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Intrauterine hypoxia: Wikis


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Intrauterine hypoxia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 P20., P21. (birth asphyxia)
ICD-9 168
DiseasesDB 1416

Intrauterine hypoxia (IH, also known as birth asphyxia) is when the fetus is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen. This may be due to a variety of reasons such as cord prolapse, cord occlusion, placental infarction and maternal smoking.Intrauterine growth restriction may cause or be the result of hypoxia. Oxygen deprivation is the most common cause of perinatal brain injury. The brain damage resulting from intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia results in an increased mortality rate, including an increased risk of Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Oxygen deprivation in the fetus and neonate have been implicated as either a primary or as a contributing risk factor in numerous neurological and obstensibly psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy, ADHD, eating disorders and cerebral palsy. " The problem of perinatal brain injury, in terms of the costs to society and to the affected individuals and their families, is extraordinary." (Yafeng Dong, PhD) [1][2][3][4][5]Intrauterine hypoxia or birth asphyxia IH/BA was the ninth most expensive medical condition treated in U.S. hospitals by average hospital cost and resultant hospital charge.[6]IH/BA also is also a causitive factor in cardiac and circulatory birth defects the sixth most expensive condition, as well as premature birth and low birth weight the second most expensive and it is one of the contributing factors to infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) also known as hyaline membrane disease, the most expensive medical condition to treat and the number one cause of infant mortality.[7][8][9]

Most expensive medical condition treated in U.S. hospitals. 4 out of 10 linked to intrauterine hypoxia/birth asphxia Cost Hospital Charge
1. Infant respiratory distress syndrome $45,542 $138,224
2. Premature birth and low birth weight $44,490 $119,389
6. Cardiac and circulatory birth defects $35,960 $101,412
9. Intrauterine hypoxia or birth asphyxia $27,962 $74,942



There are a various causes for perinatal hypoxia.

The perinatal brain injury occurring as a result of birth asphyxia, manifesting with-in 48 hours of birth, is a form of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Treatment of infants suffering birth asphyxia by cooling is now known to be an effective therapy to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcome in survivors, and hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy begun within 6 hours of birth significantly increases the chance of normal survival in affected infants.


Disability-adjusted life year for birth asphyxia and birth trauma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002

In the United States intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia was listed as the tenth leading cause of neonatal death. Sudden infant death syndrome in which fetal hypoxia has been shown to be a key factor is the third leading cause of death.[10]


  1. ^ Habek D hypoxia and sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Med Croatica. 2002;56(3):109-18. PMID 12630342
  2. ^ Maslova MV. The effects of ante- and postnatal hypoxia on the central nervous system and their correction with peptide hormones. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003 Jul;33(6):607-11. PMID 14552554
  3. ^ Bulterys MG, Greenland S, Kraus JF.Chronic fetal hypoxia and sudden infant death syndrome: interaction between maternal smoking and low hematocrit during pregnancy. Pediatrics. 1990 Oct;86(4):535-40.PMID 2216618
  4. ^ Peleg D, Kennedy CM, Hunter SK. Am Fam Physician. Intrauterine growth restriction: identification and management 1998 Aug;58(2):453-60, 466-7.PMID 9713399
  5. ^ Rosenberg A. The IUGR newborn. Semin Perinatol. 2008 Jun;32(3):219-24.PMID 18482625
  6. ^ Hospital Review
  7. ^ Rueda-Clausen CF, Morton JS, Davidge ST. Cardiovasc Res.Effects of hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction on cardiopulmonary structure and function during adulthood 2009 Mar 1;81(4):713-22. Epub 2008 Dec 16.PMID 19088083
  8. ^ Sly PD, Drew JH.Massive pulmonary haemorrhage: a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in severely growth retarded infants.Aust Paediatr J. 1981 Mar;17(1):32-4.PMID 7247876
  9. ^ Hyaline Membrane Disease eMedicine
  10. ^ National Center for Health Statistics

External links


  • Pathology of the human placenta. By Kurt Benirschke,Peter Kaufmann Publisher: Springer; 4th edition (March 23, 2000)Language:English ISBN 0387988947 ISBN 978-0387988948
  • Neurology of the newborn. By Joseph J. Volpe Publisher: W.B. Saunders Company; 3nd edition (January 15, 1995) Language: English ISBN 072163690X ISBN 978-0721636900


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