Internet radio: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internet radio (also known as web radio, net radio, streaming radio and e-radio) is an audio service transmitted via the Internet. Music streaming on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. Internet radio involves streaming media presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are independent of such associations.

Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world—for example, one could listen to an Australian station from Europe or America. Some major networks like Clear Channel in the US and Chrysalis in the UK restrict listening to in country because of music licensing and advertising concerns.[citation needed] Internet radio remains popular among expatriates and listeners with interests that are often not adequately served by local radio stations (such as eurodance, progressive rock, ambient music, folk music, classical music, and stand-up comedy). Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional radio stations.


Internet radio technology


The most common way to distribute Internet radio is via streaming technology using a lossy audio codec. Popular streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio and HE-AAC (sometimes called aacPlus). The bits are "streamed" (transported) over the network in TCP or UDP packets, then reassembled and played within seconds. (The delay is referred to as lag time.)


Early history

In 1993, Carl Malamud launched Internet Talk Radio which was the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert."[1] This was Internet radio only insofar as it was conceptually a radio show on the Internet. As late as 1995, Internet Talk Radio was not available via multicast streaming; it was distributed "as audio files that computer users fetch one by one."[2] However Malamud was among the foremost proponents of multicasting technology. In late 1994, his Internet Multicasting Service was set to launch RTFM, a multicast Internet radio news station.[3] In January 1995, RTFM's news programming was expanded to include "live audio feeds from the House and Senate floors."[2]

A November 1994 Rolling Stones concert was the "first major cyberspace multicast concert." Mick Jagger opened the concert by saying, "I wanna say a special welcome to everyone that's, uh, climbed into the Internet tonight and, uh, has got into the M-bone. And I hope it doesn't all collapse."[2]

On November 7, 1994, WXYC (89.3 FM Chapel Hill, NC USA) became the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. WXYC used an FM radio connected to a system at SunSite, later known as Ibiblio, running Cornell's CU-SeeMe software. WXYC had begun test broadcasts and bandwidth testing as early as August, 1994.[4] WREK (91.1 FM, Atlanta, GA USA) started streaming on the same day using their own custom software called CyberRadio1. However, unlike WXYC, this was WREK's beta launch and the stream was not advertised until a later date.[5]

In 1995, Progressive Networks released RealAudio as a free download. Time magazine said that RealAudio took "advantage of the latest advances in digital compression" and delivered "AM radio-quality sound in so-called real time."[6] Eventually, companies such as Nullsoft and Microsoft released streaming audio players as free downloads.[7] As the software audio players became available, "many Web-based radio stations began springing up."[7]

In March 1996, Virgin Radio - London, became the first European radio station to broadcast its full program live on the internet[8]. It broadcast its FM signal, live from the source, simultaneously on the Internet 24 hours a day[9].

Internet radio attracted significant media and investor attention in the late 1990s. In 1998, the initial public stock offering for set a record at the time for the largest jump in price in stock offerings in the United States. The offering price was US$18 and the company's shares opened at US$68 on the first day of trading.[10] The company was losing money at the time and indicated in a prospectus filed with the Securities Exchange Commission that they expected the losses to continue indefinitely.[10] Yahoo! purchased on July 20, 1999[11] for US$5.7 billion.[12]

US royalty controversy

In October 1998, the US Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). One result of the DMCA is that performance royalties are to be paid for satellite radio and Internet radio broadcasts in addition to publishing royalties. In contrast, traditional radio broadcasters pay only publishing royalties and no performance royalties.[13]

A rancorous dispute ensued over how performance royalties should be assessed for Internet broadcasters.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Some observers said that royalty rates that were being proposed were overly burdensome and intended to disadvantage independent Internet-only stations[13]—that "while Internet giants like AOL may be able to afford the new rates, many smaller Internet radio stations will have to shut down."[16] The Digital Media Association (DiMA) said that even large companies, like Yahoo! Music, might fail due to the proposed rates.[17] Some observers said that some U.S.-based Internet broadcasts might be moved to foreign jurisdictions where US royalties do not apply.[15]

Many of these critics organized, "a coalition of listeners, artists, labels and webcasters"[14] that opposed the proposed royalty rates. To focus attention on the consequences of the impending rate hike, many US Internet broadcasters participated in a "Day of Silence" on June 26, 2007. On that day, they shut off their audio streams or streamed ambient sound, sometimes interspersed with brief public service announcements. Notable participants included Rhapsody, Live365, MTV, Pandora, and SHOUTcast. Some others that did not participate, like, stated that they did not want to punish their listeners.

SoundExchange, representing supporters of the increase in royalty rates, pointed out the fact that the rates were flat from 1998 through 2005 (see above), without even being increased to reflect cost-of-living increases. They also point to the fact that CBS recently purchased Last.FM for 280 million dollars,[19] and if internet radio is to build businesses from the product of recordings, the performers and owners of those recordings should receive fair compensation. Opponents argued that the purchase price paid for Last.FM reflected that it was primarily a social network service that included a radio service.

On May 1, 2007, SoundExchange came to an agreement with certain large webcasters regarding the minimum fees that were modified by the determination of the Copyright Royalty Board. While the CRB decision imposed a $500 per station or channel minimum fee for all webcasters, certain webcasters represented through DiMA negotiated a $50,000 "cap" on those fees with SoundExchange.[20] However, DiMA and SoundExchange continue to negotiate over the per song, per listener fees.

SoundExchange has also offered alternative rates and terms to certain eligible small webcasters, that allows them to calculate their royalties as a percentage of their revenue or expenses, instead of at a per performance rate.[21] To be eligible, a webcaster had to have revenues of less than $1.25 million dollars a year and stream less than 5 million "listener hours" a month (or an average of 6830 concurrent listeners).[22] These restrictions would disqualify independent webcasters like AccuRadio, DI.FM, Club977 and others from participating in the offer, and therefore many small commercial webcasters continue to negotiate a settlement with SoundExchange.[23]

An August 16, 2008 Washington Post article reported that although Pandora was "one of the nation's most popular Web radio services, with about 1 million listeners daily...the burgeoning company may be on the verge of collapse" due to the structuring of performance royalty payment for webcasters. "Traditional radio, by contrast, pays no such fee. Satellite radio pays a fee but at a less onerous rate, at least by some measures." The article indicated that "other Web radio outfits" may be "doom[ed]" for the same reasons.[24]

On September 30, 2008, the United States Congress passed "a bill that would put into effect any changes to the royalty rate to which [record labels and web casters] agree while lawmakers are out of session."[25] Although royalty rates are expected to decrease, many webcasters nevertheless predict difficulties generating sufficient revenue to cover their royalty payments.[25]

In January 2009, the US Copyright Royalty Board announced that "it will apply royalties to streaming net services based on revenue."[26]


In 2003, revenue from online streaming music radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that figure rose to US$500 million.[17]

A February 21, 2007 "survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research" found that "[a]s much as 19% of U.S. consumers 12 and older listen to Web-based radio stations." In other words, there were "some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition [sic] radio, podcasts, or cell-phone-based radio combined."[17][27]

An April 2008 Arbitron survey[28] showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week. In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared with 11 percent in 2007.

Internet radio functionality is also built into many dedicated Internet radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience.

See also


  1. ^ "Cable company is set to plug into Internet". The Wall Street Journal. August 24, 1993. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  2. ^ a b c Peter H. Lewis (February 8, 1995). "Peering Out a 'Real Time' Window". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  3. ^ Peter H. Lewis (September 19, 1994). "Internet Radio Station Plans to Broadcast Around the Clock". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  4. ^ WXYC's groundbreaking internet simulcast is now 10 years old November 12, 2004. WXYC Chapel Hill, NC, 89.3 FM.
  5. ^ We got here first. Sort of. WREK Atlanta, 91.1 FM.
  6. ^ Josh Quittner (1995-05-01). "Radio Free Cyberspace". Time.,9171,982874,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  7. ^ a b Richard D. Rose (2002-05-08). "Connecting the Dots: Navigating the Laws and Licensing Requirements of the Internet Music Revolution". IDEA: The Intellectual Property Law Review. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  8. ^ Adam Bowie (September 26th, 2008). "A brief history of Virgin Radio". One Golden Square. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  9. ^ "An Introduction to Internet Radio". European Broadcasting Union (EBU). 26 October 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  10. ^ a b Saul Hansell (July 20, 1998). " Faces Risks After Strong Initial Offering". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  11. ^ "Yahoo! Completes Acquisition". Yahoo! Media Relations. July 20, 1999. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  12. ^ a b Doc Searls, (July 17, 2002) "Why Are So Many Internet Radio Stations Still on the Air?" Linux Journal. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  13. ^ a b c Michael Roberts (May 2, 2002). "Digital Dilemma: Will new royalty fees kill Web radio?". Westword. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  14. ^ a b Carlos Militante (April 26, 2007). "Stagnant royalty rates may bring end to Internet radio". Spartan Daily (San Jose State U.). The Daily Collegian. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  15. ^ a b Michael Geist (April 9, 2007). Web radio may stream north to Canada. The Toronto Star.
  16. ^ a b Gray, Hiawatha (March 14, 2007). Royalty hike could mute Internet radio: Smaller stations say rise will be too much, The Boston Globe.
  17. ^ a b c d Olga Kharif, The Last Days of Internet Radio?, March 7, 2007. Retrieved on March 7, 2007.
  18. ^ Broache, Anne (2007-04-26). "Lawmakers propose reversal of Net radio fee increases". CNet News. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  19. ^ Duncan Riley (May 30, 2007). CBS Acquires Europe’s Last.FM for $280 million Techcrunch. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  20. ^ Olga Kharif (2007-08-23). "Webcasters and SoundExchange Shake Hands". Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  21. ^ Mark Hefflinger (2007-08-22). "SoundExchange Offers Discounted Music Rates To Small Webcasters". Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  22. ^ Rusty Hodge, (August 1, 2007) SoundExchange extends (not very good) offer to small webcasters. SomaFM. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  23. ^ David Oxenford (September 19, 2007) SoundExchange Announces 24 Agreements - But Not One a Settlement With Small Webcasters. Broadcast Law Blog.
  24. ^ Peter Whoriskey (August 16, 2008) Giant Of Internet Nears Its 'Last Stand'. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  25. ^ a b Miller, Cain Claire (Oct.27, 2008) Even If Royalties for Web Radio Fall, Revenue Remains Elusive, The New York Times.
  26. ^ Scott M. Fulton, III (January 29, 2009) Copyright Board begrudgingly adopts revenue-based streaming royalties. Betanews. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  27. ^ The "HD" in "HD radio" actually stands for hybrid digital, not high-definition. It's hybrid because analog and digital signals are broadcast together.
  28. ^ Joe Lensky; Bill Rose (2008-06-24). "The Infinite Dial 2008: Radio’s Digital Platforms". Digital Radio Study 2008. Arbitron and Edison Research. 

A danish internet radio

Further reading

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

What is Internet Radio?

In a nutshell, Internet Radio lets you listen to the radio via the Internet without having to log on to a computer. These radios pick up stations and on-demand content which are streamed on the Internet via a broadband connection.

Internet radio has no geographic locations so a broadcaster in China can be heard in the UK. The number of available Internet radio stations is always rising but at the last count there are over 10,000 stations you can listen to, meaning access to uptodate news and music from all over the world. And, since lots of stations store their back catalogue of shows, you can even listen on-demand if you miss something you love.

The Intempo GX is a good example of an internet radio and has been hailed as one of the easiest Internet Radios to use.

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