works.
  • RFC 1180 (rfc1180) - TCP/IP tutorial 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This work isn't designed for programmers or others who want to make Internet technology.^ This whitepaper explains the underlying infrastructure and technologies that make the Internet work.
  • How Does the Internet Work? 19 September 2009 16:14 UTC www.theshulers.com [Source type: General]

^ The application protocols run "on top" of TCP/IP. That is, when they want to send a message, they give the message to TCP. TCP makes sure it gets delivered to the other end.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other political and social dimensions that enabled the Internet to come into existence and flourish are just as important as the technology upon which it is based.

.When we say technology we don't just mean the software and hardware, but also the human components which are an integral part of the overall system of the Internet.^ That year, CNRI requested permission from the Federal Networking Council to interconnect the commercial MCI Mail electronic mail system to the Internet as part of a general electronic mail interconnection experiment.

^ So this is just a friendly reminder for those of you who wish to visit the U.S.: Don’t post on the internet anything that might jeopardize your freedom to travel.
  • BLOG THIS | blog.thismagazine.ca: Interweb Archives 25 September 2009 1:32 UTC blog.thismagazine.ca [Source type: General]

^ Other political and social dimensions that enabled the Internet to come into existence and flourish are just as important as the technology upon which it is based.

Contents

  1. The Internet
    1. Domain names
    2. Web hosting
    3. Routing
    4. Protocols
    5. History and evolution
  2. The Web
    1. History of the Web
    2. Routing the Web
    3. HTML and CSS
    4. Embedded technologies
    5. Proxy servers
    6. Search engine
    7. Web advertising
    8. Online shopping
  3. Email
    1. History of email
    2. Routing email
    3. Email headers
    4. Email spam
    5. Email security
  4. Usenet
    1. History of Usenet
    2. Routing Usenet
    3. How newsgroups are created
    4. Usenet spam
    5. Future of Usenet
  5. IRC
    1. History of IRC
    2. Routing IRC
  6. Remote Access
    1. Telnet
    2. SSH
    3. VNC
    4. Remote Desktop Connection
    5. Wireless connnectivity

Related books


Simple English

The Internet is a large group of computers that are connected to each other. The internet is used to send information quickly between computers around the world. It has millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry lots of different information and services.

Contents

History

The Internet was created in the United States by the "United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency" (known as DARPA). It was first connected in October, 1969.[1] The World Wide Web was created at CERN in Switzerland in 1989 by a British (UK) man named Tim Berners-Lee.

Today, people can pay a fee to access the Internet from Internet Service Providers. Some services on the Internet cost nothing to use. Sometimes the people who offer these free services use advertising to make money from them. The alternative (other) name, "Net" came from "inter(net)".

Services on the Internet

The Internet is used for many things, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

The most used service on the Internet is the World Wide Web (which is also called the "Web"). The Web contains websites, blogs, and also wikis - including Wikipedia. Webpages on the Web can be seen and read by anyone (unless the page needs a password, or it is blocked).

The second major use of the Internet is to send and receive e-mail. E-mail is private and goes from one user to another. Instant messaging (such as AIM or ICQ) is similar to email, but allows two or more people to chat to each other much faster.

Some governments consider the Internet to be a bad thing, and block all or part of it. For example, the Chinese government thinks that Wikipedia is bad. Many times no one in China can read it or add to it.[2] Some parents block parts of the Internet they think are bad for children to see. Well-known examples of the whole Internet being blocked are in North Korea[3] and Myanmar.

Dangers on the Internet

The Internet can also be a dangerous place. Information people put on the Internet is not always checked, and some may be not true. Some may even be harmful. Also, if you send information through the internet, sometimes other people can read it even when they are not supposed to. For example, Facebook has had some problems with privacy settings. Posting any information about yourself on a website is often a bad idea unless you are very sure what you are doing. A good way to check for a secure website is to make sure the url starts with https:// instead of http://, this means it is a secure site. (This only stops other people from reading what you type. It does not mean the website is safe)

  • Some websites may trick people into downloading viruses that can harm a computer or spyware that spies on its users (looks at what they are doing and tells someone else). E-mails can also have harmful files with them as "attachments".[4]
  • In Internet Chatrooms, people might be preying on others or trying to stalk or abuse them.

Other pages

References

rue:Інтернет


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on World Wide Web, which are similar to those in the above article.








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