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Interventional Radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes VIR for vascular and interventional radiology) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty). Pictures (images) are used to direct these procedures, which are usually done with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing diseases.

Contents

History

The advancements in the field of radiological imaging such as the Seldinger technique, together with innovations in instrumentation, led to a rapid development in interventional procedures in the 1970s.Cardiovascular procedures were found to be particularly well-suited for guided and minimally invasive operations, and catheterization remains as one of the main applications for interventional radiology.

Nobel laureate Charles Theodore Dotter is considered the "father of angioplasty and interventional radiology".[1]

See also: Interventional cardiology

Training

In the United States, interventional Radiologists are physicians who have completed four years of medical school, a preliminary year of training (internship), a four year diagnostic radiology residency program, and then a one or two year fellowship in vascular & interventional radiology.

Imaging Modalities

Common interventional imaging modalities include fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fluoroscopy and computed tomography use ionizing radiation that may be potentially harmful to the patient and, in the case of fluoroscopy, the interventional radiologist. However, both methods have the advantages of being fast and geometrically accurate. Ultrasound suffers from image quality and tissue contrast problems, but is also fast and inexpensive. Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior tissue contrast, at the cost of being expensive and requiring specialized instruments that will not interact with the magnetic fields present in the imaging volume.

Procedures

Common IR procedures are:

  • Angiography: imaging the blood vessels to look for abnormalities with the use of various contrast media, including iodinated contrast, gadolinium based agents, and CO2 gas.
  • Chemoembolization: delivering cancer treatment directly to a tumour through its blood supply, then using clot-inducing substances to block the artery, ensuring that the delivered chemotherapy is not "washed out" by continued blood flow.
  • Cholecystostomy: placement of a tube into the gallbladder to remove infected bile in patients with cholecystitis, an inflammation of the gallbladder, who are too frail or too sick to undergo surgery
  • Drain insertions: placement of tubes into different parts of the body to drain fluids (e.g., abscess drains to remove pus, pleural drains)
  • Embolization: blocking abnormal blood (artery) vessels (e.g., for the purpose of stopping bleeding) or organs (to stop the extra function e.g. embolization of the spleen for hypersplenism) including uterine artery embolization for percutaneous treatment of uterine fibroids. Various embolic agents are used, including alcohol, glue, metallic coils, poly-viny alcohol particles, Embospheres, encapsulated chemo-microsphere, and gelfoam.
  • Thrombolysis: treatment aimed at dissolving blood clots (e.g., pulmonary emboli, leg vein thrombi, thrombosed hemodialysis accesses) with both pharmaceutical (TPA) and mechanical means
  • Biopsy: taking of a tissue sample from the area of interest for pathological examination from a percutaneous or transjugular approach
  • Cryoablation - localized destruction of tissue by freezing
  • IVC filters: - metallic filters placed in the inferior vena cavae to prevent propagation of deep venous thrombus, both temporary and permanent.
Inferior vena cava filter
  • Nephrostomy placement: Placing a catheter directly into the kidney to drain urine in situations where normal flow of urine is obstructed. NUS catheters are nephroureteral stents which are placed through the ureter and into the bladder.
  • Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy or RIG: Placement of a feeding tube percutaneously into the stomach and/or jejunum.
  • Dialysis access and related intervention: Placement of tunneled hemodialysis catheters, peritoneal dialysis catheters, and revision/thrombolysis of poorly functioning surgically placed AV fistulas and grafts.
  • TIPS : Placement of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-systemic Shunt (TIPS) for management of select patients with critical end-stage liver disease and portal hypertension
  • Biliary intervention - Placement of catheters in the biliary system to bypass biliary obstructions and decompress the biliary system. Also placement of permanent indwelling biliary stents.
  • Endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins - Placement of thin laser fiber in varicose veins for non-surgical treatment of venous insufficiency

Tools

There are a number of catheters used in interventional radiology that can be loosely divided into five types:

  • Diagnostic angiographic catheters
  • Micro catheters
  • Drainage catheters
  • Balloon catheters
  • Central venous catheters

References

  1. ^ Lakhan SE, Kaplan A, Laird C, Leiter Y (2009). "The interventionalism of medicine: interventional radiology, cardiology, and neuroradiology". International Archives of Medicine 2 (27). doi:10.1186/1755-7682-2-27. PMID 19740425.  
  • Rösch J, Keller F, Kaufman J (2003). "The birth, early years, and future of interventional radiology". J Vasc Interv Radiol 14 (7): 841–53. PMID 12847192.  

See also

External links

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Interventional radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes VIR for vascular and interventional radiology, also known as Image-Guided Surgery or Surgical Radiology) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty).

The basic concept behind interventional radiology is to diagnose or treat pathology with the most minimally invasive technique possible. Images are used to direct interventional procedures, which are usually done with needles and narrow tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the interventional radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing disease. By minimizing the physical trauma to the patient, peripheral interventions can reduce infection rates and recovery time as well as shorten hospital stays.[1]

Contents

History

The advancements in the field of radiological imaging such as the Seldinger technique, together with innovations in instrumentation, led to a rapid development in interventional procedures in the 1970s.Cardiovascular procedures were found to be particularly well-suited for guided and minimally invasive operations, and catheterization remains as one of the main applications for interventional radiology.

Nobel nominee Charles Dotter is considered the "father of angioplasty and interventional radiology".[2]

See also: Interventional cardiology

Training

As in most medical specialties, training varies depending on varying regulations from country to country. In the United States, interventional radiologists are physicians who have completed a college degree, four years of medical school, a preliminary year of training (internship), a four year diagnostic radiology residency program, and then a one or two year fellowship in vascular & interventional radiology.

Imaging Modalities

Common interventional imaging modalities include fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fluoroscopy and computed tomography use ionizing radiation that may be potentially harmful to the patient and the interventional radiologist. However, both methods have the advantages of being fast and geometrically accurate. Ultrasound suffers from image quality and tissue contrast problems, but is also fast and inexpensive. Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior tissue contrast, at the cost of being expensive and requiring specialized instruments that will not interact with the magnetic fields present in the imaging volume.

Procedures

Common IR procedures are:

  • Angiography: imaging the blood vessels to look for abnormalities with the use of various contrast media, including iodinated contrast, gadolinium based agents, and CO2 gas.
  • Chemoembolization: delivering cancer treatment directly to a tumour through its blood supply, then using clot-inducing substances to block the artery, ensuring that the delivered chemotherapy is not "washed out" by continued blood flow.
  • Cholecystostomy: placement of a tube into the gallbladder to remove infected bile in patients with cholecystitis, an inflammation of the gallbladder, who are too frail or too sick to undergo surgery
  • Drain insertions: placement of tubes into different parts of the body to drain fluids (e.g., abscess drains to remove pus, pleural drains)
  • Embolization: blocking abnormal blood (artery) vessels (e.g., for the purpose of stopping bleeding) or organs (to stop the extra function e.g. embolization of the spleen for hypersplenism) including uterine artery embolization for percutaneous treatment of uterine fibroids. Various embolic agents are used, including alcohol, glue, metallic coils, poly-viny alcohol particles, Embospheres, encapsulated chemo-microsphere, and gelfoam.
  • Thrombolysis: treatment aimed at dissolving blood clots (e.g., pulmonary emboli, leg vein thrombi, thrombosed hemodialysis accesses) with both pharmaceutical (TPA) and mechanical means
  • Biopsy: taking of a tissue sample from the area of interest for pathological examination from a percutaneous or transjugular approach
  • IVC filters: - metallic filters placed in the inferior vena cavae to prevent propagation of deep venous thrombus, both temporary and permanent.
  • Nephrostomy placement: Placing a catheter directly into the kidney to drain urine in situations where normal flow of urine is obstructed. NUS catheters are nephroureteral stents which are placed through the ureter and into the bladder.
  • Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy or RIG: Placement of a feeding tube percutaneously into the stomach and/or jejunum.
  • Dialysis access and related intervention: Placement of tunneled hemodialysis catheters, peritoneal dialysis catheters, and revision/thrombolysis of poorly functioning surgically placed AV fistulas and grafts.
  • TIPS : Placement of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-systemic Shunt (TIPS) for management of select patients with critical end-stage liver disease and portal hypertension
  • Biliary intervention - Placement of catheters in the biliary system to bypass biliary obstructions and decompress the biliary system. Also placement of permanent indwelling biliary stents.
  • Endovenous laser treatment of varicose veins - Placement of thin laser fiber in varicose veins for non-surgical treatment of venous insufficiency
  • Radioembolization: Embolization of liver with radioactive microspheres of glass or plastic, to kill tumors while minimizing exposure to healthy cells.

Tools

There are a number of catheters used in interventional radiology that can be loosely divided into five types:

  • Diagnostic angiographic catheters
  • Micro catheters
  • Drainage catheters
  • Balloon catheters
  • Central venous catheters

See also

References

  1. ^ Society of Interventional Radiology -- Global Statement Defining Interventional radiology. http://www.sirweb.org/news/newsPDF/IR_Global_Statement.pdf
  2. ^ Lakhan SE, Kaplan A, Laird C, Leiter Y (2009). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The interventionalism of medicine: interventional radiology, cardiology, and neuroradiology"]. International Archives of Medicine 2 (27): 27. doi:10.1186/1755-7682-2-27. PMID 19740425. 
  • Rösch J, Keller F, Kaufman J (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The birth, early years, and future of interventional radiology"]. J Vasc Interv Radiol 14 (7): 841–53. PMID 12847192. 

External links


Simple English

Interventional radiology is defined as the branch of medicine that diagnoses and treats a wide range of diseases using actions that are performed through the skin (for example an injection) or carried out with the least damage by x-rays, sonography, and so on.

Some of these procedures are done only for diagnostic purposes, while others are done for treatment purposes. Images are used to direct these procedures, which are usually done with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing diseases.


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