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State of Iowa
Flag of Iowa State seal of Iowa
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Hawkeye State (official), The Tall Corn State[1]
Motto(s): Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain.
before statehood, known as
the Iowa Territory
Map of the United States with Iowa highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Iowan
Capital Des Moines
Largest city Des Moines
Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area
Area  Ranked 26th in the US
 - Total 56,272 sq mi
(145,743 km2)
 - Width 310 miles (500 km)
 - Length 199 miles (320 km)
 - % water 0.71
 - Latitude 40° 23′ N to 43° 30′ N
 - Longitude 90° 8′ W to 96° 38′ W
Population  Ranked 30th in the US
 - Total 3,007,856 (2009 est.)[2]
 - Density 53.5/sq mi  (20.7/km2)
Ranked 35th in the US
 - Median income  $48,075 (24th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Hawkeye Point[3]
1,670 ft  (509 m)
 - Mean 1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[3] at Keokuk
480 ft  (146 m)
Admission to Union  December 28, 1846 (29th)
Governor Chet Culver (D)
Lieutenant Governor Patty Judge (D)
U.S. Senators Chuck Grassley (R)
Tom Harkin (D)
U.S. House delegation 3 Democrats, 2 Republicans (list)
Time zone Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations IA US-IA
Website http://www.iowa.gov
Iowa (Listeni /ˈəwə/) is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States, an area often referred to as the "American Heartland." It derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many American Indian tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration.[4] Iowa was a part of the French colony of New France. After the Louisiana Purchase, settlers laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt.[5] Iowa is often known as the "Food Basket of the World",[6] but Iowa’s economy, culture, and landscape are diverse. In the mid and late 20th century, Iowa’s agricultural economy transitioned to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, processing, financial services, biotechnology, and green energy production.[6][7] Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live[8]. Des Moines is Iowa's capital and largest city.

Contents

Geography

Boundaries

Topography of Iowa, with counties and major streams.
Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east; the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west; the northern boundary is a line along 43 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude.[9][note 1] The southern border is the Des Moines River and a line along approximately 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa[10] after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War.[11] Iowa has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two. The state capital, Des Moines, is located in Polk County.

Geology and terrain

Iowa's bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa Cretaceous bedrock is ca. 74 million years old, in eastern Iowa Cambrian bedrock dates to ca. 500 million years ago.[12]
Despite popular perception, Iowa is generally not flat; most of the state consists of rolling hills. Prior[13] divides Iowa into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick.[14] In the northeast, along the Mississippi River, is a section of the Driftless Zone, which in Iowa consists of steep hills and valleys which appear almost mountainous.
There are several natural lakes in the state, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa (see Iowa Great Lakes). To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa,[15] Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The northwest part of the state also contains a considerable number of remnants of the once common wetland areas such as Barringer Slough.

Ecology and environment

Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in floodplains and protected river valleys, and pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas.[16] Most of Iowa is used for agriculture, crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands (mostly pasture and hay with some prairie and wetland) cover 30%, and forests cover 7%; urban areas and water cover another 1% each.[17] The explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased risk of rural water contamination and a perceived decline in air quality.[18] Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants,[19] fertilizer and pesticide runoff from crop production,[20] and diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer.[21]
There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; less than 1% of the tallgrass prairie that once covered most of Iowa remain intact, only about 5% of the state's prairie pothole wetlands remain, and most of the original forest has been lost.[22] Iowa ranks 49th of U.S. states in public land holdings.[23] Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the Bald Eagle, Interior Least Tern, Piping Plover, Indiana Bat, Pallid Sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene Land Snail, Higgins' Eye Pearly Mussel, and the Topeka Shiner.[24] Endangered or threatened plants include Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid, Mead's Milkweed, Prairie Bush Clover, and Northern Wild Monkshood.[25]

Climate

Iowa annual rainfall, in inches.
Iowa, like most of the Midwest, has a humid continental climate throughout the state (Koppen climate classification Dfa) with extremes of both heat and cold. The average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F (10 °C); for some locations in the north the figure is under 45 °F (7 °C), while Keokuk, on the Mississippi River, averages 52 °F (11 °C). Winters are brisk and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year.[26] Tornadoes are common during the spring and summer months, with an average of 37 tornadoes in a single year.[27] In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and also the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, which matched the total from 2001.[28] Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures often near 90 °F (32 °C) and sometimes exceeding 100 °F (38 °C). Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing, even dropping below 0 °F (−18 °C).
Iowa has a relatively smooth gradient of varying precipitation across the state, with areas in the southeast of the state receiving an average of over 38 inches of rain annually, and the northwest of the state receiving less than 28 inches.[29] The pattern of precipitation across Iowa is seasonal, with more rain falling in the summer months. In Des Moines, roughly in the center of the state, over two-thirds of the 34.72 inches of rain fall from April through September, and about half of the average annual precipitation falls from May through August.[30]
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Iowa Cities (°F)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Davenport[31] 30/13 36/19 48/29 61/41 72/52 81/63 85/68 83/66 76/57 65/45 48/32 35/20
Des Moines 29/12 35/18 48/29 61/40 72/51 82/61 86/66 84/64 76/54 64/42 47/29 33/17
Dubuque 25/9 31/15 43/26 57/38 69/49 79/58 82/62 80/60 72/52 60/40 44/28 30/15
Sioux City 29/8 35/15 47/26 62/37 73/49 82/58 86/63 84/61 76/50 64/38 45/25 32/13
Waterloo 26/6 32/13 45/25 60/36 72/48 82/58 85/62 83/60 75/50 62/38 45/25 31/12
[1]

Prehistory

Excavation of the 3,800 year old Edgewater Park Site.
When American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene glacial landscape. By the time European explorers visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems. This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period (10,500-2,800 years ago), American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased. More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa began utilizing domesticated plants. The subsequent Woodland period saw an increased reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period (beginning about A.D. 900) increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements. The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. There were numerous Indian tribes living in Iowa at the time of early European exploration. Tribes which were probably descendants of the prehistoric Oneota include the Dakota, Ho-Chunk, Ioway, and Otoe. Tribes which arrived in Iowa in the late prehistoric or protohistoric periods include the Illiniwek, Meskwaki, Omaha, and Sauk.[32]

History

Early exploration and trade, 1673-1808

Iowa in 1718. Modern state area highlighted.
The first known European explorers to document Iowa were Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet who traveled the Mississippi River in 1673 documenting several Indian villages on the Iowa side.[33][34] The area of Iowa was claimed for France and remained a French territory until 1763. The French, prior to their impending defeat in the French and Indian War, transferred ownership to their ally, Spain.."[35] Spain practiced very loose control over the Iowa region, granting trading licenses to French and British traders, who established trading posts along the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers.[33] Iowa was part of a territory known as La Louisiane or Louisiana, and European traders were interested in lead and furs obtained by Indians. The Sauk and Meskwaki effectively controlled trade on the Mississippi in the late 18th and early 19th century. Among the early traders on the Mississippi were Julien Dubuque, Robert La Salle, and Paul Marin.[33] Along the Missouri River at least five French and English trading houses were built prior to 1808.[36] In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte took control of Louisiana from Spain in a treaty. After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Iowa was placed under United States control. Much of Iowa was mapped by Zebulon Pike in 1805,[37] but it was not until the construction of Fort Madison in 1808 that the U.S. established tenuous military control over the region.[38]

War of 1812 and unstable U.S. control

Plan of Fort Madison, 1810.
Fort Madison was built to control trade and establish U.S. dominance over the Upper Mississippi, but it was poorly designed and disliked by the Sauk and Ho-Chunk, many of whom allied with the British, who had not abandoned claims to the territory.[38][39] Fort Madison was defeated by British-supported Indians in 1813 during the War of 1812, and Fort Shelby in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, also fell to the British. Black Hawk took part in the siege of Fort Madison.[40][41] After the war, the U.S. reestablished control of the region through the construction of Fort Armstrong, Fort Snelling in Minnesota, and Fort Atkinson in Nebraska.[42]

Trade and Indian removal, 1814-1832

The U.S. encouraged settlement of the east side of the Mississippi and removal of Indians to the west. Trade continued in furs and lead, but disease and forced population movement decimated Indian cultures and economies. A disputed 1804 treaty between Quashquame and William Henry Harrison that surrendered much of Illinois to the U.S. enraged many Sauk and led to the 1832 Black Hawk War. As punishment for the uprising, and as part of a larger settlement strategy, treaties were subsequently designed to remove all Indians from Iowa. The Sauk and Meskwaki were pushed out of the Mississippi valley in 1832, out of the Iowa River valley in 1843, and out of Iowa altogether in 1846, although many Meskwaki clandestinely returned, founding the Meskwaki Settlement that remains to this day. The Ho-Chunk were removed in 1850, and the Dakota were removed by the late 1850s. Western Iowa around modern Council Bluffs was used as a way station for other tribes being moved west, including the Potawatomi.

U.S. settlement and statehood, 1832-1860

The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa in June 1833.[43] Primarily, they were families from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia.[43] On July 4, 1838, the U.S. Congress established the Territory of Iowa. President Martin Van Buren appointed Robert Lucas governor of the territory, which at the time had 22 counties and a population of 23,242.[44]
Almost immediately after achieving territorial status, a clamor arose for statehood. On December 28, 1846, Iowa became the 29th state in the Union when President James K. Polk signed Iowa's admission bill into law. Once admitted to the Union, the state's boundary issues resolved, and most of its land purchased from the Indians, Iowa set its direction to development and organized campaigns for settlers and investors, boasting the young frontier state's rich farmlands, fine citizens, free and open society, and good government.[45]

Civil War, 1861-1865

Iowa supported the Union during the Civil War, voting heavily for Abraham Lincoln, though there was a strong antiwar "Copperhead" movement among settlers of southern origins and among Catholics. There were no battles in the state, but Iowa sent large supplies of food to the armies and the eastern cities. Much of Iowa’s support for the Union can be attributed to Samuel J. Kirkwood, its wartime governor. Of a total population of 675,000, about 116,000 men were subjected to military duty. Iowa contributed proportionately more men to Civil War military service than did any other state, north or south, sending more than 75,000 volunteers to the armed forces, over one-sixth of whom were in their graves before Appomattox.[46]
Most fought in the great campaigns in the Mississippi Valley and in the South.[47] Iowa troops fought at Wilson's Creek in Missouri, Pea Ridge in Arkansas, Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Rossville Gap as well as Vicksburg, Iuka, and Corinth. They served with the Army of the Potomoc in Virginia and fought under Union General Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. Many died and were buried at Andersonville. They marched on General Nathaniel Banks' ill-starred expedition to the Red River. Twenty-seven Iowans have been awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government, which was first awarded in the Civil War.[48]
Iowa had several brigadier generals and four major generals—Grenville Mellen Dodge, Samuel R. Curtis, Francis J. Herron, and Frederick Steele—and saw many of its generals go on to state and national prominence following the war.[46]

Agricultural expansion, 1865-1930

Iowa farm, 1875.
Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. The introduction of railroads in the 1850s and 1860s transformed Iowa into a major agricultural producer. In 1917, the United States entered World War I and farmers as well as all Iowans experienced a wartime economy. For farmers, the change was significant. Since the beginning of the war in 1914, Iowa farmers had experienced economic prosperity. In the economic sector, Iowa also has undergone considerable change. Beginning with the first farm-related industries developed in the 1870s, Iowa has experienced a gradual increase in the number of business and manufacturing operations.

Depression, World War II, and the rise of manufacturing, 1930-1985

The transition from an agricultural economy to a mixed economy happened slowly. The Great Depression and World War II accelerated the shift away from smallholder farming to larger farms, and began a trend of urbanization that continues. The period since World War II has witnessed a particular increase in manufacturing operations. While agriculture continued to be the state's dominant industry, Iowans also produce a wide variety of products including refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, and food products. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s caused a major recession in Iowa, causing poverty not seen since the Depression.[49] The crisis spurred a major population decline in Iowa that lasted a decade.[50]

Reemergence as a mixed economy, 1985-present

After bottoming out in the 1980s, Iowa’s economy began to become increasingly less dependent on agriculture, and now has a mix of manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services.[51] The population of Iowa has increased at a faster rate than the U.S. as a whole,[50] and Iowa now has a predominantly urban population.[52]

Demographics

List of Largest Cities

Iowa's fifteen largest cities, based on 2008 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, are:[53] [54]
  1. Des Moines - 197,052
  2. Cedar Rapids - 128,056
  3. Davenport - 100,827
  4. Sioux City - 82,807
  5. Iowa City - 67,831
  6. Waterloo - 66,662
  7. Council Bluffs - 59,536
  8. Dubuque - 57,250
  9. Ames - 56,510
  10. West Des Moines - 55,426
  11. Ankeny - 42,287
  12. Urbandale - 38,369
  13. Cedar Falls - 38,059
  14. Marion - 32,821
  15. Bettendorf - 32,445

Population

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1840 43,112
1850 192,214 345.8%
1860 674,913 251.1%
1870 1,194,020 76.9%
1880 1,624,615 36.1%
1890 1,912,297 17.7%
1900 2,231,853 16.7%
1910 2,224,771 −0.3%
1920 2,404,021 8.1%
1930 2,470,939 2.8%
1940 2,538,268 2.7%
1950 2,621,073 3.3%
1960 2,757,537 5.2%
1970 2,824,376 2.4%
1980 2,913,808 3.2%
1990 2,776,755 −4.7%
2000 2,926,324 5.4%
Est. 2009[2] 3,007,856 2.8%
Iowa Population Density Map
As of 2008, Iowa has an estimated population of 3,002,555, which is an increase of about 19,000 or 0.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 76,000 or 2.6%, since the year 2000. This is the first time the state has topped the three million mark in population.[55] In 2007, the latest demographic information available shows that the state had a natural increase of 53,706 people in population from the last census (that is 197,163 births minus 143,457 deaths) and a decrease of 11,754 due to net migration of people out of the state.
Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 29,386 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 41,140 people. 6.1% of Iowa's population were reported as under the age of five, 22.6% under 18, and 14.7% were 65 or older. Males made up approximately 49.2% of the population.[56] The population density of the state is 52.7 people per square mile.[57] The center of population of Iowa is located in Marshall County, in the city of Marshalltown.[58]

Race and ancestry

Demographics of Iowa (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 96.14% 2.51% 0.63% 1.48% 0.08%
2000 (Hispanic only) 2.68% 0.08% 0.08% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 95.79% 2.79% 0.61% 1.67% 0.08%
2005 (Hispanic only) 3.48% 0.13% 0.09% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 1.01% 12.55% -2.70% 14.41% 1.01%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.12% 11.13% -5.68% 14.14% 0.05%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 31.91% 53.85% 19.33% 29.51% 7.14%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Iowa's population included about 97,000 foreign-born (3.3%).[56] Iowans are mostly of Western European descent. The five largest ancestry groups in Iowa are: German (35.7%), Irish (13.5%), English (9.5%), American (6.6%), and Norwegian (5.7%).
The racial make up of the state is 91.0% White (non-Hispanic), 3.8% Hispanic, 2.5% Black or African American, 1.6% Asian, and 0.4% American Indian. One percent of respondents report two or more races.[56]

Rural to urban population shift

Percent population changes by counties in Iowa, 2000-2008. Purple counties have gains of more than 5%.[59]
Population age comparison between rural Pocahontas County and urban Polk County, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa.[60]
Iowa's population is more urban than rural, with 61 percent living in urban areas in 2000, a trend that began in the early 20th century.[52] Urban counties in Iowa grew 8.5% from 2000 to 2008, while rural counties declined by 4.2%.[61] The shift from rural to urban has caused population increases in more urbanized counties such as Dallas, Johnson, Linn, and Polk, at the expense of more rural counties.[62]
Iowa, in common with other Midwestern states (especially Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), is feeling the brunt of rural flight, although Iowa has been gaining population since approximately 1990. Some smaller communities, such as Denison and Storm Lake, have mitigated this population loss through gains in immigrant laborers.[63]

Religion

Amana Colonies, founded by German Pietists.
A 2001 survey from the City University of New York found that 52% of Iowans are Protestant, while 23% are Roman Catholic, and other religions made up 6%. 13% responded with non-religious, and 5% did not answer.[64] The largest Protestant denominations by number of adherents are the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 268,543; and the United Methodist Church with 248,211.[65]
The study Religious Congregations & Membership: 2000 [66] found that in the southernmost two tiers of Iowa counties and in other counties in the center of the state, the largest religious group was the United Methodist Church; in the northeast part of the state, including Dubuque and Linn counties (where Cedar Rapids is located), the Roman Catholic Church was the largest; and in ten counties, including three in the northern tier, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America was the largest. The study also found rapid growth in Evangelical Christian denominations.
Historically, religious sects and orders who desired to live apart from the rest of society established themselves in Iowa, such as the Amish and Mennonite near Kalona and in other parts of eastern Iowa such as Davis County and Buchanan County.[67] Other religious sects and orders living apart include Quakers around West Branch and Le Grand, German Pietists who founded the Amana Colonies, followers of Transcendental Meditation who founded Maharishi Vedic City, and Cistercian monks and nuns at the New Melleray and Our Lady of the Mississippi Abbies near Dubuque.

Linguistic regions

William Labov and colleagues, in the monumental Atlas of North American English[68] found that the English spoken in Iowa divides into two large linguistic regions. Natives of northern Iowa — including Sioux City, Fort Dodge, and the Waterloo region — tend to speak the dialect that linguists call North Central American English, which is also found in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Natives of central and southern Iowa — including such cities as Council Bluffs, Des Moines, and Iowa City — tend to speak the "North Midlands" dialect also found in Nebraska, central Illinois, and northern Indiana.[69]

Culture

Central Iowa

Skyline of Des Moines, Iowa's capital and largest city.
Des Moines is the largest city in Iowa and the state's political, economic, and cultural center. It is home to the state government, the State of Iowa Historical Museum, Science Center of Iowa and Blank IMAX Dome Theater, Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines Botanical Center, and various cultural events and attractions, including the annual Iowa State Fair, Drake Relays, World Food Festival, and the Des Moines Arts Festival. Adventureland is an amusement park located in Altoona just northeast of Des Moines, Living History Farms is located in Urbandale, and the Iowa Speedway is located in Newton, east of Des Moines. Terrace Hill is located in Des Moines and is the official residence of the governor.
Ames is the home of Iowa State University, the Iowa State Center, Brunnier Art Gallery, Reiman Gardens, and the Christian Petersen Art Gallery. The Meskwaki Settlement west of Tama is the only American Indian settlement in Iowa and is host to a large annual Pow-wow. The Clint Eastwood movie The Bridges of Madison County took place and was filmed in Madison County. The John Wayne Birthplace Museum is in Winterset. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Indianola, Pella, Knoxville, Perry, and Marshalltown.

Eastern Iowa

Old Capitol, Iowa City.
Iowa City prides itself on being a cultural destination, and is home to the University of Iowa and its famed Iowa Writers' Workshop, the Old Capitol building (Iowa's original state capitol), the Ped Mall, the Iowa City Englert Theatre, and the Landlocked Film Festival. Iowa City is the first U.S. "City of Literature" in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. The Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum are located in West Branch. They contain the birthplace and grave of former President Herbert Hoover along with his presidential museum. The Amana Colonies are a group of settlements of German Pietists comprising of seven villages which have been named an American cultural National Historic Landmark.
The Cedar Rapids Museum of Art has one of the most significant collections of paintings by Grant Wood and Marvin Cone. Cedar Rapids is also home to the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library and the historic Queen Anne-style Brucemore mansion. Davenport boasts several cultural attractions, including the new Figge Art Museum, River Music Experience, and Putnam Museum and IMAX Theater, Davenport Skybridge, and plays host to the annual Bix Beiderbecke Memorial Jazz Festival. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include West Liberty, Fairfield, Mount Pleasant, Fort Madison, Le Claire, Mount Vernon, Ottumwa, Washington, and Wilton.

Western Iowa

Some of the most dramatic scenery in Iowa is found in the west, home of the unique Loess Hills. The Iowa Great Lakes include several resort areas such as Spirit Lake, Arnolds Park, and the Okoboji Lakes. The Sanford Museum and Planetarium in Cherokee, Grotto of the Redemption in West Bend, Danish Immigrant Museum in Elk Horn, and the Fort Museum and Frontier Village in Fort Dodge are regional destinations. Sioux City considers itself to be the cultural capital of northwest Iowa and boasts a revitalized downtown and beautiful riverfront. The Missouri River city is home to the Sergeant Floyd Monument, Sergeant Floyd River Museum, Trinity Heights, and the restored Orpheum Theater.
Loess Hills east of Mondamin.
Council Bluffs, the major city of southwest Iowa, sits at the base of the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway and has become a gaming and entertainment destination. With three casino resorts, the city also includes such cultural attractions as the Western Hills Trails Center, Union Pacific Railroad Museum, historic General Dodge House, and a Lewis and Clark Monument and scenic overlook. Northwest Iowa is home to some of the largest concentrations of wind turbine farms in the world. Other western communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Storm Lake, Spencer, Le Mars, Glenwood, Carroll, Atlantic, Denison, Creston, Mount Ayr, Sac City, and Walnut.

Northeast and Northern Iowa

The Driftless Area of northeast Iowa has many steep hills and deep valleys, checked with forest and terraced fields. Effigy Mounds National Monument in Allamakee and Clayton Counties has the largest assemblage of animal-shaped prehistoric mounds in the world.
Ruins of historic Fort Atkinson.
Together, the largest cities in northern Iowa are the twin cities of Waterloo and Cedar Falls, home of the Grout Museum and the University of Northern Iowa, respectively.
Dubuque is transforming itself into a regional tourist destination with cultural features such as the National Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium, along with many of the other new businesses booming in the Port of Dubuque, like the Diamond Jo Casino. Much of the movie Field of Dreams was shot in Dyersville. Maquoketa Caves State Park is located in Jackson County, northwest of Maquoketa, which contains more caves than any other state park in Iowa. Fort Atkinson has the remains of an original 1840s Dragoon fortification. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Decorah, McGregor, Mason City, Elkader, Algona, Spillville, Charles City, and Independence.

Statewide

RAGBRAI — the Register's Annual Great Bike Ride Across Iowa — attracts thousands of bicyclists and support personnel. It has crossed the state on various routes each year since 1973. Iowa is home to more than 70 wineries,[70] and hosts five regional wine tasting trails.[71] Many Iowa communities hold farmers' markets during warmer months, these are typically weekly events, but larger cities can host multiple markets.[72]

Economy

Iowa state quarter with reverse image based on a painting by American artist Grant Wood
Iowa gross state products by industry, 2006.[73]
While Iowa is often viewed as a farming state, in reality agriculture is a small portion of a diversified economy, with manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services contributing substantially to Iowa's economy.[51] This economic diversity has helped Iowa weather the late 2000s recession better than most states, with unemployment substantially lower than the rest of the nation.[74][75]
If the economy is measured by gross domestic product, in 2005 Iowa's GDP was about US $124 billion.[76] If measured by gross state product, for 2005 it was US $113.5 billion.[77] Its per capita income for 2006 was US $23,340.[77]
On July 2, 2009, Standard and Poor's rated the state of Iowa's credit as AAA (the highest of its credit ratings, held by only 11 U.S. state governments).[78]

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the largest sector of Iowa's economy, with $20.8 billion (21%) of Iowa’s 2003 gross state product. Major manufacturing sectors include food processing, heavy machinery, and agricultural chemicals. Sixteen percent of Iowa’s workforce is dedicated to manufacturing.[51] Food processing is the largest component of manufacturing. Its industrial outputs include food processing, machinery, electric equipment, chemical products, publishing, and primary metals. Companies with direct or indirect processing facilities in Iowa include ConAgra Foods, Wells Blue Bunny, Barilla, Heinz, Wonder Bread/Hostess Snack Cakes, Tone’s Spices, General Mills, and Quaker Oats. Major non-food advanced manufacturing firms with production facilities in Iowa include 3M, ALCOA, Amana Corporation, Dexter Apache Holdings, Inc., Electrolux/Frigidaire, Emerson Process, Fisher Controls International, HON Industries, The HON Company, IPSCO Steel, John Deere, Lennox Manufacturing, Maytag Corporation, Pella Corporation, Rockwell Collins, Vermeer Company, and Winnebago Industries.

Agriculture

Harvesting corn in Jones County.
Ethanol plant under construction in Butler County.
Directly and indirectly, agriculture has always been a major component of Iowa's economy. However, the direct production and sale of raw agricultural products contributes only about 3.5% of Iowa's gross state product.[79] The indirect role of agriculture in Iowa's economy can be measured in multiple ways, but its total impact, including agriculture-affiliated business, has been measured at 16.4% in terms of value added and 24.3% in terms of total output. This is lower than the economic impact in Iowa of non-farm manufacturing, which accounts for 22.4% of total value added and 26.5% of total output.[80] Iowa's main agricultural outputs are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle, eggs, and dairy products. Iowa is the nation's largest producer of ethanol and corn and some years is the largest grower of soybeans as well. In 2008, the 92,600 farms in Iowa produced 19% of the nation's corn, 17% of the soybeans, 30% of the hogs, and 14% of the eggs.[81] Major Iowa agricultural product processors include Archer Daniels Midland, Ajinomoto, Cargill, Inc., Diamond V Mills, Garst Seed Company, Heartland Pork Enterprises, Hy-Vee, Monsanto Company, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, and Quaker Oats.[82]

Other sectors

Wind turbines near Williams.
Iowa also has a strong financial and insurance sector, with approximately 6,100 firms[51], including AEGON, Nationwide Group, Aviva USA, Farm Bureau Financial Services, ING, Marsh Affinity Group, MetLife, Principal Financial Group, Principal Capital Management, Wellmark Blue Cross & Blue Shield (which, according to the American Medical Association, provided 71% of the state's health insurance in 2007)[83], Wells Fargo, and Wells Fargo Financial Services. Biotechnology has expanded dramatically in Iowa in the past decade, with firms including Bio-Research Products Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim, Vetmedica, Diosynth, Inc., Fort Dodge Animal Health, Penford Products Co., Integrated DNA Technologies., Roche Applied Science, Wacker Biochem Corp., and Wyeth. In addition to ethanol, renewable energy has become a major economic force in western Iowa, with wind turbine electrical generation increasing exponentally since 1990.[7] As of 2008, wind accounted for 15% of energy produced and 7.1% of the state's power needs; Iowa ranked second in wind generating capacity of U.S. states.[84] Major producers of turbines and componets in Iowa include Acciona Energy of West Branch, TPI Composites of Newton, and Siemens Energy of Fort Madison.
Iowa is the headquarters for five of the top 1,000 companies for revenue.[85] They include Principal Financial, Rockwell Collins, Casey's General Stores, HNI, and Terra Industries. Iowa is also headquarters to other companies including Hy-Vee, Pella Corporation, Vermeer Company, Kum & Go gas stations, Von Maur, Pioneer Hi-Bred, McLeodUSA, and Fareway grocery stores.

Taxation

.Iowa imposes taxes on net state income of individuals and estates and trusts.^ State Sales Or Income Taxes .
  • State of Iowa Employee Directory: Online directory containing employees of the State of Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC phonebook.iowa.gov [Source type: Academic]

There are currently nine income tax brackets, ranging from 0.36% to 8.98%. The state sales tax rate is 6%, with non-prepared food having no tax.[86] Iowa has one local option sales tax that may be imposed by counties after an election.[87] Property tax is levied on the taxable value of real property. Iowa has more than 2,000 taxing authorities. .Most property is taxed by more than one taxing authority.^ He also has been said to walk around city hall, and former mayors have said they have seen them in their office on more than one occasion.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

The tax rate differs in each locality and is a composite of county, city or rural township, school district and special levies. Iowa allows its residents to deduct their federal income taxes from their state income taxes.[88]

Transportation

The current state license plate design, introduced in 1996.

Interstate highways

Iowa's major interstates, larger cities, and counties.
Iowa has four primary interstate highways. Interstate 29 runs along the western edge of the state through Council Bluffs and Sioux City. Interstate 35 goes from the southern border to the northern border through the center of the state, including Des Moines. Interstate 74 begins at Interstate 80 just north and east of Davenport. Interstate 80 goes from the west end of the state to the east end through Council Bluffs, Des Moines, Iowa City, and the Quad Cities. Interstate 380 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, which runs from Interstate 80 near Iowa City through Cedar Rapids ending in Waterloo and is part of the Avenue of the Saints highway.

Airports with scheduled flights

Railroads

Amtrak's California Zephyr serves the south of Iowa with stops at Burlington, Mount Pleasant, Ottumwa, Osceola, and Creston on its daily route between Chicago and Emeryville, California (across the bay from San Francisco). Burlington and Fort Madison are also served by Amtrak's Southwest Chief, running daily between Chicago and Los Angeles.

Law and government

Capitol in 2003 after regilding
See List of Governors of Iowa, Iowa General Assembly, and Iowa State Capitol
The current Governor is Chet Culver (D)
Other statewide elected officials are:
The two U.S. Senators:
The five U.S. Congressmen:
The Code of Iowa contains the statutory laws of the State of Iowa. It is periodically updated by the Iowa Legislative Service Bureau, with a new edition published in odd-numbered years and a supplement published in even-numbered years.
Iowa is an alcohol monopoly or Alcoholic beverage control state.

Political parties

Samuel J. Kirkwood, founder of the Iowa Republican Party, abolitionist, and Iowa's Civil War governor.
In Iowa, the term "political party" refers to political organizations which have received two percent or more of the votes cast for president or governor in the "last preceding general election".[89] Iowa recognizes two political parties - the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Third parties, officially termed "nonparty political organizations" can appear on the ballot as well - five of these have had candidates on the ballot in Iowa since 2004 for various positions: the Constitution Party, the Iowa Green Party, the Libertarian Party, the United States Pirate Party, and the Socialist Workers Party.[90][91]

Voter trends

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 44.74% 677,508 54.04% 818,240
2004 49.92% 751,957 49.28% 741,898
2000 48.22% 634,373 48.60% 638,517
1996 39.92% 492,644 50.31% 620,258
1992 37.33% 504,890 43.35% 586,353
1988 44.8% 545,355 55.1% 670,557
1984 53.32% 703,088 45.97% 605,620
Iowa is currently listed as a swing state in national politics. The state currently leans slightly Democratic, according to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, which by analyzing recent elections gives Iowa a score of D+1. However, the state is far from homogeneous in its political leanings; Cook finds that Iowa's five political districts range in political orientation. Iowa's 2nd congressional district, in the Eastern/Southeastern part of the state, leans distinctly Democratic, with a D+7 (strong Democratic) score; but Iowa's 5th congressional district, which covers most of Western Iowa, leans strongly Republican, scoring R+9.
From 1968 to 1984, Iowa voted for the Republican candidate in the presidential election, and from 1988 to 2000 the state voted for the Democrat; in the latter election, the Democratic candidate won by little more than 1000 votes. In the 2004 election, Iowa went by about 10,000 votes for George W. Bush but in 2008, Barack Obama won by a much larger margin of about 150,000 votes.
In the 2006 elections, the Iowa Democrats gained two seats in the Iowa delegation to the United States House of Representatives, and Democrats won a majority in both houses of the Iowa General Assembly.

Presidential caucus

The state gets considerable attention every four years because it holds the first presidential caucuses, gatherings of voters to select delegates to the state conventions. Along with the New Hampshire primary the following week, Iowa's caucuses have become the starting points for choosing the two major-party candidates for president. The caucuses, held in January of the election year, involve people gathering in homes or public places and choosing their candidates, rather than casting secret ballots as is done in a primary election. The national and international media give Iowa (and New Hampshire) much of the attention accorded the national candidate selection process, which gives Iowa voters enormous leverage. Those who enter the caucus race often expend enormous effort to reach voters in each of Iowa's 99 counties.

Civil rights

The Union Block building, Mount Pleasant, scene of early civil rights and women’s rights activities. Listed as one of the most endangered historic sites in Iowa.[92]
In the 19th century Iowa was among the earliest states to enact prohibitions against race discrimination, especially in education, but was slow to achieve full integration in the 20th century. In the very first decision of the Iowa Supreme CourtIn Re the Matter of Ralph,[93] decided July 1839 — the Court rejected slavery in a decision that found that a slave named Ralph became free when he stepped on Iowa soil, 26 years before the end of the Civil War.[94] The state did away with racial barriers to marriage in 1851, more than 100 years before the U.S. Supreme Court would ban miscegenation statutes nationwide.[95] The Iowa Supreme Court decided Clark v. The Board of Directors[96] in 1868, ruling that racially segregated “separate but equal” schools had no place in Iowa, 85 years before Brown v. Board of Education.[94] By 1875 a number of additional court rulings effectively ended segregation in Iowa schools.[97] Social and housing discrimination continued against Blacks at state universities until the 1950s.[98] The Court heard Coger v. The North Western Union Packet Co.[99] in 1873, ruling against racial discrimination in public accommodations 91 years before the U.S. Supreme Court reached the same decision.[94] In 1884, the Iowa Civil Rights Act apparently outlawed discrimination by businesses, reading: "All persons within this state shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, restaurants, chophouses, eating houses, lunch counters, and all other places where refreshments are served, public conveyances, barber shops, bathhouses, theaters, and all other places of amusement." However, the courts chose to narrowly apply this act, allowing de-facto discrimination to continue.[100] Racial discrimination at public businesses was not deemed illegal until 1949, when the court ruled in State of Iowa v. Katz that businesses had to serve customers regardless of race; the case began when Edna Griffin was denied service at a Des Moines drugstore.[101] Full racial civil rights were codified under the Iowa Civil Rights Act of 1965.[102]
As with racial equality, Iowa was a vanguard in women's rights in the mid 19th century, but was slow to give women the right to vote. In 1847, the University of Iowa became the first public university in the U.S. to admit men and women on an equal basis.[103] In 1869, Iowa became the first state in the union to admit women to the practice of law, with the Court ruling that women may not be denied the right to practice law in Iowa and admitting Arabella A. Mansfield to the practice of law.[94] Several attempts to grant full voting rights to Iowa women were defeated between 1870 and 1919. In 1894 women were given "partial suffrage", which allowed them to vote on issues, but not for candidates. It was not until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1920 that women had full suffrage in Iowa.[104] Although Iowa supported the Federal Equal Rights Amendment, in 1980 and 1992 Iowa voters rejected an Equal Rights Amendment to the state constitution.[105]
Post-Civil Rights era court decisions in Iowa clarified and expanded citizens' rights. The landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) confirmed the right of students to express political views. On April 3, 2009, the Iowa Supreme Court decided Varnum v. Brien,[106] holding in a unanimous decision,[107] that the state’s law forbidding same-sex marriage was unconstitutional. This makes Iowa the third state in the U.S. and first in the Midwest to permit same-sex marriage.[108] [109]

Sister states

Iowa has seven official partner states:[110]

Education

Primary and secondary schools

The graduation rate for high school seniors has gradually increased to 90.8% in 2006.[111] The state has the third highest graduation rate in the nation.[112] Iowa continually ranks in the top 3 for ACT and SAT scores.[113] In 2008, Iowa ranked top in the nation for average SAT scores per student and second in the nation for average ACT scores per student.[114] Iowa has 365 school districts,[113] and has the twelfth best student to teacher ratio of 13.8 students per teacher.[115] Teacher's pay, however, is ranked forty-second with the average salary being $39,284.[115]
The Iowa State Board of Education works with the Iowa Department of Education to provide oversight, supervision, and support for the state's education system that includes all public elementary and secondary schools, nonpublic schools that receive state accreditation, area education agencies, community colleges, and teacher preparation programs. The State Board consists of ten members: nine voting members who are appointed by the governor for six-year terms and subject to Senate confirmation; and one nonvoting student member who serves a one-year term, also appointed by the governor.

Colleges and universities

Fountain of Four Seasons and Campanile at Iowa State University in Ames.
The Iowa Board of Regents is composed of nine citizen volunteers appointed by the governor to provide policymaking, coordination, and oversight of the state's public universities, two special K-12 schools, and affiliated centers.
Iowa's three public universities include:
The special K-12 schools include the Iowa School for the Deaf in Council Bluffs and the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School in Vinton. Both Iowa State University and the University of Iowa are major research institutions and members of the prestigious Association of American Universities. In addition to the three state universities, Iowa has multiple private colleges and universities.
Private colleges and universities include:
Private liberal arts colleges include:

Sports

Iowa has professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, hockey, football and soccer. The state has four major college teams playing in Division I for all sports. In football, Iowa State University and the University of Iowa compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), whereas the University of Northern Iowa and Drake University compete in the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).

Baseball

Football

The Sioux City Bandits are an Indoor football team in the United Indoor Football League. The Quad City Steamwheelers are an af2 football team whose home games are played in Moline, Illinois. The Iowa Barnstormers resumed play after a seven season layoff in the af2 football league. They play their home games at Wells Fargo Arena.

Hockey

The Quad City Mallards games are played in Moline, Illinois are part of the International Hockey League.
The United States Hockey League has four teams in Iowa: the Cedar Rapids RoughRiders, Sioux City Musketeers, Waterloo Black Hawks, and Des Moines Buccaneers. The Omaha Lancers previously played in Council Bluffs from 2002 to 2009, but have since moved back to Omaha, Nebraska. The North Iowa Outlaws play in the North American Hockey League in Mason City

Basketball

Iowa has two professional basketball teams. The Iowa Energy, an NBA Development League team that plays in Des Moines, is affiliated with the Chicago Bulls and Phoenix Suns of the NBA. The Quad Cities Riverhawks of the Premier Basketball League are based in Davenport, but play at Wharton Field House in Moline, Illinois.

Soccer

The Des Moines Menace play their home games at Valley Stadium in West Des Moines.

College

The state has four NCAA Division I college teams—in NCAA FBS, the Iowa State University Cyclones of the Big 12 Conference and the University of Iowa Hawkeyes of the Big Ten Conference; in NCAA FCS, the University of Northern Iowa Panthers of the Missouri Valley Conference and Missouri Valley Football Conference (despite the similar names, the conferences are administratively separate) and the Drake University Bulldogs of the Missouri Valley Conference in most sports and Pioneer League for football.

Notable Iowans

President Herbert Hoover.
Vice President Henry Wallace.
Iowa has been the birthplace of U.S. President Herbert Hoover, Vice President Henry A. Wallace, and two first ladies, Lou Henry Hoover and Mamie Eisenhower. Other national leaders who lived in Iowa include John L. Lewis, Harry Hopkins, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Jefferson Davis.
Three Nobel Prize winners hail from Iowa: Norman Borlaug, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; Alan J. Heeger, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; and Stanley B. Prusiner, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Other notable scientists who worked or were born in Iowa include astronomer and space pioneer James A. Van Allen, ecologist Aldo Leopold, computer pioneer John Vincent Atanasoff, inventor and plant scientist George Washington Carver, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, and Intel founder Robert Noyce.
Notable writers, artists, and news personalities born in Iowa include Susan Glaspell, Jane Smiley, David Rabe, Bess Streeter Aldrich, Bill Bryson, George Gallup, Ann Landers, Harry Reasoner, Abigail Van Buren, and Grant Wood.

State symbols

Eastern Goldfinch, Iowa state bird.

See also

References

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  89. ^ "Forming a New Political Party in Iowa" (PDF). Elections Division, Iowa Secretary of State. http://www.sos.state.ia.us/pdfs/elections/FormingPoliticalParty.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  90. ^ "Official Results Report - Statewide: 2006 General Election" (PDF). Iowa Secretary of State. http://www.sos.state.ia.us/pdfs/GenOffResults.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  91. ^ "Canvass Summary: 2004 General Election" (PDF). Chester J. Culver, Iowa Secretary of State. http://www.sos.state.ia.us/pdfs/elections/2004/general/CanvassSummary.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  92. ^ Iowa Historic Preservation Alliance: Iowa’s Most Endangered Historic Sites, http://www.iowapreservation.org/endangered.php
  93. ^ 1 Morris 1 (Iowa 1839)
  94. ^ a b c d http://www.judicial.state.ia.us/Public_Information/Iowa_Courts_History/Civil_Rights/
  95. ^ Gay marriage and Iowa: Why's everyone so surprised?, Chicago Tribune, April 10, 2009
  96. ^ 24 Iowa 266 (1868)
  97. ^ Brodnax, David (2004). "The Equality of Right: Alexander Clark and the Desegregation of Iowa’s Public Schools, 1834-1875". Law and Society Association. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/1/7/4/2/p117420_index.html. 
  98. ^ Breaux, Richard M. (2004) "Maintaining a Home for Girls": The Iowa Federation of Colored Women's Clubs at the University of Iowa 1919-1950, Cultural Capital and Black Education ed. V.P. Franklin and C.J. Savage. Information Age, Greenwich
  99. ^ 37 Iowa 145 (1873)
  100. ^ Iowa Civil Rights Commission, http://www.iowa.gov/government/crc/docs/annual66activities.html
  101. ^ African-Americans in Iowa, 1838-2005, http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/myPath.cfm?ounid=ob_000238
  102. ^ Iowa Civil Rights Commission http://www.state.ia.us/government/crc/publications/brochures/english_brochure.html
  103. ^ About Iowa, http://www.uiowa.edu/homepage/about-UI/index.html
  104. ^ The Fight for Women's Suffrage, http://www.iptv.org/iowapathways/myPath.cfm?ounid=ob_000320
  105. ^ How Did Iowa Coalitions Campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment in 1980 and 1992? http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/iowaera/intro.htm
  106. ^ WL 874044 (Iowa 2009) (Publication to N.W.2d pending as of April 09, 2009.)
  107. ^ http://iowaindependent.com/13495/iowa-supreme-court-same-sex-couples-can-marry-in-iowa
  108. ^ http://hrcbackstory.org/2009/04/breaking-iowa-supreme-court-rules-in-favor-of-marriage-equality
  109. ^ USA Today, Iowa Court Upholds Gay Marriage
  110. ^ "Iowa Sister States". http://www.iowasisterstates.org/. 
  111. ^ "The State Report Card For No Child Left Behind". Iowa Department of Education. http://www.iowa.gov/educate/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=4184&Itemid=55. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  112. ^ "High School Graduation". United Health Foundation. http://www.unitedhealthfoundation.com/shr2005/components/hsgrad.html. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  113. ^ a b "Quick Facts about Iowa Schools". Iowa Department of Education. http://www.iowa.gov/educate/content/view/281/1003/. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  114. ^ "News Releases". Iowa Department of Education. http://www.iowa.gov/educate/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=430&dir=DESC&order=name&Itemid=99999999&limit=20&limitstart=20. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  115. ^ a b "Education Stats". National Education Association. http://www.nea.org/edstats/RankFull06b.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  116. ^ "Iowa State Nickname - The Hawkeye State". http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Iowa/nickname_hawkeye.html. Retrieved November 2, 2009. 
  117. ^ "State Nicknames". http://www.50states.com/bio/nickname2.htm. Retrieved November 2, 2009. 
  118. ^ a b c d e "Iowa General Assembly - Iowa State Symbols". www.legis.state.ia.us. http://www.legis.state.ia.us/Pubinfo/StateSymbols/. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  119. ^ "State Facts for Students - Iowa". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/schools/facts/iowa.html. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 

Notes

  1. ^ It should be noted that the Missouri and Mississippi river boundaries are as they were mapped in the 19th century, which can vary from their modern courses.

External links


Related information

Preceded by
Texas
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 28, 1846 (29th)
Succeeded by
Wisconsin

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Iowa [1], a state in the Midwest of the United States of America, was admitted to the Union in 1846 as the 29th state. The people are very friendly, enjoy good food, and enjoy being in the political hotbed every four years when the Caucuses roll through the state. The state is quite rural, with plenty of fields of corn and soybeans and hog farms, although some cities, such as Des Moines, have a strong metropolitan feel.
Eastern Iowa
Central Iowa
Western Iowa
Southwest Iowa
North Central Iowa
Northeast Iowa
Southeast Iowa
South Central Iowa

Talk

You should find Midwestern English quite easy to understand.

Get in

Most people enter (and leave) Iowa via Interstate 80 on their way towards points east or west of the state. I-80 will get you where you're going, but you won't see much. In fact, that highway has done more to perpetuate the myth that Iowa is "flat" than just about anything else. If you want to see the true face of the state, get off the interstate, ignore the fast-food signs, and find one of the small towns that make the Midwest so charming. State maps are available free of charge at state 'Welcome Centers' and rest areas. State maps list points of interest such as "Cedar Rock" (a rare Usonain example of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture) as well as scenic routes, often found on county roads.

Get around

Most people get around Iowa by car. Certain, more rural parts of Iowa - like much of the Midwest - are laid out on a grid pattern. Drive on any of the state's outer highways, and you will quickly come to realize that there is an intersection at every mile. This makes figuring out where you are and getting from there to where you need to be a relatively simple undertaking.
Travellers unaccustomed to ice and snow may have trouble driving in Iowa winters - plan ahead if you need to travel during the colder parts of the year.
  • RAGBRAI [2] (the Register's Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa). Cycling enthusiasts from across the nation descend on the state for this road bike event. Riders start in a different town each year. They take seven days to cross the state, dipping their wheels in the Missouri River on one side and the Mississippi River on the other.
  • State Fair [3] Iowa is host to the nation's largest state fair, renown for its music and cuisine. Many call it the best opportunity to get all of what Iowa has to offer.

Eat

Iowans still consider themselves the "breadbasket of the world," and their cuisine reflects this. Get ready for pork chops, corn-on-the-cob, casseroles, and more just-plain-good Midwestern cooking than you can possibly eat in a lifetime. Most rural towns have a fast-food restaurant or two if you absolutely have to have McDonald's, but the best places to eat are often found by chatting with the locals. Note that there are many fast food places in more urban parts of the state.
Towns with strong ethnic identities sometimes have restaurants devoted to a particular country's cuisine. Iowa has a substantial Latino population, and there are many family-run Mexican restaurants which generally have quite good food.
Iowa City is known for its wide variety of ethnic cuisine and finer dining.

Drink

Before Prohibition, Iowa had a healthy wine industry, which is growing once again. There are vineyards scattered throughout the state, each producing their own wines.
Bustling college towns of Cedar Falls, Ames and Iowa City provide the most avid nightlife in the state. Scores of young adults pack local bars and clubs Thursday through Saturday nights.

Stay safe

The rural parts of Iowa are quite safe, to such an extent that many people don't bother to lock their car doors. This is not a good plan in more metropolitan areas, however. You will find that most Iowans are friendly, warm, and happy to help you if you have trouble.
Iowa does have many tornadoes, though rarely severe. Check the Tornado safety page if you are visiting Iowa.

Respect

Iowa has been a historically progressive state. It is an unusually political state, owing in large part to its unusually large role in the presidential nomination process. While Iowans tend to welcome political discussion more than most, their usual friendliness does not allow for much hostile or particularly contentious debate. Feel free to ask Iowans about the caucuses, and don't hesitate to offer your own opinion about political matters, but be respectful.
  • Nebraska - Iowa's western neighbor has a rich agricultural heritage, offering visitors a glimpse into America's heartland.
  • South Dakota - Home to such natural and cultural wonders as Badlands National Park, Wind Cave National Park and Mount Rushmore, Iowa's neighbor to the northwest offers a surprising amount for travelers to see and do.
  • Minnesota - Known for cold winters and its ten thousand lakes, Iowa's northern neighbor is an ideal destination for wilderness enthusiasts.
  • Wisconsin - The Cheese State borders Iowa to the northeast.
  • Illinois - America's crossroads and home of Chicago, Illinois lies across Iowa's eastern border.
  • Missouri - The state's southern neighbor is home to St. Louis, the Gateway to the West.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

IOWA, a north central state of the United States, situated between latitudes 40° 36' and 43° 30' N. and between longitudes 89° 5' and 96° 31' W. It is bounded N. by Minnesota, E. by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, S. by Missouri, and W. by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, which separate it from Nebraska and South Dakota. Its total area is 56,147 sq. m., of which 561 sq. m. are water surface. Physical Features. - Topographically, Iowa lies wholly in the Prairie Plains Region, part of it having been overrun by the Great Ice Sheet of the Glacial epoch. For the most part the surface is that of a prairie tableland, moderately rolling, and with a general but scarcely perceptible slope, which in the eastern two-thirds is from N.W. to S.E., and in the western third from N.E. to S.W. Elevations above the sea range from between 1200 to 1675 ft. in the N.W. to 500 ft. and less in the S.E., the highest point being in the vicinity of Spirit lake in Dickinson county, the lowest at Keokuk. In the southern half of the state the height of the crests of the divides is very uniform. The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation. But the most marked departures from the prairie surface are in the N.E. and S.W. In the N.E. the whole of Allamakee and parts of Winneshiek, Fayette, Clayton, Delaware, Dubuque and Jackson counties form the only driftless area of the state; in that section cliffs frequently rise almost vertically from the banks of a river to a height of from 300 to 400 ft., and from the summit of the cliff to the crest of the divide, a few miles distant, there is another ascent of 300 ft. or more terminating occasionally in knob-topped hills crowned in many instances with small cedar. Moreover, the largest streams have numerous tributaries, and nearly all alike flow circuitously between steep if not vertical cliffs or in deep craggy ravines overlooked by distant hills, among which the wagon road has wound its way with difficulty. In the W., S. from the mouth of the Big Sioux river, extends a line of mound-like bluffs usually free from rocks, but rising abruptly from the flood plain of the Missouri to a height varying from TOO to 300 ft, A broad water-parting extending from Spirit lake, on the northern border, nearly S. to within 60 m. of the southern border, and thence S.E. to Wayne county in the south central part of Iowa, divides the state into two drainage systems. That to the E., comprising about two-thirds of the whole area, is drained by tributaries of the Mississippi, of which the Des Moines, the Skunk, the Iowa with its tributary the Cedar, and the Wapsipinicon are the largest, streams of long courses and easy fall over beds frequently pebbly in the N. but muddy in the S., and through valleys broad at their sources, well drained, and gently sloping in the middle of their courses, but becoming narrower and deeper towards their mouths; that to the W. is drained by tributaries of the Missouri, mostly short streams taking their rise from numerous rivulets, flowing quite rapidly over muddy beds through much of their courses, and in the bluff belt along the Missouri having steep but grassy banks 200 ft. in height or more. (For geological details, see United States, section Geology, ad fin.) Flora and Fauna. - The predominant feature of the flora is the grasses of the prairie. The former forests of the state were of two general classes: on the bottom lands along the rivers grew cottonwood, willow, honey-locust, coffee trees, black ash, and elm; on the less heavily wooded uplands were oaks (white, red, yellow and bur), hickory (bitternut and pignut), white and green ash, butternut, ironwood and hackberry. The growth was heavier, however, in the E. than in the W., but, it has been estimated, covered in all about one-fifth of the area of the state at the time of its first settlement by the whites. In the N.E., also, small cedar and pine are found. But everywhere now most of the merchantable timber has been cut; in 1900 it was estimated that there were altogether about 7000 sq. m. of woodland in the state. The bison and elk long ago disappeared, but black bear and deer are found in the unsettled part of the state. Ducks, geese and other water birds are common, especially during their migrations.
Table of contents

Climate

The climate is one of great extremes of heat and cold, with a dry winter and a usually wet summer, the prevailing wind of winter being N.W. while in summer it not infrequently blows from the S.W. Both the midwinter isotherm of Montreal and the midsummer one of Washington, D.C., pass through the state. The mean annual temperature is 47.5° F.; the average range of extremes per year during the decade ending with 1900 was 136° F., while the greatest extremes recorded are from - 43° F. in 1888 to 113° F. in 1901, a difference of 156° F. From 1893 to 1898 the average mean annual temperature at Cresco in Howard (Family)|Howard county, near the N.E. corner of the state, was 44.3° F., while at Keokuk in the S.E. corner it was 52.2° F., and as the isotherms cross the state, especially in the N., their tendency is to move S.W. The rainfall is also very unequal in distribution throughout the year, as also between the same periods of different years, and as between the different parts of the state. For while the mean annual precipitation is 31.42 in., 22 48 in., or 71% of this, fall during the six months from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, or 10% in winter, 23% in autumn, 28% in spring and 39% in summer, June and July being the two wettest months. At the same time extremes during the four most critical crop months, from the 1st of May to the 1st of September, have ranged from 6.75 in. in 1894 to 27.8 in. in 1902. Within any one year the precipitation is in general usually less in the western part of the state than in the eastern, the mean difference for all the years of record up to the close of 1903 being 2.5 in.; the western part also is marked by having a f Aricetyn ?' Kieste[ ttls 4.4.°lV:01,,%ii>,?%M+ ' Ledyard Armstrong :LakeMi Gerledo Center 1.,Swea e Germanu Ci ty . Valley, ^ite ?.. S 7 Aurelia .? 1,.

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Soil; Agriculture

Its depth, together with its porous nature, makes the fertile soil of Iowa capable of withstanding the extremes of wet and dry remarkably well, and it is perhaps true that, taken as a whole, no other state in the Union has a superior soil for agriculture. Certainly no other has so many acres of improved land, or so large a proportion - from 85 to 90% - of its land subject to cultivation. The soil is of four kinds: till or drift, alluvial, loess or bluff and geest. The dark drift, composed chiefly of clay, sand, gravel, boulders and lime, is both the soil and subsoil of the greater part (about 66%) of the state, being especially predominant in the N. and N.W. The alluvial soil, composed of what has been washed from other soils, together with decayed vegetable matter, covers about 6% of the surface of the state and is found in the river bottoms, of greatest extent in that of the Missouri; it varies much in fertility. The loess soil, chiefly a mixture of porous clay and carbonate of lime, forms the bluffs bordering the bottom lands of the Missouri and is common in the N.E. Its fertility is not inferior to that of the better drift. Geest is found particularly in the north-eastern part of the state; it covers less than i % of the area of the state.
The superior qualities of the soil, together with the usually warm and moist months of spring and summer, make Iowa one of the foremost states of the Union in agriculture and stock-raising, especially in the production of Indian corn, oats, hay and eggs, and in the raising of hogs, horses, dairy cows and poultry. In comparison with its other industries it stands also pre-eminently as an agricultural state; for of its 789,404 labourers in 1900, 371,604, or 47%, were engaged in agriculture, 129,006 being engaged in trade and transportation, and 124,803 in manufactures and mechanical pursuits. In 1899 the total value of the agricultural products, $365,411,528, was greater than that of any other state. Of the farms 65.1% were cultivated by owners in 1900, a decrease from 76.2% in 1880; and 19.5% were cultivated by cash tenants, an increase from 4.5% in 1880. After 1880 the percentage of farms operated by share tenants slowly but steadily decreased, falling from 19.4% in 1880 to 15.4% in 1900. Between 1880 and 1900 the average number of acres to a farm slightly increased - from 133.5 acres in 1880 to 151.2 acres in 1900 - instead of decreasing as in the older states of the Union; though the increase was not nearly so marked as in such states as Nevada, Montana, Wyoming and Texas. Iowa about equals Illinois in the production of both Indian corn and oats, nearly 10,000,000 acres or about onethird of its improved area usually being planted with Indian corn, with a yield varying from 227,908,850 bushels in 1901 (according to state reports) to 373,275,000 (the largest in the United States, with a crop value second only to that of Illinois) in 1906. According to the Department of Agriculture in 1907 the acreage was 9,160,000 and the yield 270,220,000 bushels (considerably less than the Illinois crop); the yield of oats was 168,364,170 bushels (Twelfth U.S. Census) in 18 99, 12 4,73 8 ,337 bushels (U.S. Department of Agriculture) in 1902, and in 1907 the acreage and crop (greater than those of any other state) were 4,500,000 acres and 108,900,000 bushels, valued at $41,382,000 - a valuation second only to that of Illinois. In total acreage of cereals (16,920,095 in 1899) it ranked first (Twelfth Census of the United States), and in product of cereals was exceeded by Illinois only; in acreage of hay and forage (4,649,378 in 1899) as well as in the annual supply of milk (535,872,240 gallons in 1899) it was exceeded by New York only. In 1905, according to railway reports, 91,051,551 lb of butter were carried to points outside the state. It ranked far ahead of any other state in 1908 in the number of its hogs (8,413,000, being 15% of the whole number in the United States), Illinois, the second in rank, having only about half as many. It ranked first in 1900 in the number of horses (1 ,39 2 ,573); in the number of poultry (about 20,000,000); in the annual egg product (99,621,290 dozen in 1899); in the total acreage of all crops (22,170,000); in the total value of agricultural products; and in the total value of live stock ($271,844,0341. In 1899 it ranked fourth in the production of barley (18,059,050 bushels) and in 1907 sixth (14,178,000 bushels). The wheat crop has varied from 12,531,304 bushels in 1903, 13,683,003 bushels in 1905, 7,653,000 bushels in 1907 (according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture), to 22,769,440 bushels (Twelfth Census) in 1899. Potatoes, apples and small fruits are grown successfully. For the most part the several crops are quite evenly distributed throughout the state; but nearly all the winter wheat is grown in the S. and N.W., spring wheat most largely in the N.W., barley mostly in the N., flax-seed and prairie hay in the N.E.

Minerals

The first mines to be worked in Iowa were those for lead and zinc at Dubuque and to the northward. These are little mined at present, only 110 tons of lead ore and 516 tons of zinc ore being taken from the mines in 1908. Of more promise is the gypsum deposit extending over an area of about 50 sq. m. in the vicinity of Fort Dodge (Webster county), from which was taken in 1908 a product valued at $565,645, having increased to that figure from $45,819 in 1898. Limestones and sandstone are also profitably quarried, the value of the product in 1908 being $530,945 for limestone and $2337 for sandstone. The principal mineral of Iowa, however, is bituminous coal; it ranked in 1908 eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union, its product being valued at $11,706,402. The beds lie in the southern half of the state, extending under about two-fifths of its surface.

Trade and Commerce

The manufactures of Iowa are chiefly such as have to do with the products of the farm. Meat packing is the most important, the product of this industry amounting in 1900 to $ 2 5,695, 0 44, and in 1905 to $30,074,070, an increase of 17% in this period; in 1900 the state was seventh, in 1905 sixth, among the states in the value of this industry, producing in each year 3.3% of the total. Next in importance is the manufacture of dairy products, the value of which in 1900 was $15,846,077 (an increase of 50.3% in ten years) and in 1905 was $15,028,326; at both censuses the state ranked third in the value of cheese, butter, and condensed milk and of food preparations, which were valued at $6,934,724 in 1905. Flour and grist-mill products ranked third both in 1900 and 1905, the value of the product for the later year being $12,099,493, an increase of 9.9% over the value for the earlier. Among the lesser manufactures are lumber and timber products (value in 1905, $5,610,772), most of the raw material being floated down on rafts from Wisconsin and Minnesota. The largest centres of industry are Sioux City, Davenport, Dubuque,Des Moines,Burlington and Council Bluffs. In 1905 the gross value of the manufactured product (of establishments on the factory system) was $160,572,313, as against $132,870,865 in 1900, an increase of 20.8%; whereas, even including the products of smaller establishments not technically factories, the value of the product in 1850 was only $3,551,783, and in 1880 was only $71,045,926.
The means of transportation is afforded chiefly by the steam railways, of which the state had 9,907.44 m. in January 1909. Scarcely a farm is more than 6 or 8 m. from a railway station; and only three other states have a greater railway mileage. The great period of railway building in Iowa was during the twenty-five years immediately following the close of the Civil War, the railway mileage being only 655 m. in 1860. The several roads are under the management of twenty-seven companies, but about 75% of the business is done by the Chicago Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul and the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific. Electric interurban railways are increasing in importance for freight and passenger service. In 1908 about 225 m. of such railways were in operation. Transportation facilities by water are afforded by the Mississippi river. The former difficulties with the Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi (which are passable for rafts and light boats at high water) have been overcome by a canal from Keokuk to Montrose constructed by the National Government. Other federal improvements undertaken are a harbour at Muscatine, a harbour of refuge below Davenport and channel improvements at Clinton.

Population

The population of Iowa in 1850 was 192,214; in 1860, 674,913; in 1880, 1,624,615; in 1890, 1,911,896; in 1900, 2,231,853. The state census of 1905 showed a total population of 2,210,050, and the Federal census of 1910, of 2,224,771. Of the population in 1905, 1, 26 4,443 (5 7.2%) were native whites of native parentage, 6 4 8 ,53 2 (2 9.3%) were native whites of foreign parentage, 289,296 (12.8%) were foreign-born and 14,832 (0.7%) were coloured, including 346 Indians. The Indians, a remnant of the Sauk and Foxes, are most unprogressive, and are settled on a reservation in Tama county in the eastcentral section of the state.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 788,667 communicants of all religious denominations; of these 207,607 were Roman Catholics; 164,329 Methodists; 117,668 Lutherans; 60,081 Presbyterians; 55,948 Disciples of Christ; 44,096 Baptists; 37,061 Congregationalists; 11,681 members of the German Evangelical Synod; and 8990 Protestant Episcopalians.
The rural element of the population is large, though it is not increasing as rapidly as the urban; and no other state in the Union is so uniformly settled. There were in 1905 seven cities with a population of 25,000 or more; twenty with 8000 or more; and thirty-seven with 4000 or more. Between 1890 and -1900 the urban population increased 38.3%, while the rural increased 14.6%. The chief cities are Des Moines (pop. in 1905, 75,626), Dubuque (41,941), Davenport (39,797), Sioux City (40,952), Cedar Rapids (28,759), Council Bluffs (25,231) and Burlington (25,318).
W

Government

There is comparatively little in the political institutions of Iowa dissimilar to those of other states of the Union; they show in recent years a tendency toward greater centralization - in boards, however, rather than in individual officers. The constitution now in force was adopted in 1857, the constitution of 1846 having been superseded chiefly on account of its prohibition of banking corporations. The present one admits of amendment by a vote of a majority of the members of both houses of the legislature, followed by a majority vote of the electors in the state voting on the amendment; and by this process it was amended in 1868, 1880, 1884 and 1904. The present constitution also provides that the question, "Shall there be a convention to revise the constitution and amend the same?" shall be submitted to the people once every ten years (beginning with 1870), but the affirmative vote taken in accordance with this provision has hitherto been small. The suffrage now belongs to all male citizens of the United States at least twenty-one years of age who shall have resided in the state for six months, and in some one county sixty days preceding an election, except idiots and persons insane or convicted of some infamous crime. The franchise was conferred on negroes by an amendment adopted in 1868. Prior to 1904 elections were annual, but by an amendment of that year they became biennial.
The central executive and administrative authority is vested in a governor, a lieutenant-governor, an executive council, several boards and a few other officers. The governor and the lieutenant-governor was elected for a term of two years, and the qualifications for both offices require that the incumbents shall be at least thirty years of age and shall have been for two years immediately before their election residents of the state. Under the Territorial government when first organized the governor was given an extensive appointing power, as well as the right of an absolute veto on all legislation, but this speedily resulted in such friction between him and the legislature that Congress was petitioned for his removal, with the outcome that the office has since been much restricted in its appointing power, and the veto has been subjected to the ordinary United States limit, i.e. it may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the legislature. Members of boards of regents or trustees of state institutions are for the most part elected by the General Assembly; railway commissioners are elected by the state electors; while in the case of the few appointments left for the governor, the recommendation or approval of the executive council, a branch of the legislature, or of some board, is usually required. He, however, is himself a member of the executive council as well as of some important boards or commissions, and it is in such capacity that he often has the greatest opportunity to exert power and influence. His salary is $5000 per annum (with $600 for house rent and $800 as a member of the executive council). The executive council, composed of the governor, secretary of state, auditor of state and treasurer of state, all elected by the people for a term of two years, has extensive powers. It supervises and audits the accounts of state departments, directs the taking of the census, transfers cities from one class to another in accordance with census returns, constitutes the board for canvassing election returns, classifies railways, assesses railway and other companies, constitutes the state board of equalization for adjusting property valuations between the several counties for taxing purposes, supervises the incorporation of building and loan associations, appoints the board of examiners of mine inspectors and has many other powers. Among other state boards the more important are the board of railroad commissioners, the board of control of state institutions, the board of health, and the board of educational examiners.
The state legislature, or General Assembly, composed of a senate and a house of representatives, sits biennially at Des Moines. Senators are elected for a term of four years, one from each of fifty senatorial districts, the term of one-half expiring every two years. Senators must be at least twenty-five years of age and residents of the state for one year at the time of election. Representatives are elected for a term of two years, one from each <If the ninety-nine counties, with an additional one from each of the counties (not exceeding nine) having the largest population; the ratio of representation and the apportionment of the additional representatives from the larger counties is fixed by the General Assembly. The qualifications for representatives differ from those for electors only in that they must have been residents of the state for one year at the time of election, the disqualification of negroes for sitting in both senate and house having been removed by an amendment adopted in 1880. No bill can pass either house without the assent of a majority of all the members elected to that house; the governor is allowed three days (Sunday excepted) in which to veto a bill.
The state judiciary consists of a supreme court of six judges and a district court of fifty-three judges, from one to four in each of twenty districts. The supreme court has three sessions a year, while each district-court judge is directed to hold at least one session a year in each county of his district, and no two districtcourt judges may sit together on the same case. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in chancery cases only, but may correct errors at law in other cases. The district court has general, original and exclusive jurisdiction in all matters civil, criminal and probate not expressly conferred on an inferior court, and may hear appeals from inferior courts, boards or officers.
For purposes of administration and local government the state is divided into ninety-nine counties, each of which is itself divided into townships that are usually 6 m. square. The township may be divided into school districts and highway districts, but in these matters option has resulted in irregularity. Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes. The officers of the township are three trustees, a clerk and an assessor. The trustees are elected for a term of three years, the clerk and assessor for two years. All taxable property of the state, that of corporations for the most part excepted, is assessed by the township assessor.
The municipal corporations are civil divisions quite independent of the county and township system. They are divided into cities of the first class, cities of the second class and towns, besides a few cities with special charters. Cities of the first class are those having a population of 15,000 or over; cities of the second class are those having a population of 2000 but less than 15,000; all other municipal corporations, except cities with special charters, are known as incorporated towns. In all these cities and towns a mayor, council and various officers are elected, and also a police judge in cities of the first class where there is no superior court. By a law of 1907 cities with a population of 25,000 or more may adopt a commission form of government, with a mayor and four councilmen elected at large on a non-partisan ticket.
Under the laws of Iowa a wife enjoys property rights equal to those of her husband. The expenses of the family, including the education of the children, are chargeable alike upon the property of either or both. Otherwise, the wife may control her property as if single, and neither is liable for what are clearly the debts of the other. In case of the death of either, one-third of the property of the deceased becomes that of the survivor. A homestead cannot be conveyed or encumbered without the consent of both husband and wife, if held by a married man; and a homestead, to the value of $500, is exempt from liability for debts postdating the purchase, unless for improvements on the property. A petition for a divorce may be presented after a residence within the state of one year immediately preceding, and a decree may be granted against the defendant if judged guilty of adultery, desertion for two years without reasonable cause, habitual drunkenness, such inhuman treatment as to endanger the life of the plaintiff, or if convicted of felony after marriage. In 1882 an amendment to the constitution was passed prohibiting the manufacture and the sale of intoxicating liquors within the state. In April 1883 the Supreme Court pronounced this amendment invalid on the ground of irregularity in recording it, whereupon the legislature provided for a like prohibition in an ordinary statute. But attempts to execute this were so unsuccessful that it has been succeeded by a law imposing what is known as the "mulct tax," which requires the payment of $600 in quarterly instalments for a licence to sell such liquors and places a lien for the whole amount on the real property in use for the business. One-half the proceeds goes to the county and one-half to the municipality or township in which the liquor is sold. The exceptional dependence of Iowa on eastern markets has given more than ordinary prominence to railway legislation, and the conflict of interests between the railways and the shippers has agitated the state for forty years, various attempts being made to regulate freight rates by legal enactment. In 1888 an elective commission was established with power to fix maximum rates, which has met with general commendation throughout the country.
The charitable, penal and reformatory institutions of the state are all under a "Board of Control of State Institutions," composed of three electors appointed by the governor and approved by twothirds of the senators, careful provision being made also to prevent the board from becoming subject to either political party. The institutions under its charge include a Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Davenport; a Soldiers' Home at Marshalltown; a College for the Blind at Vinton; a School for the Deaf at Council Bluffs; an Institution for Feeble-minded Children at Glenwood; an Industrial School for Boys at Eldora; an Industrial School for Girls at Mitchellville; and, at Oakdale, a Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis. The Board of Control of State Institutions has supervisory and inquisitorial powers over all county and private institutions in the state in which insane are kept, and over homes for friendless children maintained by societies or institutions. In 1907 the General Assembly passed a law under which the indeterminate sentence was established in the state, and the governor appoints a Board of Parole of three members, of whom one must be an attorney and not more than two are to belong to the same political party.

Education

The percentage of illiterates (i.e. both those unable to read and write and those unable to write) ten years of age and over, according to the census returns of 1900, was only 2.3; of all the other states of the Union, Nebraska alone made such a good return. But teachers were poorly paid, and fourteen schools have been closed at a time within a single county from want of teachers. However, there are laws requiring that each school be taught at least six months in a year, and that children between the ages of seven and fourteen attend for at least twelve consecutive weeks, and for a total of sixteen weeks in every year. In1905-1906male teachers received on an average $63.97 per month, women teachers, $43.41. Although the electors of each school district have ample powers reserved to them, in actual practice matters are attended to chiefly by an elected board of directors. The county administration is in the hands of a board of education and a superintendent. The school tax was derived in1905-1906from interest on the state's permanent school fund - amounting to 2.3% of the total tax, and distributed in proportion to the population of school age; from a I to 3 mill county tax, amounting to 5.2% of the whole; and from local or district taxation, 92.5% of the entire tax. A law of the state provides for the establishment of a county high school whenever a majority of the electors of a county desire it, but in 1902 only one county (Guthrie county) had such a school. The number of public high schools in towns and cities, however, increased from 256 in 18 93 to 345 in 1903. The state established a university at Iowa City in 1847, a State Agricultural College and Model Farm in 1858 (opened at Ames in 1869 as the Iowa State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts), an Agricultural Experiment Station in 1887, an Engineering Experiment Station in 1904, and a normal school at Cedar Falls in 1876.
At the head of the whole system is the state superintendent of public instruction, assisted by a board of educational examiners. In 1901 the total receipts for school purposes were $6,001,187; and the total disbursements $5,813,541; in 1906 the receipts were $7,126,162.12 and the disbursements $6,950,580.27. The pupils enumerated in 1906 were 707,843. Educational institutions not supported by the state include: Iowa Wesleyan University (Methodist, opened in 1842) at Mt. Pleasant; Iowa College (Congregational, 1848) at Grinnell; Central University of Iowa (Baptist, 1853) at Pella; Cornell College (Methodist, 1857) at Mt. Vernon; Western College (United Brethren, 1856) at Toledo; Upper Iowa University (Methodist Episcopal, 1857) at Fayette; Leander Clark College (United Brethren, 1857) at Toledo; Lenox College (Presbyterian, 1859) at Hopkinton; Luther College (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran, 1861) at Decorah; Des Moines College (Baptist, 1865) at Des Moines; Tabor College (Congregational, 1866) at Tabor; Simpson College (Methodist, 1867) at Indianola; Wartburg Kollege (Lutheran, 1868) at Clinton; Amity College (Non-sectarian, 1872) at College Springs; German College (Methodist Episcopal, 1873) at Mt. Pleasant; Penn College (Friends, 1873) at Oskaloosa; St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic, 1873) at Dubuque; Parsons College (Presbyterian, 1875) at Fairfield; Coe College (Presbyterian, 1881) at Cedar Rapids; Drake University (Disciples of Christ, 1881) at Des Moines; Palmer College (Disciples of Christ, 1889) at Legrand; Buena Vista College (Presbyterian, 1891) at Storm Lake; Charles City College (Methodist Episcopal, 1891) at Charles City; Morningside College (Methodist Episcopal, 1894) at Sioux City; Graceland College (Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints, 1895) at Lamoni.

Finance

The taxing system of Iowa embraces a general property tax, corporation taxes (imposed on the franchises or on either the capital stock or the stock in the hands of shareholders), taxes on certain businesses and a collateral inheritance tax. Several important attempts have been made to effect a segregation as between state and local taxes, but for the most part without success. For the year ending June 30th, 1908, the receipts of the state from all sources were $3,663,154.67, and the total expenditure was $3,891,842.81. The full value of all property, according to assessment of 1904, is $2,567,330,328. The state has no bonded debt, and the constitution forbids it to incur debts exceeding in the aggregate a quarter of a million dollars, except for warlike purposes or for some single work to which the people give their consent by vote; the constitution also forbids any county or municipal corporation from incurring an indebtedness exceeding 5% of the value of its taxable property. When first admitted into the Union, Iowa had a strongly pronounced antipathy to banks. This was largely overcome by the year 1857, and yet the constitution of that date prohibits any legislation of primary importance relating to banks without referring the matter to a direct vote of the people. The number of banks and the amount of banking business has, nevertheless, rapidly increased.

History

Iowa, as a part of the whole Mississippi Valley, was taken into the formal possession of France in 1682; in 1762 as a part of the western half of that valley it was ceded to Spain; in 1800 it was retroceded to France; in 1803 was ceded to the United States; from 1804 to 1805, as a part of the District of Louisiana, it was under the government of Indiana Territory; from 1805 to 1812 it was a part of Louisiana Territory; from 1812 to 1821 a part of Missouri Territory; from 1821 to 1834 a part of the unorganized territory of the United States; from 1834 to 1836 a part of Michigan Territory; from 1836 to 1838 a part of Wisconsin Territory. In 1838 Wisconsin Territory was divided, the western portion being named Iowa, and out of this the state with its present bounds was carved in 1846.
The name Iowa (meaning "sleepy ones") was taken from a tribe of Siouan Indians (probably of Winnebago stock), which for some time had dwelt in that part of the country and were still there when the first white men came - the Frenchmen,. Marquette and Joliet, in 1673 and Hennepin in 1680. Early in the next century the Sauk and Foxes, vanquished by the French in Michigan, retreated westward, and in their turn largely supplanted the Iowas. Thither also came Julien Dubuque, a French Canadian, to trade with the new occupants. He discovered lead mines on and near the site of the city which now bears his name, in 1788 obtained an Indian grant or lease of about 21 sq. m., established there a settlement of miners and continued his mining operations, together with a trade in furs, until his death in 1810. The Indians refused permission to others to work the mines, and when intruders attempted to do so without it United States troops protected the red man's rights, especially from 1830 to 1832. But Black Hawk's war policy soon resulted in letting the white man in; for the war which he instigated was concluded in 1832 by a cession to the United States of nearly 9000 sq. m., embracing much of what is now the district of the Iowa lead and zinc mines. Without further waiting, though. still in the face of the Act of Congress of 1807 prohibiting such settlements, the frontiersmen rushed in to mine and to farm, and government was established through voluntary associations. Such proceedings of these associations as related to claims to land were later recognized by the United States authorities, while such as related to the establishment of schools were tolerated for a time by the state government. Iowa, having separated from Wisconsin in 1838 on account of lack of courts for judicial relief, the question of applying for admission into the Union as. a state was voted on as early as 1840, the Territory in that year having a population of 43,112; but the measure was defeated then, as it was again in 1842, by those who most wished to avoid an increase of taxes. In 1844, however, the vote was otherwise,. a convention was called, a constitution framed and application for admission made. The question of boundaries, to which the question of slavery gave rise, then became the cause of delay, but the Territory became a state in 1846.
1.7 36
Robert Lucas. .. Democrat
183 8-1841
John Chambers.. Whig
1841-1845
James Clark. .. Democrat
State.
Ansel Briggs. Democrat
1 46-1 50
Stephen Hempstead .
1850-1854
James Wilson Grimes. Whig and Free-Soil
Democrat
1854-1858
Ralph P. Lowe. Republican
1858-1860
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood „
1860-1864
William Milo Stone .
1864-1868
Samuel Merrill. .
1868-1872
Cyrus Clay Carpenter „
1872-1876
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood
1876-1877
Joshua Giddings Newbold'
1877-1878
John Henry Gear .
1878-1882
Buren Robinson Sherman
1882-1886
William Larrabee
1886-1890
Horace Boies. .. Democrat
1890-1894
Frank Darr Jackson. Republican
1894-1896
Francis Marion Drake „
1896-1898
Leslie Mortier Shaw .
1898-1902
Albert Baird Cummins
B. F. Carroll. .. „
1909-
During the period in which the question of admission was under consideration, the Whigs opposed the measure, while the Democrats carried it through and remained in power until 1854; but ever since 1857 the state has been preponderantly Republican in all national campaigns; and with but two exceptions, in 1889 and 1891, when liquor and railroad legislation were the leading issues, has elected a Republican state administration. Nevertheless there has always been a strong sentiment in the state urging, that corporations be held more in check, and its industries are not such as to receive a large benefit directly from tariff legislation. As a consequence there has been a tendency towards the formation of two opposing elements within the dominant party; the more radical seeking the promotion of what since 1902 has been known as the "Iowa Idea," which in substance is to further the expansion of the trade of the United States with the rest of the world through the more extended application of tariff reciprocity, and at the same time to revise the tariff so as to prevent it from "affording a shelter to monopoly." Governors Of Iowa Territorial. Bibliography. - Publications of the Iowa Geological Survey (Des Moines, 1868) Iowa Weather and Crop Service (Des Moines, 1889); U.S. Census; F. H. Dixon, State Railroad Control, with a History of its Development in Iowa (New York, 1896), a detailed history of the control of Iowa railways through the commission system; B. F. Shambaugh, History of the Constitution of Iowa (Des Moines, 1902); Jesse Macy, Institutional Beginnings in a Western State in Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1894); H. M. Bowman, The Administration of Iowa, a Study in Centralization (New York, 1903), an able presentation of the present administrative system in the light of its historical development; William Salter, Iowa, the first Free State in the Louisiana Purchase (Chicago, 1905); B. F. Shambaugh, Documentary Material relating to the History of Iowa (Iowa City, 1897), and The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa (Iowa City, 1903-1904); Annals of Iowa, 3 series: Series 1, The Annals of the State Historical Society of Iowa (Iowa City and Davenport, 1863-1874) Series 2, vol. i., The Annals of Iowa; vol. ii., Howe's Annals of Iowa (Iowa City, 1882-1884); Series 3, The Annals of Iowa, published by the Historical Department of Iowa (Des Moines, 1893-); Iowa Historical Record (Iowa City, 1885-1902); Iowa Journal of History and Politics (Iowa City, 1903 seq.); and G. T. Flom, Chapters on Scandinavian Immigration to Iowa (Iowa City, 1907).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Iowa

Etymology

From French Aiouez, an initial translation of the name for the Iowa tribe.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Iowa
Plural
-
Iowa
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Des Moines.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Iowa
Flag of Iowa State seal of Iowa
Flag of Iowa SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Tall Corn State, The Hawkeye State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Our liberties we prize and our rights
we will maintain
Map of the United States with Iowa highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Des Moines
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Des Moines
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Des Moines metropolitan area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 26thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 56,272 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(145,743 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 310 miles (500 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 199 miles (320 km)
 - % water 0.71
 - Latitude 40° 23′ N to 43° 30′ N
 - Longitude 90° 8′ W to 96° 38′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 30thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 2,926,324
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 52.4/sq mi 
20.22/km² (33rd)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Hawkeye Point[1]
1,670 ft  (509 m)
 - Mean 1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[1] at Keokuk
480 ft  (146 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  December 28, 1846 (29th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Chet Culver (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Chuck Grassley (R)
Tom Harkin (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-IAImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.iowa.gov
The State of Iowa (IPA: /ˈaɪəwə/) is a state in the midwestern region of the United States of America. It is the 29th state of the United States, having joined the Union on December 28, 1846. The state is named for the Native American Ioway people. It is known as the "Hawkeye State" or the "Tall Corn State".

Contents

Geography

See also List of counties in Iowa, List of cities in Iowa, List of townships in Iowa and List of Iowa rivers
The Mississippi River forms the eastern boundary of the state. .The boundary along the west is formed by the Missouri River south of Sioux City and by the Big Sioux River north of Sioux City.^ It's only 50 miles north of Omaha, NE or 50 miles south of Sioux city, IA Just off I-29 Call Scott or Brenda Pape 712 456-2896 E-mail: Scott or Brenda Pape Submitted By: Brenda Thomas .
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

^ Their trails are located in one of the highest and most rugged areas found along the Missouri River Valley.
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: 80 miles south of Des Moines, IA; 120 miles north of Kansas City, MO; 135 miles east of Omaha, NE. 12 miles west of Exit 4, I-35, at Lamoni, Iowa.
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

.There are several natural lakes in the state, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa (see Iowa Great Lakes).^ On the West end of the marsh there is a gravel road that runs N-S you take that North and follow turning East and North.
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

^ Or one can take Hwy 92 west from Washington, Iowa about 35 miles then turn north on Hwy 149, or go 25 miles east of Oskaloosa, then turn north on Hwy 149.
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

^ There were Offices and group rooms in the ward to the west of ours and the ward to the east was "empty".
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa[1], Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride and Rathbun Lake.
The topography of the state is gently rolling plains. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick. In the northeast, along the Mississippi River, is a section of the Driftless Zone, which in Iowa consists of low rugged hills covered with conifers—a landscape not usually associated with this state.
The point of lowest elevation is Keokuk in southeastern Iowa, at 480 feet (146 m). The point of highest elevation, at 1,670 feet (509 m), is Hawkeye Point, located in a feedlot north of Sibley in northwest Iowa. The mean elevation of the state is 1,099 feet (335 m). .Considering the size of the state at 56,271 square miles (145,743 km²), there is very little elevation difference.^ There are 53 people per square mile (population density).
  • Iowa, Iowa (IA) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

Iowa has 99 counties. .The state capital, Des Moines, is located in Polk County (#60).^ It was laid out and established in November, 1844, by the pioneer settler of that vicinity, Isaac Gray...It is located on the banks of the Des Moines River, about two and a half miles below the northeast corner of the State.
  • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Des Moines - Des Moines International Airport - The Cloud Room - In offices that were originally a restaurant named the Cloud Room during the 60's and 70's.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Polk - West Des Moines - Barnes and Noble - Employees and patrons have seen books pulled off of shelves and dropped.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the nation due to significant glaciation that ground the granitic rocks from the Canadian Shield and deposited it as soils making up the rich Iowa farmland http://www.cheec.uiowa.edu/misc/radon.html.^ Renters make up 25.34% of the Iowa, IA, population.
  • Iowa, Iowa (IA) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

Because of the high surface area of the ground rock, radon is free to off-gas from the soils. .Many cities within the state, such as Iowa City have passed requirements for radon resistant construction in all new homes.^ SLATER HALL IS VERY DANGEROUS. BEWARE THE WADDLER. Iowa Falls - Eagle City - an outside church in lower Eagle city too many voices too recognize.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Home > United States > Iowa > Metro Areas > Counties > Cities > Zip Codes Iowa .
  • Iowa, Iowa (IA) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

Areas controlled and protected by the National Park Service include:

Climate

Iowa, like most of the Midwest, has a humid continental climate throughout the state (Koppen climate classification Dfa) with extremes of both heat and cold. .The average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F (10 °C); for some locations in the north the figure is under 45 °F (8 °C), while Keokuk, on the Mississippi River, averages 52 °F (12 °C).^ Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers.
  • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ottumwa - North Court Cemetery - When you walk through it at night you'll see on some tomb stones dark figures sitting on them.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Croton,Iowa is located three miles south of Farmington,Iowa along the Des Moines River.On August 5th 1861 the Northern Most Battle of the Civil War west of the Mississippi took place.The South was at Athens,Missouri which is directly across the river from Croton,Iowa where the Northern soldiers were located.
  • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Winters are brisk and snowfall is common, the capital (Des Moines) receiving an average of 36.3 inches (92 cm) per season. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season, as well as bringing increased precipitation and warming temperatures. The Iowan summer is known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures often near 90 °F (32 °C) and sometimes exceeding 100 °F (38 °C).
.Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year.^ Dubuque - Fischer Building - The Fischer Building was originally 8 stories tall, built in downtown Dubuque in the mid 19th century, about 50 years before the "first" skyscraper was built in Chicago.?
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

[2] Some of these thunderstorms can be severe with high winds and hail. .The state has a moderately high risk of tornadic activity with, on average, 37 tornadoes per year, mostly in the spring and summer months.^ They made great improvements after the tornado hit their farm a few years ago and it is very kid friendly with lots of activities for them.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Iowa for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ The average US city gets 25 inches of snow per year.
  • Iowa, Iowa (IA) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

^ On average, there are 200 sunny days per year in Iowa, IA. The July high is around 85 degrees.
  • Iowa, Iowa (IA) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

[3]
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Iowa Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Davenport 30/12 36/18 48/29 61/39 73/50 82/60 86/65 84/62 77/53 64/42 48/30 35/18
Des Moines 29/12 35/18 48/29 61/40 72/51 82/61 86/66 84/64 76/54 64/42 47/29 33/17
Dubuque 25/9 31/15 43/26 57/38 69/49 79/58 82/62 80/60 72/52 60/40 44/28 30/15
Sioux City 29/8 35/15 47/26 62/37 73/49 82/58 86/63 84/61 76/50 64/38 45/25 32/13
Waterloo 26/6 32/13 45/25 60/36 72/48 82/58 85/62 83/60 75/50 62/38 45/25 31/12
[2]

Neighboring states

Iowa is bordered by the following states:

History

Main article: History of Iowa
Highlights:
  • The first Europeans to explore Iowa were French citizens following the Sac and Fox, presently known as the Mesquakie (Meskwaki) Indians.
  • At first, due to a lack of trees, Iowa was believed to not be able to support agriculture.
  • Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette are believed to be the first European explorers to visit Iowa. They described Iowa as lush, green, and fertile.
  • Iowa has been home to approximately 17 different Native American tribes. .Today, only the Meskwaki tribe remains.
  • The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa in June 1833. Primarily, they were families from Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri.
  • During the 1835 Dragoon expedition to map and survey central Iowa, many dragoons got lost in prairie grass which was over their heads even on horseback.^ Many people had settled on the lands under the impression that there was no title vested in any person; that the land still belonged to the General Government, and that they were entitled to pre-emption rights as first settlers.
    • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The map maker was Albert Lea, who is the namesake for Albert Lea. .One of the commanders was Nathan Boone, the youngest son of Daniel Boone.
  • Iowa became the 29th state in the union on December 28, 1846.
  • The Chicago and North Western Railway reached Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs was designated the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific Railroad.^ Ames - Iowa State University - Memorial Union Hall - pays tribute to graduates of Iowa State that died in various wars.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Council Bluffs - Old library-Now Union Pacific museum - This is the old Council Bluffs library, which has now been restored to a wonderful looking and brand new Union Pacific railroad museum.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The completion of five major railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes as well as travel opportunities.
  • During the American Civil War, more than 75,000 Iowans participated in the war, 13,001 of whom died (mostly by disease).^ It was present during the civil war times and the owner says that sometimes he hears a stumble or a person limping at night.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Iowa had a higher percentage of soldiers serve in the Civil War, per capita, than any other state in the Union, with nearly 60% of eligible males serving.^ Other examples might be cited, but they are probably exceptions to the general rule, and the race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa.
    • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ames - Iowa State University - Memorial Union Hall - pays tribute to graduates of Iowa State that died in various wars.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    Among many cases in point would be Isaac S. Struble of Plymouth County, Congressman from 1883-1891.
  • Iowa saw a large increase in farming of beef, corn, and pork during World War I, but farmers saw economic hardships after the war. These hardships were the result of the removal of war-time farm subsidies. Total recovery did not occur until the 1940s.
  • The Farm Crisis of the 1980s saw a major decline of family farms in Iowa and around the Midwest, and it was marked by a sharp drop in the state's rural population.
  • Although Iowa's primary industry is agriculture, it also produces refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, toothbrushes, and food products that are shipped around the world.
  • Iowa is also a major producer of ethanol and biodiesel.
  • Iowa has the 3rd largest wind power economy, after California and Texas.
  • Iowa is a very important political state, as they hold the first caucus in the nation every Presidential election.

References

  • Bergman, Marvin, ed. Iowa History Reader (1996) essays by scholars.
  • Ross, Earl D. Iowa Agriculture: An Historical Survey (1951)
  • Sage, Leland. A History of Iowa (1974)
  • Schwieder, Dorothy. Iowa: The Middle Land (1996) excellent scholarly history
  • Wall, Joseph Frazier. Iowa: A Bicentennial History (1978)

Demographics

Iowa Population Density Map

As of 2006, Iowa has an estimated population of 2,982,085, which is an increase of 17,892, or 0.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 55,761 or 1.9%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 53,706 people (that is 197,163 births minus 143,457 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 11,754 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 29,386 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 41,140 people.
The center of population of Iowa is located in Marshall County, in the city of Marshalltown [3]. {{US DemogTable|Iowa|03-19.csv|= | 96.14| 2.51| 0.63| 1.48| 0.08|= | 2.68| 0.08| 0.08| 0.03| 0.01|= | 95.79| 2.79| 0.61| 1.67| 0.08|= | 3.48| 0.13| 0.09| 0.03| 0.01|= | 1.01| 12.55| -2.70| 14.41| 1.01|= | 0.12| 11.13| -5.68| 14.14| 0.05|= | 31.91| 53.85| 19.33| 29.51| 7.14}} According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2004, Iowa's population included about 97,000 foreign-born (3.3%).
Iowans are mostly of Northern European origin. The eight largest ancestry groups in Iowa are: German (35.7%), Irish (13.5%), English (9.5%), American (6.6%), Norwegian (5.7%), Dutch (4.6%), Swedish (3.3%) and Danish (3.2%)
6.4% of Iowa's population were reported as under the age of five, 23.3 under 18, and 14.0% were 65 or older. Males made up approximately 49.2% of the population.[4]

Rural flight

.Iowa, in common with other Midwestern states (especially Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota), is feeling the brunt of rural flight, although Iowa has been gaining population since approximately 1990. 89% of the total number of cities in those states have fewer than 3,000 people; hundreds have fewer than 1,000. Between 1996 and 2004, almost half a million people, nearly half with college degrees, left the six states.^ Other examples might be cited, but they are probably exceptions to the general rule, and the race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa.
  • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A treaty was made at Washington, August 4, 1824, between the Sacs and Foxes and the United States, by which that portion of Lee County was reserved to the half-breeds of those tribes, and which was afterward known as The Half-Breed Tract.
  • CROTON IOWA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC croton-iowa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Religion

Most Iowans are Protestant Christians, with Lutheranism being the largest single Protestant denomination, followed by Methodist. The state has the second largest population of Reformed Christians, both RCA and CRC.
The religious affiliations of the people of Iowa are:[5]

Economy

The state's total gross state product for 2005 was US$113.5 billion.[6] Its per capita income for 2006 was US $23,340.[7] Iowa's main agricultural outputs are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle and dairy products. Its industrial outputs are food processing, machinery, electric equipment, chemical products, publishing and primary metals. Iowa produces the nation's largest amount of ethanol. .Des Moines also serves as a center for the insurance industry.^ Des Moines State Radio Communications Center .
  • State of Iowa Employee Directory: Online directory containing employees of the State of Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC phonebook.iowa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Iowa imposes taxes on net state income of individuals and estates and trusts.^ State Sales Or Income Taxes .
  • State of Iowa Employee Directory: Online directory containing employees of the State of Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC phonebook.iowa.gov [Source type: Academic]

There are currently nine income tax brackets, ranging from 0.36% to 8.98%. The state sales tax rate is 5%.[8] Iowa has two local option sales taxes that may be imposed by counties after an election at which the majority of voters favors the tax. .They are in addition to the 5% state sales tax.^ State Sales Or Income Taxes .
  • State of Iowa Employee Directory: Online directory containing employees of the State of Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC phonebook.iowa.gov [Source type: Academic]

The regular local option tax is imposed on the gross receipts from sales of tangible personal property. It usually remains in effect until it is repealed, but the ordinance may include a sunset clause. The school infrastructure local option tax is automatically repealed 10 years after it is imposed, unless the ballot imposes a shorter time frame.[8]
Property tax is levied on the taxable value of real property, that is, mostly land, buildings, structures, and other improvements that are constructed on or in the land, attached to the land or placed upon a foundation. Typical improvements include a building, house or mobile home, fences, and paving. The following five classes of real property are evaluated: residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial and utilities/railroad (which is assessed at the state level). Homeowners pay less than half of the property tax collected each year in Iowa. Farmers pay 21%, and businesses and industry, a total of 23%. Utility companies, including railroads, pay 10%. Iowa has more than 2,000 taxing authorities. .Most property is taxed by more than one taxing authority.^ He also has been said to walk around city hall, and former mayors have said they have seen them in their office on more than one occasion.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

The tax rate differs in each locality and is a composite of county, city or rural township, school district and special levies.

Transportation

Interstate highways

These are ten interstate highways that go through Iowa:

US highways

These are 20 United States highways that go through Iowa:

Airports with scheduled flights

Law and government

Capitol in 2003 after regilding
See List of Governors of Iowa, Iowa General Assembly, and Iowa State Capitol
The current Governor is Chet Culver (D)
Other statewide elected officials are:
The two U.S. Senators:
The five U.S. Congressmen:
The Code of Iowa contains the statutory laws of the State of Iowa. It is periodically updated by the Iowa Legislative Service Bureau, with a new edition published in odd-numbered years and a supplement published in even-numbered years.
Iowa is an alcohol monopoly or Alcoholic beverage control state.

Political parties

In Iowa, the term "political party" refers to political organizations which have received two percent or more of the votes cast for president or governor in the "last preceding general election".[9] Iowa recognizes two political parties - the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Third parties, officially termed "nonparty political organizations" can appear on the ballot as well - five of these have had candidates on the ballot in Iowa since 2004 for various positions: the Constitution Party, the Iowa Green Party, the Libertarian Party, the Pirate Party, and the Socialist Workers Party.[10][11]

Voter trends

Survey post defining the border of Iowa & Minnesota, very near Wisconsin, placed in 1849.
Iowa voters supported Bill Clinton in 1992 and in 1996. Al Gore won the state in 2000, but George W. Bush won the state in 2004.
In the 2006 elections, the Iowa Democrats gained two seats in the Iowa delegation to the United States House of Representatives, and Democrats won a majority in both houses of the Iowa General Assembly.

Iowa presidential caucus

The state gets considerable attention every four years because it holds the first presidential caucus, a gathering of voters to select delegates to the state convention. Along with the New Hampshire primary a week later, it has become the starting gun for choosing the two major-party candidates for president. The caucus, held in January of the election year, involves people gathering in homes or public places and choosing their candidate, rather than casting secret ballots, as is done in a primary election. The national and international media give Iowa (and New Hampshire) about half of all the attention accorded the national candidate selection process, which gives the voters enormous leverage. Some candidates decide to skip the Iowa caucus, especially those who oppose ethanol subsidies, and use their resources in other early states such as New Hampshire and South Carolina. Those who enter the caucus race often expend enormous effort to reach voters in each of Iowa's 99 counties.

Important cities and towns

Main article: List of cities in Iowa
These are Iowa's 30 largest cities, based on 2006 population estimates from the United States Census Bureau.[12][13]
  1. Des Moines (193,886/MSA 534,230), state capital, home to Drake University, and location of internationally known Iowa State Fair
  2. Cedar Rapids (124,417/MSA 249,320), home of the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library
  3. Davenport (99,514/MSA 377,291), home of Saint Ambrose University, largest of the Quad Cities
  4. Sioux City (83,262/MSA 143,474), home of Sergeant Floyd Monument of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, northern-most Missouri River port
  5. Waterloo (65,998/MSA 162,263), home of John Deere's tractor factory
  6. Iowa City (62,649/MSA 139,567), home of the University of Iowa
  7. Council Bluffs (60,271/MSA 822,549), part of Omaha metropolitan area
  8. Dubuque (57,696/MSA 92,384) Iowa's oldest city, river port, home of Loras College, tourist destination
  9. West Des Moines (53,945/534,230), suburb of Des Moines and insurance center
  10. Ames (51,557/MSA 80,145), home of Iowa State University.
  11. Ankeny (38,726/MSA 534,230), suburb of Des Moines
  12. Urbandale (37,173/MSA 534,230), suburb of Des Moines
  13. Cedar Falls (36,940/MSA 162,263), home of the University of Northern Iowa and part of the Waterloo metropolitan area
  14. Bettendorf (32,394/MSA 377,291), part of the Quad Cities
  15. Marion (31,084/MSA 249,320), suburb of Cedar Rapids
  16. Mason City (27,740), city known for cement manufacturing
  17. Clinton (27,042), industrial river town
  18. Marshalltown (25,957), home of Iowa Veterans Home, known for furnace and valve manufacturing
  19. Fort Dodge (25,466), known for mining and veterinary pharmaceuticals
  20. Burlington (25,464), industrial river town
  21. Ottumwa (24,845), industrial river town
  22. Muscatine (22,719), location of many chemical plants
  23. Coralville (18,017), suburb of Iowa City
  24. Newton (15,469), home of the Iowa Speedway, former home of the Maytag Corporation's headquarters prior to the Whirlpool Corporation buyout
  25. Johnston (14,513), suburb of Des Moines
  26. Indianola (14,227), home of National Balloon Museum and Simpson College
  27. Clive (14,062), suburb of Des Moines
  28. Altoona (13,394), suburb of Des Moines
  29. Boone (12,773), an important hub for the Union Pacific Railroad
  30. Spencer (11,059) known for the Clay County Fair

Iowa sister states

Iowa has eight official partner states:[14]

Education

Iowa has historically placed a strong emphasis on education, which is shown in standardized testing scores. In 2003, Iowa had the second highest average SAT scores by state, and tied for second highest average ACT scores in states where more than 20% of graduates were tested. .The national office of ACT is in Iowa City, and the ITBS and ITED testing programs used in many states are provided by the University of Iowa.^ SLATER HALL IS VERY DANGEROUS. BEWARE THE WADDLER. Iowa Falls - Eagle City - an outside church in lower Eagle city too many voices too recognize.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ames - Iowa State University - Memorial Union Hall - pays tribute to graduates of Iowa State that died in various wars.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Iowa Public Libraries Public Libraries State Libraries Presidential Libraries National Libraries College Libraries Law Libraries Books .

An overhaul of the current education system is being discussed. .One of the suggested ideas is switching from 180 days to a year-round school system.^ Employees have had things misplaced, heard their name being called when no one is there, and have very cold spots in the building year round.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Iowa 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

[4]

State universities

Independent colleges and universities

Community colleges

Professional business and technical colleges and universities

Sports

Club Sport League
Burlington Bees Baseball Minor League Baseball (A)
Cedar Rapids Kernels Baseball Minor League Baseball (A)
Clarinda A's Baseball Collegiate, summer
Clinton LumberKings Baseball Minor League Baseball (A)
Iowa Cubs Baseball Minor League Baseball (AAA)
Sioux City Explorers Baseball Northern League
Swing of the Quad Cities Baseball Minor League Baseball (A)
Waterloo Bucks Baseball Collegiate, summer
Cedar Rapids RoughRiders Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Des Moines Buccaneers Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Dubuque Thunderbirds Ice hockey
Iowa Stars Ice hockey American Hockey League
North Iowa Outlaws Ice hockey North American Hockey League
Omaha Lancers Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Quad City Flames Ice hockey American Hockey League
Sioux City Musketeers Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Waterloo Blackhawks Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Iowa Stalkers Wrestling Real Pro Wrestling
Des Moines Menace Soccer USL Premier Development League
Sioux City Bandits Indoor football United Indoor Football League
Sioux City Cornhuskers (moved to St. Paul and became the St. Paul Saints, would move again to Chicago and are now the Chicago White Sox) Baseball Major League Baseball
Iowa Energy Basketball NBA Developmental League (NBA DL)
Waterloo Hawks (defunct) Basketball National Basketball Association/National Basketball League

Art

Famous Iowans

The following is an alphabetical list of famous people born in Iowa (who don't necessarily live in Iowa) as well as famous Iowans in general.
Name Occupation Description
Julie Adams film actress Born on October 17, 1926 in Waterloo.
Fran Allison Comedian and singer Born on November 20, 1907 in La Porte City, IA. She graduated from Coe College in 1927. Began her broadcasting career at WMT in Cedar Rapids.
Tom Arnold Film actor Born in Ottumwa on 6 March 1959.
Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke Jazz cornet player Born in Davenport 1903-1931.
Buffalo Bill Buffalo hunter; entertainer; Pony Express rider Born William Frederick Cody near Le Claire on February 26 1846.
Billy Aaron Brown Played Kyle in ABC sitcom 8 Simple Rules Born in Clarinda in 1981.
Bill Bryson Popular writer of travel books Born in Des Moines in 1951.
Norman Ernest Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize laureate Born near Cresco on March 25, 1914.
Johnny Carson Comedian Born in Corning on 23 October 1925.
Christian Clemenson American Actor Born in Humboldt on November 11 1959
J. Coburn American writer, Speaker, Body Modification Artist Born in Brooklyn on January 13 1981
Mamie Eisenhower Wife of President Dwight D. Eisenhower Born in Boone in 1896.
Michael Emerson Actor, plays Ben Linus in ABC series Lost Born in Cedar Rapids on September 7, 1954.
Bob Feller Major League Baseball Player; Hall of Famer Pitched 3 no-hitters for the Cleveland Indians, Born near Van Meter on November 3 1918.
Freaklabel Working Class Metal band Formed in Cedar Rapids.
Dan Gable Olympic gold medalist in wrestling and famous wrestling coach for the University of Iowa Born in Waterloo on October 25 1948.
George Gallup American statistician; inventor of the Gallup poll Born in Jefferson in 1901.
Frank Gotch Professional wrestler; world heavyweight champion Born south of Humboldt in 1878.
Fred Grandy Actor and former member of the United States House of Representatives Born on June 29, 1948 in Sioux City
Peter Hedges Screenwriter of What's Eating Gilbert Grape, Director Born in Des Moines on July 6, 1962
Chad Hennings American football player and US Air Force officer Born in Elberon on October 20, 1965.
Kirk Hinrich NBA basketball player Born in Sioux City on January 2, 1981
Herbert Hoover 31st President of the United States Born in West Branch in 1874. He is also buried there.
Lou Henry Hoover Wife of President Herbert Hoover Born in Waterloo.
Zach Johnson Professional Golfer (2007 Masters Champion) Born in Iowa City on February 24, 1976 Resided in Cedar Rapids, Graduated from Drake University
Nate Kaeding NFL Kicker Born in Iowa City on March 26, 1982. Played college football at University of Iowa.
Nile Kinnick Football player, Heisman Trophy winner, naval officer Born in Adel on July 9, 1918. Played college football at University of Iowa
Ashton Kutcher Film and television actor Born in Cedar Rapids on February 7, 1978.
William D. Leahy Five star admiral Born in Hampton on May 6, 1875.
William P. Leahy President of Boston College Born in Imogene in 1948.
Ron Livingston Film and television actor Born in Cedar Rapids on June 5, 1968.
Frederick L. Maytag Maytag founder Lived his childhood years near Laurel.
Robert Millikan Physicist Measured the charge of the electron, spent part of his childhood in Maquoketa.
Glenn Miller Musician Born in Clarinda (1904)]
Kate Mulgrew Actress A film and television actress born in Dubuque on April 29, 1955.
Charles Murray American policy writer Best known for being the co-author of the controversial best seller, The Bell Curve. Born in Newton on January 8, 1943.
Nancy Price Author of Sleeping with the Enemy Former Professor at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls.
Ronald Reagan 40th President of the United States Worked at WOC radio station in Davenport in 1932
Harry Reasoner Journalist Born April 17, 1923 at Dakota City
Donna Reed Actress Born as Donna Belle Mullenger January 27, 1921 on a farm near Denison
George Reeves Actor Born January 5, 1914, best known for playing the role of Superman on the television series the Adventures of Superman in the 1950s.
Reggie Roby NFL Punter Born in Waterloo played college football at University of Iowa.
Sage Rosenfels NFL quarterback Born in Maquoketa in 1978 and played college football at Iowa State University.
Brandon Routh Film and television actor Born in Des Moines on October 9, 1979
Slipknot Heavy Metal band Formed in Des Moines.
Tracie Spencer Female R&B Vocalist Born in Waterloo.
Mark Steines Co-host of Entertainment Tonight Alumnus of the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls.
Bill Stewart Accomplished American jazz drummer Born and raised in Des Moines.
Al Swearengen Proprietor of the Gem Theater of Deadwood, SD 1877-1899 (featured in HBO series Deadwood) Born in Oskaloosa in 1845.
Sullivan brothers Deaths brought about the military's Sole Survivor Policy Died together on the USS Juneau during the Battle of Guadalcanal, were born in Waterloo.
Billy Sunday a professional baseball player; evangelist Born in Bina in 1862 and lived in Glenwood, Nevada, and Ames.
Corey Taylor Lead vocalist of the bands Slipknot and Stone Sour Born on December 8, 1973 and formed Slipknot in 1995.
James Van Allen Scientist Born in Mount Pleasant in 1914.
Michelle Vieth Mexican soap actress Born in Marshalltown on November 19, 1979. Now lives in Mexico.
Henry A. Wallace 33rd Vice President of the United States Born in Orient in 1888; died in Danbury in 1965
Robert James Waller Author of The Bridges of Madison County Former Professor of Business at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls.
Brian Wansink Author of Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think Born in 1960 in Sioux City and alumnus of Drake University (M.A.). Professor at Cornell University.
Grant Wood Artist Known mostly for his painting American Gothic, was born in Anamosa on February 13, 1891.
Wright Brothers Lived for a short time in Cedar Rapids while their father was posted there as a bishop with the Church of the United Brethren in Christ.
Kurt Warner American football player Born in 1971 in Burlington. Alumnus of the University of Northern Iowa.
John Wayne Film actor Born as Marion Morrison in Winterset in 1907.
Meredith Willson Broadway composer/lyricist: The Music Man, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Here's Love Born on May 18, 1902 in Mason City. The Music Man is based partly on Willson's own childhood and is his tribute to the State of Iowa.
Elijah Wood Film actor Born in Cedar Rapids on January 28, 1981.
Ed Yost Inventor of the modern hot air balloon Born in Bristow in 1919.
Andy Williams American Pop Singer [Moon River, 1962] Born in Wall Lake in 1927.
Joey Jordison American Drummer of Slipknot and Guitarist of Murderdolls Born in Des Moines in 1975.
David Hilker singer/songwriter, producer, music industry exec Wild Whirled Music and Fervor Records Born in Clarion, grew up in Cedar Rapids Dave Keuning guitarist of The Killers Native of Pella

Animals

Some of the wild animals that can be found in Iowa:


State symbols

See also



References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  2. ^ US Thunderstorm distribution. src.noaa.gov. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  3. ^ Mean Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953-2004. ncdc.noaa.gov. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  4. ^ http://www.statelibraryofiowa.org/datacenter/quickfacts
  5. ^ American Religious Identification Survey 2001. The Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  6. ^ http://www.statelibraryofiowa.org/datacenter/quickfacts
  7. ^ http://www.statelibraryofiowa.org/datacenter/quickfacts
  8. ^ a b Iowa Department of Revenue Local Option. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  9. ^ Forming a New Political Party in Iowa (PDF). Elections Division, [[Iowa Secretary of State|]]. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  10. ^ Official Results Report - Statewide: 2006 General Election (PDF). [[Iowa Secretary of State|]]. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  11. ^ Canvass Summary: 2004 General Election (PDF). [[Iowa Secretary of State|]]. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  12. ^ Iowa Data Center. Population Estimates and Rankings for Population, Numerical Change, and Percent Change for Iowa's Incorporated Places: 2000-2006. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  13. ^ Iowa Data Center. Population Estimates and Components of Population Change for Iowa's Metropolitan Areas (2003 Definition): 2000-2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  14. ^ http://www.iowasisterstates.org/
  15. ^ "Mountain Lions in Iowa" (pdf), Iowa Department of Natural Resources, p. 1. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. “Two weeks after we made the first announcement that there may be a few free ranging mountain lions in the state a road kill occurred near Harlan in late August, 2001.” 
  16. ^ Wilkinson, Joe ([[2004-01-20|]]). "Mountain Lions in Iowa" (pdf). Iowa Outdoors: 4-6. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. “Now, over the last three months, two mountain lions -— or cougars -- have been killed; one in Wayne County in southern Iowa, the other in the northwest corner of the state in Sioux County. A couple years ago, one was hit and killed by a car, near Harlan in western Iowa. The evidence doesn’t get any more solid than that.” 
  17. ^ Iowa Department of Economic Development Travel Iowa web site - State Symbols. Iowa Department of Economic Development. Retrieved on August 7, 2007.
  18. ^ a b c d e Iowa General Assembly - Iowa State Symbols. www.legis.state.ia.us. Retrieved on November 24, 2006.
  19. ^ New Citizen Civic Handbook, page 44. sos.state.ia.us (2006). Retrieved on December 26, 2006.

External links

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Simple English

For the Slipknot album , see Iowa (Slipknot album).

State of Iowa
File:Flag of File:Illinois state
Flag of Iowa Seal of Iowa
Also called: The Hawkeye State, The Tall Corn State
Saying(s): Our liberties we prize and our rights
we will maintain
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Iowa highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Des Moines
Largest city Des Moines
Area  Ranked 26th
 - Total 56,272 sq mi
(145,743 km²)
 - Width 199 miles (320 km)
 - Length 310 miles (500 km)
 - % water 0.71
 - Latitude 40°36'N to 43°30'N
 - Longitude 89°5'W to 96°31'W
Number of people  Ranked 30th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (33rd)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Hawkeye Point[1]
1,670 ft  (509 m)
 - Average 1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[1]
480 ft  (146 m)
Became part of the U.S.  December 28, 1846 (29th)
Governor Chet Culver
U.S. Senators Chuck Grassley (R)
Tom Harkin (D)
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations IA US-IA
Web site www.iowa.gov

Iowa (/ˈaɪəwə/ ) is a state in the United States. Its capital and largest city is Des Moines. Iowa became a state in 1846. It was the 29th state to join the United States.

Contents

Geography

Iowa is in the Midwest of the United States. To the north of Iowa is Minnesota; to the west are Nebraska and South Dakota; to the south is Missouri; and to the east are Illinois and Wisconsin.

The eastern border of the state is marked by the Mississippi River which runs between Iowa and Illinois. The western border is marked by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers. The northern border is a line 43 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude. The southern border follows the northern border of Missouri.[2] Iowa and Missouri disagreed about the location of the Iowa-Missouri border. This argument was ended by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1896.[3]

Most of Iowa is considered to be a plain.

Law and Government

The government of Iowa has three branches, similar to the federal government of the United States. The executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Chet Culver (D). The legislative branch is the Iowa General Assembly, composed of two houses - the Iowa Senate and the Iowa House of Representatives. The judicial branch is headed by the Iowa Supreme Court under the chief justice, currently Marsha Ternus.

There are two major political parties in Iowa, the Iowa Democratic Party and the Republican Party of Iowa, as well as several unofficial third parties. The Democratic Party is currently in charge of both the executive and legislative branches, as the governor is a Democrat and as both houses of the legislature have Democratic majorities.

Iowa sends two senators and five representatives to Congress.
Senators:

  • Tom Harkin (D)
  • Chuck Grassley (R)

Representatives:

  • Bruce Braley (D) - First District
  • Dave Loebsack (D) - Second District
  • Leonard Boswell (D) - Third District
  • Tom Latham (R) - Fourth District
  • Steve King (R) - Fifth District

Economy

[[File:|thumb|left|200px|A farm in Iowa]] There are many farms in Iowa. Iowa is well-known for its agriculture. Its main agricultural outputs are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle, and dairy products. Its industrial outputs include food processing and machinery. Iowa also produces more ethanol fuel than any other U.S. state.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-6. 
  2. Iowa’s borders are defined in the Preamble to the state Constitution, http://www.legis.state.ia.us/Constitution.html#pre1 The Missouri and Mississippi river boundaries are as they were mapped in the 19th century, which can be different than their modern courses.
  3. State of Missouri v. State of Iowa, 48 U.S. (7 How.) 688 (1896).
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

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