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The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
.IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses.^ Internet addresses distinguish sources and destinations to the host level and provide a protocol field as well.
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • RFC791 - Internet Protocol_�й�Э�������� 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cnpaf.net [Source type: Reference]
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The TCP/IP "Stack" The layer 3 Internet Protocol resides in the middle of the TCP/IP stack.
  • Internet Protocol Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

^ IP addressing – The IP addressing conventions are part of the IP protocol.
  • Introducing the Internet Protocol Suite (System Administration Guide: IP Services) - Sun Microsystems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

.For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation.^ IP address See Internet Protocol Address .

^ The Internet protocol deals primarily with addresses.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The internet protocol deals primarily with addresses.
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • RFC791 - Internet Protocol_�й�Э�������� 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cnpaf.net [Source type: Reference]
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.^ IP address See Internet Protocol Address .

^ IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the name given to the next generation of the Internet Protocol.
  • Technology - IPv6 - The Next Generation Internet Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.lokvani.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internet Protocol version 4 (IP) .
  • Internet_Protocol - The Wireshark Wiki 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC wiki.wireshark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Internet Protocol Suite
Application Layer
BGP · DHCP · DNS · FTP · GTP · HTTP · IMAP · IRC · Megaco · MGCP · NNTP · NTP · POP · RIP · RPC · RTP · RTSP · SDP · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SOAP · SSH · Telnet · TLS/SSL · XMPP · (more)
Transport Layer
TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RSVP · ECN · (more)
Internet Layer
IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · ICMPv6 · IGMP · IPsec · (more)
Link Layer
ARP/InARP · NDP · OSPF · Tunnels (L2TP) · PPP · Media Access Control (Ethernet, DSL, ISDN, FDDI) · (more)

Contents

IP encapsulation

.Data from an upper layer protocol is encapsulated as packets/datagrams (the terms are basically synonymous in IP).^ Data from an upper layer protocol is encapsulated inside one or more packets/datagrams (the terms are basically synonymous in IP).
  • Internet Protocol How To | Internet Protocol | Internet Protocol Security | Internet Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.iphowto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Protocol —Indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after IP processing is complete.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

.Circuit setup is not needed before a host may send packets to another host that it has previously not communicated with (a characteristic of packet-switched networks), thus IP is a connectionless protocol.^ IP is a "connection-less" communication protocol.
  • TCP/IP Introduction 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.w3schools.com [Source type: General]

^ Source Address: IP address of the host sending the packet.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ When one host has data to send to another host, it sends it to its local IP process, which builds an IP packet for transmission on the network.

.This is in contrast to public switched telephone networks that require the setup of a circuit for each phone call (connection-oriented protocol).^ The network connecting devices are called Gateways.
  • RFC 0792 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most protocols are connection oriented.
  • How Does the Internet Work? 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.theshulers.com [Source type: General]

^ This protocol was called the NCP (Network Control Protocol).
  • Internet Protocol Suite (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

Services provided by IP

.Because of the abstraction provided by encapsulation, IP can be used over a heterogeneous network, i.e., a network connecting computers may consist of a combination of Ethernet, ATM, FDDI, Wi-Fi, token ring, or others.^ Will the cable providers "break" the IP network?
  • One nation under Internet Protocol - CNET News 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • One nation under Internet Protocol - CNET News 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Internet Protocol can be used on heterogeneous networks, meaning that information can travel over any combination of Ethernet, ATM, Wi-Fi, Token Ring, and many other types of networks.
  • White Paper: Internet Protocol | Maximum PC 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ In this way, TCP/IP can be used to connect differing network types.

.Each link layer implementation may have its own method of addressing (or possibly the complete lack of it), with a corresponding need to resolve IP addresses to data link addresses.^ IP layer pass TOS to link layer |2.4 |x| .
  • RFC 1122 - Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication Layers 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The IP layer may also (3) implement intentional fragmentation of outgoing datagrams.
  • RFC 1122 - Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication Layers 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each network has its own IP network address.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

.This address resolution is handled by the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for IPv4 and Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) for IPv6.^ Tags: Internet Protocol , IPv4 , IPv6 , web addresses .
  • Internet is running out of Web addresses | ISEdb.COM 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC isedb.com [Source type: News]

^ DOD Testing Next-Gen Internet Protocol October 17, 2003 While the currently used IPv4 addresses are 32 bits in length, the move to IPv6 represents an exponential increase in the number of possible addresses, which are 128 bits in length.
  • Technology News: Future Tech: Scientists Develop Breakthrough Internet Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.technewsworld.com [Source type: News]

^ Related Protocols IPv6 , TCP , UDP , ICMP , SNMP , FTP , TELNET , SMTP , ARP , RARP Sponsor Source The Internet Protocol (IP/IPv4) is defined by IETF ( http://www.ietf.org ) RFC 791 .
  • IP/IPv4: Internet Protocol Overview (RFC 791) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.javvin.com [Source type: Reference]

Reliability

.The design principles of the Internet protocols assume that the network infrastructure is inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and that it is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes.^ The design philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols .
  • The design philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC doi.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Internet Protocol Suite (Linktionary term) .
  • Internet Protocol Suite (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet network protocols .

.No central monitoring or performance measurement facility exists that tracks or maintains the state of the network.^ Improves the performance of existing IP networks.
  • Rivulet Communications Awarded Patent for its Packet QoS System for Internet Protocol Networks 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.prweb.com [Source type: General]

^ The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) gives the network administrator a method to remove the end user from this configuration problem and maintain the network configuration in a centralized location.
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC publib.boulder.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They typically store this data themselves and use it for billing, marketing, customer service, maintaining their networks and for quality of service monitoring.
  • Internet Protocol « Completely… 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC writetoreply.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the benefit of reducing network complexity, the intelligence in the network is purposely mostly located in the end nodes of each data transmission, cf.^ The Internet is designed according to an end-to-end principle: The bulk of its intelligence is located at the ends of its transmission paths; the routers in between simply forward packets to the next closest gateway based on the ultimate destination’s address.
  • White Paper: Internet Protocol | Maximum PC 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ Because voice networks are approximately four to five times more expensive than data networks, converting to VoIP eliminates the voice network, thus dramatically reducing costs.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Internet Telephony Protocols | July 1, 1999 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SSL (Secure Socket Layer)     A protocol that secures transmissions across IP networks by encrypting data.
  • Internet Protocol Suite (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

end-to-end principle. .Routers in the transmission path simply forward packets to next known local gateway matching the routing prefix for the destination address.^ The Internet is designed according to an end-to-end principle: The bulk of its intelligence is located at the ends of its transmission paths; the routers in between simply forward packets to the next closest gateway based on the ultimate destination’s address.
  • White Paper: Internet Protocol | Maximum PC 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ The selection of a path for transmission is called routing .
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Destination address is where the packet should get delivered to.
  • Internet Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.trumpetpower.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence of this design, the Internet Protocol only provides best effort delivery and its service can also be characterized as unreliable.^ This best-effort delivery scheme where delivery is not guaranteed is called unreliable transport .
  • Net Surfing With IP Protocol - O'Reilly Media 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.oreillynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISP Internet service provider .
  • Internet Protocol « Completely… 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC writetoreply.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The design philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols .
  • The design philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC doi.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

.In network architectural language it is a connection-less protocol, in contrast to so-called connection-oriented modes of transmission.^ IP is a "connection-less" communication protocol.
  • TCP/IP Introduction 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.w3schools.com [Source type: General]

^ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This protocol was called the NCP (Network Control Protocol).
  • Internet Protocol Suite (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

The lack of reliability allows any of the following fault events to occur:
  • data corruption
  • lost data packets
  • duplicate arrival
  • out-of-order packet delivery; meaning, if packet 'A' is sent before packet 'B', packet 'B' may arrive before packet 'A'. Since routing is dynamic and there is no memory in the network about the path of prior packets, it is possible that the first packet sent takes a longer path to its destination.
.The only assistance that the Internet Protocol provides in Version 4 (IPv4) is to ensure that the IP packet header is error-free through computation of a checksum at the routing nodes.^ IP address See Internet Protocol Address .

^ Internet Protocol (IP ) was also on the upswing in 2007.

^ Starent provides mobile Internet Protocol IP gear.
  • mobile internet protocol Resources | ZDNet 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.This has the side-effect of discarding packets with bad headers on the spot.^ Checksum: RFC-791 Section 3.1 A host MUST verify the IP header checksum on every received datagram and silently discard every datagram that has a bad checksum.
  • RFC 1122 - Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication Layers 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

.In this case no notification is required to be sent to either end node, although a facility exists in the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to do so.^ Errors Internet protocol errors may be reported via the ICMP messages [3].
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For such purposes this protocol, the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), is used.
  • RFC 0792 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet protocol errors may be reported via the ICMP messages.
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.IPv6, on the other hand, has abandoned the use of IP header checksums for the benefit of rapid forwarding through routing elements in the network.^ ICMP uses IP for routing.
  • Warshawsky's Internet Glossary 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cybox.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A compatible address, on the other hand, is an IPv6 address that is meant to be used when communicating with an IPv4 network.
  • Internet Protocol version 6 - Hill2dot0 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TCP uses IP for routing.
  • Warshawsky's Internet Glossary 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cybox.com [Source type: Reference]

.The resolution or correction of any of these reliability issues is the responsibility of an upper layer protocol.^ Upper layers are responsible for insuring reliable reception of packets.
  • Under the hood of the Internet: An overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.acm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher layer protocols address these issues (to a certain extent).
  • Voice over IP Protocols for voice transmission 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.erlang.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In any event, it is the responsibility of upper-layer protocols—such as TCP—to correct reliability issues, such as data corruption, lost or duplicate packets, and out-of-order packet delivery.
  • White Paper: Internet Protocol | Maximum PC 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

.For example, to ensure in-order delivery the upper layer may have to cache data until it can be passed to the application.^ Ensure cost effective application delivery.
  • Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) May Soon Go Mainstream - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

^ Data —Contains upper-layer information.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from sender to receiver.
  • Internet Protocol Suite | Web Page Design | Webuddha.com 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.webuddha.com [Source type: Reference]

.In addition to issues of reliability, this dynamic nature and the diversity of the Internet and its components provide no guarantee that any particular path is actually capable of, or suitable for performing the data transmission requested, even if the path is available and reliable.^ The TCP provides reliable transmission of data in an IP environment.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transmission Control Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) standard is defined in the Request For Comment (RFC) standards document number 793 [10] by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), ...
  • Internet TCP/IP protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

^ Because of this, Internet Protocol provides only what’s known as “best effort delivery,” meaning that it does not guarantee that data will be delivered or that the user can expect any particular quality of service.
  • White Paper: Internet Protocol | Maximum PC 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

.One of the technical constraints is the size of data packets allowed on a given link.^ IP packets are handed over to a data link layer protocol, such as Ethernet, for the actual, physical transmission to the next node in the network path.
  • Internet Protocol Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

^ WCF library layering in Silverlight 4 has been updated to allow application (XAP) size to be optimized given the protocols that are actually used: .
  • Tomek on Software 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tomasz.janczuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Example 2 In this example, we show first a moderate size internet datagram (452 data octets), then two internet fragments that might result from the fragmentation of this datagram if the maximum sized transmission allowed were 280 octets.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

.An application must assure that it uses proper transmission characteristics.^ Furthermore, the web site within which the web application resides must provide net.tcp protocol binding that allows connections using desired TCP port numbers.
  • Tomek on Software 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tomasz.janczuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any Voice over IP transmission must use IP (by definition).
  • Voice over IP Protocols for voice transmission 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.erlang.com [Source type: Reference]

^ LDAP is frequently used for consistency in situations where a variety of vendor applications must access a database.

.Some of this responsibility lies also in the upper layer protocols between application and IP. Facilities exist to examine the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of the local link, as well as for the entire projected path to the destination when using IPv6. The IPv4 internetworking layer has the capability to automatically fragment the original datagram into smaller units for transmission.^ An Example Fragmentation Procedure The maximum sized datagram that can be transmitted through the next network is called the maximum transmission unit (MTU).
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are many Applications layer protocols, some of which you probably already use.
  • Introducing the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP Network Administration Guide) - Sun Microsystems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this case, IP does provide re-ordering of fragments delivered out-of-order.^ A datagram can also be delivered out of order.
  • Net Surfing With IP Protocol - O'Reilly Media 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.oreillynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VoiP provider Truphone makes every call local VentureBeat If you're a frequent border-hopper, you may want to check out Truphone.
  • Voice over Internet Protocol Computer Phones VOIP Requirements For Voice over Internet Protocol Voip 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.voip.dovada.net.au [Source type: General]

^ The IP layer does not provide any type of flow-control or sequencing capabilities—that's left to the upper layers.
  • Networking 101: Understanding the Internet Protocol - www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a protocol that will adjust its segment size to be smaller than the MTU. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) disregard MTU size thereby forcing IP to fragment oversized datagrams.^ Errors Internet protocol errors may be reported via the ICMP messages [3].
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Within the Internet Protocol, data is carried by the TCP, UDP etc.
  • Internet Control Message Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.vijaymukhi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the document that defines IP is RFC0791: Internet Protocol.

[2]

IP addressing and routing

.Perhaps the most complex aspects of IP are IP addressing and routing.^ Most notably, the new version is expected to greatly increase the number of available IP addresses, which are used for sources and destinations on the Internet.
  • RTI study pegs Internet protocol transfer cost at $25B in U.S. - Triangle Business Journal: 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC triangle.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ As the packets go upwards through the stack, all routing data that the sending computer's stack added (such as IP address and port number) is stripped from the packets.
  • How Does the Internet Work? 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.theshulers.com [Source type: General]

^ IP addresses are a Departmental resource that must be managed to ensure that the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) achieves greater assignment and routing efficiencies.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.ocio.usda.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Addressing refers to how end hosts become assigned IP addresses and how subnetworks of IP host addresses are divided and grouped together.^ IP address and the assigned IP address.
  • Method and computer program product for automatically generating an internet protocol (IP) address - Patent 6101499 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Destination address The IP address of the destination host.
  • Voice over IP Protocols for voice transmission 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.erlang.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The number of Host (or device) Addresses assigned; .
  • Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.ocio.usda.gov [Source type: Reference]

IP routing is performed by all hosts, but most importantly by internetwork routers, which typically use either interior gateway protocols (IGPs) or external gateway protocols (EGPs) to help make IP datagram forwarding decisions across IP connected networks

Version history

In May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection."[3] The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes. .A central control component of this model was the "Transmission Control Program" (TCP) that incorporated both connection-oriented links and datagram services between hosts.^ TCP is a connection-oriented, reliable, byte stream service.
  • CS349 Introduction to E-commerce: lecture 4 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC cs.wellesley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host.
  • RFC 0792 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

.The monolithic Transmission Control Program was later divided into a modular architecture consisting of the Transmission Control Protocol at the connection-oriented layer and the Internet Protocol at the internetworking (datagram) layer.^ The layer is implemented by two protocols: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

^ "Abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet.
  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol@Everything2.com 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Transmission Control Protocol," RFC 793 .
  • The Internet Protocol. Part One: TheFoundations 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.acm.org [Source type: Reference]

.The model became known informally as TCP/IP, although formally it was henceforth referenced as the Internet Protocol Suite.^ IP address See Internet Protocol Address .

^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP TCP/IP protocol forum .

.The Internet Protocol is one of the determining elements that define the Internet.^ These protocols are defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and can be found at http://www.rfc-editor.org .
  • Implementing Internet Protocols with PHP 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.devshed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmission Control Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) standard is defined in the Request For Comment (RFC) standards document number 793 [10] by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), ...
  • Internet TCP/IP protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

^ 'Internet Protocols' is an industry term describing the standards used in defining common interfaces for information exchange in and between heterogeneous networks.
  • Internet Protocols SP03 | GSAPPonline 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.arch.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Internet Protocols SP03 | GSAPPonline 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.arch.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The dominant internetworking protocol (Internet Layer) in use today is IPv4; with number 4 assigned as the formal protocol version number carried in every IP datagram.^ IP address See Internet Protocol Address .

^ The TCP/IP Application Layer protocols support the applications and utilities that are the Internet.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Download this chapter Internet Protocols (IP) .
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

.IPv4 is described in RFC-791 (1981).^ The current version of the Internet Protocol (known as IP version 4 or IPv4) has not been substantially changed since 1981, when the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) published the definitive specification of IP (RFC 791).
  • Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) and Internet Communication 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IP/ICMP/ARP etc.: RFC 791 - INTERNET PROTOCOL. September 1981.
  • Infos about the Internet Protocol (Version 4) and more 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC mark.doll.name [Source type: Reference]

^ RFC 2176 ] IPv4 over MAPOS Version 1.Describes how IP is encapsulated in MAPOS. [ RFC 2225 ] Classical IP and ARP over ATM.Obsoletes: RFC 1577 , RFC 1626 .
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

.The successor to IPv4 is IPv6.^ IPv6 -- (Internet Protocol, version 6) The successor to IPv4 .
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.Its most prominent modification from Version 4 is the addressing system.^ Most notably, the new version is expected to greatly increase the number of available IP addresses, which are used for sources and destinations on the Internet.
  • RTI study pegs Internet protocol transfer cost at $25B in U.S. - Triangle Business Journal: 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC triangle.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ The most recent concept addressed the fact that in today's cars up to 70 embedded computers are networked by a host of different networking systems including CAN, LIN, MOST and Flexray.
  • EETimes.com - BMW brings Internet Protocol under the hood 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC eetimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The original version of RIP was unable to use VLSMs, which kept administrators from slicing and dicing address space to make the most efficient use of limited IP addresses.

.IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses (c.^ Each internet address is 32 bits or 4 octets.
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]
  • RFC791 - Internet Protocol_�й�Э�������� 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cnpaf.net [Source type: Reference]
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Address mask A 32-bit mask.
  • Protocol: ICMP ( Internet Control Message Protocol ) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Destination Address: 32 bits The destination address.
  • RFC791 - Internet Protocol_�й�Э�������� 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cnpaf.net [Source type: Reference]
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.4 billion, or 4.3×10 9, addresses) while IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses (c.^ As a result, if they want to use a remote connection, and if their server’s name is, for example, TestServer with IP address 10.1.1.10, they try to use the connection string option: “Data Source=(TestServer)” or “Data Source=(10.1.1.10)”.
  • SQL Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ A compatible address, on the other hand, is an IPv6 address that is meant to be used when communicating with an IPv4 network.
  • Internet Protocol version 6 - Hill2dot0 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key to subnetting is to use some of the host bits for the subnet address.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

.340 undecillion, or 3.4×10 38 addresses).^ That's 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (about 3.4*10^38, I think) addresses, which can give each square millimeter on the earth hundreds of thousands.
  • Internet Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.ardenstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although adoption of IPv6 has been slow, as of June 2008, all United States government systems have demonstrated basic infrastructure support for IPv6 (if only at the backbone level).^ In November 2007, the Federal Communications Commission in the United States released an order extending number portability obligations to interconnected VoIP providers and carriers that support VoIP providers.
  • Internet Telephones - VoIP - Learn How to Save with Free Internet Telephone Service! 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC internet-telephones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All protocol messaging is performed using either IPv4 or IPv6 multicast datagrams, thus the protocol can operate over a variety of multiaccess LAN technologies supporting IPvX multicast.
  • draft-ietf-vrrp-unified-spec-05 - Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dual protocol stacks (IPv4 and IPv6) are being implemented in devices all over the Internet to support the changeover.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) (Linktionary term) 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.linktionary.com [Source type: Reference]

[4]
.Version numbers 0 through 3 were development versions of IPv4 used between 1977 and 1979.^ Most notably, the new version is expected to greatly increase the number of available IP addresses, which are used for sources and destinations on the Internet.
  • RTI study pegs Internet protocol transfer cost at $25B in U.S. - Triangle Business Journal: 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC triangle.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ No other connection between Alice and Bob will use this same random large number, so it’s a way for the two of them to keep their separate conversations…well…separate.
  • Internet Protocols 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.trumpetpower.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all thatlies in between.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.Version number 5 was used by the Internet Stream Protocol (IST), an experimental stream protocol.^ Internet Protocol, version 4 or 6 .
  • Internet Protocol Suite - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 - Hill2dot0 .
  • Internet Protocol version 6 - Hill2dot0 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Parameters .
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

.Version numbers 6 through 9 were proposed for various protocol models designed to replace IPv4: SIPP (Simple Internet Protocol Plus, known now as IPv6), TP/IX (RFC 1475), PIP (RFC 1621) and TUBA (TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses, RFC 1347).^ Within the Internet Protocol, data is carried by the TCP, UDP etc.
  • Internet Control Message Protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.vijaymukhi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RFC 2529 – IPv6 over IPv4 (6to4) .
  • Microsoft Open Specification Promise 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet Protocol version 6 .
  • Internet Protocol version 6 - Hill2dot0 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Version number 6 was eventually chosen as the official assignment for the successor Internet protocol, subsequently standardized as IPv6.^ IPv6 , Internet Protocol version 6.

^ Internet Protocol, version 4 or 6 .
  • Internet Protocol Suite - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IPv6 internet protocol for the world .
  • IPv6 internet protocol for the world | Net4Now - Net news you can use 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.net4now.com [Source type: General]

.A humorous Request for Comments that made an IPv9 protocol center of its storyline was published on April 1, 1994 by the IETF.^ Transmission Control Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) standard is defined in the Request For Comment (RFC) standards document number 793 [10] by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), ...
  • Internet TCP/IP protocol 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

^ The telnet protocol, enabling logging on to a remote computer, was published as a Request for Comments (RFC) in 1972.
  • The Daily Star - Spotlight - A brief history of the internet 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC dailystar.com.lb [Source type: General]

^ Internet time code protocols are defined by a series of documents called Request for Comments, or RFCs.
  • NIST Internet Time Service 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC tf.nist.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] It was intended as an April Fool's Day joke.

Reference diagrams

Internet Protocol Suite in operation between two hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop
Sample encapsulation of application data from UDP to a Link protocol frame

See also

Main lists: List of basic internet topics and List of Internet topics

References

  1. ^ Siyan, Karanjit. Inside TCP/IP, New Riders Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-56205-714-6
  2. ^ Basic Journey of a Packet
  3. ^ Vinton G. Cerf, Robert E. Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 22, No. 5, May 1974 pp. 637-648
  4. ^ CIO council adds to IPv6 transition primer
  5. ^ RFC 1606: A Historical Perspective On The Usage Of IP Version 9. April 1, 1994.

External links


Internet Protocol Suite
Application Layer

BGP

  1. REDIRECT template:· DHCP
  2. REDIRECT template:· DNS
  3. REDIRECT template:· FTP
  4. REDIRECT template:· HTTP
  5. REDIRECT template:· IMAP
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  8. REDIRECT template:· MGCP
  9. REDIRECT template:· NNTP
  10. REDIRECT template:· NTP
  11. REDIRECT template:· POP
  12. REDIRECT template:· RIP
  13. REDIRECT template:· RPC
  14. REDIRECT template:· RTP
  15. REDIRECT template:· SIP
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  17. REDIRECT template:· SNMP
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Transport Layer

TCP

  1. REDIRECT template:· UDP
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Internet Layer

IP (IPv4, IPv6)

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  2. REDIRECT template:· ICMPv6
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(more)
Link Layer

ARP/InARP

  1. REDIRECT template:· NDP
  2. REDIRECT template:· OSPF
  3. REDIRECT template:· Tunnels (L2TP)
  4. REDIRECT template:· PPP
  5. REDIRECT template:· Media Access Control (Ethernet, DSL, ISDN, FDDI)Template:· (more)

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams (packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet.

IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose, IP defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet Protocol Suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

The first major version of IP, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is in active, growing deployment worldwide.

Contents

Services provided by IP

The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to the destination host across one or more IP networks. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines an addressing system that has two functions. Addresses identify hosts and provide a logical location service. Each packet is tagged with a header that contains the meta-data for the purpose of delivery. This process of tagging is also called encapsulation.

IP is a connectionless protocol and does not need circuit setup prior to transmission.

Reliability

The design principles of the Internet protocols assume that the network infrastructure is inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and that it is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes. No central monitoring or performance measurement facility exists that tracks or maintains the state of the network. For the benefit of reducing network complexity, the intelligence in the network is purposely mostly located in the end nodes of each data transmission, cf. end-to-end principle. Routers in the transmission path simply forward packets to the next known local gateway matching the routing prefix for the destination address.

As a consequence of this design, the Internet Protocol only provides best effort delivery and its service can also be characterized as unreliable. In network architectural language it is a connection-less protocol, in contrast to so-called connection-oriented modes of transmission. The lack of reliability allows any of the following fault events to occur:

  • data corruption
  • lost data packets
  • duplicate arrival
  • out-of-order packet delivery; meaning, if packet 'A' is sent before packet 'B', packet 'B' may arrive before packet 'A'. Since routing is dynamic and there is no memory in the network about the path of prior packets, it is possible that the first packet sent takes a longer path to its destination.

The only assistance that the Internet Protocol provides in Version 4 (IPv4) is to ensure that the IP packet header is error-free through computation of a checksum at the routing nodes. This has the side-effect of discarding packets with bad headers on the spot. In this case no notification is required to be sent to either end node, although a facility exists in the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to do so.

IPv6, on the other hand, has abandoned the use of IP header checksums for the benefit of rapid forwarding through routing elements in the network.

The resolution or correction of any of these reliability issues is the responsibility of an upper layer protocol. For example, to ensure in-order delivery the upper layer may have to cache data until it can be passed to the application.

In addition to issues of reliability, this dynamic nature and the diversity of the Internet and its components provide no guarantee that any particular path is actually capable of, or suitable for, performing the data transmission requested, even if the path is available and reliable. One of the technical constraints is the size of data packets allowed on a given link. An application must assure that it uses proper transmission characteristics. Some of this responsibility lies also in the upper layer protocols between application and IP. Facilities exist to examine the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of the local link, as well as for the entire projected path to the destination when using IPv6. The IPv4 internetworking layer has the capability to automatically fragment the original datagram into smaller units for transmission. In this case, IP does provide re-ordering of fragments delivered out-of-order.[1]

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a protocol that will adjust its segment size to be smaller than the MTU. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) disregard MTU size thereby forcing IP to fragment oversized datagrams.[2]

IP addressing and routing

Perhaps the most complex aspects of IP are IP addressing and routing. Addressing refers to how end hosts become assigned IP addresses and how subnetworks of IP host addresses are divided and grouped together. IP routing is performed by all hosts, but most importantly by internetwork routers, which typically use either interior gateway protocols (IGPs) or external gateway protocols (EGPs) to help make IP datagram forwarding decisions across IP connected networks.

Version history

In May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection."[3] The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes. A central control component of this model was the "Transmission Control Program" (TCP) that incorporated both connection-oriented links and datagram services between hosts. The monolithic Transmission Control Program was later divided into a modular architecture consisting of the Transmission Control Protocol at the connection-oriented layer and the Internet Protocol at the internetworking (datagram) layer. The model became known informally as TCP/IP, although formally it was henceforth referenced as the Internet Protocol Suite.

The Internet Protocol is one of the determining elements that define the Internet. The dominant internetworking protocol in the Internet Layer in use today is IPv4; with number 4 assigned as the formal protocol version number carried in every IP datagram. IPv4 is described in RFC 791 (1981).

The successor to IPv4 is IPv6. Its most prominent modification from version 4 is the addressing system. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses (c. 4 billion, or 4.3×109, addresses) while IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses (c. 340 undecillion, or 3.4×1038 addresses). Although adoption of IPv6 has been slow, as of June 2008, all United States government systems have demonstrated basic infrastructure support for IPv6 (if only at the backbone level).[4]

Version numbers 0 through 3 were development versions of IPv4 used between 1977 and 1979.[citation needed] Version number 5 was used by the Internet Stream Protocol, an experimental streaming protocol. Version numbers 6 through 9 were proposed for various protocol models designed to replace IPv4: SIPP (Simple Internet Protocol Plus, known now as IPv6), TP/IX (RFC 1475), PIP (RFC 1621) and TUBA (TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses, RFC 1347). Version number 6 was eventually chosen as the official assignment for the successor Internet protocol, subsequently standardized as IPv6.

A humorous Request for Comments that made an IPv9 protocol center of its storyline was published on April 1, 1994 by the IETF.[5] It was intended as an April Fool's Day joke. Other protocol proposals named "IPv9" and "IPv8" have also briefly surfaced, though these came with little or no support from the wider industry and academia.[6]

Reference diagrams

File:IP stack
Internet Protocol Suite in operation between two hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop
File:UDP
Sample encapsulation of application data from UDP to a Link protocol frame

See also

References

  1. ^ Siyan, Karanjit. Inside TCP/IP, New Riders Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-56205-714-6
  2. ^ Basic Journey of a Packet
  3. ^ Vinton G. Cerf, Robert E. Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 22, No. 5, May 1974 pp. 637-648
  4. ^ CIO council adds to IPv6 transition primer, gcn.com
  5. ^ RFC 1606: A Historical Perspective On The Usage Of IP Version 9. April 1, 1994.
  6. ^ Theregister.com

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Noun

  1. (Internet) One of the computer networking protocols that are antecedents or descendants of that specified by the IETF STD005, "INTERNET PROTOCOL"; all of which are characterized by providing routable internetwork addressing and by being packet-switched, unreliable, and connectionless.
  2. (Internet) The most widely used of these protocols, IPv4.

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ Distributions eliminate the need for a developer to locate, download, compile, install and integrate a large number of necessary components into a working GNU/Linux system.
  • Free Protocols Foundation - PLPC-100102: Libre Services Concept -- Technical Version 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.freeprotocols.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In this instance, the number of subnets listed in the tables needs to be reduced by two in each case.

^ The internet fragmentation and reassembly procedure needs to be able to break a datagram into an almost arbitrary number of pieces that can be later reassembled.
  • The Internet Protocol indexed by doug@mscs.mu.edu 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC spectral.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • RFC791 - Internet Protocol_�й�Э�������� 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.cnpaf.net [Source type: Reference]
  • http://asg.andrew.cmu.edu/andrew2/rfc/rfc791.html 22 January 2010 19:52 UTC asg.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Related terms


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Internet Protocol, which are similar to those in the above article.








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