Internet Protocol Suite: Wikis

  
  

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The Internet Protocol Suite
Application Layer
BGP · DHCP · DNS · FTP · GTP · HTTP · IMAP · IRC · Megaco · MGCP · NNTP · NTP · POP · RIP · RPC · RTP · RTSP · SDP · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SOAP · SSH · Telnet · TLS/SSL · XMPP · (more)
Transport Layer
TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RSVP · ECN · OSPF · (more)
Internet Layer
IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · ICMPv6 · IGMP · IPsec · (more)
Link Layer
ARP/InARP · NDP · Tunnels (L2TP) · PPP · Media Access Control (Ethernet, DSL, ISDN, FDDI) · (more)
.The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks.^ ARP: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a network maintenance protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (Ipv4) provides the basic communication mechanism of the TCP/IP suite and the global Internet.

^ TCP/IP is a set of data communications mechanisms, embodied in software, that let you use the Internet and countless other private networks.
  • The ABCs of TCP/IP > What Is TCP/IP? 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.ciscopress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.^ TCP-IP - The basic protocols controlling applications on the Intn the Internet it stands for "transmission control protocol/Internet protocol" .
  • MyIpnote - Dynamic IP Notification Software. Network Management and Enterprise Systems web-based online ip monitor. - LAN/WAN Terms Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myipnote.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first step in Internet connectivity is the Internet Protocol (IP).
  • Extron Electronics - Class Session: Internet Protocol (IP 101) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.extron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this lesson, you will be able to: Define the TCP/IP protocol.
  • Lesson 2: TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks), which emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.^ The World Wide Web & the “www” in front of your domain name .

^ A Router connects multiple networks together, such as a local network and the Internet.
  • Network Information TCP/IP Protocols Cable Glossary - Advanced Horizons 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.ahinc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ MAC is most widely used in reference to Local Area Networks (LANs).
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

.The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers.^ The Internet Protocol is the postcard layer of the Internet.

^ Layers in the Internet Protocol suite .
  • Internet protocol suite - Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC internet.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bridge-like internet protocol router .
  • TCP/IP header compression X.25 networks - Google Patent Search 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

.Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers.^ Protocol Suite - a set of protocols used to provide a complete set of communication services.
  • Network Protocols 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ How to use the NAFEM Data Protocol .
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ HTTP in turn uses services provided by lower-level protocols.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.^ OSI Physical and Data Link layers .
  • Open System Interconnection Protocols - DocWiki 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC docwiki.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Data —Contains upper-layer information.
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Troubleshooting TCP/IP - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP presents data in segments to upper-layer protocols in the form of data streams.
  • TCP/IP Networks - The Internet Model 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.citap.com [Source type: Reference]

.The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122).^ TCP/IP model .
  • TCP/IP, TCP/IP Layers, TCP/IP gateways and hosts, Function of IP protocol, TCP/IP model. 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC homepages.uel.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP is based on the "catenet model".
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 2. General description of the TCP/IP protocols 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.linuxjunkies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this exercise, you will be mapping the four layers of TCP/IP to the seven layers of the OSI model.
  • Lesson 2: TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

[1][2] .From lowest to highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer.^ The Internet was built on a 4-layer model: physical, data link, internet, transport.
  • History of the Internet on Vimeo 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC vimeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these functions are handled by the transport layer (TCP) and/or the application layer.
  • The TCP/IP Internet Layer 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.web-articles.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simple Mail Transport Protocol is used on the internet, it is not a transport layer protocol but is an application layer protocol.

Contents

History

.The Internet Protocol Suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s.^ Also known as the Internet protocol suite.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ RFC 791 (rfc791) - Internet Protocol RFC: 791 INTERNET PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information ...
  • Internet Protocols – Web Listings 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The directive tasks the agency with 'direction or performance of such advanced projects in the field of research and development...'.
  • History of the Internet and Web 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.anderbergfamily.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies.^ In a data library situation, "text file" may also refer to a file containing natural language text (e.g., a literary text such as the works of Shakespeare) as opposed to a numeric data file that contains mostly numbers.
  • MyIpnote - Dynamic IP Notification Software. Network Management and Enterprise Systems web-based online ip monitor. - LAN/WAN Terms Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myipnote.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Internet is historically linked to the ARPANET, the pioneering packet switched network built for the U.S. Department of Defense in 1969.

^ The core networks forming the Internet started out in 1969 as the ARPANET devised by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
  • fUSION Anomaly. Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC fusionanomaly.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both.^ Both assume packet-switched networks.
  • Q1 On Ch09 Tcpip Protocol Suite And Ip Addressing 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In essence the base unit of communications in the world of computer networks is the packet.
  • TCP/IP Skills Required for Security Analysts 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.securityfocus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The internet has definitely made progress over the years from being used as a military communication tool to a household hub of information and communication.
  • $480 - Custom Web Design | Website Design | The Wide Wide World of the Worldwide Web 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.123triad.com [Source type: General]

In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.
.By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and, instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible.^ To rule out an unresponsive remote host, use Ping again to a different remote host.
  • How to troubleshoot TCP/IP connectivity with Windows XP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC support.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a network, several protocols have to work together.
  • Lesson 1: Introduction to Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ FTP: The File Transfer Protocol , is used for interactive file transfer between hosts.
  • TCP/IP Networks - The Internet Model 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.citap.com [Source type: Reference]

.Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.^ The development of TCP/IP marked a crucial stage in networking development, and it is important to reflect on the implications inherent in the design concepts...
  • The History of the Internet, Chapter Two 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.let.leidenuniv.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Network Infrastructure While these are not critical to the design of a specific system, they are important to running a network.
  • draft-baker-ietf-core-04 - Core Protocols in the Internet Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It's important to realize that "secure" browsers and servers are only designed to protect confidential information against network eavesdropping.
  • The World Wide Web Security FAQ - General Questions 28 January 2010 1:11 UTC www.windowsecurity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The design of the network included the recognition that it should provide only the functions of efficiently transmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of the network, in the end nodes.^ APPN The 3174 provides APPN network node functions.
  • Argecy: SNA Controllers and Alternatives - IBM Mainframe (3270) Controllers - IBM 3174 Controllers 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.argecy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It designates the location of the device it is assigned to on the network.
  • Talking IP - A column that discusses Internet Protocol for appreciation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cyberschuulnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other protocols provide routing and management functionality.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using a simple design, it became possible to connect almost any network to the ARPANET, irrespective of their local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn's initial problem.^ So, say we solved the network problem.
  • Internet | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Some use them only for the local network.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is in use in several local networks.
  • rfc1011 - OFFICIAL INTERNET PROTOCOLS 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC aurora.rg.iupui.edu [Source type: Reference]

.One popular saying has it that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, will run over "two tin cans and a string."^ TCP/IP is a two-layered program.
  • MICROSOFT TCP 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I couldn't get TCP/IP back to work.
  • Tcp/ip Protocol Driver Service Failed To Start 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.bleepingcomputer.com [Source type: General]

^ TCP and IP are two of the protocols in this suite.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 1. What is TCP/IP? 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.doc.ic.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Introduction to the Internet Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC pigtail.net [Source type: Reference]

.A computer called a router (a name changed from gateway to avoid confusion with other types of gateways) is provided with an interface to each network, and forwards packets back and forth between them.^ Packets transmitted over the network are called frames.
  • How TCP/IP Protocol Works - Part 1 | Hardware Secrets 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer Management Changes network interface drivers and other components.
  • How to troubleshoot TCP/IP connectivity with Windows XP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC support.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A computer that has been dedicated to the task of forwarding IP packets is called an "IP-router".
  • RFC 1180 (rfc1180) - TCP/IP tutorial 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Requirements for routers are defined in (Request for Comments 1812).^ Defined in Request for Comments (RFC) 1094.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, there are the Request for Comments (RFCs), the defining documents of the Internet (don't let the name fool you).
  • Under the hood of the Internet: An overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers is RFC-1812 .
  • Roxen Community: RFC 2000 INTERNET OFFICIAL PROTOCOL STANDARDS (Standards Track) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC community.roxen.com [Source type: Reference]

[3]
.The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerf's networking research group at Stanford in the 1973–74 period, resulting in the first TCP specification (Request for Comments 675) [4].^ Each of these programs formed a working group, starting with the ARPANET Network Working Group.
  • Internet Society (ISOC) All About The Internet: History of the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.isoc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See the TCP specification for details.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given a detailed set of specifications regarding a simple local area network utilizing the TCP/IP protocol suite, students will be capable of recommending addressing guidelines.

.(The early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around the same period of time, was also a significant technical influence; people moved between the two.^ TCP and IP are two of the protocols in this suite.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 1. What is TCP/IP? 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.doc.ic.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Introduction to the Internet Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC pigtail.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Collision : Occurs on an Ethernet network when two hosts transmit packets at the same time.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Result of two network nodes transmitting on same channel at same time.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

)
.DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms.^ With the goal of heterogeneous connectivity in mind, DARPA funded research by Stanford University and Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN).
  • Internetworking Technology Handbook - Internet Protocols (IP)  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With the goal of heterogeneous connectivity in mind, DARPA funded research by Stanford University and Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) to create a series of communication protocols.
  • Troubleshooting TCP/IP - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This network interconnected computers that were owned and operated by different companies, government agencies, research bodies, and other institutions, which all contributed to the ARPA's research and development efforts.
  • The ABCs of TCP/IP > What Is TCP/IP? 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.ciscopress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four versions were developed: TCP v1, TCP v2, a split into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP/IP v4 — the standard protocol still in use on the Internet today.^ That is, anyone who wishes to do so can use or participate in developing standards for the Internet.
  • Lesson 2: TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Protocol or TCP/IP stack .
  • IPv6: What is Internet Protocol? | Network Administrator | TechRepublic.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

.In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London (UCL).^ TCP/IP is a two-layered program.
  • MICROSOFT TCP 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Software components for TCP/IP networking .
  • TCP/IP Networking 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC qnxcs.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP also isn't a network!
  • The ABCs of TCP/IP > The Abilities and Limitations of TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.ciscopress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, UK, and Norway.^ Software components for TCP/IP networking .
  • TCP/IP Networking 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC qnxcs.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Host : A computer on a TCP/IP network.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP. i love this site!
  • An Introduction To Tcp/Ip : Learn-Networking.com 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC learn-networking.com [Source type: General]

.Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centres between 1978 and 1983. The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was officially completed on January 1, 1983, when the new protocols were permanently activated.^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1983 TCP/IP replaced NCP as the core Internet protocol.
  • Lesson One:Internet History & Protocols 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC web.fccj.org [Source type: Reference]
  • LIS 2004 Lesson 1: Internet History & Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.valenciacc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Volume 1 - describes the TCP/IP protocols.
  • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]
  • A TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.routerboard.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer networking.^ TCP/IP protocols provide for the interconnection of networks and the interconnection of computing systems in a network.
  • TCP/IP Networking on OpenVMS Systems 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC pupgg.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP is a set of communication protocols that have become a standard in the computer networking world.
  • Getting Started with TCP/IP on Packet Radio 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.febo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Install TCP/IP on a personal computer 1.

[6] .In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use.^ TCP/IP architecture can be seen on Figure 1.
  • How TCP/IP Protocol Works - Part 1 | Hardware Secrets 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ Protocol or TCP/IP stack .
  • IPv6: What is Internet Protocol? | Network Administrator | TechRepublic.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

^ SNMP is not restricted to using TCP/IP protocols.
  • NetWare Training Guide: NetWare TCP/IP and NetWare NFS, Chapter 1 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.sci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Layers in the Internet Protocol Suite

The concept of layers

.The TCP/IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services.^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ IP protocol suite .

^ SNMP is not restricted to using TCP/IP protocols.
  • NetWare Training Guide: NetWare TCP/IP and NetWare NFS, Chapter 1 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.sci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Such encapsulation usually is aligned with the division of the protocol suite into layers of general functionality.^ The layer at which a protocol works describes its function.
  • Lesson 1: Introduction to Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Tunnelling refers to encapsulation of protocol A within protocolB, such that A treats B as though it were a datalink layer.Tunnelling is used to get data between administrative domainswhich use a protocol that is not supported by the internetconnecting those domains.
  • MyIpnote - Dynamic IP Notification Software. Network Management and Enterprise Systems web-based online ip monitor. - LAN/WAN Terms Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myipnote.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Defining a protocol suite provides a high-level "bucket" into which we can place specific functionality areas for development and compliance testing.
  • XEP-0073: Basic IM Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC xmpp.org [Source type: Reference]

.In general, an application (the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down the layers, being further encapsulated at each level.^ UDP sends data down to the internet layer and to the IP protocol.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ How to use the NAFEM Data Protocol .
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Transport Protocols When sending a datagram, a transport protocol uses the TOS requested by the application.
  • RFC 1349 (rfc1349) - Type of Service in the Internet Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may be illustrated by an example network scenario, in which two Internet host computers communicate across local network boundaries constituted by their internetworking gateways (routers).^ A Router connects multiple networks together, such as a local network and the Internet.
  • Network Information TCP/IP Protocols Cable Glossary - Advanced Horizons 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.ahinc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computers on a network communicate through protocols .
  • Internet Technologies 20 November 2009 7:20 UTC academ.hvcc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The organization's router is connected to both the local network and the Internet link.
  • Under the hood of the Internet: An overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

TCP/IP stack operating on two hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop
Encapsulation of application data descending through the protocol stack.
.The functional groups of protocols and methods are the Application Layer, the Transport Layer, the Internet Layer, and the Link Layer (RFC 1122).^ The Internet Protocol is the postcard layer of the Internet.

^ Transport layer protocols : .

^ Transport layer protocols .

.It should be noted that this model was not intended to be a rigid reference model into which new protocols have to fit in order to be accepted as a standard.^ The OSI reference model is used to define which protocols should be used at each layer.
  • Lesson 1: Introduction to Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC pluto.ksi.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Before going further, we recommend you to read our tutorial The OSI Reference Model for Network Protocols , which is a primer for understanding how network protocols work.
  • How TCP/IP Protocol Works - Part 1 | Hardware Secrets 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ It provides a valuable lesson on why starting with a proven and fifteen year old specification for this standard is so important and why devising a new cryptographic protocol is fraught with peril.

.The following table provides some examples of the protocols grouped in their respective layers.^ Some example transforms include the following: .
  • VPNs and VPN Technologies > Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ciscopress.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following list shows examples of application layer protocols: .
  • Introducing the TCP/IP Protocol Suite - System Administration Guide: IP Services 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC dlc.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the TCP/IP architecture does not follow the OSI model closely, for example, most the TCP/IP applications are directly running on top of the transport layer protocols TCP and UDP without the presentation and session layers in between.
  • Javvin | TCP/IP Quick Guide 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.javvin.com [Source type: Reference]

Application DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SMPP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, Echo, RTP, PNRP, rlogin, ENRP
Routing protocols like .BGP and RIP which run over TCP/UDP, may also be considered part of the Internet Layer.^ TCP and UDP operate over both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet layers.
  • Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the TCP/IP architecture does not follow the OSI model closely, for example, most the TCP/IP applications are directly running on top of the transport layer protocols TCP and UDP without the presentation and session layers in between.
  • Javvin | TCP/IP Quick Guide 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.javvin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Internet software, such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), were developed as part of this effort.
  • PC AI - Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pcai.com [Source type: Academic]

Transport TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, RSVP
Internet IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, and ICMPv6
.OSPF for IPv4 was initially considered IP layer protocol since it runs per IP-subnet, but has been placed on the Link since RFC 2740.^ TCP/IP is a layered set of protocols.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A network running multiple network layer protocols.
  • Online Computer Dictionary Glossary Network Networking Computer Internet WiFi-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC directron.stores.yahoo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ RFC 950 ] IP Subnet Extension.
  • Protocol: ICMP ( Internet Control Message Protocol ) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

Link ARP, RARP, OSPF (IPv4/IPv6), IS-IS, NDP

Layer names and number of layers in the literature

.The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs and textbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses.^ These numbers are used for large networks.
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following table shows the layers of the OSI model at which these protocols operate: .
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following table shows the model.
  • Introducing the TCP/IP Protocol Suite - System Administration Guide: IP Services 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC dlc.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

RFC 1122 [7] Tanenbaum Cisco Academy[8] Kurose[9], Forouzan [10] Comer[11], Kozierok[12] Stallings[13] Arpanet Reference Model 1982 (RFC 871)
Four layers [14] Four layers [15] Four layers Five layers Four+one layers Five layers Three layers
"Internet model"[citation needed] "TCP/IP reference model"[16] "Internet model" "Five-layer Internet model" or "TCP/IP protocol suite" "TCP/IP 5-layer reference model" "TCP/IP model" "Arpanet reference model"
Application [14][17] Application Application Application Application Application Application/Process
Transport [14] Transport Transport Transport Transport Host-to-host or transport Host-to-host
Internet [14] Internet Internetwork Network Internet Internet
Link [14] Host-to-network Network interface Data link Data link (Network interface) Network access Network interface
Physical (Hardware) Physical
.These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources[18].^ As TCP/IP evolves, so does the RFC. A major source for RFCs is the Internet Engineering Task Force and are accessible on site www.ietf.org TCP/IP Protocol Documents..
  • TCP_IP_Protocol Suite Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: General]

^ These two forces fluctuate as /b/ are flooded with looongat, penisbird, delicious copypasta, CP, and other sources of random lulz.
  • Internet (video game) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard.
  • RFC 4542 - Implementing an Emergency Telecommunications Service (ETS) for Real-Time Services in the Internet Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.packetizer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Common TCP Evaluation Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC netlab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and the TCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues, or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer.^ Data link layer : Layer 2 in the ISO OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP network model.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP is based on the "catenet model".
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Introduction to TCP/IP 2. General description of the TCP/IP protocols 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.linuxjunkies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The TCP/IP model does not address the physical layer, which is where hardware devices reside.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some authors have tried to use other names for the Link Layer, such as network interface layer, in view to avoid confusion with the Data Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model.^ TCP/IP uses some of OSI model layers and combines others.
  • 2 TCP/IP Protocol Suite (TCP/IP Network Administration Guide) - Sun Microsystems 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Data link layer : Layer 2 in the ISO OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP network model.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP Network Interface / Internet "Layer Connection" Protocols The second layer of the OSI Reference Model is the data link layer ; it corresponds to the TCP/IP network interface layer .
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the OSI Model.^ IP maps to the Internet layer of the DoD and to the Network layer of the OSI models.
  • InformIT: Network Layer/Internet Protocols > IP 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A protocol that is the result of work of the IETF's Telephone Number Mapping working group that provides facilities to resolve ITU-T E.164 telephone numbers into other resources or services on the Internet through a lookup service using the Domain Name System (DNS).
  • ITU and its Activities Related to Internet Protocol (IP) Networks 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.itu.int [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP uses some of OSI model layers and combines others.
  • 2 TCP/IP Protocol Suite (TCP/IP Network Administration Guide) - Sun Microsystems 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

.The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer.^ The Internet was built on a 4-layer model: physical, data link, internet, transport.
  • History of the Internet on Vimeo 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC vimeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media layers: Physical and Link .
  • draft-baker-ietf-core-04 - Core Protocols in the Internet Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ELAP operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

.In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication[10][11][13], in which hardware issues are emphasized, those are often discussed in terms of Physical Layer and Data Link Layer.^ From the bottom up, the layers are: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Media layers: Physical and Link .
  • draft-baker-ietf-core-04 - Core Protocols in the Internet Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This aspect of subnetting is discussed in Unit 3--Data Link Layer.
  • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer, a more general concept of network functionality.^ Internet Protocol The Internet Protocol (or IP as it generally known), is the network layer of the Internet.

^ IPX operates at the Network and Transport layers of the OSI model.
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Works at the OSI network model network layer.

.The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model, sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer, is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer), sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) functionality.^ TCP/IP uses some of OSI model layers and combines others.
  • 2 TCP/IP Protocol Suite (TCP/IP Network Administration Guide) - Sun Microsystems 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SAP operates at the Application, Presentation, and Session layers of the OSI model.
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NetBIOS also defines a protocol that functions at the OSI Session layer.
  • Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.OSI's Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer.^ SAP operates at the Application, Presentation, and Session layers of the OSI model.
  • Network Protocols | uCertify Articles 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ucertify.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NetBIOS also defines a protocol that functions at the OSI Session layer.
  • Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The NetBIOS name identifies applications at the Session layer of the OSI model.
  • Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separate processes and protocols in Internet applications.^ The Internet Protocol is the postcard layer of the Internet.

^ ConnectionLess Transport Protocol (OSI transport layer protocol) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The TCP/IP Application Layer protocols support the applications and utilities that are the Internet.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.However, the Internet protocol stack has never been altered by the Internet Engineering Task Force from the four layers defined in RFC 1122.^ The Internet Protocol is the postcard layer of the Internet.

^ Internet Engineering Task Force (governing body behind the internet protocols) .
  • Network and Internet Slang and Acronyms 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.city-net.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We provide this service in coordination with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • IANA — Protocol Registries 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.iana.org [Source type: Reference]

.The IETF makes no effort to follow the OSI model although RFCs sometimes refer to it.^ The OSI reference model d.

^ OSI is also referred to as the OSI Reference Model or just the OSI Model.
  • Protocol: IP ( Internet Protocol ) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.protocolbase.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Data link layer : Layer 2 in the ISO OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP network model.
  • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

.The IETF has repeatedly stated[citation needed] that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant.^ IPSec - Internet protocol security, developed by IETF, implemented at layer 3.

^ The process got stuck in politics, so the replacement that was needed then didn't happen at the edge, although OSI protocols are used in the optical core today.
  • Internet Evolution - Paul Korzeniowski - Researchers Explore New Internet Protocols 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.internetevolution.com [Source type: General]
  • Internet Evolution - Researchers Explore New Internet Protocols 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.internetevolution.com [Source type: General]

^ Internet software, such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), were developed as part of this effort.
  • PC AI - Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pcai.com [Source type: Academic]

RFC 3439, addressing Internet architecture, contains a section entitled: "Layering Considered Harmful".[18]

Implementations

.Most operating systems in use today, including all consumer-targeted systems, include a TCP/IP implementation.^ DARPA also made the TCP/IP implementation available to university researchers for use with UNIX operating systems.
  • TCP/IP Networking on OpenVMS Systems 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC pupgg.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All systems operate equally.
  • Extron Electronics - Class Session: Internet Protocol (IP 101) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.extron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most operating systems and IP implementations come with these tools installed by default.
  • Troubleshooting TCP/IP - Cisco Systems 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP, an open source stack designed for embedded systems and KA9Q NOS, a stack and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and personal computers connected via serial lines.^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
  • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The network assigned to amateur radio TCP/IP. 70.
  • Getting Started with TCP/IP on Packet Radio 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.febo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the TCP/IP protocol stack or Ethernet driver installed?
  • TCP/IP Networking 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC qnxcs.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

See also

References

  1. ^ RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers, R. Braden (ed.), October 1989
  2. ^ RFC 1123, Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support, R. Braden (ed.), October 1989
  3. ^ Baker, Fred, ed. (June 1995), Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers, Internet Engineering Task Force, Network Working Group, Request for Comments 1812, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1812, retrieved 2009-09-22 
  4. ^ V.Cerf et al. (December 1974). "Specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol". http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0675.txt. 
  5. ^ Internet History
  6. ^ Ronda Hauben. "From the ARPANET to the Internet". TCP Digest (UUCP). http://www.columbia.edu/~rh120/other/tcpdigest_paper.txt. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  7. ^ IETF, RFC 1122, p.7, "To communicate using the Internet system, a host must implement the layered set of protocols comprising the Internet protocol suite. A host typically must implement at least one protocol from each layer."
  8. ^ Mark Dye, Mark A. Dye, Wendell, Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, 2007, ISBN 1587132087
  9. ^ James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 2008, ISBN 0321497708
  10. ^ a b Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking
  11. ^ a b Douglas E. Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols and Architecture, Pearson Prentice Hall 2005, ISBN 0131876716
  12. ^ Charles M. Kozierok, "The TCP/IP Guide", No Starch Press 2005
  13. ^ a b William Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, Prentice Hall 2006, ISBN 0132433109
  14. ^ a b c d e IETF, RFC 1122, p.7-8, "The protocol layers [...] are as follows [...]:[...]Application Layer [...] Transport Layer [...] Internet Layer [...] Link Layer"
  15. ^ Andrew Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, section 1.4.3, "[...] the OSI model has seven layers and the TCP/IP has four layers."
  16. ^ Tanenbaum, Andrew S. (2002). Computer Networks. Prentice Hall. p. 41. ISBN 0130661023. "1.4.2 The TCP/IP Reference Model"  Excerpt at Google Books
  17. ^ IETF, RFC 1122, p.8, "The application layer is the top layer of the Internet protocol suite."
  18. ^ a b R. Bush; D. Meyer (December 2002), Some Internet Architectural Guidelines and Philosophy, Internet Engineering Task Force, http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc3439.txt, retrieved 2007-11-20 

Further reading

  • Douglas E. Comer. .Internetworking with TCP/IP - Principles, Protocols and Architecture.^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sections below will provide a brief overview of each of the layers in the TCP/IP suite and the protocols that compose those layers.
    • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The TCP level Two separate protocols are involved in handling TCP/IP datagrams.
    • Introduction to TCP/IP 2. General description of the TCP/IP protocols 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.linuxjunkies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 86-7991-142-9
  • Joseph G. Davies and Thomas F. Lee.^ Microsoft Windows 2000 TCP/IP Protocols and Services Technical Reference By Thomas Lee and Joseph Davies Published by Microsoft Press ISBN 0735605564 [ Buy via Amazon.com ] [ Buy via Amazon.co.uk ] This book does to MS-Windows 2000 what Stevens' books did to Unix.
    • A TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.routerboard.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Microsoft Windows 2000 TCP/IP Protocols and Services Technical Reference By Thomas Lee and Joseph Davies Published by Microsoft Press ISBN 0735605564 This book does to MS-Windows 2000 what Stevens' books did to Unix.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .Microsoft Windows Server 2003 TCP/IP Protocols and Services.^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sections below will provide a brief overview of each of the layers in the TCP/IP suite and the protocols that compose those layers.
    • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ One should not be put off by the "unreliable" description; ensuring reliability is the responsibility of higher-level users of IP, such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).
    • Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPv6) 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC mastermason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-7356-1291-9
  • Forouzan, Behrouz A. (2003). .TCP/IP Protocol Suite (2nd ed.^ Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
    • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Security Considerations There are security considerations within the TCP/IP protocol suite.
    • RFC 1180 (rfc1180) - TCP/IP tutorial 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ We take a bottom-up approach to the TCP/IP protocol suite.
    • InformIT: TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ). McGraw-Hill. .ISBN 0-07-246060-1. 
  • Craig Hunt TCP/IP Network Administration.^ Software components for TCP/IP networking .
    • TCP/IP Networking 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC qnxcs.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Host : A computer on a TCP/IP network.
    • NAFEM 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nafem.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ TCP/IP Network Administration, 3rd Edition .

    O'Reilly (1998) ISBN 1-56592-322-7
  • Maufer, Thomas A. (1999). IP Fundamentals. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-975483-0. 
  • Ian McLean. .Windows(R) 2000 TCP/IP Black Book.^ Best beginner reference of TCP/IP As a beginner, this book can deliver a full and clear picture about details of TCP/IP including each protocol alogorithm, characteristics and it's usage.
    • Amazon.com: TCP/IP Protocol Suite (9780070166783): Behrouz A. Forouzan: Books 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TCP/IP books from Amazon (USA) Related Information: Trojan TCP/IP Ports, Free Firewall Book .
    • TCP/IP Ports 25 January 2010 10:10 UTC www.chebucto.ns.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Axe is a flexible converter to solve all your needs between serial data and TCP/IP networks on Windows computers.

    .ISBN 1-57610-687-X
  • Ajit Mungale Pro .NET 1.1 Network Programming.^ ISBN 0201634953 [ Buy via Amazon.com ] [ Buy via Amazon.co.uk ] Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • A TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.routerboard.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Unix System V. Network Programming By Steven A. Rago Published by Addison-Wesley ISBN 0201563185 This books gives a good coverage of UNIX network programming.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ ISBN 0201634953 Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .ISBN 1-59059-345-6
  • W. Richard Stevens.^ ISBN 0201634953 [ Buy via Amazon.com ] [ Buy via Amazon.co.uk ] Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • A TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.routerboard.com [Source type: General]

    ^ ISBN 0201634953 Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Unix Network Programming By W. Richard Stevens Published by Prentice-Hall ISBN 0139498761 Obsoleted by the second edition, covered above.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols.^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sections below will provide a brief overview of each of the layers in the TCP/IP suite and the protocols that compose those layers.
    • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation (Page 1 of 3) TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-201-63346-9
  • W. Richard Stevens and Gary R. Wright.^ ISBN 0201634953 [ Buy via Amazon.com ] [ Buy via Amazon.co.uk ] Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • A TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.routerboard.com [Source type: General]

    ^ ISBN 0201634953 Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It also discusses some higher level protocols such as FTP, Telnet, and NFS. "TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols" by W. Richard Stevens, published by Addison-Wesley, 1994 (ISBN 0-201-63346-9).
    • TCP/IP FAQ; Frequently Asked Questions (1999-09) Part 1 of 2 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    .TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2: The Implementation.^ Services Provided to Other Protocols The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP , TCP and UDP .
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ TCP/IP implements higher-level Internet protocols at the application program level.
    • System Management Guide: Communications and Networks - TCP/IP Protocols 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ncsa.illinois.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Computer chips are now being built that implement the TCP/IP protocols and recently a university announced a two-chip web server.

    .ISBN 0-201-63354-X
  • W. Richard Stevens.^ ISBN 0201634953 Richard Stevens' UNIX Network Programming.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It also discusses some higher level protocols such as FTP, Telnet, and NFS. "TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols" by W. Richard Stevens, published by Addison-Wesley, 1994 (ISBN 0-201-63346-9).
    • TCP/IP FAQ; Frequently Asked Questions (1999-09) Part 1 of 2 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Unix Network Programming By W. Richard Stevens Published by Prentice-Hall ISBN 0139498761 Obsoleted by the second edition, covered above.
    • TCP/IP Resources List 20 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    .TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 3: TCP for Transactions, HTTP, NNTP, and the UNIX Domain Protocols.^ TCP and UDP Overview and Role In TCP/IP (Page 1 of 3) The transport layer in a protocol suite is responsible for a specific set of functions.
    • The Internet Protocol 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.acsa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sections below will provide a brief overview of each of the layers in the TCP/IP suite and the protocols that compose those layers.
    • Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.garykessler.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There are two major types of introductory books: TCP networking oriented and TCP/IP administration oriented (often Unix oriented).

    ISBN 0-201-63495-3
  • Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. ISBN 0-13-066102-3
  • David D. Clark, "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols", Computer Communications Review 18:4, August 1988, pp. 106–114

External links


Simple English

The Internet protocol suite, also called TCP/IP for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.

Origin

Its name comes from two of the main protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on World Wide Web, which are similar to those in the above article.








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