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An Internet forum software package
Another Internet forum software package
.An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site.^ The language game framework provides a useful and relevant lens for researchers interested in taking a developmental approach to the study of online discussion forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on our findings, we posit general inferences regarding how professional groups with loose social ties can develop sustainable online discussion forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an internet forum, on a site about making fun of stupid things that people do.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional bulletin board, and a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system.[2][3] From a technological standpoint, forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content.[3][4]
.People participating in an Internet forum may cultivate social bonds and interest groups for a topic made from the discussions.^ Locked Reply Contact bstorer: As it is now, attempting to correct people results in replies saying, "Who made you boss of the forum?"
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an internet forum, on a site about making fun of stupid things that people do.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not everyone spends all their time on Internet forums, so there are going to be a lot of people who don't understand how to use sucky forum software.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

.Early Internet forums could be described as a web version of a newsgroup or electronic mailing list (many of which were commonly called Usenet); allowing people to post messages and comment on other messages.^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other contributors to the forum occasionally took on the facilitative role and could do so in a smooth, effective fashion, mimicking the moderator/facilitator's behavior.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PP is nearly the only contributor to post messages during this argument segment, and when others post they don't refer to the argument.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later developments emulated the different newsgroups or individual lists, providing more than one forum, dedicated to a particular topic.^ You seem to confuse a desire on my part to develop, nuture and protect the particular culture of this forum with some kind of authority complex.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Messages that provide information (e.g., state opinions, point to resources, describe experiences, pass on suggestions) are more frequent than messages that request information (i.e., ask questions).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's more, Michael has indicated on IRC several times that is planning to get particular users banned from the forums.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Internet forums are prevalent in several developed countries.^ Beyond these basic forms of relationship management, the forum contributors develop several idiosyncratic communicative practices.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In terms of countable posts, Japan is far in the lead with over two million posts per day on their largest forum, 2channel. .China also has many millions of posts on forums such as Tianya Club.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forums perform a function similar to that of dial-up bulletin board systems and Usenet networks that were common from the late 1970s to the 1990s.[2] .Early web-based forums date back as far as 1996. A sense of virtual community often develops around forums that have regular users.^ Based on our findings, we posit general inferences regarding how professional groups with loose social ties can develop sustainable online discussion forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whoever was joining the forum could have a sense of social belonging by reading the messages, often starting with "dear group," "dear KM Forum members," etc.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KM is then I regret to say that this need will not be fulfilled at this forum I believe that sense making is the actual knowledge creation process for the community" .
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Technology, computer games and/or video games, sports, music, fashion, religion, and politics are popular areas for forum themes, but there are forums for a huge number of topics.^ Is there usually a sports game usually tuned in on your television?

^ What video or computer online games do you give a thumbs-up to?

^ Other studies might take a comparative approach to investigate linguistic development at the level of topical domains, such as comparing the evolution of forums devoted to the KM theme or comparing forums on particular medical topics, to surmise whether there is a specific language game enacted for each of these topics.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Internet slang and image macros popular across the Internet are abundant and widely used in Internet forums.
.Forum software packages are widely available on the Internet and are written in a variety of programming languages, such as PHP, Perl, Java and ASP.^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not everyone spends all their time on Internet forums, so there are going to be a lot of people who don't understand how to use sucky forum software.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sum, a language game approach offers researchers who are interested in studying online forums a powerful framework to investigate such forums' evolution and dynamics.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The configuration and records of posts can be stored in text files or in a database. Each package offers different features, from the most basic, providing text-only postings, to more advanced packages, offering multimedia support and formatting code (usually known as BBCode). Many packages can be integrated easily into an existing website to allow visitors to post comments on articles.
.Several other web applications, such as weblog software, also incorporate forum features.^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wordpress comments at the bottom of a blog post allow for a single-threaded discussion of any given blog post. .Slashcode, on the other hand, is far more complicated, allowing fully threaded discussions and incorporating a robust moderation and meta-moderation system as well as many of the profile features available to forum users.^ Recently, Michael has taken an interest in moderating this forum more closely.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there a moderator (administrator of the forum) or facilitators (persons who direct discussion content)?
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In T2, there are many references to a common identity as well as some discussions about behaviors that are acceptable or not in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Registration or anonymity

.In the United States and some parts of Europe, most Internet forums require registration to post.^ You seem to confuse a desire on my part to develop, nuture and protect the particular culture of this forum with some kind of authority complex.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just because you have been here longer than most, and have posted way too much, does not make you some sort of authority figure.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Registered users of the site are referred to as members and are allowed to submit or send electronic messages through the web application. .The process of registration involves verification of one's age (typically over 12 is required so as to meet COPPA requirements of American forum software) followed by a declaration of the terms of service (other documents may also be present) and a request for agreement to said terms.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, long-term performing seems to prevent any movement to adjourn as a forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The forums provide an alternative to educational courses or dues-paying associations that require face-to-face encounters, bounded times of interaction or other formalities and obligations.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6][7] Subsequently, if all goes well, the candidate is presented with a web form to fill requesting at the very least: a username (an alias), password, email and validation of a CAPTCHA code.
While simply completing the registration web form is generally enough to generate an account[note 1] the status label Inactive is commonly given by default until the registered user confirms the email address given while registering indeed belongs to him. .Until that time, the registered can log in to his new account but may not use the forum for communication (posts, threads, private messages).^ It seems as though this "moderator" couldn't figure out how to use the forum software, though, so he ended up posting it to pastebin.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locked Reply Contact <*ranting about edit times on forum posts*> .
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then it may be time to add some new mods.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Internet Forums are used frequently in conjunction with multiplayer online game sites.
Sometimes a referrer system is implemented. .A referrer is someone who introduced or otherwise "helped someone" with the decision to join the site (similarly how a HTTP referrer is the site who linked one to another site).^ We learn from KMforum that a loose collection of professionals who share interest in a common topic but otherwise do not know one another or share task goals or incentives can develop a rhythm of conversation that allows them to develop sustainable interaction.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because discourse constitutes the essence of discussion forums, Wittgenstein's framework would seem to offer a particularly powerful approach for studying how people who otherwise do not know one another can enter, participate and exit from an online social setting with ready ease.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locked Reply Contact I don't mind that he locked the SS thread, its not like another one can't be started anytime for those who feel left out.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually, referrers are other forum members,and members are usually rewarded for referrals.^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The referrer system is also sometimes implemented so that if a visitor visits the forum though a link such as referrerid=300, the user with the id number (in this example, 300) would receive referral credit if the visitor registers.^ Such an approach would help to highlight the dynamics of learning within professional development forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] The purpose is commonly just to give credit (sometimes rewards are implied) to those who help the community grow.
In areas such as China and Japan, registration is frequently optional and anonymity is sometimes even encouraged.[9] .On these forums, a tripcode system may be used to allow verification of an identity without the need for formal registration.^ This may be related to the high value placed on titles, and formalities in use of titles, in Indian culture (India Review, 2003).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roles, social identity, and linguistic style are merely three of the many dimensions of organizing that may occur within a forum's discourse.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One could explain the emergence of these practices as a more intimate discourse that emerges after the forum has established a strong enough feeling of social identity.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rules and policies on forums

.Forums are governed by a set of individuals, collectively referred to as staff, made up of administrators and moderators, which are responsible for the forums' conception, technical maintenance, and policies (creation and enforcing).^ A preliminary view of the contents suggested that the forum is made up of a loose collection of professionals—not a tight community—and meets the description of professional development forum as defined early in this paper.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ROLES Moderator - the administrator of the forum who regulates the technology or its use by contributors.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efforts have to be made right at the beginning not only to get the discussion going but also to set the context and behaviors that will become the basis for the forum's routine of discourse long into its life.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most forums have a list of rules detailing the wishes, aim and guidelines of the forums creators.^ Some reflection on the rules and the aim of the community (9 messages) + 4 messages referring to the activity of the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is usually also a FAQ section contain basic information for new members and people not yet familiar with the use and principles of a forum (generally tailored for specific forum software).^ It seems as though this "moderator" couldn't figure out how to use the forum software, though, so he ended up posting it to pastebin.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The "learn to use the forum software" thing is getting nearly as bad.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not everyone spends all their time on Internet forums, so there are going to be a lot of people who don't understand how to use sucky forum software.
  • Forum Moderator WTF - TDWTF Forums 15 September 2009 10:27 UTC forums.thedailywtf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rules on forums usually apply to the entire user body and often have preset exceptions, most commonly designating a section as an exception. For example, in an IT forum any discussion regarding anything but computer programming languages may be against the rules, with the exception of a general chat section.
.Forum rules are maintained and enforced by the moderation team, but users are allowed to help out via what is known as a report system.^ In the case described in this article, ignoring conflict was a smart and wise choice by forum participants as it allowed the participants to maintain their language game.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our analysis shows how rules of linguistic interaction emerge around these three dimensions and help to shape social order in the forum over time.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most American forum software contains such a system.[10][11] .It consists of a small function applicable to each post (including one's own).^ One could also add some functionalities such as pictures or videos in order to embody the different actors and their postings (per Mynatt et al., 1998).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Using it will notify all currently available moderators of its location, and subsequent action or judgment can be carried out immediately, which is particularly desirable in large or very developed boards. Generally, moderators encourage members to also use the private message system if they wish to report behavior. Moderators will generally frown upon attempts of moderation by non-moderators, especially when the would-be moderators do not even issue a report. .Messages from non-moderators acting as moderators generally declare a post as against the rules, or predict punishment.^ GV indicates that he is not a moderator anymore, but he nonetheless acts the part by stating rules and advice: (167) "when this e-group was started it was moderated so that such occasions do not occur.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PP posts frequently and in a few instances acts as a moderator.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The argument with JF was occurring in another online forum (which we will call KM-2forum), but the moderator of that forum stopped posting PP's messages (according to PP).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While not harmful, statements which attempt to enforce the rules are discouraged.[12]
When rules are broken several steps are commonly taken. First a warning is usually given; this is commonly in the form of a private message but recent development has made it possible for it to be integrated into the software. Subsequently, if the act is ignored and warnings do not work, the member is – usually – first exiled from the forum for a number of days. Denying someone access to the site is called a ban. Bans can mean the person can no longer log in or even view the site anymore. .If the offender, after the warning sentence, repeats the offense, another ban is given, usually this time a longer one.^ Over time, the game's discourse became more intimate as players addressed one another by name and issued invitations and follow-on notes about face-to-face events.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Continuous harassment of the site eventually leads to a permanent ban. However, in most cases this simply means the account is locked. In extreme cases where the offender – after being permanently banned – creates another account and continues to harass the site, administrators will apply an IP ban (this can also be applied at the server level): if the IP is static, the machine of the offender is prevented from accessing the site. In some extreme circumstances, IP range bans or country bans can be applied; however, this is usually for political, licensing or other reasons. See also: Block (internet), IP blocking, Internet censorship.
Offending content is usually deleted. Sometimes if the topic is considered the source of the problem, it is locked; often a poster may request a topic expected to draw problems to be locked as well, although the moderators decide whether to grant it. In a locked thread, members cannot post anymore. In cases where the topic is considered a breach of rules it – with all of its posts – may be deleted.

Troll

.Forum trolls are users that repeatedly and deliberately breach the netiquette of an established online community, posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages to bait or excite users into responding or to test the forum rules and policies, and with that the patience of the forum staff.^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectively, the research to date shows that intimate relationships and development of community are possible online, and that online forums can be productive and sustainable.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The building of the community is a key topic in T1, with GV's messages often hailing the latest number of participants.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their provocative behavior may potentially start flame wars (see below) or other disturbances. Responding to a troll's provocations is commonly known as 'feeding the troll' and is generally discouraged, as it can encourage their disruptive behavior.

Sock puppet

.The term sock puppet refers to someone who is simultaneously registered under different pseudonyms on a particular message board or forum.^ Numbers in parentheses preceding quotes refer to message number in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ References to Indian thinkers (7 messages refer to 4 different "gurus").
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some reflection on the rules and the aim of the community (9 messages) + 4 messages referring to the activity of the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The analogy of a sock puppet is of a puppeteer holding up both hands and supplying dialogue to both puppets simultaneously. .A sock puppet will create multiple accounts over a period of time, using each user to debate or agree with each other on a forum.^ Some of these are maintained during the five time periods, whereas others are patterned early on but then are replaced with new practices in later periods.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the pattern of feedback—expressing agreement or disagreement, and seeking others' reactions to comments—is rarely used in T1-T3 and increases markedly in T4, which corresponds to the period where the forum is well-established.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, personal addressing—"speaking" one-on-one to others in the forum—grows markedly in later periods.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sock puppets are usually found when an IP check is done on the accounts in forums.

Spamming

Forum spamming is a breach of netiquette where users repeat the same word or phrase over and over, but differs from multiple posting in that spamming is usually a willful act which sometimes has malicious intent. This is a common trolling technique. It can also be traditional spam, unpaid advertisements that are in breach of the forum's rules. Spammers utilize a number of illicit techniques to post their spam, including the use of botnets.
.Some forums consider concise, comment-oriented posts spam, for example Thank you or I love it.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Double posting

.One common faux pas on Internet forums is to post the same message twice.^ Post only one message T1-T5 .
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not a particularly large forum; people come and go, with the majority of visitors contributing one message.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Users sometimes post versions of a message that are only slightly different, especially in forums where they are not allowed to edit their earlier posts.^ Post only one message T1-T5 .
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He still plays facilitator and moderator roles but much less enthusiastically than in earlier periods, especially after an argument segment which occurs in this period; thereafter, GV mainly forwards messages and posts articles.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PP is nearly the only contributor to post messages during this argument segment, and when others post they don't refer to the argument.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multiple posting instead of editing prior posts can artificially inflate a user's post count. .Multiple posting can be unintentional; a user's browser might display an error message even though the post has been transmitted or a user of a slow forum might become impatient and repeatedly hit the submit button.^ Figure 2 shows the message posting pattern for the forum over time, and Table 1 summarizes the types of contributors and their posting patterns.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members must go to the forum website to read and post messages, which include text and limited graphics capability.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The argument with JF was occurring in another online forum (which we will call KM-2forum), but the moderator of that forum stopped posting PP's messages (according to PP).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multiple posting can also be used as a method of trolling or spreading forum spam. A user may also send the same post to several forums, which is termed crossposting. .The term derives from Usenet, where crossposting was an accepted practice; however, it causes problems in web forums, which lack the ability to link such posts, so replies in one forum are not visible to people reading the post in other forums.^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
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^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ It is not a particularly large forum; people come and go, with the majority of visitors contributing one message.
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Word censor

A word censoring system is commonly included in the forum software package. .The system will pick up words in the body of the post or some other user editable forum element (like user titles) and if they partially match a certain keyword (commonly no case sensitivity) they will be censored.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
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^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
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^ In other words, long-term performing seems to prevent any movement to adjourn as a forum.
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.The most common censoring is letter replacement with an asterisk character; for example: in the user title it is deemed inappropriate for users to use words such as "admin", "moderator", "leader" and so on, if the censoring system is implemented a title such as "forum leader" may be filtered to "forum ******". Rude or vulgar words are common targets for the censoring system.^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
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[13][14] But such auto-censors can make mistakes, for example censoring "wristwatch" to "wris****ch", "Scunthorpe" to "S****horpe", or "shitaki" to "****aki."

Forum structure

.A forum consists of a tree like directory structure containing at the lowest end topics (commonly called threads) and inside them posts.^ The argument with JF was occurring in another online forum (which we will call KM-2forum), but the moderator of that forum stopped posting PP's messages (according to PP).
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.Logically forums are organised into a finite set of generic topics (usually with one main topic) driven and updated by a group known as members, and governed by a group known as moderators.^ In all of these analyses our approach was exploratory, intended to generate insights into the development of the forum and its evolutionary phases.
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^ Whoever was joining the forum could have a sense of social belonging by reading the messages, often starting with "dear group," "dear KM Forum members," etc.
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^ Today these forums are vast, covering innumerable specialty topics for a wide array of professional groups.
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[citation needed]

User groups

.Internally, Western-style forums organise visitors and logged in members into user groups.^ Whoever was joining the forum could have a sense of social belonging by reading the messages, often starting with "dear group," "dear KM Forum members," etc.
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Privileges and rights are given based on these groups. .A user of the forum can automatically be promoted to a more privileged user group based on criteria set by the administrator.^ Based on our findings, we posit general inferences regarding how professional groups with loose social ties can develop sustainable online discussion forums.
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^ Although case studies of tightly-knit online groups are of interest, more studies are sorely needed of loose, fragile forums that make up the bulk of the online landscape.
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[15] .A person viewing a closed thread as a member will see a box saying he does not have the right to submit messages there, but a moderator will likely see the same box granting him access to more than just posting messages.^ Tends to post long messages that are just articles or references.
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^ During this period there were 527 messages posted by a total of 123 contributors.
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^ Is there a moderator (administrator of the forum) or facilitators (persons who direct discussion content)?
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[16]
An unregistered user of the site is commonly known as a guest or visitor. Guests are typically granted access to all functions that do not require database alterations or breach privacy. .A guest can usually view the contents of the forum or use such features as read marking, but occasionally an administrator will disallow visitors to read their forum as an incentive to become a registered member.^ A preliminary view of the contents suggested that the forum is made up of a loose collection of professionals—not a tight community—and meets the description of professional development forum as defined early in this paper.
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^ Is there a moderator (administrator of the forum) or facilitators (persons who direct discussion content)?
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^ The language game of guru involves formal recognition as such; gurus are identified, usually with titles (e.g., "Dr.," "guru") and treated with respect by others in the forum.
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[note .2] A person who is a very frequent visitor of the forum, a section or even a thread is referred to as a lurker and the habit is referred to as lurking.^ Is there a moderator (administrator of the forum) or facilitators (persons who direct discussion content)?
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.Registered members often will refer to themselves as lurking in a particular location, which is to say they have no intention of participating in that section but enjoy reading the contributions to it.^ Newcomers introduce themselves—often indicating that they have been lurking for a while.
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^ But the forums generally produce no tangible products; nor do they provide the participants with tangible rewards or outcomes.
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^ Whoever was joining the forum could have a sense of social belonging by reading the messages, often starting with "dear group," "dear KM Forum members," etc.
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Moderator

.The moderators (short singular form: "mod") are users (or employees) of the forum who are granted access to the posts and threads of all members for the purpose of moderating discussion (similar to arbitration) and also keeping the forum clean (neutralizing spam and spambots etc).^ Members discuss the aim and netiquette of the forum.
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^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ ROLES Moderator - the administrator of the forum who regulates the technology or its use by contributors.
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Because they have access to all posts and threads in their area of responsibility, it is common for a friend of the site owner to be promoted to moderator for such a task. .Moderators also answer users' concerns about the forum, general questions, as well as respond to specific complaints.^ At one point a contributor calls on others to learn more about human resource policies in specific companies, and he generates many replies.
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^ In T2, there are many references to a common identity as well as some discussions about behaviors that are acceptable or not in the forum.
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^ There are also general discussions about definitions and concepts, and discussions about practical issues in specific contexts.
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They also can do anything to lend a helping hand to a user in need.[17] Moderators themselves may have ranks: some may be given mod privileges over only a particular topic or section, while others (called 'global' or 'super') may be allowed access anywhere. Common privileges of moderators include: deleting, merging, moving, and splitting of posts and threads, locking, renaming, stickying of threads, banning, suspending, unsuspending, unbanning, warning the members, or adding, editing, removing the polls of threads.[18]
Essentially, it is the duty of the moderator to manage the day-to-day affairs of a forum or board as it applies to the stream of user contributions and interactions. The relative effectiveness of this user management directly impacts the quality of a forum in general, its appeal, and its usefulness as a community of interrelated users.

Administrator

The administrators (short form: "admin") manage the technical details required for running the site. .As such, they may promote (and demote) members to moderators, manage the rules, create sections and sub-sections, as well as perform any database operations (database backup etc).^ GV indicates that he is not a moderator anymore, but he nonetheless acts the part by stating rules and advice: (167) "when this e-group was started it was moderated so that such occasions do not occur.
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^ As the rules became established and well performed on the part of the group, the moderator/facilitator became less active; nonetheless, he remained present throughout the 15 months of the forum's life.
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^ The facilitator/moderator can set up the rules and make sure that they are followed, as suggested by Preece (2000).
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Administrators often also act as moderators. Administrators may also make forum-wide announcements, or change the appearance (known as the skin) of a forum.[18]
The term prune used extensively in administration panels is synonymous with delete or remove. The term comes from pruning, the practice of removing diseased, non-productive, or otherwise unwanted portions from a plant.

Post

.A post is a user submitted message enclosed into a block containing the user's details and the date and time it was submitted.^ This step required multiple readings of the complete text of the all messages that composed each time block.
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^ Figure 2 shows the message posting pattern for the forum over time, and Table 1 summarizes the types of contributors and their posting patterns.
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^ We segmented the data into five three-month blocks so that we could identify and compare patterns within and between these blocks of time.
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Members are usually allowed to edit or delete their own posts. .Posts are contained in threads, where they appear as boxes one after another.^ They post one or two messages once in a while.
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^ We can separate dimensions conceptually, but, in fact, they dynamically evolve and influence one another.
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The first post starts the thread; this may be called the TS (thread starter) or OP (original post). .Posts that follow in the thread are meant to continue discussion about that post, or respond to other replies; it is not uncommon for discussions to be derailed.^ At one point a contributor calls on others to learn more about human resource policies in specific companies, and he generates many replies.
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^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
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^ He also plays a role in stirring up discussions, raising questions, challenging the group to respond, and, at times, summarizing a discussion thread.
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.On Western forums, the classic way to show a member's own details (such as name and avatar) has been on the left side of the post, in a narrow column of fixed width, with the post controls located on the right, at the bottom of the main body, above the signature block.^ Figure 2 shows the message posting pattern for the forum over time, and Table 1 summarizes the types of contributors and their posting patterns.
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.In more recent forum software implementations the Asian style of displaying the members' details above the post has been copied.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ However, more than a formal netiquette, it is the way the messages are written—how informal, friendly and positive they are—that will create a sense of sociability and belonging, allowing newcomers to have a sense of the forum's style as soon as they start reading the postings.
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^ Members must go to the forum website to read and post messages, which include text and limited graphics capability.
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Posts have an internal limit usually measured in characters. Often one is required to have a message of minimum length of 10 characters. .There is always an upper limit but it is rarely reached – most boards have it at either 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 or 50,000 characters.^ Many 50 in 10 postings (most of them in the argument period).
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^ Most of the messages are fairly long (20-30 lines).
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Most forums keep track of a user's postcount. The postcount is a measurement of how many posts a certain user has made.[19] Users with higher postcounts are often considered more reputable than users with lower postcounts. However, some forums have disabled postcounts in the hopes that doing so will reduce the emphasis on quantity over quality of information.

Thread

A thread (sometimes called a topic) is a collection of posts, usually displayed – by default[citation needed] – from oldest to latest, although this is typically configurable: options for newest to oldest and for a threaded view (a tree-like view applying logical reply structure before chronological order) can be available. .A thread is defined by a title, an additional description that may summarise the intended discussion, and an opening or original post (common abbreviation 'OP', which can also mean original poster) which opens whatever dialogue or makes whatever announcement the poster wished.^ GV stops stirring up discussions and only provides announcements, often posting articles with no greetings.
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^ He also plays a role in stirring up discussions, raising questions, challenging the group to respond, and, at times, summarizing a discussion thread.
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.A thread can contain any number of posts, including multiple posts from the same members, even if they are one after the other.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ PP is nearly the only contributor to post messages during this argument segment, and when others post they don't refer to the argument.
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^ They post one or two messages once in a while.
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A thread is contained in a forum, and may have an associated date which is taken as the date of the last post (options to order threads by other criteria are generally available). When a member posts in a thread it will jump to the top since it is the latest updated thread. .Similarly, other threads will jump in front of it when they receive posts.^ PP is nearly the only contributor to post messages during this argument segment, and when others post they don't refer to the argument.
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.When a member posts in a thread for no reason but to have it go to the top, it is referred to as a bump or bumping.^ Members must go to the forum website to read and post messages, which include text and limited graphics capability.
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^ In the last periods, postings increasingly referred to conferences and some members suggested the creation of local chapters.
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Threads which are important but rarely receive posts are stickyed (or, in some software, 'pinned'). A sticky thread will always appear in front of normal threads, often in its own section.
.A thread's popularity is measured on forums in reply (total posts minus one – the opening post) counts.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ But no one replies to PP's postings; hence, no one joins him in the language game that he is initiating.
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^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
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Some forums also track page views. .Threads meeting a set number of posts or a set number of views may receive a designation such as "hot thread" and be displayed with a different icon compared to others threads.^ Other practices, such as the use of collective language, the reference to rules and netiquette, and the praising of the number of members, are enacted only during some periods.
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This icon may stand out more to emphasize the thread.
Thread (viewing as moderator)
Forum (viewing as moderator)

Discussion

Forums prefer a premise of open and free discussion and often adopt de facto standards. .Most common topics on forums include questions, comparisons, polls of opinion as well as debates.^ In T2, there are many references to a common identity as well as some discussions about behaviors that are acceptable or not in the forum.
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Because of their volatile and random behavior it is not uncommon for nonsense or unsocial behavior to sprout as people lose temper, especially if the topic is controversial. Poor understanding of differences in values of the participants is a common problem on forums. .Because replies to a topic are often wording aimed at someone's point of view, discussion will usually go slightly off into several directions as people question each others validity, sources and so on.^ Efforts have to be made right at the beginning not only to get the discussion going but also to set the context and behaviors that will become the basis for the forum's routine of discourse long into its life.
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^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
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^ PP in the argument: "I include back the KMforum (KM India) because it is important to study what is going on here and to communicate back into the American community the feelings from India about this."
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.Circular discussion and ambiguity in replies can carry out arguments for several tens of posts of a thread eventually ending when everyone gives up or another similar debate takes it over.^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
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^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
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^ He posts several aggressive messages arguing with another well-known consultant.
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It is not uncommon for a style over substance or ad hominem debates to be the ones to take it over.

Flame wars

.When a thread—or in some cases an entire forum—becomes unstable the result is usually uncontrolled spam in the form of one-line complaints, image macros or abuse of the report system.^ We integrate the results of the case study to highlight the major phases of forum development.
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^ Our results suggest that Wenger et al.'s advice may apply to online professional forums that form outside of corporate boundaries.
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^ It seems that some people know one other, at least by reputation; however, there are no references to off-line meetings and, hence, no embodiment.
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When the discussion becomes heated and sides do nothing more than complain and not accept each other's differences in point of view, the discussion degenerates into what is called a flame war. .To flame someone means to go off-topic and attack the person rather than their opinion.^ Here’s how one woman found that giving someone a little more than expected can go a long way.

.Likely candidates for flame wars are usually religion and socio-political topics, or topics that discuss pre-existing rivalries outside the forum (eg: rivalry between games console systems, car manufacturers, nationalities, etc.^ We refer to this phenomenon as embodiment of the language game-the link between the forum and sharing of physical space.
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^ Using Wittgenstein's (1953, 1969) language game framework, we analyze the evolution of an online discussion forum of information systems professionals in India.
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^ Although it would be possible to examine the language game surrounding a forum's topical focus (e.g., knowledge management), our interest is in the language game of the forum as an organizing entity.
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)
When a topic that has degenerated into a flame war is considered akin to that of the forum (be it a section or the entire board), spam and flames have a chance of spreading outside the topic and causing trouble, usually in the form of vandalism. .Some forums (commonly game forums) have suffered from forum-wide flame wars almost immediately after their conception, because of a pre-existing flame war element in the online community.^ We examine expression of social identity within the discourse to assess coherence among the players and the distinctiveness of the online language game from other language games of which the forum may be a part, such as the geographic locale or the larger professional community.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolution of an online forum for knowledge management professionals: A language game analysis.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We hope the initial study reported here leads to further inquiry into the language games of online forums and their developmental processes.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many forums have created devoted areas strictly for discussion of potential flame war topics that are moderated like normal.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In today's fast-paced, global business environment online discussion forums present a potentially valuable venue for interaction among busy, working professionals.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this time there are many discussions about appropriate behaviors, the aim of the forum, and its activity.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Common features

By default to be an Internet forum, the web application needs an ability to submit threads and replies. Forum software may sometimes allow categories or subforums. The chronological older-to-newer view is generally associated with forums (the newer to older being associated more akin to blogs).

Tripcodes and capcodes

In a tripcode system, a secret password is added to the user's name following a separator character (often a number sign). This password, or tripcode, is hashed into a special key, or trip, distinguishable from the name by HTML styles. .Tripcodes cannot be faked but on some types of forum software they are insecure and can be guessed.^ First, we review some of the known properties of online discussion forums and the challenges they confront.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moderators and administrators will frequently assign themselves capcodes, or tripcodes where the guessable trip is replaced with a special notice (such as "# Administrator"), or cap.

Private message

.A private message, or PM for short, is a message sent in private from a member to one or more other members.^ As a Vocalpoint member, you'll be able to speak your mind on the Message Board and let other members know your thoughts on Vocalpoint experiences or any other topic that interests you.

^ Apart from the core group, there are three members who are highly active in T1 (i.e., post more than 5 messages) who then stop making any contribution after T1 or T2.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As GV recedes as facilitator in T3 and T4, other members of the core contributing group become more active in stirring up discussions.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ability to send so-called carbon copies is sometimes available. When sending a carbon copy (cc), the users to whom the message is sent directly will not be aware of the recipients of the carbon copy or even if one was sent in the first place.[example 1]
Private messages are generally used for personal conversations. .They can also be used with tripcodes—a message is addressed to a public trip and can be picked up by typing in the tripcode.^ The used sheet picks up all the lint, it's great!

Attachment

An attachment can be almost any file. When someone attaches a file to a post they are uploading the file to the forums' server. Forums usually have very strict limit on what can be attached and what cannot (among which the size of the files in question).

BBCode and HTML

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is sometimes allowed but usually its use is discouraged or when allowed it is extensively filtered. When HTML is disabled Bulletin Board Code (BBCode) is the most common preferred alternative. BBCode usually consists of a tag, similar to HTML only instead of < and > the tagname is enclosed within square brackets (meaning: [ and ]). Commonly [i] is used for italic type, [b] is used for bold, [u] for underline, [color="value"] for color and [list] for lists, as well as [img] for images and [url] for links.
The following example BBCode: [b]This[/b] is [i]clever[/i] [b] [i]text[/i] [/b] when the post is viewed the code is rendered to HTML and will appear as: This is clever text.
.Many Forum hosts offer Custom BBCodes, where the Administrator of the Board can create complex BBCodes to allow the use of javascript or iframe functions in posts, for example embedding a YouTube or Google Video complete with viewer directly into a post.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, more than a formal netiquette, it is the way the messages are written—how informal, friendly and positive they are—that will create a sense of sociability and belonging, allowing newcomers to have a sense of the forum's style as soon as they start reading the postings.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One could also add some functionalities such as pictures or videos in order to embody the different actors and their postings (per Mynatt et al., 1998).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Emoticon

.Emoticon or smiley is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form.^ There is now heavy use of punctuation and emoticons to express emotions, creating an oral style.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Forums implement a system through which some of the text representations of an emoticons (e.g.^ Some patterns, such as those associated with social identity, were enacted during all five periods but through different communicative practices as the forum evolved.
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XD, :p) are rendered as a small image. .Depending on part the world the forum's topic originates (since most forums are international) smilies can be replaced by other forms of similar graphics, an example would be kaoani (e.g.^ For example, studies could compare online forums discussing medicine, supply chain management, or graphic design.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PP brings argument into the language game of the forum; but since others do not reply to any of his postings regarding the argument, an argumentative discourse fails to take off.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it would be possible to examine the language game surrounding a forum's topical focus (e.g., knowledge management), our interest is in the language game of the forum as an organizing entity.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

*(^O^)*, (^-^)b).

Poll

Most forums implement an opinion poll system for threads. Most implementations allow for single-choice or multi-choice (sometimes limited to a certain number) when selecting options as well as private or public display of voters. Polls can be set to expire after a certain date or in some cases after a number of days from its creation. Members vote in a poll and a statistic is displayed graphically.

RSS and ATOM

RSS and ATOM feeds allow a minimalistic means of subscribing to the forum. .Common implementations only allow RSS feeds listing the last few threads updated for the forum index and the last posts in a thread.^ Life seems to reappear only in the last few messages posted during the period.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other forum features

.An ignore list allows members to hide posts of other members that they do not want to see or have a problem with.^ PP is nearly the only contributor to post messages during this argument segment, and when others post they don't refer to the argument.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In most implementations they are referred to as foe list or ignore list. Usually the posts are not hidden, but minimized with only a small bar indication a post from the user on the ignore list is there.[11][20] .Internet forums include a member list, present in almost all forums it allows display of all forum members, with integrated search feature.^ Members must go to the forum website to read and post messages, which include text and limited graphics capability.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initiated an argument with a member of another forum and uses KMforum as a stage to display the argument.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some forums will not list members with 0 posts, even if they have activated their accounts.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, we review some of the known properties of online discussion forums and the challenges they confront.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common on forums, a subscription is a form of automated notification integrated into the software of most forums.^ We look for patterns of speech related to each dimension with the aim of then integrating these into a comprehensive understanding of the forum's overall language game.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It usually notifies either by email or on the site when the member returns. The option to subscribe is available for every thread while logged in. .Subscriptions work with read marking, namely the property of unread which is given to the content never served to the user by the software.^ How open source software works: "Free" user-to-user assistance.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent development in some popular implementations of forum software has brought social network features and functionality.^ Based on our findings, we posit general inferences regarding how professional groups with loose social ties can develop sustainable online discussion forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these and other reasons, a number of researchers have argued that many forums fail to function as "communities" and instead operate as very loose networks with (at best) weak social ties (e.g., Jones, 1997; Jones, Ravid, & Rafaeli, 2004).
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some patterns, such as those associated with social identity, were enacted during all five periods but through different communicative practices as the forum evolved.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such features include personal galleries, pages as well as a social network like chat systems.

Comparison with other Web applications

.One significant difference between forums and electronic mailing lists is that mailing lists automatically deliver new messages to the subscriber, while forums require the member to visit the website and check for new posts.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greetings of new members, expressions of politeness and gratitude; Parenthetical expression continues; Message forwarding, linking of messages, and feedback persist as in T1; Few personal addresses.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 2 shows the message posting pattern for the forum over time, and Table 1 summarizes the types of contributors and their posting patterns.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because members may miss replies in threads they are interested in, many modern forums offer an "e-mail notification" feature, whereby members can choose to be notified of new posts in a thread, and web feeds that allow members to see a summary of the new posts using aggregator software.^ The argument involved one of the active members of the forum, PP, but the target of his argument (JF) was not a member of KMforum and never replied to PP's postings in the forum.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The language game framework provides a useful and relevant lens for researchers interested in taking a developmental approach to the study of online discussion forums.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main difference between newsgroups and forums is that additional software, a newsreader, is required to participate in newsgroups.^ The forum has no formally stated rules or requirements for participation.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in this period PP is very active and uses the forum as a stage to display an argument he is having with JF, a participant in a different KM forum (491): "I suggest that this discussion between John and his supporters and I and my supporters move to the KM India forum."
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visiting and participating in forums normally requires no additional software beyond the web browser.^ The forum has no formally stated rules or requirements for participation.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the forums generally produce no tangible products; nor do they provide the participants with tangible rewards or outcomes.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wikis, unlike conventional forums, typically allow all users to edit all content, including each other's messages.^ The well-defined and friendly patterns of discourse allow newcomers to enter and participate, even as the forum's game is ongoing with others.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visitors to a forum must be able to interpret text comfortably, find meaningful content, and know how to formulate messages that will interest others.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, we examined 15 months of message content.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This level of content manipulation is reserved for moderators or administrators on most forums. Wikis also allow the creation of other content outside the talk pages. .On the other hand, weblogs and generic content management systems tend to be locked down to the point where only a few select users can post blog entries, although many allow other users to comment upon them.^ Although GV is the most active contributor, there are three other highly active contributors and some less active contributors whose messages generate extensive discussion.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life seems to reappear only in the last few messages posted during the period.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point a contributor calls on others to learn more about human resource policies in specific companies, and he generates many replies.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forums differ from chat rooms and instant messaging in that forum participants do not have to be online simultaneously to receive or send messages. .Messages posted to a forum or Usenet are publicly available for some time, which is uncommon in chat rooms that maintain frequent activity.^ Many posts refer to his work at the EI forum and to some work on Topic.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 2 shows the message posting pattern for the forum over time, and Table 1 summarizes the types of contributors and their posting patterns.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members must go to the forum website to read and post messages, which include text and limited graphics capability.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One rarity among forums is the ability to create your own picture album. .Forum participants can upload personal pictures onto the site, add descriptions to the pictures, and choose album covers.^ The forum name, participant names, and other personal identifiers have been substituted with fictitious names.
  • Evolution of an Online Forum for Knowledge Management Professionals: A Language Game Analysis 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pictures are in the same format as posting threads, and contain the same options such as "Report Post" and "Reply to Post".

See also



Notes

  1. ^ an account is a space on the site identified by the chosen username through which a member carries out activities and contributes.
  2. ^ read marking is the process through which a thread, post or forum which has been viewed is distinguished from those which have not. The function is usually automatic with the addition of controls, like Mark All etc.

Examples

  1. ^ Presuming someone is sending a private message and has the ability to send carbon copies: If someone fills the recipient field with "John" and "Tom", and the carbon copy field with "Gordon". John will know Tom got the message. Tom knows John got the message. But, both Tom and John have no clue that Gordon got the message as well.

References

  1. ^ "vBulletin Community Forum - FAQ: What is a bulletin board?". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/forum/faq.php?faq=vb3_board_usage#faq_vb3_forums_threads_posts. Retrieved 2008-09-13. "A bulletin board is an online discussion site. It is sometimes also called a 'board' or 'forums'. It may contain several categories, consisting of forums, threads and individual posts." 
  2. ^ a b c "What is an "Internet forum"? (video entry by Ethan Feerst and Dylan Stewart group)". http://www.videojug.com/expertanswer/internet-communities-and-forums-2/what-is-an-internet-forum. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  3. ^ a b "Glossary Of Technical Terms". Green Web Design. http://www.greenwebdesign.com/Glossary-Of-Technical-Terms.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  4. ^ "Brevard User's Group - Technical Glossary". Brevard User's Group. http://bugclub.org/glossary.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  5. ^ "vBulletin Community forum - FAQ: Registration". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/forum/faq.php?faq=vb3_board_usage#faq_vb3_register. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  6. ^ "phpBB FAQ: Why do I need to register at all?". phpBB.com. http://www.phpbb.com/community/faq.php#f01. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  7. ^ "phpBB FAQ: What is COPPA?". phpBB.com. http://www.phpbb.com/community/faq.php#f07. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  8. ^ "vBulletin Options - User registration". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/docs/html/. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  9. ^ http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2007/04/2channel
  10. ^ "phpBB FAQ: How can I report posts to a moderator?". phpBB.com. http://www.phpbb.com/community/faq.php#f29. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  11. ^ a b "vBulletin FAQ: Dealing with Troublesome Users". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/forum/faq.php?faq=vb3_board_usage#faq_vb3_troublesome_users. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  12. ^ "Community Rules 1c". phpBB.com. "Members are asked to not act as 'back seat moderators'. If members note an issue which contravenes something in this policy document they are welcome to bring it to the attention of a member of the Moderator Team. Please use the 'post report' feature to report posts. Do not respond to such topics yourself. Members who constantly 'act' as moderators may be warned." 
  13. ^ "Censorship Options". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/docs/html/vboptions_group_censor. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  14. ^ "3.4.5. Word censoring". PhpBB.com. http://www.phpbb.com/support/documentation/3.0/adminguide/acp_posting.php#acp_posting_censors. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  15. ^ "Message Board Features - Website Toolbox". Website Toolbox. http://www.websitetoolbox.com/message_board/features.html. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  16. ^ "vBulletin Manual: User Groups and Permissions". vBulletin. http://www.vbulletin.com/docs/html/vb2_manual_cp_usergroups. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  17. ^ "PlayStation.com Forums New User Guide.". playstation.com. http://boardsus.playstation.com/playstation/board/message?board.id=announcements&message.id=16#modteam. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  18. ^ a b "vBulletin FAQ: Moderators and Administrators". vBulletin.com. http://www.vbulletin.com/forum/faq.php?faq=vb3_reading_posting#faq_vb3_mods_admins. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  19. ^ "Postcount Information". TechnoFyed.com. http://www.technofyed.com/showthread.php?tid=219. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  20. ^ "PhpBB FAQ: How can I add / remove users to my Friends or Foes list?". PhpBB.com. http://www.phpbb.com/community/faq.php?#f61. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Noun

Singular
Internet forum
  1. (computing) A system in which users may send, read and reply to messages on a particular subject.

Synonyms

Translations

  • Russian: интернет-форум m.

Simple English

An Internet forum is a place on the Internet where people can type messages on a board for others to see. Messages or posts are organised by topic (or "thread"), with each poster either replying to an existing topic or creating a new topic for a new conversation.

Internet forums, sometimes called "forums", can be found on a lot of websites. Internet forums are often used to show people information. Things like pictures hyperlinks and images can also be put on the board, or "posted".

Many Internet forums have rules against things such as spamming and trolling. If people do those kind of things, they will be warned, and if they continue, they will be banned.

There are usually three different types of rankings on a forum:

  • Member: which nearly everyone is, they can read and create posts.
  • Moderator: someone whose job is to keep order on the forum. They can delete posts and warn or ban members who break the forum rules.
  • Administrator, or admin: The highest rank, who can change settings on the forum and change user permissions.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Internet forum, which are similar to those in the above article.








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