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This invertebrate, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of much research.
.An invertebrate is an animal without a backbone.^ Invertebrates: animals without vertebral column.

^ Invertebrate Printouts Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.

^ Invertebrates are those animals without a backbone (spinal column).
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Invertebrate Nervous System 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The group includes 95% of all animal species[1] — all animals except those in the Chordate subphylum Vertebrata (fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals).^ The group includes all animals except fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals.

^ Vertebrates include amphibians , birds , mammals , fishes, and reptiles .
  • Invertebrate - Definition of Invertebrate 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC animals.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Chordates (Tunicates, Mammals, Birds etc.
  • The Invertebrate Phyla 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.earthlife.net [Source type: Original source]

.Carolus Linnaeus' Systema Naturae divided these animals into only two groups, the Insecta and the now-obsolete vermes (worms).^ Carolus Linnaeus ' Systema Naturae divided these animals into only two groups, the Insecta and the Vermes .
  • Invertebrate - Paleontology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamarck followed Linnaeus' division of these animals into two groups, the Insecta and the Vermes, but they are now classified into over 30 phyla, from simple organisms such as sponges and flatworms to complex animals such as arthropods and molluscs.

^ These two, plus all the other known invertebrates, have only one cluster of Hox genes, while the vertebrates have duplicated their original cluster more than once.

.Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who was appointed to the position of "Curator of Insecta and Vermes" at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 1793, both coined the term "invertebrate" to describe such and divided the original two groups into ten, by splitting off Arachnida and Crustacea from the Linnean Insecta, and Mollusca, Annelida, Cirripedia, Radiata, Coelenterata and Infusoria from the Linnean Vermes.^ Jean-Baptiste Lamarck , who was appointed to the position of "Curator of Insecta and Vermes" at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 1793, both coined the term "invertebrate" to describe such animals and divided the original two groups into ten, by splitting off Arachnida and Crustacea from the Linnean Insecta, and Mollusca , Annelida , Cirripedia , Radiata , Coelenterata and Infusoria from the Linnean Vermes.
  • Invertebrate - Paleontology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jean Baptiste de Lamarck .
  • invertebrate@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column.

.They are now classified into over 30 phyla, from simple organisms such as sea sponges and flatworms to complex animals such as arthropods and molluscs.^ Lamarck followed Linnaeus' division of these animals into two groups, the Insecta and the Vermes, but they are now classified into over 30 phyla, from simple organisms such as sponges and flatworms to complex animals such as arthropods and molluscs.

^ They are now classified into over 30 phyla , from simple organisms such as sponges and flatworms to complex animals such as arthropods and molluscs .
  • Invertebrate - Paleontology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It documents the evolution of invertebrates (animals without backbones), ranging from single-celled organisms through to the many phyla of multi-celled animals, and includes many extinct groups such as trilobites, graptolites and conodonts.
  • Museum Victoria: Invertebrate Palaeontology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC museumvictoria.com.au [Source type: Reference]

.Invertebrates form a paraphyletic group.^ Since invertebrates include all animals except a certain group, invertebrates form a paraphyletic group.

^ Since 1991, the regional network of CBSG, India had formed a Special Interest Group for invertebrates was also formed in the same year but was not very active until some years later.
  • Zoo Outreach Organisation - Invertebrate 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.zooreach.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(For a full list of animals considered to be invertebrates, see animal.^ (For a full list of animals considered to be invertebrates, see animal .

^ See list of possible opportunities e.g., 1st choice: Fish & Invertebrate Husbandry, 2nd choice: Pinniped/Penguin Husbandry.
  • Fish & Invertebrate Husbandry - Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.mysticaquarium.org [Source type: General]

^ For more information on invertebrates, see: Amazing Animal Senses Insect Nervous Systems Insects Jellyfish Using Insects in the Classroom .
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Invertebrate Nervous System 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .All the listed phyla are invertebrates along with two of the three subphyla in Phylum Chordata: Urochordata and Cephalochordata.^ All the listed phyla are invertebrates along with two of the three subphyla in Phylum Chordata : Urochordata and Cephalochordata.

^ All the listed phyla are invertebrates along with two of the three subphyla in Phylum Chordata : Urochordata and Cephalochordata .
  • Invertebrate - Paleontology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two, plus all the other known invertebrates, have only one cluster of Hox genes, while the vertebrates have duplicated their original cluster more than once.

.These two, plus all the other known invertebrates, have only one cluster of Hox genes, while the vertebrates have duplicated their original cluster more than once.^ Vertebrates also differ from all the other animals by having quadrupled their HOX gene cluster ; that is, vertebrates have 4 clusters of HOX genes located on 4 different chromosomes.
  • The Invertebrate Animals 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have more than one, you may add them all.
  • Invertebrate Fossils community 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.ringsurf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two, plus all the other known invertebrates, have only one cluster of Hox genes, while the vertebrates have duplicated their original cluster more than once.

.Within paleozoology and paleobiology, invertebrates big and small are often studied within the fossil discipline called invertebrate paleontology.^ Wooster students often study invertebrate paleontology far from Ohio.
  • The College of Wooster: Department of Geology - Invertebrate Paleontology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www3.wooster.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Invertebrate Paleontology is the study of fossils of invertebrate animals—fossil animals that do not have a backbone (spinal column).
  • Invertebrate Paleontology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.cmnh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Invertebrate paleontology (also spelled Invertebrate palaeontology ) is sometimes described as Invertebrate paleozoology and/or Invertebrate paleobiology .
  • Invertebrate paleontology - Fossil Wiki, the paleontology wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC fossil.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Phyla and common examples

The fossil coral Cladocora from the Pliocene of Cyprus.

See also

References

  1. ^ Encarta Reference Library Home Premium 2005 DVD. Article - Invertebrate.

Further reading

.
  • Hyman, L. H. 1940. The Invertebrates (6 volumes) New York : McGraw-Hill.^ Invertebrate Paleontology (New York: McGraw-Hill).
    • Invertebrate paleontology - Fossil Wiki, the paleontology wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC fossil.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York City: McGraw-Hill; 1975.
    • NEL, Invertebrate Stress 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.nel.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Easton, W. H. / INVERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY, New York, 1960, cl, 701 pages, - 3 -, $ 40 .
    • Invertebrate Paleontology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC booksgeology.com [Source type: Academic]

    A classic work.
  • Anderson, D. T. (Ed.). (2001). .Invertebrate zoology (2nd ed.^ Invertebrate Zoology, 6th ed.
    • The Infography about Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.infography.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Atlas of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 2nd ed.
    • The Infography about Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.infography.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Invertebrate Zoology, A functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed.
    • Invertebrate Anatomy 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). .Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Brusca, R. C., & Brusca, G. J. (2003).^ Copyright © 2005 Oxford University Press.
    • Oxford University Press: Invertebrate zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.oup.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxford University Press: Invertebrate zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.us.oup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Invertebrates - Ten Facts About Invertebrates 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC animals.about.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Oxford University Press Softcover [print on demand] .
    • NHBS - Invertebrate Surveys for Conservation - Tim R New 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.nhbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Invertebrates (2nd ed.^ Invertebrates (2nd ed.
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Invertebrate zoology (2nd ed.
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Atlas of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 2nd ed.
    • The Infography about Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.infography.com [Source type: Academic]

    ). .Sunderland, Mass. : Sinauer Associates.
  • Miller, S.A., & Harley, J.P. (1996).^ Miller, S.A., & Harley, J.P. (1996).
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Zoology (4th ed.^ Zoology (4th ed.
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ). .Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.
  • Pechenik, Jan A. (2005).^ Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Biology of the Invertebrates 5th Edition 2005 by: Jan A. Pechenik and Jan Pechenik, published by McGraw Hill Higher Education.
    • Biology 301-Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ WCB/McGraw-Hill.
    • The Infography about Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.infography.com [Source type: Academic]

    Biology of the invertebrates. .Boston: McGraw-Hill, Higher Education.^ Biology of the Invertebrates 5th Edition 2005 by: Jan A. Pechenik and Jan Pechenik, published by McGraw Hill Higher Education.
    • Biology 301-Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Dubuque, IA. ISBN 0-07-234899-2.
    • Luther Invertebrate Zoology 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC biology.luther.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    pp. 590 pp. .ISBN 0072348992. 
  • Ruppert, E. E., Fox, R. S., & Barnes, R. D. (2004).^ Terminology and phylogeny used in these exercises correspond to usage in the Invertebrate Zoology textbook by Ruppert, Fox, and Barnes (2004).
    • Branchiostoma 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More complete discussions of the biology of cephalochordates may be found in Ruppert (1997), Ruppert, Fox, and Barnes (2004), Parker and Haswell (1921), Nash (2002), and Jollie (1973).
    • Branchiostoma 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ R equired textbook: Ruppert, Fox and Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology 7 th edition (2004).
    • INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (BI 451/551, 8 credits) 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach.^ Invertebrate Zoology, A functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed.
    • Invertebrate Anatomy 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach .
    • Invertebrates - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Invertebrate Zoology, A functional evolutionary approach, 7 th ed.
    • Branchiostoma 6 February 2010 11:54 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Belmont, CA: Thomas-Brooks/Cole.

External links

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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A spider]]

Invertebrate is a kind of animal that does not have a spinal column or backbone. It is the opposite of vertebrate, that means if an animal is not a vertebrate (fish, reptile, amphibian, bird, or mammal), it is an invertebrate.

The main phyla of invertebrate animals are:

Insects have no bones, but they have a skeleton on the outside of their bodies that scientists call an exoskeleton. It is like our skin, only it is hard.

There are 18 more phyla of invertebrates, mostly minor: see List of animal phyla.



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