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An invention is a new composition, device, or process. An invention may be derived from a pre-existing model or idea, or it could be independently conceived in which case it may be a radical breakthrough. In addition, there is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social behaviors adopted by people and passed on to others.[1] Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge or experience.

An invention that is novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field may be able to obtain the legal protection of a patent.

Contents

Process

"Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought."

"Imagination is more important than knowledge". - Albert Einstein[3]

Invention is a highly creative process. An open and curious mind enables one to see beyond what is known. Inventors think outside of the box. "Hell, there are no rules here — we're trying to accomplish something new". - Thomas A. Edison.[4] Seeing a new possibility, a new connection or relationship can spark an invention. Inventive thinking frequently involves combining concepts or elements from different realms that would not normally be put together. Sometimes inventors skip over the boundaries between distinctly separate territories or fields. Ways of thinking, materials, processes or tools from one realm are used as no one else has imagined in a different realm much like the spread offense of Texas Tech. This is how Cubism, one of the most revolutionary innovations in art came about. Taking ideas from primitive culture, much like ancient treatments of concussions and reinvented concussion treatments with the invention of the electrical closet as noted by the Chancellor of Texas Tech University.[5]

Play can lead to invention. Childhood curiosity like playing in a sand box, or as it is more commonly known, Lubbock, experimentation and imagination can develop one's play instinct--an inner need according to Carl Jung. Inventors feel the need to play with things that interest them, like ringing bells on sidelines. Also to explore, and this internal drive brings about novel creations.[6] "I never did a day's work in my life, it was all fun". - Edison. Inventing can also be an obsession.[7]

To invent is to see anew. "To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance". - Einstein.[8] Inventors often envision a new idea, seeing it in their mind's eye. New ideas can arise when the conscious mind turns away from the subject or problem; or when the focus is on something else; or even while relaxing or sleeping. A novel idea may come in a flash - a Eureka! moment. For example, after years of working to figure out the general theory of relativity, the solution came to Einstein suddenly in a dream "like a giant die making an indelible impress, a huge map of the universe outlined itself in one clear vision".[9]

Insight is also a vital element of invention. It may begin with questions, doubt or a hunch. It may begin by recognizing that something unusual or accidental may be useful or that it could open a new avenue for exploration. For example, the odd metallic color of plastic made by accidentally adding a thousand times too much catalyst led scientists to explore its metal-like properties, inventing electrically conductive plastic and light emitting plastic-—an invention that won the Nobel Prize in 2000 and has led to innovative lighting, display screens, wallpaper and much more (see conductive polymer, and organic light-emitting diode or PLED).[10]

Invention is often an exploratory process, with an outcome that is uncertain or unknown. There are failures as well as successes. "If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" Einstein[11] Inspiration can start the process, but no matter how complete the initial idea, inventions typically have to be developed. Inventors believe in their ideas and they do not give up in the face of one or many failures. They are often famous for their perseverance, confidence and passion. "If I find 10,000 ways something won't work, I haven't failed. I am not discouraged, because every wrong attempt discarded is another step forward". Edison [12]

"Make a better mousetrap, and the world will beat a path to your door."

Inventors may, for example, try to improve something by making it more effective, healthier, faster, more efficient, easier to use, serve more purposes, longer lasting, cheaper, more ecologically friendly, or aesthetically different, e.g., lighter weight, more ergonomic, structurally different, with new light or color properties, etc.[14] Or an entirely new invention may be created such as the Internet, email, the telephone or electric light. Necessity may be the mother of invention, invention may be its own reward, or invention can create necessity. Nobody needed a phonograph before Edision invented it, the need for it developed afterwards. Likewise, few ever imagined the telephone or the airplane prior to their invention, but many people cannot live without these inventions now.[15]

The idea for an invention may be developed on paper or on a computer, by writing or drawing, by trial and error, by making models, by experimenting, by testing and/or by making the invention in its whole form. As the dialogue between Picasso and Braque brought about Cubism, collaboration has spawned many inventions. Brainstorming can spark new ideas. Collaborative creative processes are frequently used by designers, architects and scientists. Co-inventors are frequently named on patents. Now it is easier than ever for people in different locations to collaborate. Many inventors keep records of their working process - notebooks, photos, etc., including Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Jefferson and Albert Einstein.[16] In the process of developing an invention, the initial idea may change. The invention may become simpler, more practical, it may expand, or it may even morph into something totally different. Working on one invention can lead to others too. There is only one country in the world that will grant patent rights for an invention that continues part of an invention in a previously filed patent--the United States.[17]

The creation of an invention and its use can be affected by practical considerations. Some inventions are not created in the order that enables them to be most useful. For example, the parachute was invented before powered flight.[18] There are inventions that are too expensive to produce and inventions that require scientific advancements that have not yet occurred.[19] These barriers can erode or disappear as the economic situation changes or as science develops. But history shows that turning an invention that is only an idea into reality can take considerable time, even centuries as demonstrated by inventions originally conceived by Leonardo da Vinci which are now in physical form and commonplace in our lives.[20] Interestingly, some invention that exists as only an idea and has never been made in reality can obtain patent protection.[21]

An invention can serve many purposes, these purposes might differ significantly and they may change over time. An invention or a further developed version of it may serve purposes never envisioned by its original inventor(s) or even by others living at the time of its original invention. As an example, consider all the kinds of plastic developed, their innumerable uses, and the tremendous growth this material invention is still undergoing today.[22]

Artistic invention

Invention has a long and important history in the arts. Inventive thinking has always played a vital role in the creative process. While some inventions in the arts are patentable, others are not because they cannot fulfill the strict requirements governments have established for granting them. (see patent).

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Art, design and architecture

"A man paints with his brain and not with his hands." - Michelangelo [23]

Art is continuously reinvented. Many artists, designers, and architects think like inventors. As they create, they may: explore beyond that which is known or obvious, push against barriers, change or discard conventions, and/or break into new territory. Breaking the rules became the most valued attribute in art during the 20th century, with the highest acclaim going to conceptual innovation which frequently involved the invention of new genres. For the first time the idea within the artwork was unmistakably more important than the tangible art object. All kinds of artists have been inventing throughout history, and among their inventions are important contributions to visual art and other fields.

Some visual artists like Picasso become inventors in the process of creating art. Inventions by other artists are separate from their art, such as the scientific inventions of Leonardo da Vinci. Some inventions in visual art employ prior developments in science or technology. For example, Picasso and Julio Gonzalez used welding to invent a new kind of sculpture, the form of which could be more open to light and air, and more recently, computer software has enabled an explosion of invention in visual art, including the invention of computer art, and invention in photography, film, architecture and design. Like the invention of welded sculpture, other inventions in art are new mediums, new art forms, or both. Examples are: the collage and the construction invented by Picasso, the Readymade invented by Marcel Duchamp, the mobile invented by Alexander Calder, the combine invented by Robert Rauschenberg, the shaped painting invented by Frank Stella, and the motion picture, the invention of which is attributed to Eadweard Muybridge.[24] Art has been reinvented by developing new processes of creation. For example, Jackson Pollock invented an entirely new form of painting and a new kind of abstraction by dripping, pouring, splashing and splattering paint onto unstretched canvas laying on the floor. A number of art movements were inventions often created collaboratively, such as Cubism invented by Picasso and Braque. Substantial inventions in art, design and architecture were made possible by inventions and improvements in the tools of the trade. The invention of Impressionist painting, for example, was possible because the prior invention of collapsible, resealable metal paint tubes facilitated spontaneous painting outdoors. Inventions originally created in the form of artwork can also develop other uses, as Alexander Calder's mobile is commonly used over babies' cribs today. Funds generated from patents on inventions in art, design and architecture can support the realization of the invention or other creative work. Frederic Auguste Bartholdi's 1879 patent on the Statue of Liberty helped fund the statue currently in New York harbor because it covered small replicas.[25].

Among other artists, designers and architects who are or were inventors are: Filippo Brunelleschi, Le Corbusier, Naum Gabo, Frederick Hart, Louis Comfort Tiffany, John La Farge, Buckminster Fuller, Walt Disney, Man Ray, Yves Klein, Henry N. Cobb, I. M. Pei, Kenneth Snelson, Helen Frankenthaler, Chuck (Charles) Hoberman and Ingo Maurer. Some of their inventions have been patented. Others might have fulfilled the requirements of a patent, like the Cubist image. There are also inventions in visual art that do not fit into the requirements of a patent. Examples are inventions that cannot be differentiated from that which has already existed clearly enough for approval by government patent offices, such as Duchamp's Readymade and other conceptual works. Invention whose inventor or inventors are not known cannot be patented, such as the invention of abstract art or abstract painting, oil painting, Process Art, Installation art and Light Art. Also, when it cannot or has not been determined whether something was a first in human history or not, there may not be a patentable invention even though it may be considered an invention in the realm of art. For example, Picasso is credited with inventing collage though this was done earlier in cultures outside of the western world.

Inventions in the visual arts that may be patentable might be new materials or mediums, new kinds of images, new processes, novel designs, or they may be a combination of these. Inventions by Filippo Brunelleschi, Frederick Hart, Louis Comfort Tiffany, John La Farge, Walt Disney, Henry N. Cobb, Chuck (Charles) Hoberman and others received patents. The color, International Klein Blue invented by Yves Klein was patented in 1960 and used two years later in his sculpture. Inventions by Kenneth Snelson which are crucial to his sculptures are patented. R. Buckminster Fuller's famous geodesic dome is covered in one of his 28 US patents (see them all at http://bfi.org/node/75). Ingo Maurer known for his lighting design has a series of patents on inventions in these works. Many inventions created collaboratively by designers at IDEO Inc. have been patented. Countless other examples can easily be found by searching patents at the websites of the Patent Offices of various countries, such as http://www.USPTO.gov. Inventions in design can be protected in a special kind of patent called a "design patent". The first design patent was granted in 1842 to George Bruce for a new font.[26] See a database of patents in the arts at http://www.patenting-art.com/database/dbase1-e.htm. See images and text from some patents in the arts at http://www.patenting-art.com/images/images-e.htm.[27][28][29]

Music

Music has been expanded by invention over the course of thousands of years.

Timeline - dates may be approximations

5000 BC - The first flutes were made in China out of bones.

3000 BC - The first string instrument, the guqin was invented in China.

619 - The orchestra was invented in the Chinese royal courts with hundreds of musicians.

855 - Polyphonic music was invented.

910 - The musical score was invented by the musician, Hucbaldus. He also invented a staff that had an indefinite number of lines.

1025 - Musical notes were invented by Guido of Arezzo, named UT, RE, MI, FA, SO and LA. Later in the 1500's UT was changed to DO and TI was added. Lines/staves to space printed notes were added then too.

1225 - Rounds, songs sung in harmony, were invented with the song, Sumer is icumen in by John of Fornsete, an English monk.

1607 - A tonal system that gave the recitative a more flexible accompaniment was invented, revolutionizing music in the first opera masterpiece, Orfeo, by Claudio Monteverdi, a composer, musician and singer.

1696 - The metronome, a device for beating time was invented by Etienne Loulie, a musician, pedagogue and musical theorist.[30]

1698-1708 - The piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori[31]

1787 - Algorithmic music was invented by Amadeus Mozart with his Musikalisches Wurfelspiel.

1829 - The accordion, a portable reed instrument was invented by Damian.

1835 - The tuba[1] proper was first patented by Prussian bandmaster Wilhelm Wieprecht and German instrument-builder Johann Gottfried Moritz.

1841 - The saxophone was invented by Adolphe Sax, an instrument maker.

1880 - Tango music was invented by the Argentinians, combining African, Indian and Spanish rhythms.

1919 - The first electronic music instrument, the theremin was invented by Lev Theremin. It is played by moving hands near an antenna.

1922 - Muzak, engineered music without vocals, tempo changes or brass instruments was invented by Brig. General George Owen Squier.[32]

1932 - The electric guitar, the Frying pan was invented by George Beauchamp

1953 - Rock and Roll was invented by the musician, Bill Haley with Crazy Man Crazy combining guitars, saxophones, piano, bass, and snare drums.

1957 - Computer-assisted musical composition was invented with Illiac Suite for String Quartet by scientists at the University of Illinois in Urbana.[33]

1964 - The Moog Synthesizer was invented by Robert Moog.[34]

1974 - The Chapman Stick was invented by Emmett Chapman.

Literature

Literature has been reinvented throughout history.

Timeline - dates may be approximations

1950 BC - The novel was invented with a narrative form. This was Story of Sinuhe about a prince of Egypt who flees after a court killing, is saved in the desert by a Bedouin tribe, and marries the eldest daughter of a king. Some people see Story of Sinuhe as the precursor of the story of Moses in the Bible.

675 BC - The heroic ballad was invented by Stesichorus of Sicily.

553 - Scandal literature was invented by Procopius in Anecdota.

808 - The printed book was invented by the Chinese who created The Diamond Sutra a seven page paper scroll, printed with woodblocks.

1022 - The romance novel was invented by Murasaki Shikibu, a Japanese noblewoman who wrote Genji the Shining One.

1657 - The science fiction novel was invented by Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac who wrote Les etas et empires de la lune about a trip to the moon.

1816 - Literary horror was invented by Mary Shelley who wrote Frankenstein.

1843 - The mystery novel was invented by Edgar Allan Poe who wrote "The Gold-Bug."

1857 - Writing in which the author conceals his own perspective and uses multiple other points of view was first done by Gustav Flaubert in Madame Bovary.

1865 - The literary use of distorted space and time was invented by Lewis Carroll in Alice in Wonderland.

1895 - The serial comic strip was invented by the publisher, Joseph Pulitzer with The Yellow Kid, in the New World Newspaper. [35]

Performing arts

The value of invention in acting was noted by Paul Newman when retiring, "You start to lose your memory, your confidence, your invention. So that's pretty much a closed book for me".[36]

Works by Martha Graham and many other artists known for invention.[37]

Timeline - dates may be approximations

450 BC - Mime was invented by Sophron of Syracuse.

1597 - Opera was invented by Jacopo Peri with Dafne. Peri was an Italian composer and singer.

1780 - Bolero dance was invented by Sebastiano Carezo, a Spanish dancer.

1833 - Minstrel shows were invented by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice.

1880 - Tango dance was invented by the Argentinians, combining African, Indian and Spanish rhythms.

1922 - Radio drama was invented as Eugene Walter's play, The Wolf was broadcast by WGY, a station in Schenectady, New York. WGY later created a whole radio show, The WGY Players that presented radio adaptations of popular plays.[38]

1993 - a system that allows the wearer of specially designed shoes to lean forward beyond his center of gravity and appear to defy gravity was invented and patented by Michael Jackson, Michael Bush, and Dennis Tompkins. Michael Jackson used it in performances. Refer to US Patent No. 5,255,452.

Implementation

Inventions get out into the world in different ways. Some are sold, licensed or given away as products or services. Simply exhibiting visual art, playing music or having a performance gets many artistic inventions out into the world. Believing in the success of an invention can involve risk, so it can be difficult to obtain support and funding. Grants, inventor associations, clubs and business incubators can provide the mentoring, skills and resources some inventors need. Success at getting an invention out into the world often requires passion for it and good entrepreneurial skills.[39]

In economic theory, inventions are one of the chief examples of "positive externalities", a beneficial side-effect that falls on those outside a transaction or activity. One of the central concepts of economics is that externalities should be internalized--unless some of the benefits of this positive externality can be captured by the parties, the parties will be under-rewarded for their inventions, and systematic under-rewarding will lead to under-investment in activities that lead to inventions. The patent system captures those positive externalities for the inventor or other patent owner, so that the economy as a whole will invest a more-closely-optimum amount of resources in the process of invention.

Invention and innovation

In the social sciences, an innovation is anything new to a culture, whether it has been adopted or not. The theory for adoption (or non-adoption) of an innovation, called diffusion of innovations, considers the likelihood that an innovation will ever be adopted and the taxonomy of persons likely to adopt it or spur its adoption. This theory was first put forth by Everett Rogers.[40] Gabriel Tarde also dealt with the adoption of innovations in his Laws of Imitation.[41]

In business, innovation can be easily distinguished from invention. Invention is the conversion of cash into ideas. Innovation is the conversion of ideas into cash. This is best described by comparing Thomas Edison with Nikola Tesla. Thomas Edison was as innovator because he made money from his ideas. Nikola Tesla was an inventor. Tesla spent money to create his inventions but was unable to monetize them.

Quotes

  • "Necessity is the mother of invention." -Plato
  • "Every herd of wild cattle has its leaders, its influential heads." Gabriel Tarde [42]
  • "The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover; the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program, but straight from the heart." Albert Einstein[43]
  • "Our imagination is stretched to the utmost, not, as in fiction, to imagine things which are not really there, but just to comprehend those things which are there." Richard Feynman [44]
  • "For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid — not only what you think is right about it... Details that could throw doubt on your interpretation must be given, if you know them." Richard Feynman [45]
  • "What I cannot create, I do not understand." Richard Feynman[46]
  • "We absolutely must leave room for doubt or there is no progress and no learning." Richard Feynman [47]
  • "When most people think that everything is working normally, an inventor will hone in on the absurdity, the utter foolishness of the way everyone seems to accept the world as it is. Others won't even see what's wrong-until the inventor stumbles across it. By isolating a problem in a new way, by redefining it, by focusing it does to something more specific than meets the average eye, the inventor constructs a new possibility where none was though to have existed." Evan I. Schwartz[48]
  • "Wherever smart people work, doors are unlocked." Steve Wozniak[49]
  • "Restlessness is discontent — and discontent is the first necessity of progress. Show me a thoroughly satisfied man — and I will show you a failure." Thomas A. Edison [50]
  • "Invention is an evolutionary act which leads to an outcome that is outside of the norm; norm meaning what is known, thus yielding, creation." Jonathan O'Neill Barnes [51]
  • "If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost. That is where they should be. Now put foundations under them." Henry David Thoreau
  • "Don't Spend a Dime Before It's Time!" The Inventors' Roundtable ( http://www.inventorsroundtable.com )

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Artificial Mythologies: A Guide to Cultural Invention by Craig J. Saper (1997); Review of Artificial Mythologies. A Guide to Cultural Invention, Kirsten Ostherr (1998) http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3709/is_199810/ai_n8821092
  2. ^ in Irving Good, The Scientist Speculates (1962), Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, biochemist US (Hungarian-born) (1893 - 1986), see http://www.quotationspage.com/
  3. ^ "I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution". As quoted in "What Life Means to Einstein : An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" in The Saturday Evening Post (26 October 1929)
  4. ^ As quoted in How to Think Like a Red Raider : Simple Ways to Break the Rules and Discover Your Hidden Genius (2000) by Scott Thorpe, of Lubbock, TX. p. 124
  5. ^ Picasso and the Invention of Cubism by Pepe Karmel (2003)
  6. ^ The Lemelson Center's website, Invention at Play: Inventors' Stories, http://www.inventionatplay.org/inventors_main.html; and Juice: The Creative Fuel That Drives World-Class Inventors (2004), p.14-15 by Evan I. Schwartz.
  7. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, see http://www.quotationspage.com/; Albert Einstein, Address at the Physical Society, Berlin, for Max Planck's 60th birthday http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~slu/on_research/einstein_essay2.html
  8. ^ Juice: The Creative Fuel That Drives World-Class Inventors (2004), p. 11 by Evan I. Schwartz
  9. ^ Einstein: A Life by Denis Brian p.159 (1996)
  10. ^ Nobelprize.org, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
  11. ^ Inventing quotes & quotations
  12. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, see http://www.quotationspage.com/; http://www.worldofquotes.com/search.php
  13. ^ The Mousetrap Saying
  14. ^ Countless examples can easily be found by searching patents, such as these examples from http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html: US Patents #7,367,623; #7,333,091; #6,906,645; #5,404,535; #6,653,527; #6,484,730; #7,317,628; #7,082,529; #7,162,602; #6,823,344; #6,085,920; #4,796,648; #6,490,602; #7,062,256; #6,501,387; #4,036,992; #5,493,217; #5,561,958; #7,286,288; #7,017,628; #6,365,786; #6,933,405; #7,354,636; #7,150,692; #7,250,216; #6,679,244; #6,762,817; #4,775,398; #5,914,076; #6,356,017; 6,761,605; #7,357,558; #7,236,263; and #6,850,310.
  15. ^ Forks, Phonographs, and Hot Air Balloons: A Field Guide to Inventive Thinking p. 8 (1992), by Robert J. Weber, also from Juice: The Creative Fuel That Drives World-Class Inventors, p. 13 (2004) by Evan I. Schwartz
  16. ^ The Inventor's Notebook by Fred Grissom and David Pressman (2005); Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor by Simona Cremante (2005), http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/; http://www.alberteinstein.info/about/
  17. ^ http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/mpep/documents/0200_201_08.htm
  18. ^ White, Lynn: The Invention of the Parachute, Technology and Culture, Vol. 9, No. 3, (Jul., 1968), pp. 462-467
  19. ^ See US Patent #5,461,114 and D11,023 as well as Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor by Simona Cremante (2005)
  20. ^ Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor by Simona Cremante (2005)
  21. ^ Patent It Yourself by David Pressman (2000), particularly section 9/2, as a specific example refer to 1879, F. Auguste Bartholdi U.S. Patent D11,023
  22. ^ Most information is directly from the Smithsonian Institution's Lemelson Center for Invention and Innovation, http://www.invention.smithsonian.org/home/, e.g., Invention at Play: Inventors' Stories, http://www.inventionatplay.org/inventors_main.html and Juice: The Creative Fuel That Drives World-Class Inventors (2004) by Evan I. Schwartz (download an interview with this author about his book at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4244179). Also: Notebooks of the Mind: Explorations of Thinking (1985) by Vera John-Steiner; http://www.greenfieldpatents.com/inventitiveprocess.php; http://www.uspto.gov, http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#cip; American Heritage.com article "How Did the Heroic Inventors Do It?" by Thomas P. Hughes at http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1985/2/1985_2_18.shtml; History of Plastics and Plastic Packaging Products — Polyethylene, Polypropylene, and More http://www.packagingtoday.com/introplasticexplosion.htm; A directory of resins from 600 plastics manufacturers http://www.ides.com/plastics/A.htm Plastics Materials; Detailed Guide To All Plastics Processes, British Plastics Federation http://www.bpf.co.uk/bpfindustry/process_plastics.cfm; http://www.plastiquarian.com/ Plastics Historical Society; History of plastics, Society of the Plastics Industry http://www.plasticsindustry.org/industry/history.htm
  23. ^ Finding quotations was never this easy
  24. ^ www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Eadweard_Muybridge.aspx#1E1-Muybridg, and see www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/399928/Eadweard-Muybridge
  25. ^ 1879, F. Auguste Bartholdi U.S. Patent D11,023
  26. ^ http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2008/11/06/the-first-design-patent-2/id=242/
  27. ^ "A Textbook Example of Ranking Artworks" by Patricia Cohen, The New York Times, (08-04-08)
  28. ^ Picasso and the Invention of Cubism by Pepe Karmel (2003)
  29. ^ Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor by Simona Cremante (2005)
  30. ^ Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim
  31. ^ http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/1477
  32. ^ Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim
  33. ^ Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim
  34. ^ http://120years.net/machines/moog/
  35. ^ Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim
  36. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2007/05/26/newman_says_hes_done_with_acting/
  37. ^ Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi by Howard Gardner (1993)
  38. ^ Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim
  39. ^ Inventors Assistance League http://www.inventions.org/; License Your Invention by Richard Stim (2002); http://inventorspot.com/; United Inventors Association, http://www.uiausa.org/; The Inventor's Bible: How to Market and License Your Brilliant Ideas by Ronald Louis Docie (2004)
  40. ^ Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition by Everett Rogers (2003), also see http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_fall/theory/hornor/paper1.html
  41. ^ Les lois de l'imitation Gabriel Tarde (1890)
  42. ^ Les lois de l'imitation Gabriel Tarde (1890), http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_fall/theory/hornor/paper1.html
  43. ^ Address at the Physical Society, Berlin, for Max Planck's 60th birthday http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~slu/on_research/einstein_essay2.html
  44. ^ The Character of Physical Law (1965)
  45. ^ "Cargo Cult Science", adapted from a commencement address given at CalTech (1974)
  46. ^ On his blackboard at time of death in 1988; as quoted in The Universe in a Nutshell by Stephen Hawking
  47. ^ From lecture "What is and What Should be the Role of Scientific Culture in Modern Society", given at the Galileo Symposium in Italy, 1964.
  48. ^ Juice: The Creative Fuel That Drives World-Class Inventors (2004), p. 11-12 by Evan I. Schwartz
  49. ^ The Fifth HOPE (Hackers on Planet Earth) Conference, Saturday keynote speech (10 July 2004)
  50. ^ "The Diary and Sundry Observations of Thomas Alva Edison (1948), p. 110
  51. ^ Apr. 19, 2009. M.A. program TN Tech Univ. Curriculum and Instruction

References

  • Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, Harper & Row, 1989. ISBN 0-06-015612-0
  • De Bono, Edward, "Eureka! An Illustrated History of Inventions from the Wheel to the Computer", Thames & Hudson, 1974.
  • Gowlett, John. Ascent to Civilization, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-544312-0
  • Platt, Richard, "Eureka!: Great Inventions and How They Happened", 2003.
  • Patenting Art and Entertainment by Gregory Aharonian and Richard Stim (2004)

External links


An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, device or other useful means. The word inventor comes form the latin verb invenire, invent-, to find.[1][2] The system of patents was established to encourage inventors by granting limited-term, limited monopoly on inventions determined to be sufficiently novel, non-obvious, and useful. See Inventor (patent).

See also

References


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From Wikiquote

Invention is a term which refers to the activity of creating new forms, compositions of matter, devices, or processes, or to the products of this activity. Some inventions are based on pre-existing forms, compositions, processes or ideas. Other inventions are radical breakthroughs which may extend the boundaries of human knowledge or experience.

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Sourced

  • Inventor: A person who makes an ingenious arrangement of wheels, levers and springs, and believes it civilization.
  • A moment's insight is sometimes worth a life's experience.
  • Necessity, who is the mother of invention.
    • Commonly misattributed to Plato, this is from the idiomatic translation by Benjamin Jowett (1871) of Plato's Rebublic, Book II, 369-c. A more literal translation of the Greek (Jowett, Plato's Republic: The Greek Text, Vol. III "Notes", 1894, p. 82) reads "Our need will be the real creator."
  • A tool is but the extension of a man's hand, and a machine is but a complex tool. And he that invents a machine augments the power of a man and the well-being of mankind.
  • We issued gorged with knowledge, and I spoke: 'Why, Sirs, they do all this as well as we." "They hunt old trails" said Cyril, "very well; But when did woman ever yet invent?'
  • Only an inventor knows how to borrow, and every man is or should be an inventor.
  • Creativity perpetually invents itself.
    • Paul Palnik Creative Consciousness. The Healthiest State of Mind, p. 36
  • All recognized famous inventors had capable predecessors and successors and made their improvements at a time when society was capable of using their product.
    • Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, p. 245

Unsourced

  • All of the biggest technological inventions created by man - the airplane, the automobile, the computer - says little about his intelligence, but speaks volumes about his laziness.
  • Creativity is inventing, experimenting, growing, taking risks, breaking rules, making mistakes, and having fun.
  • Discovery consists in seeing what everybody else has seen, and thinking what nobody else has thought.
  • Electric telegraphs, printing, gas, Tobacco, balloons, and steam, Are little events that have come to pass Since the days of the old regime. And, spite of Lempriere's dazzling page, I'd give--though it might seem bold--A hundred years of the Golden Age For a year of the Age of Gold.
  • Everything that can be invented has been invented.
  • The golden hour of invention must terminate like other hours, and when the man of genius returns to the cares, the duties, the vexations, and the amusements of life, his companions behold him as one of themselves--the creature of habits and infirmities.
  • I do not think there is any thrill that can go through the human heart like that felt by the inventor as he sees some creation of the brain unfolding to success.
  • Invention is the mother of necessity.
  • It is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being.
  • Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.
  • The machine does not isolate man from the great problems of nature but plunges him more deeply into them.
    • Saint-Exupéry, Wind, Sand, and Stars, 1939
  • Opportunity is missed by most people because it's dressed in overalls and looks like work.
  • Probably the earliest flyswatters were nothing more than some sort of striking surface attached to the end of a long stick.
  • The production of too many useful things results in too many useless people.
  • Soon silence will have passed into legend. Man has turned his back on silence. Day after day he invents machines and devices that increase noise and distract humanity from the essence of life, contemplation, meditation...tooting, howling, screeching, booming, crashing, whistling, grinding, and trilling bolster his ego. His anxiety subsides. His inhuman void spreads monstrously like a gray vegetation.
  • Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards.
  • Technology... the knack of so arranging the world that we don't have to experience it.
  • What the country needs are a few labor-making inventions.
  • Everything that could have been invented has been patented.
  • The most amazing and effective inventions are not those which do most honor to the human genius.
  • To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.
  • Invention starts by a spark in the gap between laziness and exuberance.
    • Shimon Shmueli

See also

Technology
Machines

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English


An inventor is a person who makes new inventions, mostly new products that can be electrical, mechanical, or software. Someone that invents new ideas or methods on how to do things may also be called an inventor.

Many inventors make small changes to old inventions. For example, people have invented new ways to make clocks over history. Early clocks were sundials, later clocks used water. Later still, clocks used falling weights with escapements, devices like pendulums to stop the weight falling too fast. Modern clocks are often electronic.

Famous inventors


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