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telluriumiodinexenon
Br

I

At
Appearance
Lustrous metallic gray, violet as a gas
General properties
Name, symbol, number iodine, I, 53
Element category halogen
Group, period, block 175, p
Standard atomic weight 126.90447g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 7 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 4.933 g·cm−3
Melting point 386.85 K, 113.7 °C, 236.66 °F
Boiling point 457.4 K, 184.3 °C, 363.7 °F
Triple point 386.65 K (113°C), 12.1 kPa
Critical point 819 K, 11.7 MPa
Heat of fusion (I2) 15.52 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (I2) 41.57 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (I2) 54.44 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (rhombic)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 260 282 309 342 381 457
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 7, 5, 3, 1, -1
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.66 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1008.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1845.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3180 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 198 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 1.3×107Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.449 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
CAS registry number 7553-56-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of iodine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
123I syn 13 h ε, γ 0.16 123Te
127I 100% 127I is stable with 74 neutrons
129I trace 15.7×106 y β 0.194 129Xe
131I syn 8.02070 d β, γ 0.971 131Xe
Iodine (pronounced /ˈaɪ.ɵdaɪn/ EYE-o-dyne, /ˈaɪ.ɵdɨn/ EYE-o-dən, or in chemistry /ˈaɪ.ɵdiːn/ EYE-o-deen; from Greek: ιώδης iodes meaning violet (or purple), is a chemical element that has the symbol I and the atomic number 53.
Chemically, iodine is the second least reactive of the halogens, and the second most electropositive halogen, trailing astatine in both aspects. However, the element does not occur in the free state in nature. .As with all other halogens (members of Group 17 in the periodic table), when freed from its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I2).^ The other form of iodine which I am taking is Opitimox Iodoral tablets which are discounted presently 30% at illnessisoptional.com.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ To all the others here that are using iodine- yes please give us an update!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Bernard Jenson, D.C., Ph.D., found that the iodized table salt, which is superheated so that it can pour more easily, is a poor form of iodine for the body."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine, photography, and dyes. .Iodine is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust; however, the iodides are very soluble in water and the element concentrates in seawater, where it occurs in greater concentrations than in rocks.^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, connections have been established with deliberate or inadvertent intake of radioactive elements or their compounds that concentrate in certain organs or tissues.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The older literature reports systemic symptoms which occurred immediately to 24 hours later, rarely following cutaneous application of one-half to one normal strength iodine tincture.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This mechanism helps to explain how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all animals and some plants, being the heaviest element commonly used by living organisms (only tungsten, used in enzymes by a few bacteria, is heavier[2][3]).^ For instance, you and I (and a lot of others) have Hashi's - if our water came from a system that used iodine, how would that affect us?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I do not know the exact amount needed to kill various viruses/bacteria so that would be a subject of research for anyone wishing to use it.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I also don't think potassium iodide would be my choice for long term use if only a small amount is needed, as is usually the case.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Contents

Characteristics

Iodine under standard conditions is a bluish black solid. It can be seen apparently sublimating at standard temperatures into a violet-pink gas that has an irritating odor. .This halogen forms compounds with many elements, but is less reactive than the other members of its Group VII (halogens) and has some metallic light reflectance.^ Iodine content increased more rapidly in the treated group (from 1 to 7.7 micrograms) than in the control group (from 1 to 2.5 micrograms) P less than 0.05 (Mahillon et al., 1989).
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Round bottom flasked filled with violet iodine vapour
In the gas phase iodine shows its violet color.
.Elemental iodine dissolves easily in most organic solvents such as hexane or chloroform due to its lack of polarity, but is only slightly soluble in water.^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gastrointestinal effects Acute effects due to ingestion of iodine are mainly due to its corrosive effects or action which arises at least in part from oxidizing potential of this element on the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the solubility of elemental iodine in water can be increased by the addition of potassium iodide.^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aqueous solutions of iodine are Strong Iodine Solution USP (compound iodine solution, Lugol's solution) containing 5% iodine and 10% potassium iodide, and Iodine Topical Solution (USP) containing 2% iodine and 2.4% potassium iodide.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The molecular iodine reacts reversibly with the negative ion, generating the triiodide anion I3 in equilibrium, which is soluble in water.^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is also the formulation of some types of medicinal (antiseptic) iodine, although tincture of iodine classically dissolves the element in aqueous ethanol.^ Tincture of iodine, USP, contains 2% cent iodine and 2.4% sodium iodide diluted in 50% ethanol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Solutions of elemental iodine have the unique property of exhibiting dramatically different colors depending on the polarity of the solvent.^ Properties of the locally available formulation(s) To be completed by each Centre using local data 3.4 Other characteristics 3.4.1 Shelf-life of the substance The shelf-life of iodine solutions vary with the concentration.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

When dissolved in nonpolar solvents like hexane, the solution appears deep violet; in moderately polar dichloromethane the solution is dark crimson, and in strongly polar solvents like acetone or ethanol, it appears dark orange or brown. .This is due to ligand field interactions of solvent molecules with the d-orbitals of iodine, which is the only halogen with a sufficiently occupied electronic configuration to allow such interactions.^ Remember that stopping thyroid medicine all together only applies to those who are hypothyroid due to iodine deficiency and only under drs orders.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

This same property allows the formation of hypervalent iodine compounds, which have expanded bonding orbitals beyond the generally allowed octet rule.
Students who have seen the classroom demonstration in which iodine crystals are gently heated in a test tube to violet vapor may gain the impression that liquid iodine does not exist at atmospheric pressure. This misconception arises because the vapor produced has such a deep colour that the liquid appears not to form. .In fact, if iodine crystals are heated carefully to just above their melting point of 113.7 °C, the crystals melt into a liquid which is present under a dense blanket of the vapor.^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.When iodine is encapsulated into carbon nanotubes it forms atomic chains, whose structure depends on the nanotube diameter.^ Iodine reaches the blood stream mainly in form of iodide, and it is incorporated into the thyroglobulin form in the thyroid gland, (Jones, 1977).
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Occurrence

.Iodine naturally occurs in the environment chiefly as a dissolved iodide in seawater, although it is also found in some minerals and soils.^ That's why trying iodine in the form of kelp or bladderwrack or both, or some other natural form, is worth a try, just to try and preserve the thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[5] This element also exists in small amounts in the mineral caliche, found in Chile, between the Andes and the sea. A type of seaweed, kelp, tends to be high in iodine as well.
Organoiodine compounds are produced by marine life forms, the most notable being iodomethane (commonly called methyl iodide). The total iodomethane that is produced by the marine environment, by microbial activity in rice paddies and by the burning of biological material is estimated to be 214 kilotonnes.[6] The volatile iodomethane is broken up by oxidation reactions in the atmosphere and a global iodine cycle is established.[5][6] .Although the element is actually quite rare, kelp and certain plants and other algae have some ability to concentrate iodine, which helps introduce the element into the food chain.^ And it has grown to these incredible figures in the last 30 years when the NHA decided to take iodine out the food chain of the US and replace it with bromine (a goitrogen!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ We need more now than we have ever done due to the toxic effects of the other halides that have been introduced into our food chain.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Feb 10, 2009 11:31AM Wow thank you I will get some to try I have been taking the kelp drop with iodine in it, definatly do the test.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Structure

Structure of solid iodine
Crystalline iodine
Iodine crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmca No 64, Pearson symbol oS8, the same as black phosphorus. In the solid state, I2 molecules are still represented by a short I-I bond of 270 pm.

Production

.From the several places in which iodine occurs in nature only two are used as source for iodine: the caliche, found in Chile and the iodine containing brines of gas and oil fields, especially in Japan and the United States.^ Two of the twelve patients were controlled with the use of iodine plus one medication.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ They found that the correction of iodine deficiency not only decreased the incidence of thyrotoxicosis, it also lowered the incidence of goiter, cretinism...
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Tried the skin test---not sure using the 'right' kind --only could find a 'tincture' with iodine BP 2.5%, potassium iodide BP 2.5% ????
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The caliche, found in Chile contains sodium nitrate, which is the main product of the mining activities and small amounts of sodium iodate and sodium iodide.^ I also don't think potassium iodide would be my choice for long term use if only a small amount is needed, as is usually the case.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

During leaching and production of pure sodium nitrate the sodium iodate and iodide is extracted.[7] The high concentration of iodine in the caliche and the extensive mining made Chile the largest producer of iodine in 2007.
.Most other producers use natural occurring brine for the production of iodine.^ To all the others here that are using iodine- yes please give us an update!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ For instance, you and I (and a lot of others) have Hashi's - if our water came from a system that used iodine, how would that affect us?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I also believe that we have all been so brainwashed by the big pharmas to believe that iodine is bad for us because.....you cannot patent iodine......it is a natural product.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

The Japanese Minami Kanto gas field east of Tokyo and the American Anadarko Basin gas field in northwest Oklahoma are the two largest sources for iodine from brine. The brine has a temperature of over 60°C due to the depth of the source. .The brine is first purified and acidified using sulfuric acid, then the iodide present is oxidized to iodine with chlorine.^ I'm not sure of the cost of using iodine vs chlorine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Hmmmm.....i would imagine there are more adverse health effects using chlorine than there would be with iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Tried the skin test---not sure using the 'right' kind --only could find a 'tincture' with iodine BP 2.5%, potassium iodide BP 2.5% ????
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

An iodine solution is produced, but is dilute and must be concentrated. .Air is blown into the solution, causing the iodine to evaporate, then it is passed into an absorbing tower containing acid where sulfur dioxide is added to reduce the iodine.^ Of course then - we have to take into account the autoimmune levels too adding iodine .
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

The hydrogen iodide (HI) is reacted with chlorine to precipitate the iodine. After filtering and purification the iodine is packed.[7][8]
2 HI + Cl2 → I2↑ + 2 HCl
I2 + 2 H2O + SO2 → 2 HI + H2SO4
2 HI + Cl2 → I2↓ + 2 HCl
.The production of iodine from seawater via electrolysis is not used due to the sufficient abundance of iodine-rich brine.^ When asked what she felt the big change was, she felt that her diabetes was under better control due to the use of iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Another source of iodine was kelp, used in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it is no longer economically viable.^ Soooo----is doing this kind of iodine supplementation in place of taking kelp supplements, or is there no harm in taking kelp too?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ If so you will want to tread carefully with the use of kelp or iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Iodine output in 2005
Commercial samples often contain a large amount of impurities; they may be removed by sublimation. The element may also be prepared in an ultrapure form through the reaction of potassium iodide with copper(II) sulfate, which gives copper(II) iodide initially. That decomposes spontaneously to copper(I) iodide and iodine:
Cu2+ + 2 I → CuI2
2 CuI2 → 2 CuI + I2
There are also other methods of isolating this element in the laboratory, for example the method used to isolate other halogens: oxidation of the iodide in hydrogen iodide (often made in situ with an iodide and sulfuric acid) by manganese dioxide (see below in Descriptive chemistry).

Isotopes

There are 37 known (characterized) isotopes of iodine, but only one, 127I, is stable.
In many ways, 129I is similar to 36Cl. It is a soluble halogen, fairly non-reactive, exists mainly as a non-sorbing anion, and is produced by cosmogenic, thermonuclear, and in-situ reactions. In hydrologic studies, 129I concentrations are usually reported as the ratio of 129I to total I (which is virtually all 127I). .As is the case with 36Cl/Cl, 129I/I ratios in nature are quite small, 10−14 to 10−10 (peak thermonuclear 129I/I during the 1960s and 1970s reached about 10−7).^ In many ways, 129 I is similar to 36 Cl.
  • Iodine - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC science.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iodine-123 - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Radioactive Iodine - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Hypothyroidism can lead to significant increases in cholesterol levels and homocysteine levels and is implicated in about 10% of cases of high cholesterol levels.

129I differs from 36Cl in that its half-life is longer (15.7 vs. 0.301 million years), it is highly biophilic, and occurs in multiple ionic forms (commonly, I and IO3) which have different chemical behaviors. .This makes it fairly easy for 129I to enter the biosphere as it becomes incorporated into vegetation, soil, milk, animal tissue, etc.^ Iodine is found in eggs, milk, sea fish and sea food, sea vegetables - such as kelp, asparagus etc.
  • Iodine information page. All about iodine and the role it plays in your diet. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.anyvitamins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once in the air, iodine can combine with water or with particles in the air and can enter the soil and surface water, or land on vegetation when these particles fall to the ground or when it rains.
  • Iodine - Medpedia 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine can also get into milk when iodine is used to clean milking machines and milk storage containers, and to clean the animals' udders at dairy farms and dairies.
  • Iodine - Medpedia 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Excesses of stable 129Xe in meteorites have been shown to result from decay of "primordial" iodine-129 produced newly by the supernovas which created the dust and gas from which the solar system formed. 129I was the first extinct radionuclide to be identified as present in the early solar system. .Its decay is the basis of the I-Xe Iodine-xenon radiometric dating scheme, which covers the first 85 million years of solar system evolution.^ I AM STARTING TO RECOVER! My goitre is still a little swollen as it is being bombarded by iodine but it has reduced for the first time in 17 years.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Effects of various radioiodine isotopes in biology are discussed below.

History

Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811.[9][10] He was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter (a vital part of gunpowder). At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, France was at war and saltpeter was in great demand. .Saltpeter produced from French niter beds required sodium carbonate, which could be isolated from seaweed washed up on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany.^ I am N American but grew up in a country in the Mediterranean which still uses the seaweed washed up each winter as fertilizer in their fields.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash then washed with water.^ In 1811, Bernard Courtois discovered natural iodine in water that was used to dissolve certain parts of seaweed ash for use.
  • Iodine | Radiation Protection | US EPA 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine Iodine-containing compounds are found in ashes of burnt seaweed, salty oil-well brines and Chilean saltpeter, which is sodium iodate (NaIO3).
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid. .One day Courtois added too much sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapor rose.^ In 1811 the French chemist Bernard Courtois obtained a violet vapour by heating seaweed ashes with sulfuric acid as a by-product of the manufacture of saltpetre .
  • iodine (I) (chemical element) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the dogs were not hunting, one tablespoonful of apple cider vinegar would be added to the ration of each dog once a day.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Courtois noted that the vapor crystallized on cold surfaces making dark crystals. Courtois suspected that this was a new element but lacked the money to pursue his observations.
However he gave samples to his friends, Charles Bernard Desormes (1777–1862) and Nicolas Clément (1779–1841), to continue research. He also gave some of the substance to Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850), a well-known chemist at that time, and to physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836). On 29 November 1813, Dersormes and Clément made public Courtois’s discovery. They described the substance to a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. On December 6, Gay-Lussac announced that the new substance was either an element or a compound of oxygen.[11][12][13] Ampère had given some of his sample to Humphry Davy (1778–1829). Davy did some experiments on the substance and noted its similarity to chlorine.[14] Davy sent a letter dated December 10 to the Royal Society of London stating that he had identified a new element.[15] A large argument erupted between Davy and Gay-Lussac over who identified iodine first but both scientists acknowledged Courtois as the first to isolate the chemical element.

Applications

Disinfectant and water treatment

.Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms.^ It’s possible that as we get more into the 4-log removal of viruses, there might be more use of iodine as a disinfectant.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine has been considered as a disinfectant for potable water but has never been utilized on a widespread basis for various reasons.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

The iodine exists as the element, or as the water soluble triiodide anion I3- generated in situ by adding iodide to poorly-soluble iodine (the reverse chemical reaction makes some free elemental iodine available for antisepsis). Alternatively, iodine may come from iodophors, which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). Examples of such preparations include:[16]

Staining

Testing a seed for starch with a solution of iodine
.Iodine is a common general stain used in thin-layer chromatography.^ PlateletGal , Feb 12, 2009 11:09AM To: stella5349 Hi Stella, I used the sodium iodine for my stain test.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

It is also used in the Gram stain as a mordant, after the sample is treated with crystal violet.
In particular, iodine forms an intense blue complex with the glucose polymers starch and glycogen. Many applications rely on this property:
  • Iodometry. The concentration of an oxidant can be determined by adding it to an excess of iodide with a little free iodine, to destroy elemental iodine/triiodide as a result of oxidation by the oxidant. .A starch indicator is then used as the indicator close to the end-point, in order to increase the visual contrast (dark blue becomes colorless, instead of the yellow of dilute triiodide becoming colorless).
  • An Iodine test may be used to test a sample substance for the presence of starch.
  • The Iodine clock reaction is an extension of the techniques in iodometry.
  • Iodine solutions are used in counterfeit banknote detection pens; the premise being that counterfeit banknotes made using commercially available paper contain starch.
  • Starch-iodide paper are used to test for the presence of oxidants such as peroxides.^ Iodine is not being used in it's effectiveness at this time.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ For example, acupuncture may be used instead of surgery for back pain that has been recommended by a conventional doctor.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Also, avoid cooking with water containing perchlorate levels above 5 ppb because boiling the water may increase the perchlorate concentration in the food being prepared.Water contaminated with perchlorate can be used for showering, bathing and washing clothes and dishes.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    The oxidants convert iodide to iodine, which shows up as blue. A solution of starch and iodide can perform the same function.[17]
  • During colposcopy, Lugol's iodine is applied to the vagina and cervix. Normal vaginal tissue stains brown due to its high glycogen content (a color-reaction similar to that with starch), while abnormal tissue suspicious for cancer does not stain, and thus appears pale compared to the surrounding tissue. Biopsy of suspicious tissue can then be performed. This is called a Schiller's Test.

Radiocontrast agent

Iodine, as a heavy element, is quite radio-opaque. Organic compounds of a certain type (typically iodine-substituted benzene derivatives) are thus used in medicine as X-ray radiocontrast agents for intravenous injection. This is often in conjunction with advanced X-ray techniques such as angiography and CT scanning

Radioiodine

.Some radioactive iodine isotopes can be used to treat thyroid cancer.^ Dr Flechas is discussing the use of Iodoral, an iodine supplement to treat fibrocystic breast disease (FBD); while treating a woman for FBD, he discovered a diabetes iodine connection.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ That's why trying iodine in the form of kelp or bladderwrack or both, or some other natural form, is worth a try, just to try and preserve the thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The body accumulates iodine in the thyroid, thus radioactive iodine can selectively damage growing thyroid cancer cells while the radioactive dose to the rest of the body remains small.^ Iodine does not just sit in your thyroid, it is in every cell of your body and as we live in an iodine deficient society, we need iodine for every cell of our body.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ If you body level of Iodine is normal, then the spot will remain on the skin for 24 hours.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Important...if you are presently on thyroid medicine you may need to cut back on your dose, or ultimately stop it all together, now that your body has the iodine to manufacture the thyroid hormones it needs.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Iodine compounds

Iodine forms many compounds. .Potassium iodide is the most commercially significant iodine compound.^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The iodine that I take sublingually is liquid potassium iodide (by RLD Organic)...
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ If I'm low on iodine, then I will take the liquid potassium iodide.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

It is a convenient source of the iodide anion; it is easier to handle than sodium iodide because it is not hygroscopic. .Sodium iodide is especially useful in the Finkelstein reaction, because it is soluble in acetone, while potassium iodide is poorly so.^ If you choose not to use potassium iodide as the "choice" what would you chose?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I also don't think potassium iodide would be my choice for long term use if only a small amount is needed, as is usually the case.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

In this reaction, an alkyl chloride is converted to an alkyl iodide. This relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction:
R-Cl (acetone) + NaI (acetone) → R-I (acetone) + NaCl (s)
Iodic acid (HIO3) and its salts are strong oxidizers. Periodic acid (HIO4) cleaves vicinal diols along the C-C bond to give aldehyde fragments. 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid and Dess-Martin periodinane are hypervalent iodine oxidants used to specifically oxidize alcohols to ketones or aldehydes. Iodine pentoxide is a strong oxidant as well.
HI He
LiI BeI2 BI3 CI4 NI3 I2O4, I2O5, I4O9 IF, IF3, IF5, IF7 Ne
NaI MgI2 AlI3 SiI4 PI3, P2I4 S ICl, ICl3 Ar
KI CaI2 Sc TiI4 VI3 Cr MnI2 Fe CoI2 NiI2 CuI ZnI2 Ga2I6 GeI2, GeI4 AsI3 Se IBr Kr
RbI SrI2 Y ZrI4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd AgI CdI2 InI3 SnI4, SnI2 SbI3 TeI4 I Xe
CsI BaI2   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt AuI Hg2I2, HgI2 TlI PbI2 Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm SmI2 Eu Gd TbI3 Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac ThI4 Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Organic compounds

Many organoiodine compounds exist, the simplest is iodomethane, approved as a soil fumigant. Iodinated organics are used as synthetic reagents, and also radiocontrast agents.
.Biologically active substances like the thyroid hormones are naturally occurring organoiodine compounds.^ But iodine speeds up the thyroid's production, which makes it more likely to burn out if one is already overly active.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[18]

Chemistry

.Elemental iodine is poorly soluble in water, with one gram dissolving in 3450 ml at 20 °C and 1280 ml at 50 °C. By contrast with chlorine, the formation of the hypohalite ion (IO) in neutral aqueous solutions of iodine is negligible.^ Question for thought.....I wonder how much money we would save if we treated water with iodine instead of chlorine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

I2+ H2O is in equilibrium with H+ + I + HIO   (K = 2.0×10−13)[19]
.Solubility in water is greatly improved if the solution contains dissolved iodides such as hydroiodic acid, potassium iodide, or sodium iodide; this extra solubility results from the high solubility of the I3 ion.^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Dissolved bromides also improve water solubility of iodine. Iodine is soluble in a number of organic solvents, including ethanol (20.5 g/100 ml at 15 °C, 21.43 g/100 ml at 25 °C), diethyl ether (20.6 g/100 ml at 17 °C, 25.20 g/100 ml at 25 °C), chloroform, acetic acid, glycerol, benzene (14.09 g/100 ml at 25 °C), carbon tetrachloride (2.603 g/100 ml at 35 °C), and carbon disulfide (16.47 g/100 ml at 25 °C).[20] Aqueous and ethanol solutions are brown. .Solutions in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide are violet.^ Iodine dissolves easily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide and forms purple solutions.
  • Iodine Minerals,Iodine Properties,Iodine Applications,Iodine Information,Iodine Exporters 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.mineralszone.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulphide it is violet-coloured.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine also dissolves in carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, giving a deep violet solution.
  • iodine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Molecular iodine can be prepared by oxidizing iodides with chlorine:
2 I + Cl2 → I2 + 2 Cl
or with manganese dioxide in acid solution:[19]
2 I + 4 H+ + MnO2 → I2 + 2 H2O + Mn2+
Iodine is reduced to hydroiodic acid by hydrogen sulfide:[21]
I2 + H2S → 2 HI + S↓
or by hydrazine:
2 I2 + N2H4 → 4 HI + N2
Iodine is oxidized to iodate by nitric acid:[22]
I2 + 10 HNO3 → 2 HIO3 + 10 NO2 + 4 H2O
I2 + 2 ClO3 → 2 IO3 + Cl2
Iodine is converted in a two stage reaction to iodide and iodate in solutions of alkali hydroxides (such as sodium hydroxide):[19]
I2 + 2 OH → I + IO + H2O (K = 30)
3 IO → 2 I + IO3 (K = 1020)
Despite having the lowest electronegativity of the common halogens, iodine reacts violently with some metals, such as aluminum:
3 I2 + 2 Al → 2 AlI3
.This reaction produces 314 kJ per mole of aluminum, comparable to thermite's 425 kJ. Yet the reaction initiates spontaneously, and if unconfined, causes a cloud of gaseous iodine due to the high heat.^ Iodine will cause even more of a reaction in me.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

When dissolved in fuming sulfuric acid (65% oleum), iodine forms an intense blue solution. This has been shown to be due to the formation of the I+2 cation, the result of iodine being oxidised by SO3:[23]
2 I2 + 2 SO3 + H2SO4 → 2 I+2 + SO2 + 2 HSO4
The I+2 cation is also formed in the oxidation of iodine by SbF5 or TaF5. The resulting I+2Sb2F11 or I+2Ta2F11 can be isolated as deep blue crystals. The solutions of these salts turn red when cooled below −60 °C, due to the formation of the I2+4 cation:[23]
2 I+2 is in equilibrium with I2+4
.Under slightly more alkaline conditions, I2+4 disproportionates into I+3 and an iodine(III) compound.^ Am so happy this board here, as have restlessly wanted to move my search for health re-balance ideas into a slightly more holistic arena.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ It’s possible that as we get more into the 4-log removal of viruses, there might be more use of iodine as a disinfectant.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Excess iodine can then react with I+3 to form I+5 (green) and I3+15 (black).[23]

Organic synthesis

With phosphorus, iodine is able to replace hydroxyl groups on alcohols with iodide. For example, the synthesis of methyl iodide from methanol, red phosphorus, and iodine.[24] The iodinating reagent is phosphorus triiodide that is formed in situ:
3 CH3OH + PI3 → 3 CH3I + H3PO3
Phosphorous acid is formed as a side-product.
.The iodoform test uses an alkaline solution of iodine to react with methyl ketones to give the labile triiodomethide leaving group, forming iodoform which precipitates.^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ To all the others here that are using iodine- yes please give us an update!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ PlateletGal , Feb 12, 2009 11:09AM To: stella5349 Hi Stella, I used the sodium iodine for my stain test.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Iodine is sometimes used to activate magnesium when preparing Grignard reagents; aryl and alkyl iodides both form Grignard reagents.^ That's why trying iodine in the form of kelp or bladderwrack or both, or some other natural form, is worth a try, just to try and preserve the thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Tried the skin test---not sure using the 'right' kind --only could find a 'tincture' with iodine BP 2.5%, potassium iodide BP 2.5% ????
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Alkyl iodides such as iodomethane are good alkylating agents. Some drawbacks to use of iodo-organics in chemical synthesis are:
.
  • iodine compounds tend to be more expensive than the corresponding bromides and chlorides, in that order
  • iodides tend to be much stronger alkylating agents, and so are more toxic (e.g.^ I am more afraid of kelp right now than potassium iodide.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Hmmmm.....i would imagine there are more adverse health effects using chlorine than there would be with iodine.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ We need more now than we have ever done due to the toxic effects of the other halides that have been introduced into our food chain.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    methyl iodide is very toxic (T+)[25]
  • low molecular weight iodides tend to have a much higher equivalent weight, compared with other alkylating agents (e.g. methyl iodide versus dimethyl carbonate), due to the atomic mass of iodine.

Clandestine synthetic chemical use

.In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regards iodine and compounds containing iodine (ionic iodides, iodoform, ethyl iodide, and so on) as reagents useful for the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.^ Tried the skin test---not sure using the 'right' kind --only could find a 'tincture' with iodine BP 2.5%, potassium iodide BP 2.5% ????
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine Nutrition in the United States.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Persons who attempt to purchase significant quantities of such chemicals without establishing a legitimate use are likely to find themselves the target of a DEA investigation.^ I am now trying to find another product of clear iodine solution for my daughter to use on her son who i just starting to walk."
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To protect the public from the harmful effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways to treat people who have been harmed, scientists use many tests.
  • Iodine - Medpedia 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Persons selling such compounds without doing due diligence to establish that the materials are not being diverted to clandestine use may be subject to stiff penalties, such as expensive fines or even imprisonment.^ Even if it were less expensive, I haven't researched the adverse affects that might turn up with widespread use.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[26][27]

Biological role

.Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight).^ Feb 10, 2009 11:49AM To: margypops don't just buy any kind of iodine tincture....make sure it is potassium iodine form only!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I take the Vitamin D 2000, Iodine, Essential Enzyme, Astragulas the minute I start to feel sick, and/or Grapefruit Seed Extract to boost my immune system.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ He never misses his Iodine, VitD2000, or Essential Enzyme.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Iodine's main role in animal biology is as constituents of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).^ And some respond best to Armour Thyroid, which has both T4 and T3 (from ground up pig thyroids).
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ My wife's thyroid failed, she's on synthetic hormones, and shouldn't take the risk of taking iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ T4 is converted to “T3” in the thyroid, liver, brain and other tissues.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.These are made from addition condensation products of the amino acid tyrosine, and are stored prior to release in an iodine-containing protein called thyroglobulin.^ SassyLassie , Mar 29, 2009 01:40PM To: ALL I take the Iodine product called "Iodoral" I think it is wonderful.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule, respectively. .The thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood, actions which are regulated by a second hormone TSH from the pituitary.^ The importance of TSH TSH, made by the pituitary gland in the brain, stands for thyroid stimulating hormone.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ He did blood work for hormones and thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ PS I have also read that Iodine can affect your TSH and make it go higher but it is because the pituitary is getting the wrong signals from the thyroid and it creates more TSH to stimulate the thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Thyroid hormones are phylogenetically very old molecules which are synthesized by most multicellular organisms, and which even have some effect on unicellular organisms.^ There is some evidence that iodine has a very beneficial effect on blood sugar control.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Sep 01, 2009 05:21AM I can share some information on the desiccated thyroid hormone.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Thyroid hormones play a basic role in biology, acting on gene transcription to regulate the basal metabolic rate.[citation needed] .The total deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while in excessive production of thyroid hormones the basal metabolic rate can be increased by 100%.^ Iodine is also needed for the production of thyroid hormones.
  • Iodine - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC science.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypothyroidism is the lack of production of the thyroid hormone.
  • Iodine Deficiency | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally the pituitary gland controls the rate of thyroid hormone production.
  • Health 24 - Woman, Common conditions 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] T4 acts largely as a precursor to T3, which is (with minor exceptions) the biologically active hormone.

Extrathyroidal iodine

.Iodine accounts for 65% of the molecular weight of T4 and 59% of the T3. 15–20 mg of iodine is concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones, but 70% of the body's iodine is distributed in other tissues, including mammary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, the cervix, and salivary glands.^ T4 is converted to “T3” in the thyroid, liver, brain and other tissues.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine deficiency is one of the main underlying causes of many varied illnesses including thyroid disorders, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, cancer (including cancer of the breast and prostate), and other health issues.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Mar 29, 2009 11:03AM To: Paxiled Taking excessive kelp can overload the body with iodine and cause either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism —conditions in which the thyroid gland either produces too little or too much thyroid hormone.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

In the cells of these tissues iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Its role in mammary tissue is related to fetal and neonatal development, but its role in the other tissues is unknown.[28] It has been shown to act as an antioxidant in these tissues.[28]
Iodine may have a relationship with selenium, and iodine supplementation in selenium-deficient populations may pose risks for thyroid function.[28]
.The US Food and Nutrition Board and Institute of Medicine recommended daily allowance of iodine ranges from 150 micrograms /day for adult humans to 290 micrograms /day for lactating mothers.^ And it has grown to these incredible figures in the last 30 years when the NHA decided to take iodine out the food chain of the US and replace it with bromine (a goitrogen!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The range of daily iodine intake was from 50 mg to 100 mg per day.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I just came from alternative medicine MD and he has recommended iodine to me.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.However, the thyroid gland needs no more than 70 micrograms /day to synthesize the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. These higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems, including lactating breast, gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus, etc.^ Is iodine needed for people with No thyroids?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ However, the RfD and the drinking water concentration of 5 ppb for perchlorate are intended to protect public health, particularly sensitive populations including pregnant women, children and those with health problems or compromised thyroid function .While there currently is no regulatory standard for perchlorate, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) recommends that people avoid drinking water known through confirmed testing to contain more than 5 ppb of perchlorate.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ That suggests that millions of American babies are potentially at risk.” While these findings are of concern, the CDC scientists also noted that FDA requires infant formula to be supplemented with IODINE, a nutrient that can counteract the negative effects of perchlorate on the thyroid gland.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[29][30][31]

Iodine and the development of cancer

  • Breast cancer. It is known that a diet lacking in iodine is connected with adverse health effects collectively referred as iodine deficiency diseases or disorders. .Studies also indicate that iodine deficiency, either dietary or pharmacologic, can lead to breast atypia and increased incidence of malignancy in animal models, while iodine treatment can reverse dysplasia.^ After reading all the literature regarding Iodine, it all made real sense to me that I was iodine deficient and that my initial goitre 17 years ago and my lumpy breasts were signs of this.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The continuing and increasing exposure to goitrogens (substances that promote goiter), including the halides bromide and fluoride, has exacerbated the iodine deficiency problem.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ They found that the correction of iodine deficiency not only decreased the incidence of thyrotoxicosis, it also lowered the incidence of goiter, cretinism...
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    [32][33][34] .Laboratory evidences demonstrate that the effect of iodine on breast cancer is in part independent of thyroid function and that iodine inhibits cancer promotion through modulation of the estrogen pathway.^ Iodine deficiency is one of the main underlying causes of many varied illnesses including thyroid disorders, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, cancer (including cancer of the breast and prostate), and other health issues.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Paxiled- STella already had her thyroid burned out with RAI, so Iodine isn't risky for her like those of us with thyroid still functioning somewhat.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ I wonder if part of the healthy effects of a whole food, lower carb diet's effect on promoting good health has to do with eating more of the foods (like eggs, whole milk dairy and seafood) which have iodine in them.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    .Gene array profiling of estrogen responsive breast cancer cell line shows that the combination of iodine and iodide alters gene expression and inhibits the estrogen response through up-regulating proteins involved in estrogen metabolism.^ Vitamin D is essentially a steroid and iodine affects receptor responsiveness to estrogens and other steroids.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    .Whether iodine/iodide will be useful as an adjuvant therapy in the pharmacologic manipulation of the estrogen pathway in women with breast cancer has not been determined clinically.^ Dr Flechas is discussing the use of Iodoral, an iodine supplement to treat fibrocystic breast disease (FBD); while treating a woman for FBD, he discovered a diabetes iodine connection.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Tried the skin test---not sure using the 'right' kind --only could find a 'tincture' with iodine BP 2.5%, potassium iodide BP 2.5% ????
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    [32]
  • Iodine and stomach cancer. .Some researchers have found an epidemiologic correlation between iodine deficiency, iodine-deficient goitre and gastric cancer;[35][36][37] a decrease of the incidence of death rate from stomach cancer after implementation of the effective iodine-prophylaxis was reported too.^ Some have Iodine deficiency and another One of them is Autoimmune.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ After reading all the literature regarding Iodine, it all made real sense to me that I was iodine deficient and that my initial goitre 17 years ago and my lumpy breasts were signs of this.
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    ^ They found that the correction of iodine deficiency not only decreased the incidence of thyrotoxicosis, it also lowered the incidence of goiter, cretinism...
    • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

    [38] The proposed mechanism of action is that iodide ion can function in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing species that can detoxify poisonous reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide.

Iodine and immunity

.Iodine has important actions in the immune system.^ I take the Vitamin D 2000, Iodine, Essential Enzyme, Astragulas the minute I start to feel sick, and/or Grapefruit Seed Extract to boost my immune system.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The high iodide-concentration of thymus suggests an anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in immune system.^ I believe that properly evaluating and treating iodine deficiency will not only help people improve the functioning of their immune systems, it will also play an integral role to help people achieve their optimal health."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I take the Vitamin D 2000, Iodine, Essential Enzyme, Astragulas the minute I start to feel sick, and/or Grapefruit Seed Extract to boost my immune system.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[39][40][41][42][43][44]

Iodine in salivary glands and oral health

The trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the presumed anti-tumour activity of iodides might also be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands diseases.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

Human dietary intake

.The United States Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is 150 micrograms per day (μg/day) for both men and women, with a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults is 1,100 μg/day (1.1 mg/day).^ The range of daily iodine intake was from 50 mg to 100 mg per day.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The one insulin dependent diabetic was able to reduce the intake of Lantus insulin from 98 units to 44 units per day within a period of a few weeks.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ This is equivalent to approximately 0.045 milligrams per day (or 45 micrograms) in a pregnant woman or 0.05 milligrams per day in an average-weight man.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[51] .The tolerable upper limit was assessed by analyzing the effect of supplementation on thyroid-stimulating hormone.^ The importance of TSH TSH, made by the pituitary gland in the brain, stands for thyroid stimulating hormone.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[28]
.Natural sources of iodine include sea life, such as kelp and certain seafood, as well as plants grown on iodine-rich soil.^ That's why trying iodine in the form of kelp or bladderwrack or both, or some other natural form, is worth a try, just to try and preserve the thyroid.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Here is what he takes: Vitamine D 2000 Natures Life Natural Cholecalciferol Bone Health Iodine Iododoral Essential Enzyme Source Naturals Digestive Aid 500 mg.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[52][53] .Iodized salt is fortified with iodine.^ Bernard Jenson, D.C., Ph.D., found that the iodized table salt, which is superheated so that it can pour more easily, is a poor form of iodine for the body."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[53]
.As of 2000, the median intake of iodine from food in the United States was 240 to 300 μg/day for men and 190 to 210 μg/day for women.^ The one insulin dependent diabetic was able to reduce the intake of Lantus insulin from 98 units to 44 units per day within a period of a few weeks.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The range of daily iodine intake was from 50 mg to 100 mg per day.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine Nutrition in the United States.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[51] In Japan, consumption is much higher due to the frequent consumption of seaweed or kombu kelp.[28]
After iodine fortification programs (e.g. .iodized salt) have been implemented, some cases of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism have been observed (so called Jod-Basedow disease).^ Bernard Jenson, D.C., Ph.D., found that the iodized table salt, which is superheated so that it can pour more easily, is a poor form of iodine for the body."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Heath574 , Mar 01, 2009 02:38PM Its table salt called Red Cross Iodized salt.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The condition mainly seems to occur in people over forty, and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine intake is high.^ Apr 04, 2009 01:37AM Hi Everybody, There seems to me to be more news on iodine appearing everyday.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ After reading all the literature regarding Iodine, it all made real sense to me that I was iodine deficient and that my initial goitre 17 years ago and my lumpy breasts were signs of this.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Cindy PS I have been told by several people that I must be feeling terrible with my current blood results but I am not, the iodine is supporting me very well and making me feel normal.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[54]

Deficiency

.In areas where there is little iodine in the diet, typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures.^ Proper administration of iodine 4 Symptoms of low iodine 5 What iodine will restore in the body if taken and how to know if you are managing appropriately with it.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Mar 09, 2009 10:40AM HI Everybody, I have suffered from a goitre and sub clinical hypothyroidism for the last 17 years with all the classic symptoms.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I AM STARTING TO RECOVER! My goitre is still a little swollen as it is being bombarded by iodine but it has reduced for the first time in 17 years.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[55]
.Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation, a result which occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element.^ The WHO has recognised that iodine deficiency is the world's greatest single cause of preventable mental retardation.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Remember that stopping thyroid medicine all together only applies to those who are hypothyroid due to iodine deficiency and only under drs orders.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The underlying cause of autoimmune thyroid illnesses: iodine deficiency and antioxidant deficiency!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in the wealthier nations, but as of March 2006, iodine deficiency remained a serious public health problem in the developing world.^ Iodine deficiency has been identified as a significant public health problem in 129 countries!!!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Bernard Jenson, D.C., Ph.D., found that the iodized table salt, which is superheated so that it can pour more easily, is a poor form of iodine for the body."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Apr 01, 2009 11:24AM Hi Everybody, This is what I have read -" Iodine deficency is a huge public health problem.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[56] .Iodine deficiency is also a problem in certain areas of Europe.^ Iodine deficiency has been identified as a significant public health problem in 129 countries!!!
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The continuing and increasing exposure to goitrogens (substances that promote goiter), including the halides bromide and fluoride, has exacerbated the iodine deficiency problem.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Approximately one-third of the world's population lives in iodine deficient areas and up to 72% of the world's population is affected by an iodine deficiency disorder.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.In Germany it has been estimated to cause a billion dollars in health care costs per year.^ Based on these assumptions, a health-based drinking water concentration would be 5 parts per billion (ppb)2.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[28]

Radioiodine in biology

Radioiodine and the thyroid

.The most common compounds of iodine are the iodides of sodium (NaI) and potassium (KI) and the iodates (KIO3), as elemental iodine is mildly toxic to all living things.^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I find oodles of sodium iodine at the drug stores but not potassium.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Normal iodine is an essential precursor for the manufacture of thyroid hormone.
.Due to preferential uptake of iodine by the thyroid, isotopes with short half lives such as I131 can be used for thyroid ablation, a procedure in which radioactive iodine is administered intravenously or orally following a diagnostic scan.^ Have you ever met somebody whose thyroid has burnt out due to too much iodine?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ When asked what she felt the big change was, she felt that her diabetes was under better control due to the use of iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Remember that stopping thyroid medicine all together only applies to those who are hypothyroid due to iodine deficiency and only under drs orders.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

This procedure is generally performed on patients with thyroid cancer or hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue. After uptake, the iodine undergoes degeneration via beta decay, destroying its associated thyroid tissue. Normally thyroidectomy is performed prior to ablation to avoid side effects of epilation and radiation toxicity. The purpose of radioablation is to destroy remnant tissue that was unable to be removed with surgery.
.Lower energy isotopes such as iodine-123, and less commonly iodine-125, are used as tracers to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic function of the thyroid.^ Paxiled- STella already had her thyroid burned out with RAI, so Iodine isn't risky for her like those of us with thyroid still functioning somewhat.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ The TSH blood test is the most useful test for thyroid function.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine detoxes all the bad halides (bromine, chlorine, flourine) in your thyroid and makes space for iodine again so your thyroid can function properly again.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Abnormal results may be caused by disorders such as Graves' Disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.^ Hashimoto's isn't the only thyroid disease.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ You need to get your doctor to test for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroid disease.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Potassium iodide has been distributed to populations exposed to nuclear fission accidents such as the Chernobyl disaster. The iodide solution SSKI, a saturated solution of potassium (K) iodide in water, has been used to block absorption of the radioiodine (it has no effect on other radioisotopes from fission). .Tablets containing potassium iodide are now also manufactured and stocked in central disaster sites by the governments for this purpose.^ I am more afraid of kelp right now than potassium iodide.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.In theory, many harmful late-cancer effects of nuclear fallout might be prevented in this way, since an excess of thyroid cancers, presumably due to radioiodine uptake, is the only proven radioisotope contamination effect after a fission accident, or from contamination by fallout from an atomic bomb (prompt radiation from the bomb also cases other cancers, such as leukemias, directly).^ Iodine deficiency is one of the main underlying causes of many varied illnesses including thyroid disorders, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, cancer (including cancer of the breast and prostate), and other health issues.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Then there was such a rise in breast cancer and other cancers.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Remember that stopping thyroid medicine all together only applies to those who are hypothyroid due to iodine deficiency and only under drs orders.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Taking large amounts of thyroid saturates iodide receptors prevents uptake of most radioactive iodine-131 that may be present from fission product exposure (although it does not protect from other radioisotopes, nor from any other form of direct radiation).^ The other form of iodine which I am taking is Opitimox Iodoral tablets which are discounted presently 30% at illnessisoptional.com.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine supplements at higher levels may offer some protection from the toxic effects of perchlorate.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ This effect is also believed to be due to the large amounts of iodine in the supplement.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The protective effect of KI lasts approximately 24 hours, so must be dosed daily until a risk of significant exposure to radioiodines from fission products no longer exists.^ At this level, no effects on thyroid function are expected, and the RfD is protective for the most sensitive persons.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Keep applying the Tincture of Iodine every 24 hours, at different places on your body, until the spot stays there for the full 24 hours.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

[57][58] .Iodine-131 (the most common radioiodine contaminant in fallout) also decays relatively rapidly with a half-life of 8 days, so that 99.95% of the original radioiodine is gone after three months.^ In one of the author's (GEA) experience, megadosing with calcium (2,000-3,000 mg/day) has been the most common cause of poor response to orthoiodosupplementation.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Iodine 125

Iodine-125 is also commonly used by radiation oncologists in low dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cancer at sites other than the thyroid, especially in prostate cancer. The radioiodine is encapsulated in titanium seeds and implanted in the area of tumor involvement. .In contrast to the blood-borne dissemination of radioiodine used in the thyroid, the radioiodine acts only locally in the area where it is implanted.^ The TSH blood test is the most useful test for thyroid function.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Iodine 129

Iodine-129 (129I; half-life 15.7 million years) is a product of cosmic ray spallation on various isotopes of xenon in the atmosphere, in cosmic ray muon interaction with tellurium-130, and also uranium and plutonium fission, both in subsurface rocks and nuclear reactors. Artificial nuclear processes, in particular nuclear fuel reprocessing and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, have now swamped the natural signal for this isotope. Nevertheless, it now serves as a groundwater tracer as indicator of nuclear waste dispersion into the natural environment. In a similar fashion, 129I was used in rainwater studies to track fission products following the Chernobyl disaster.

Radioiodine and the kidney

In the 1970s imaging techniques were developed to employ radioiodine in diagnostics for renal hypertension; however methods using other chemical compounds, such as DMSA, are more popular in clinics nowadays.

Precautions and toxicity of elemental iodine

Elemental iodine is an oxidizing irritant and direct contact with skin can cause lesions, so iodine crystals should be handled with care. .Solutions with high elemental iodine concentration such as tincture of iodine are capable of causing tissue damage if use for cleaning and antisepsis is prolonged.^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ As for iodine, you're already taking it -- that's the main reason the hijiki is used for what you're using it for, it's high iodine content.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ It's more often used as a food because of its high concentration of nutrients, particularly minerals.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Elemental iodine (I2) is poisonous if taken orally in larger amounts; 2–3 grams of it is a lethal dose for an adult human.
Iodine vapor is very irritating to the eye, to mucous membranes, and in the respiratory tract. .Concentration of iodine in the air should not exceed 1 mg/m³ (eight-hour time-weighted average).^ The first time I did the test, the iodine disappeared within 2 hours.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

When mixed with ammonia and water, elemental iodine forms nitrogen triiodide which is extremely shock sensitive and can explode unexpectedly.

Toxicity of iodide ion

.Excess iodine has symptoms similar to those of iodine deficiency.^ Those with previous iodine deficiency or nodular goiter may be particularly susceptible.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine Deficiency Symptoms: Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goiter, and cretinism (fetal hypothyroidism) in many parts of the world.
  • Iodine, Supplement Monograph - Flora Health Supplement Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.florahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A deficiency of iodine can lead to hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels); symptoms of this condition include sluggishness, weight gain, and sensitivity to temperature changes.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commonly encountered symptoms are abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism as a whole.^ The thyroid gland needs iodine to synthesize thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones that regulate metabolism and steer growth and development.
  • Iodine for Health by Donald W. Miller, Jr., MD 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When TSH and thyroid hormone levels are both low, the pituitary gland is responsible for the low thyroid function, a situation termed secondary hypothyroidism.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using only blood tests, thyroid function is commonly low in older adults.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides.[citation needed]

Iodine sensitivity

.Some people develop a sensitivity to iodine.^ I can see that some people here have had very good experiences with iodine and that is great.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

Application of tincture of iodine can cause a rash. Some cases of reaction to Povidone-iodine (Betadine) have been documented to be a chemical burn.[59] Eating iodine-containing foods can cause hives. Medical use of iodine (i.e. as a contrast agent, see above) can cause anaphylactic shock in highly iodine sensitive patients. Some cases of sensitivity to iodine can be formally classified as iodine allergies. .Iodine sensitivity is rare but has a considerable effect given the extremely widespread use of iodine-based contrast media[60].^ Hmmmm.....i would imagine there are more adverse health effects using chlorine than there would be with iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

See also

References

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  3. ^ Russ Hille (2002). "Molybdenum and tungsten in biology". Trends in Biochemical Sciences 27: 360. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(02)02107-2. 
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  35. ^ Josefssson M, Ekblad E. (2009). Victor R. Preedy, Gerard N. Burrow MD, Ronald Watson. ed. Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion. In: Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects. 
  36. ^ Abnet CC, Fan JH, Kamangar F, Sun XD, Taylor PR, Ren JS, Mark SD, Zhao P, Fraumeni JF Jr, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM (2006). Self-reported goiter is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a large population-based Chinese cohort.. 119. p. 1508. 
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  38. ^ Golkowski F, Szybinski Z, Rachtan J, Sokolowski A, Buziak-Bereza M, Trofimiuk M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Przybylik-Mazurek E, Huszno B. (2007). "Iodine prophylaxis--the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas". Eur J Nutr. 46: 251. doi:10.1007/s00394-007-0657-8. 
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  40. ^ Venturi S.; Venturi A, Cimini D, Arduini C, Venturi M, Guidi A. (1993). "A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer.". Europ. J. Cancer. Prev. 2: 17. 
  41. ^ Marani L; Venturi S, Masala R (1985). "Role of iodine in delayed immune response.". Isr. J. Med. Sci. 21: 864. 
  42. ^ Ma F; Zhao W, Kudo M, Aoki K, Misumi J. (2002). "Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine, nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride.". Toxicol in Vitro 16: 531. doi:10.1016/S0887-2333(02)00045-0. 
  43. ^ Klebanoff S.J. (1967). "Iodination of bacteria: A bacterial mechanism.". J Exp Med 126: 1063. doi:10.1084/jem.126.6.1063. 
  44. ^ "Iodine enhances ig-G-synthesis by human peripheral blood Iyphocytes in vitro.". Acta Endocr 103: 103. 1983. 
  45. ^ Venturi S.; Venturi M. (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health 20 (2): 119–134. PMID 19835108. 
  46. ^ Bahar, G.; Feinmesser, R.; Shpitzer, T.; Popovtzer, A.; Nagler, R.M. (2007). "Salivary analysis in oral cancer patients: DNA and protein oxidation, reactive nitrogen species, and antioxidant profile". Cancer 109 (1): 54–59. doi:10.1002/cncr.22386. PMID 17099862. 
  47. ^ Banerjee, R.K.; Bose, A.K.; Chakraborty, T.K.; De, S.K.; Datta, A.G. (1985). "Peroxidase-catalysed iodotyrosine formation in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues". J Endocrinol 2: 159–165. 
  48. ^ Banerjee, R.K.; Datta, A.G. (1986). "Salivary peroxidases". Mol Cell Biochem 70 (1): 21–29. PMID 3520291. 
  49. ^ Bartelstone, H. J. (1951). "Radioiodine penetration through intact enamel with uptake by bloodstream and thyroid gland". J Dent Res 5: 728–733. 
  50. ^ Bartelstone, H.J.; Mandel, I.D.; Oshry, E.; Seidlin, S.M. (1947). "Use of radioactive iodine as a tracer in the Study of the Physiology of teeth". Science 106: 132. 
  51. ^ a b United States National Research Council (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academies Press. pp. 258–259. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=258. 
  52. ^ "Sources of iodine". International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. http://www.iccidd.org/pages/iodine-deficiency/sources-of-iodine.php. 
  53. ^ a b "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Iodine in diet". http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002421.htm. 
  54. ^ Wu T, Liu GJ, Li P, Clar C (2002). "Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD003204. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003204. PMID 12137681. 
  55. ^ Felig, Philip; Frohman, Lawrence A. (2001). "Endemic Goiter". Endocrinology & metabolism. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780070220010. http://books.google.de/books?id=AZUUGrp6yUgC&pg=RA1-PA351. 
  56. ^ "Micronutrients - Iodine, Iron and Vitamin A". UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_iodine.html. 
  57. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide". Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm072265.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  58. ^ "Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies". Food and Drug Administration. http://www.thefederalregister.com/d.p/2001-12-11-01-30492. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  59. ^ D. O. Lowe, S. R. Knowles, E. A. Weber, C. J. Railton, and N. H. Shear (2006). "Povidone-iodine-induced burn: case report and review of the literature". Pharmacotherapy 26: 1641-5. doi:10.1592/phco.26.11.1641. 
  60. ^ Katelaris, Constance (2009). "'Iodine Allergy' label is misleading". Australian Prescriber, Vol. 32, 125-128. Available at http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/32/5/125/8/

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.IODINE (symbol I, atomic weight 126.92), a chemical element, belonging to the halogen group.^ Iodine is a chemical element.
  • Iodine Deficiency: eMedicine Endocrinology 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine is an element (atomic number 53), which is required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4).
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine is an element (atomic number 53) that is required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Its name is derived from Gr. ioablis (violet-coloured), in allusion to the colour of its vapour. It was discovered in 1812 by B. Courtois when investigating the products obtained from the mother-liquors prepared by lixiviating kelp or burnt seaweed, and in 1815 L. J. Gay-Lussac showed that it was an element. .Iodine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but is found very widely but sparingly distributed in the form of iodides and iodates, chiefly of sodium and potassium.^ Iodine Iodine-containing compounds are found in ashes of burnt seaweed, salty oil-well brines and Chilean saltpeter, which is sodium iodate (NaIO3).
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sodium thiosulphate, 100 mL orally of a 1% solution, has been recommended as an antidote because it immediately reduces iodine to iodide.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

It is also found in small quantities in sea-water, in some seaweeds, and in various mineral and medicinal springs. .Deep-sea weeds as a rule contain more iodine than those which are found in the shallow waters.^ And they need more than iodine."
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Iodine Iodine-containing compounds are found in ashes of burnt seaweed, salty oil-well brines and Chilean saltpeter, which is sodium iodate (NaIO3).
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women with large breasts need more iodine than women with smaller breasts.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iodine is obtained either from kelp (the ashes of burnt seaweed) or from the mother-liquors obtained in the purification of Chile saltpetre.^ Iodine Iodine-containing compounds are found in ashes of burnt seaweed, salty oil-well brines and Chilean saltpeter, which is sodium iodate (NaIO3).
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plant and animal sea life, such as shellfish, white deep-water fish, and brown seaweed kelp, absorb iodine from the water and are great sources of iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High iodine content can be found in kelp/seaweed/bladderwrack, and may add to the effects of iodine supplementation.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the former case the seaweed is burnt in large heaps, care being taken that too high a temperature is not reached, for if the ash be allowed to fuse much iodine is lost by volatilization.^ Iodine volatilises slowly at room temperature.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine Iodine-containing compounds are found in ashes of burnt seaweed, salty oil-well brines and Chilean saltpeter, which is sodium iodate (NaIO3).
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of the study was to identify the number of cases of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis among patients with thyrotoxicosis in a large urban hospital.

The product obtained after burning is known either as kelp or varec. Another method of obtaining kelp is to heat the seaweed in large retorts, whereby tarry and ammoniacal liquors pass over and a very porous residue of kelp remains. .A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute. The kelp obtained by any of these methods is then lixiviated with water, which extracts the soluble salts, and the liquid is concentrated, when the less soluble salts, which are chiefly alkaline chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, crystallize out and are removed.^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But I do keep a container of regular salt next to the stove for salting boiling water for pasta, vegetables, etc.
  • Kosher salt - what is it? - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The iodine could be added to community water supplies in goiter regions, or it could be administered in the form of tablets or drops, or it could be taken in the form of iodized salt.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution. .The liquid is run into the iodine still and gently warmed, manganese dioxide in small quantities being added from time to time, when the iodine distils over and is collected.^ Iodine is not being used in it's effectiveness at this time.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Seaweed was the first to start capturing iodine from ocean water by a membrane transport mechanism that today still concentrates iodine to 20,000 times the ocean's concentration.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I AM STARTING TO RECOVER! My goitre is still a little swollen as it is being bombarded by iodine but it has reduced for the first time in 17 years.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

In the second method it is found that the mother-liquors obtained from Chile saltpetre contain small quantities of sodium iodate NaIO 3; this liquor is mixed with the calculated quantity of sodium bisulphite in large vats, and iodine is precipitated: 2Na10 3 +5NaHS0 3 =3NaHS04-{-2Na2S04+H20 +12.
The precipitate is washed and then distilled from iron retorts. .Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.^ After decades of iodine deficiency , especially the intake of unphysiologically high iodine concentrations may result in increased frequencies of hyperthyroidism.

^ Metabolic 9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances Metabolic acidosis may be associated with iodine toxicity.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As iodine and iodides can affect the thyroid gland, the administration of such preparations may interfere with tests of thyroid functions (Reynolds 1989; McEvoy, 1990).
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Commercial iodine may be purified by mixing it with a little potassium iodide and then subliming the mixture; in this way any traces of bromine or chlorine are removed.^ Potassium iodide (SSKI, PIMA) 1-2 gtt three times daily mixed in juice or water has also been given.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So the brand we take: Iodoral High Potency Iodine Potassium Iodide Supplement, $55.00 for a six month supply.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Namely halogens competing against iodine including chlorine, fluorine and bromine displaces iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.J. S. Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.^ Lugol's solution is a water solution of 10 per cent potassium iodide and 5 per cent elemental iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lugol's solution: Contains 5% iodine and 10% potassium iodide.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sodium thiosulphate, 100 mL orally of a 1% solution, has been recommended as an antidote because it immediately reduces iodine to iodide.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Iodine is a greyish-black shining solid, possessing a metallic lustre and having somewhat the appearance of graphite.^ Chemical structure Structural Formula I-I Molecular formula I 2 Molecular weight 253.81 Chemical name Iodine 3.3 Physical properties 3.3.1 Properties of the substance 3.3.1.1 Colour Blue greyish-black with a metallic crystalline sheen 3.3.1.2 State/Form Solid brittle plates or small crystals 3.3.1.3 Description Characteristic acrid odour.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Its specific gravity is 4.94 8 (1 7°14°). It melts at 114.2° C. and boils at 184.35° C. under atmospheric pressure (W. Ramsay and S. Young). The specific heat of solid iodine is o 0541 (H. Kopp). Its latent heat of fusion is 11 7 calories, and its latent heat of vaporization is 23.95 calories (P. A. Favre and J. T. Silbermann). .The specific heat of iodine vapour at constant pressure is o-03489, and at constant volume o 02697. It volatilizes slowly at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly on heating.^ Iodine volatilises slowly at room temperature.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Iodine vapour on heating passes from a violet colour to a deep indigo blue; this behaviour was investigated by V. Meyer (Be y ., 1880, 1 3, p.^ Stomatitis and pharyngitis may result from exposure to iodine vapour or solutions and mucous membranes are coloured brown.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

394), who found that the change of colour was accompanied by a change of vapour density. .Thus, the density of air being taken as unity, Victor Meyer found the following values for the density of iodine vapour at different temperatures: T° C...^ For hypos the important message is that a selenium deficiency may cause an iodine deficiency, so that even though you are taking iodine you may not be assimilating it unless selenium is also being taken.

^ A study in Italy followed 26 pregnancies and children over 10 years and found that 11 of 16 children from iodine deficient area were diagnosed ADHD and each mother was iodine deficient during pregnancy.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in thyroid dysfunction were found between the regions with a minor difference in iodine excretion.

2 53 45 o 506 842 1027 1570 Density.. 8.89 8.84 8.73 6-08 5.75 5.67 This shows that the iodine molecule becomes less complex in structure at higher temperatures.
.Iodine possesses a characteristic penetrating smell, not so pungent, however, as that of chlorine or bromine.^ Namely halogens competing against iodine including chlorine, fluorine and bromine displaces iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, flourine can displace chlorine, bromine and iodine because flourine has a lower atomic weight than the other three.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, fluorine can displace chlorine, bromine and iodine because fluorine has a lower atomic weight than the other three.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is only very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in solutions of the alkaline iodides and in alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, and many liquid hydrocarbons.^ Very readily soluble in strong aqueous solutions of iodides.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A solution in alcohol, ether, or aqueous solutions of iodides is reddish-brown.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Its solutions in the alkaline iodides and in alcohol and ether are brown in colour, whilst in chloroform and carbon bisulphide the solution is violet.^ In chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulphide it is violet-coloured.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A solution in alcohol, ether, or aqueous solutions of iodides is reddish-brown.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

It appears to combine with the solvent (P. Waentig, Zeit. phys. Chem., 1909, p. 513). .Its chemical properties closely resemble those of chlorine and bromine; its affinity for other elements, however, is as a rule less than that of either.^ Iodized table salt remains on our grocers' shelves, but less than half of the population buys iodized salt, and the salt they are buying contains other harmful chemicals used in the processing of the salt.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, flourine can displace chlorine, bromine and iodine because flourine has a lower atomic weight than the other three.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, fluorine can displace chlorine, bromine and iodine because fluorine has a lower atomic weight than the other three.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will only combine with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, but combines with many other elements directly; for example, phosphorus melts and then inflames, antimony burns in the vapour, and mercury when heated with iodine combines with it rapidly.^ There are several aspects of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism-related effects on fetal and perinatal brain development that can be aggravated or otherwise affected by the presence of mercury.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, flourine can displace chlorine, bromine and iodine because flourine has a lower atomic weight than the other three.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other topical disinfectants include alcohol and antibiotics and iodine is sometimes used in combination with these.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is completely oxidized to iodic acid when boiled with fuming nitric acid. .It is soluble in a solution of caustic potash, a dilute solution most probably containing the hypoiodite, which, however, changes slowly into iodate, the change taking place rapidly on warming.^ As for the table salt, most people grab a container of salt probably without noticing that some are iodized and some or most say non-iodized and that they do not provide iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your spirit 'to take things into your own hands' reiterates probably THE fundamental ingredient to successful healing, oft forgotten.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I started taking a single drop most days in my usual water+ACV a few weeks ago, and it has made a seriously remarkable change for me!
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When alkali is added to aqueous iodine, followed immediately by either soda water or sodium bicarbonate, most of the original iodine is precipitated (R. L. Taylor, Jour.^ Sodium thiosulphate, 100 mL orally of a 1% solution, has been recommended as an antidote because it immediately reduces iodine to iodide.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The brain has more apoptosis going on during development than most other organs, so it follows that low iodine can cause abnormal brain development.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The iodine could be added to community water supplies in goiter regions, or it could be administered in the form of tablets or drops, or it could be taken in the form of iodized salt.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Soc.,
18 97, 7 1, p. 725, and K. J. P. Orton, ibid. p. 830). .Iodine can be readily detected by the characteristic blue coloration that it immediately gives with starch paste; the colour is destroyed on heating, but returns on cooling provided the heating has not been too prolonged.^ If the stomach contains starch the emesis is coloured blue.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Iodine in the presence of water frequently acts as an oxidizing agent; thus arsenious acid and the arsenites, on the addition of iodine solution, are converted into arsenic acid and arsenates.^ Iodine can be used as an antimicrobial agent for the emergency purification of water.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, thyroid hormones are deiodinated in the liver, and the iodine is released back into the circulation for reuptake and reuse by the thyroid gland.
  • Iodine Deficiency: eMedicine Endocrinology 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Douch for vaginitis: generally two tablespoons of an iodine solution to one quart of warm water once per day.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A dilute solution of iodine prevents the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by colloidal platinum (G. Bredig, Zeit.^ MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET for Lugol's Solution of Iodine 2% Dilution May Further Activate Substance Potency Rather Than Weaken It .
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

phys. Chem.,
18 99, 31, p. 258; 1901, 37, p. 323.
.Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.^ And they need more than iodine."
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ I am finding that patch application seems good - not oral consumption - but it may be the detox going on more that anything.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Women with large breasts need more iodine than women with smaller breasts.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.^ Thyroid hormone is essential for normal nervous system functioning and reaction time, and hypothyroidism may produce slow reactions and mental sluggishness.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We do know that chlorine reacts with organics in the water and produces trihalamethanes and haloacetic acids, which are both bad in large enough concentrations.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.As a rule it is preferable to use iodine in the presence of a carrier, such as amorphous phosphorus or ferrous iodide or to use it with a solvent.^ Povidone-iodine solutions have been used in the management of childhood bacterial conjunctivitis, and may be as effective as other anti-bacterial solutions such as neomycin-polymyxin B-gramicidin.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: This review does not discuss the medical uses of radioactive iodine or iodine contrast agents used for imaging studies such as computerized tomography (CT scanning).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic iodines are present in pharmaceuticals, such as the organically-bound iodine used in radiographic studies (x-ray or CT "contrast").
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is found that most organic compounds containing the grouping CH 3 CO. C - or CH 3. CH(OH) C - in the presence of iodine and alkali give iodoform CH13.
.Hydriodic acid, HI, is formed by the direct union of its components in the presence of a catalytic agent; for this purpose platinum black is used, and the hydrogen and iodine vapour are passed over the heated substance.^ Note: This review does not cover adverse effects associated with intravenous iodine-based contrast agents used for CT scan imaging, or radioactive iodine.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: This review does not discuss the medical uses of radioactive iodine or iodine contrast agents used for imaging studies such as computerized tomography (CT scanning).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I have a variety of problems that I am hopeful iodine will help--enlarged pores, patches of dermatitis, and hair loss--but I'm not sure what form to use, how much, etc.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.On shaking up iodine with a solution of sulphuretted hydrogen in water, a solution of hydriodic acid is obtained, sulphur being at the same time precipitated.^ Iodine is not being used in it's effectiveness at this time.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ I AM STARTING TO RECOVER! My goitre is still a little swollen as it is being bombarded by iodine but it has reduced for the first time in 17 years.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ In this way he obtains acid taken up from the soil by fruit, berries, edible leaves, and roots, and the energy from the sun which exists in honey.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The acid cannot be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on an iodide on account of secondary reactions taking place, which result in the formation of free iodine and sulphur dioxide.^ Iodine destroys bacteria, viruses and cysts, and its action is dependent on its concentration, the water temperature and duration of contact.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine excess results principally from the use of iodine-containing medicinal preparations or radiographic contrast media.

^ Soooo----is doing this kind of iodine supplementation in place of taking kelp supplements, or is there no harm in taking kelp too?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The usual method is to make a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and a large excess of iodine and then to allow water to drop slowly upon it; the reaction starts readily, and the gas obtained can be freed from any admixed iodine vapour by passing it through a tube containing some amorphous phosphorus.^ Seaweed was the first to start capturing iodine from ocean water by a membrane transport mechanism that today still concentrates iodine to 20,000 times the ocean's concentration.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine excess results principally from the use of iodine-containing medicinal preparations or radiographic contrast media.

^ If the body was capable, and it is not, of holding the iodine inside and therefore allowing urine with no iodine to flow through the renal system, then the renal system would be deprived of iodine.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a colourless sharp-smelling gas which fumes strongly on exposure to air. It readily liquefies at 0° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at To° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid. .The saturated aqueous solution is colourless and fumes strongly on exposure to air; after a time it darkens in colour owing to liberation of iodine.^ Skin/wound sterilization: Various concentrations of iodine have been used, for example 2% tincture or 2% aqueous solution to affected areas.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aqueous solutions of iodine are Strong Iodine Solution USP (compound iodine solution, Lugol's solution) containing 5% iodine and 10% potassium iodide, and Iodine Topical Solution (USP) containing 2% iodine and 2.4% potassium iodide.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stomatitis and pharyngitis may result from exposure to iodine vapour or solutions and mucous membranes are coloured brown.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The gas is readily decomposed by heat into its constituent elements. .It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c.^ We do know that chlorine reacts with organics in the water and produces trihalamethanes and haloacetic acids, which are both bad in large enough concentrations.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.^ Bernard Jenson, D.C., Ph.D., found that the iodized table salt, which is superheated so that it can pour more easily, is a poor form of iodine for the body."
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Originally, during the formation of the earth, iodine dispersed throughout rock formations.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exposure to fluoride, bromine and chlorine isn't helping so it's best to first avoid these other halogens as well as taking more bioavailable forms of iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It forms addition compounds with unsaturated compounds.
.It has all the characteristics of an acid, dissolving many metals with evolution of hydrogen and formation of salts, called iodides. The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).^ Iodide preparations can be used to suppress thyroid hormone release from the thyroid, such as strong iodine solution (Lugol solution), potassium iodide (SSKI), and iodinated radiographic contrast agents (sodium ipodate).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The correct statement for the type of iodine present in seaweed is "inorganic iodine," meaning a compound of iodine that does not contain a carbon molecule(s), such as potassium iodide or sodium iodide (both salts of iodine).
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topical use of iodine preparations may irritate/burn tissues and cause sensitization in some individuals.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

The iodides as a class resemble the chlorides and bromides, but are less fusible and volatile. .Silver iodide, mercurous iodide, and mercuric iodide are insoluble in water; lead iodide is sparingly soluble, whilst most of the other metallic iodides are soluble.^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is in such high and inland areas that, through the ages, the soil has yielded most or all of its soluble iodine content to water on the way to the sea.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Strong heating decomposes the majority of the iodides. .Nitrous acid and chlorine readily decompose them with liberation of iodine; the same effect being produced when they are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide.^ During this last week I stopped taking my iodine and supplements as my stomach could not cope with them and I doubt they would not have stayed in my stomach long enough to have any effect.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ These are the same type of birth defects produced by maternal iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hmmmm.....i would imagine there are more adverse health effects using chlorine than there would be with iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The soluble iodides, on the addition of silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, give a yellow precipitate of silver iodide, which is insoluble in ammonia solution.^ Very readily soluble in strong aqueous solutions of iodides.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Hydriodic acid and the iodides may be estimated by conversion into silver iodide.
.Iodine combines with chlorine to form iodine monochloride, IC1, which may be obtained by passing dry chlorine over dry iodine until the iodine is completely liquefied, or according to R. Bunsen by boiling iodine with aqua regia and extracting with ether.^ I am a hashi patient too, and that is why I have held off on trying iodine until my thyroid is completely burned out.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodine may also be employed as a weak solution for the first- aid treatment of small wounds and abrasions, but it is rapidly inactivated by combining with tissue substances, and so delays healing.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additive hypothyroid effects may occur with the use of iodine products in combination with antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

It exists in two different crystalline forms, the more stable or a form melting at 27.2° C., and the less stable or /3 form melting at 13.9° C. It is readily decomposed by water. .The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.^ Iodine excess results principally from the use of iodine-containing medicinal preparations or radiographic contrast media.

^ Thyroid's action in the cell is to increase the biosynthesis of enzymes, resulting in heat production, oxygen consumption, and elevated metabolic rate.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluoride in tap water and toothpastes as well as chlorine in tap water both block iodine receptors in the thyroid gland that result in lowered thyroid hormone production.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It crystallizes in long yellow needles and decomposes readily on heating into the monochloride and chlorine. It is readily soluble in water, but excess of water decomposes it. (See W. Stortenbeker, Zeit. phys. Chem., 1889, 3, p. .11.) Iodine monochloride in glacial acetic acid solution was used by A. Michael and T. H. Norton (Ber., 1876, 9, p.^ Povidone-iodine solutions have been used in the management of childhood bacterial conjunctivitis, and may be as effective as other anti-bacterial solutions such as neomycin-polymyxin B-gramicidin.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine-containing solutions are used as contrast media in radio-diagnosis.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I am now trying to find another product of clear iodine solution for my daughter to use on her son who i just starting to walk."
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1752) for the preparation of paraiodoacetanilide.
.Iodine Pentoxide, 1205 , the best-known oxide, is obtained as a white crystalline solid by heating iodic acid to 170° C.; it is easily soluble in water, combining with the water to regenerate iodic acid; and when heated to 300° C. it breaks up into its constituent elements.^ Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plant and animal sea life, such as shellfish, white deep-water fish, and brown seaweed kelp, absorb iodine from the water and are great sources of iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Underactive thyroid conditions respond best when supplemented with detoxified iodine, kelp and dulse, essential fatty acids, thyroid glandulars and other nutrients that nourish the thyroid gland.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(see M. Guichard, Com,pt. rend., 1909, 148, p. 925.) Iodine dioxide, 1204, obtained by Millon, and reinvestigated by M. M. P. Muir (Jour. Chem. Soc., 1909, 95, p. 656), is a lemon-yellow solid obtained by acting on iodic acid with sulphuric acid, oxygen being evolved. By acting with ozone on a chloroform solution of iodine, F. Fichter and F. Rohner (Ber., 1909, 42, p. .4 0 93) obtained a yellowish white oxide, of the formula I 4 0 9, which they regard as an iodate of tervalent iodine, Millon's oxide being considered a basic iodate.^ Iodine protects double bonds while they are being transported to the sites where they are needed such as blood vessels and synaptic membranes of the central nervous system.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although hypoiodous acid is not known, it is extremely probable that on adding iodine or iodine monochloride to a dilute solution of a caustic alkali, hypoiodites are formed, the solution obtained having a characteristic smell of iodoform, and being of a pale yellow colour.^ Target organs are mucous membranes of pharynx, larynx and oesophagus for the concentrated iodine, and thyroid for the diluted form as a systemic effect.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brittle nails, falling hair, being deathly pale and being exhausted and tired are all symptoms - as are most of the things you are saying the iodine "cured".
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Stomatitis and pharyngitis may result from exposure to iodine vapour or solutions and mucous membranes are coloured brown.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

It oxidizes arsenites, sulphites and thiosulphates immediately. .The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.^ Hey Platelet - Did you use sodium iodine tincture - or potassium iodine for your test?
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Iodide preparations can be used to suppress thyroid hormone release from the thyroid, such as strong iodine solution (Lugol solution), potassium iodide (SSKI), and iodinated radiographic contrast agents (sodium ipodate).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I find oodles of sodium iodine at the drug stores but not potassium.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

The hypoiodite disappears gradually on standing, and rapidly on warming, being converted into iodate (see R. L. Taylor, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1897, 71, p. 725, and K. J. P. Orton, ibid. p. 830). .The peculiar nature of the action between iodine and chlorine in aqueous solution has led to the suggestion that the product is a base, i.e. iodine hydroxide.^ At my suggestion, three drops of Lugol's solution of iodine was added to the daily four ounces of apple cider vinegar.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am now trying to find another product of clear iodine solution for my daughter to use on her son who i just starting to walk."
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine-based products should be avoided if there is known allergy/hypersensitivity to iodine.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

Triiodine hydroxide, I 3. OH, is obtained by oxidizing potassium iodide with sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate (A. Skrabal and F. Buchter, Chem. Zeit., 1909, 33, pp. 1184, 1193).
.Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1. It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.^ Boiling point 185.24 C Melting point 113.60 C Solubility is 1 in 3500 of water, 1 in 8 of alcohol, 1 in 6 of carbon tetrachloride, 1 in 30 of chloroform, 1 in 5 of ether, 1 in 125 of glycerol.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plant and animal sea life, such as shellfish, white deep-water fish, and brown seaweed kelp, absorb iodine from the water and are great sources of iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Question for thought.....I wonder how much money we would save if we treated water with iodine instead of chlorine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.It is a most powerful oxidizing agent, phosphorus being readily oxidized to phosphoric acid, arsenic to arsenic acid, silicon at 250° C. to silica, and hydrochloric acid to chlorine and water.^ A knowledge of this well-known chemical law brings us to a consideration of the addition of chlorine to our drinking water as a purifying agent.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We do know that chlorine reacts with organics in the water and produces trihalamethanes and haloacetic acids, which are both bad in large enough concentrations.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ We fluoridate and chlorinate our drinking water, both toxic, competing halides that will readily take over iodine's receptors in our bodies--but they don't do iodine's job!
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is readily reduced, with separation of iodine, by sulphur dioxide, hydriodic acid or sulphuretted hydrogen, thus: HIO 3 +5HI =3H 2 0 +31 2; 2H103+5502+4H20 =5H2S04+12; 2HIO 3 +5H 2 S =1 2 -1-5S +6H20.
.The salts, known as the iodates, can be prepared by the action of the acid on a base, or sometimes by the oxidation of iodine in the presence of a base.^ Taking preparations known to be rich in iodine.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine-based products should be avoided if there is known allergy/hypersensitivity to iodine.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral The primary function of iodine is to control the rate of cellular oxidation through its presence in the biosynthesis of iodated thyroid hormone.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

They are mostly insoluble or only very slightly soluble in water. The iodates of the alkali metals are, however, readily soluble in water (except potassium iodate). .They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.^ Question for thought.....I wonder how much money we would save if we treated water with iodine instead of chlorine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Chronic intake of mercury for more than ninety days results in signs of mercury poisoning, together with decreased uptake of iodine and depression of thyroid hormonal secretion.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what they really converged on was the kelp, which as has been said contains more iodine than anything else that grows.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are decomposed on heating, with liberation of oxygen, in some cases leaving a residue of iodide and in others a residue of oxide of the metal, with liberation of iodine as well as of oxygen.^ Main adverse effects Endocrine system effects Iodine and iodides produce goitre, hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organically bound iodide compounds are undecoylium chloride, diiodo hydroxyquin, tetraglycine hydroperiodide (60% iodine).
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In another case a person may have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and yes, iodine did help some, but tyrosine is also needed so that the body can utilize the iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Periodic Acid, H10 4.2H 2 0, is only known in the hydrated form. .It can be prepared by the action of iodine on perchloric acid, or by boiling normal silver periodate with water: 2AgIO 4 +4H 2 O = Ag 2 H 3 10 6 +H10 4.2H 2 0. It is a colourless, crystalline, deliquescent solid which melts at 135° C., and at 140° C. is completely decomposed into iodine pentoxide, water and oxygen.^ Iodine destroys bacteria, viruses and cysts, and its action is dependent on its concentration, the water temperature and duration of contact.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The iodine swings into action the body mechanism which organizes the body for peace and quiet and the building up and storing of body reserves.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For individual use, tincture of iodine 3-10 drops per quart of water has been used, with 15 minutes for anti-microbial effects to occur.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.The periodates are a very complex class of salts, and may be divided into four classes, namely, meta-periodates derived from the acid H104; mesoperiodates from H10 4 H 2 0, para-periodates from H10 4.2H 2 0 and the diperiodates from 2H10 4 H 2 0 (see C. Kimmins, Jour.^ The station was divided into four compartments, roofed over to protect them from rain.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Soc.,
1887, 51, p. 356).
.Iodine has extensive applications in volumetric analysis, being used more especially for the determination of copper.^ Iodine is not being used in it's effectiveness at this time.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ Dermal Topical iodine (especially with multiple applications) can be absorbed, causing toxic effects.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hmmmm.....i would imagine there are more adverse health effects using chlorine than there would be with iodine.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The atomic weight of iodine was determined by J. S. Stas, from the analysis of pure silver iodate, and by C. Marignac from the determinations of the ratios of silver to iodine, and of silver iodide to iodine; the mean value obtained for the atomic weight being 126.53. G. P. Baxter (Jour.^ Iodine is an element (atomic number 53), which is required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4).
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iodine is an element (atomic number 53) that is required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4).
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Likewise, bromine can displace iodine from the body because iodine has a higher atomic weight.
  • J.CROW'S®, The usefulness of Iodine, Lugol's Solution of Iodine, USP, Lugol's, Lugol's Iodine 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.jcrows.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amer. Chem. Soc.,
1904, 26, p. 1 577; 1905, 27, p. 876; 1909, 31, p. 201), using the method of Marignac, obtained the value 126.985 (0 =16). P. K6thner and E. Aeuer (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2 53 6; Ann., 1904, 337, p. 362), who converted pure ethyl iodide into hydriodic acid and subsequently into silver iodide, which they then analysed, obtained the value 126.026 (H =1); a discussion of this and other values gave as a mean 126.97 (0=16).
.In medicine iodine is frequently applied externally as a counterirritant, having powerful antiseptic properties.^ Remember that stopping thyroid medicine all together only applies to those who are hypothyroid due to iodine deficiency and only under drs orders.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.In the form of certain salts iodine is very widely used, for internal administration in medicine and in the treatment of many conditions usually classed as surgical, such as the bone manifestations of tertiary syphilis.^ Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States, due to enrichment of table salt and cattle feed with iodine.
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Notably, the treatment of goiter usually involves administration of thyroid hormone, most commonly levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid®, Levoxyl®, Levothroid®).
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those with a history of thyroid disease or iodine allergy, the pregnant and the very young may be advised against using iodine for water purification.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most commonly used salt is the iodide of potassium; the iodides of sodium and ammonium are almost as frequently employed, and those of calcium and strontium are in occasional use.^ Potassium iodide has been used as a mucolytic agent.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium iodide should be used cautiously in those with renal failure.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium iodide should be used cautiously in those with gastrointestinal obstruction.
  • Iodine: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Iodine - Drugs & Treatments - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

The usual doses of these salts are from five to thirty grains or more. Their pharmacological action is as obscure as their effects in certain diseased conditions are consistently brilliant and unexampled. .Our ignorance of their mode of action is cloaked by the term deobstruent, which implies that they possess the power of driving out ilnpurkies fronn the blood and tissues.^ If long term chromium deficiency is there, it leads to a blood sugar problem and causes the calcium to be many times more soluble in blood leading to calcium accumulation of healthy tissue.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most notably is this the case with the poisonous products of syphilis. .In its tertiary stages - and also earlier - this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides; so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumour be syphilitic or not.^ The correct statement for the type of iodine present in seaweed is "inorganic iodine," meaning a compound of iodine that does not contain a carbon molecule(s), such as potassium iodide or sodium iodide (both salts of iodine).
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important of these is probably as its role as the body's best antioxidant (anti-peroxidant).

^ Much research is presently being conducted on the functions of these two minerals in thyroid function and it is becoming clear that there is an interaction between the two.

.No surgeon would think of operating on such a case until iodides had been freely administered and, by failing to cure, had proved the disease to be non-syphilitic.^ Iodine or iodides should not be administered to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to such compounds.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It doesn't work that way because I have seen too many cases of people who thinks one supplement will do it, as in MMS, or colloidal silver, but that is rarely the case to get a cure.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also don't think potassium iodide would be my choice for long term use if only a small amount is needed, as is usually the case.
  • Iodine - Complementary Medicine - MedHelp 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.Another instance of this deobstruent power - "alterative," it was formerly termed - is seen in the case of chronic lead poisoning.^ In another case a person may have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and yes, iodine did help some, but tyrosine is also needed so that the body can utilize the iodine.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.^ If long term chromium deficiency is there, it leads to a blood sugar problem and causes the calcium to be many times more soluble in blood leading to calcium accumulation of healthy tissue.
  • Iodine Cures: ailments from a-z healed with iodine, Lugol's iodine, kelp or iodine supplements. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under this condition, normal adrenal hormone response may become inadequate, leading to an inadequate immune function.
  • The Thyroid Gland - Iodine Source - Your resource for detoxified iodine. 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.iodinesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine may also be employed as a weak solution for the first- aid treatment of small wounds and abrasions, but it is rapidly inactivated by combining with tissue substances, and so delays healing.
  • Iodine (PIM 280) 16 January 2010 18:18 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The following is a list of the principal conditions in which iodides are recognized to be of definite value: metallic poisonings, as by lead and mercury, asthma, aneurism, arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, gout, goitre, syphilis, haemophilia, Bright's disease (nephritis) and bronchitis.
Small quantities of the iodate (KIO 3) are a frequent impurity in iodide of potassium, and cause the congeries of symptoms known as iodism. These comprise dyspepsia, skin eruption and the manifestations which are usually identified with a "cold in the head." In many cases, as in syphilis, aneurism, lead poisoning, &c., the life of the patient depends on the free and continued use of the iodide, and this is best to be accomplished by securing an absolutely pure supply of the salt. Another often successful method of preventing the onset of symptoms of poisoning is to administer small doses of ammonium carbonate with the drug, thereby neutralizing the iodic acid which is liberated in the stomach.


Simple English

File:Iod
A large iodine crystal

Iodine is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 53, and its atomic mass is 127. It is part of the Group 7 (halogens) on the periodic table of elements. It is a nonmetal.

Contents

Properties

Physical properties

[[File:|thumb|Iodine vapor]] Iodine is a dark purple-black solid. It is also a nonmetal and a halogen. It evaporates when heated to make a bright purple vapor. This vapor is very irritating, although colorful. Iodine does not dissolve in water, but it does dissolve in a solution of an iodide in water. It dissolves easily in organic solvents.

Chemical properties

Iodine is at the bottom of the halogens and is the least reactive of the halogens. Iodine is an oxidizing agent, though not as strong as bromine or chlorine. It can be reduced to the colorless iodide ion. Iodine reacts with hydrogen sulfide or hydrazine to make hydriodic acid. Iodine dissolves in oleum to make a bright blue solution of I2+ and sulfur dioxide. This cation is also made when iodine reacts with antimony pentafluoride.

Iodine reacts with bases to make hypoiodite and iodide. The hypoiodite disproportionates to iodate and iodide. Iodine reacts with nitric acid and chlorates to make iodates, too. Iodine reacts violently with some metals like aluminium to make large amounts of heat and toxic vapors.

Chemical compounds

Iodine forms chemical compounds in several oxidation states: -1, +1, +3, +5, and +7. This is typical of the halogens except for fluorine. -1 compounds as iodides are the most common. Most organic iodine compounds are in the -1 oxidation state. +1 compounds are found as iodine monochloride and hypoiodites. +3 compounds are found as iodine trichloride. +5 compounds are found as iodates and iodic acid. Iodine pentafluoride and iodine pentoxide are iodine compounds in the +5 state. +7 compounds are normally found as periodates and periodic acid. Iodine heptafluoride is also in the +7 oxidation state.

Potassium iodide is one of the most common iodides. Iodides are normally colorless but turn yellow after being in air because the iodide is oxidized to iodine. Iodides react with acidified manganese dioxide or chlorine to make iodine. Iodine monochloride is a red or brown liquid. Iodine trichloride, as well as iodine trifluoride, are yellow solids. Iodates like potassium iodate are colorless solids similar to chlorates. Iodic acid is the only stable oxidizing halogen acid. Chloric acid, by comparison, is very unstable and dangerous. Iodine pentoxide is a white solid, and iodine pentafluoride is a yellowish liquid. Periodates, like sodium periodate, are colorless solids similar to perchlorates, although weaker oxidizing agents. They decompose to iodates when they are heated. Periodic acid is not as stable as iodic acid. Iodine heptafluoride is the only iodine(VII) compound.

History

It was discovered by Barnard Courtois in 1811. He burned seaweed to get sodium carbonate and reacted the residue with sulfuric acid. One time, he poured too much sulfuric acid on the seaweed and purple vapor came out which made dark blue-black crystals on a cold surface. He did not have enough money to see whether it was a new element or not. He gave samples to several chemists, who identified it as an element in 1813.

Occurrence

Iodine is too reactive to be in nature as an element. Iodine compounds are not common in the ground. There is a mineral called caliche that is found in dry deserts. It has iodate in it. Iodide is found in seawater. Kelp has quite large amounts of iodine in it. Iodine is one of the heaviest elements needed by living things. If we do not get enough of it, we get a disease known as goitre. Most salt has iodine in it, in the form of iodide or iodate. We can also take iodine pills to make sure we get enough.

Preparation

Kelp was burned and the iodine extracted from the ashes in the 18th and 19th century, but now it is not good enough for common use. Most iodine now is gotten from seawater. Chlorine is reacted with seawater to change the iodide to iodine. Air is blown over the water to evaporate the iodine. Then the iodine is reduced with sulfur dioxide to hydriodic acid. Then the hydriodic acid is oxidized with chlorine again to make iodine. This process is repeated until the iodine is pure.

A very pure form of iodine is made by reacting copper sulfate and potassium iodide. This makes copper(II) iodide which is not stable. It breaks down into copper(I) iodide and iodine, which is pure.

Uses

Iodine is used as a catalyst for making acetic acid. Animal feed also has iodine in it for nutrition. Iodine is used for a disinfectant. Tincture of iodine is a common iodine disinfectant. Iodine can be used to prevent thyroid cancer after a nuclear explosion. After a nuclear explosion, radioactive iodine fills the air. The radioactive iodine easily goes into the thyroid and causes cancer. When people take iodine tablets, it fills up the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine which prevents any radioactive iodine from coming in.

Iodine compounds can be used in X-rays because X-rays cannot go through them easily. Some metals are purified using their iodides. Silver iodide is used in photographic film and cloud seeding. Erythrosine is a food coloring that has iodine in it. Iodine can be used to make illegal drugs so it is restricted in some areas. Iodine can be used as a test for reducing agents. Iodine turns colorless when mixed with a reducing agent. Iodine also turns black when mixed with starch. Iodides become colored when mixed with oxidizing agents.

Safety

Iodine can irritate skin. Its vapors are irritating to the lungs. It is less toxic than the other halogens, though. 2-3 grams of iodine can kill. Iodides are only toxic in large amounts.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

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