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Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Flag Coat of arms
MottoIndependence, Freedom, Islamic Republic
AnthemNational Anthem of Iran²
Capital
(and largest city)
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Official language(s) Persian
Recognised regional languages .Azeri, Kurdish, Luri, Mazandarani, Gilaki, Baluchi and Arabic.^ (The Pentagon has established covert relationships with Kurdish, Azeri, and Baluchi tribesmen, and has encouraged their efforts to undermine the regimes authority in northern and southeastern Iran.
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Demonym Iranian
Government Islamic republic (a "theocratic republic".[1])
 -  Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
 -  President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
 -  First Vice President Mohammad-Reza Rahimi
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Ali Larijani
Unification[2]
 -  Median Empire 625 BC 
 -  Parthian Empire 247 BC 
 -  Safavid Empire 1501[3] 
 -  Islamic Republic declared 1 April 1979 
Area
 -  Total 1,648,195 km2 (18th)
636,372 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2009 estimate 74,196,000[4] (18th)
 -  2006 census 70,495,782 
 -  Density 45/km2 (163rd)
116.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $830.058 billion[5] (17th)
 -  Per capita $11,202[5] (73rd)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $331.757 billion[5] (29th)
 -  Per capita $4,477[5] (87th)
Gini (2008) 38[6] (medium
HDI (2007) 0.782 (medium) (88th)
Currency Rial (ريال) (IRR)
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 -  Summer (DST) Iran Daylight Time (IRDT) (UTC+4:30)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ir
Calling code 98
1 Bookrags.com
2 Iranchamber.com
3 Statistical Center of Iran. "جمعيت و متوسط رشد سالانه" (in Persian). .http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci/sci/SEL/f02/2.1.html.^ Retrieved from " http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Persia " Categories : PEO-PET .

Retrieved 2009-02-13
.
 
4 CIA Factbook
.Iran (Persian: ایران [ʔiˈɾɒn]  ( listen)), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran[7] is a country in Western Asia.^ As for terror, al-Qaida boss Ayman Zawahiri's recent tirade against the Islamic Republic notwithstanding, Iran has apparently intensified its cooperation with al-Qaida.
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^ In contrast, Iran's nuclear facilities, which are officially described as intended only for civilian purposes, are dispersed around the country and some are in fortified bunkers underground.
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^ (Urartu, Ararat), in the country which has since borne their name; and the entry of the Cappadociansfirst mentioned in the Persian periodinto the east of Asia Minor.

[8] .The name Iran has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use in the Western world in 1935, before which the country was widely known as Persia.^ Tell Iran and the world that you have 'em and will use 'em!
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^ It was in Fath Ali Shahs reign that Henry Martyn was in Persia, and completed his able translation of the New Testament into the language of that country.

^ Before the new coinage came into use (1877) the proportion of pure silver was from 92 to 9~%; subsequently the proportion was for some time 90%; now it is about 894%.

.Both Persia and Iran are used interchangeably in cultural contexts; however, Iran is the name used officially in political contexts.^ Israel should however use any and all weapons other than nukes to destroy Irans nuke facilities.
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^ However, both deployments would be useful to deter or defend against retaliatory missile strikes from Iran if the Israelis or the United States bomb Irans nuclear facilities or stage military raids inside Iranian territory.
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^ Israeli intelligence, however, has also failed to provide specific evidence about secret sites in Iran, according to current and former military and intelligence officials.
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[9][10] The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means "Land of the Aryans".[11][12][13]
.The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², Iran has a population of over 70 million.^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
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^ Add in its location, its population of nearly 70 million (the largest in the Middle East) and its ambitions to regional leadership, and the significance of Iran's future international role is undeniable.
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^ With a population of close to 70 million, more than 70 percent of which is literate, a vibrant culture, and a geographic spread from Central Asia and the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf, Iran is today a rising power in the Middle East.
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[14] .It is a country of particular geostrategic significance owing to its location in the Middle East and central Eurasia.^ Israel should remain the only country in the middle east with nukes.
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^ Add in its location, its population of nearly 70 million (the largest in the Middle East) and its ambitions to regional leadership, and the significance of Iran's future international role is undeniable.
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^ It would give full justification for any middle east country to develop nukes as a deterent to Israel's nuclear force.
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Iran is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. .As Iran is a littoral state of the Caspian Sea, which is an inland sea and condominium, Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbors to the north.^ The Bush Administration, she said, would be willing to join Russia, China, and its European allies in direct talks with Iran about its nuclear program.
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^ We cannot allow North Korea, Iran, Iraq or similar states to undermine American leadership, intimidate American allies or threaten the American homeland itself.
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^ After Russia, the neighboring state next in importance to the well-being of Persia was Turkey, with whom she was united on the west by a common line of frontier.

.Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq and on the northwest by Turkey.^ Khorasan to the Perso-Afghan border, its western limit being indicated by a long line to the northwest from near Shiraz, taking in the whole upper country to the Russian frontier and the Elburz; (2) the provinces south and south-west of the Caspian; (3) a narrow strip of wooded country south-west of the Zagros range, from the Diyala River in Turkey in Asia to Shiraz; (4) the Persian side of the Shatt-el-Arab, and Aralictan, east of the Tigris; and (5) the shores of the Persian Gulf and Baluchistan.

^ Advocates of an American invasion of Iran say that last months strengthening of the American armada in the Persian Gulf has frightened the Iranian regime.
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^ One was US concern over Iran's likely retaliation, which would probably include a wave of attacks on US military and other personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as on shipping in the Persian Gulf.
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.Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation.^ Over the past two decades, Tehran has nurtured cultural, economic, and political ties with various regional forces, most notably the Shiites of Iraq.
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^ Reference may thus be made to the model of volontarily and conventionally submitting a politically sensitive national facility to sovereign control by a friendly foreign country.
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^ Farhad Kazemi, Politics and Culture in Iran (Ann Arbor: Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1988).
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.Iran is a regional power,[15][16] and holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.^ The plutonium issue is one of several over which the United Nations Security Council has imposed sanctions to get Iran to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the watchdog that is investigating American charges that Iran is covertly developing nuclear weapons.
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^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
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^ In any other country this man would have been spurned as a swindler; here he holds a high position in the mercantile world and at court.

.Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations.^ I hope the Nations of the World tells Iran they can't have Nuclear Weapons or continue to taunt Israel!
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^ Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the World: Continuity in a Revolutionary Decade (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the World: Continuity in a Revolutionary Decade (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[17][18][19] .The first Iranian dynasty formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BCE. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BCE.[2] They were succeeded by the Iranian Achaemenid Empire, the Hellenic Seleucid Empire and two subsequent Iranian empires, the Parthians and the Sassanids, before the Muslim conquest in 651 CE. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau.^ Again, they perpetuate the traditions of the Achaemenid Empire.

^ The Parthian Empire, as founded by the conquests of Mithradates I. and restored, once by Mithradates II. and again by Phraates III., was, to all exterior appearance, a conOrganizatinuation of the Achaemenid dominion.

^ Consequently, also, the language and writing of the Parthian period, which are retained under the Sassanids, received the name Pahksvi, i.e.

Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids.
The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics and art became major elements of Muslim civilization and started with the Saffarids and Samanids. .Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty[3]—who promoted Twelver Shi'a Islam[20] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.^ The wreck of Xerxes expedition is the turning-point in the history of the Persian Empire.

^ This event brings us to one of the most interesting periods of Persian history, any account of which must be defective without a prefatory sketch of Ismail Sufi.

^ Buddhism and Zoroastrianism have been wedded in the state religion, and, in characteristic rndian fashion, are on the best of terms with one another, precisely as, in the Chinese Empire at the present day, we find the most varied religions, side by side, and on an equal footing.

[21] ."Persia's Constitutional Revolution" established the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy.^ The first are the invaders from Toorkistan, who, from time immemorial, have established themselves in Persia, and who still preserve their language.

^ Constitution and Government.Up to the year 1906 the government of Persia was an absolute monarchy, and resembled in its principal features that of the Ottoman Empire, with the exception, however, that the monarch was not the religious head of the community.

^ Such is the beginning of the free press to be established in Persia five hundred years hence; for within any less period it is hopeless.

.Iran officially became an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979, following the Iranian Revolution.^ Mehrdad Valibeigi, "Banking and Credit Rationing under the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iranian Studies 25:3-4 (1992): 51-66.
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^ Ziba Mir-Hosseini, "Religious Modernists and the 'Woman Question'," in Eric Hoogland, ed., Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transformation in Iran since 1979 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), pp.
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^ America and Iran have been at loggerheads ever since Ayatollah Khomeini's revolution of 1979.
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[22][23]
Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. .The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies.^ Dariush Gitisetan, Iran, politics and government under the Pahlavis: an annotated bibliography (London: Scarecrew, 1985).
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^ The newly minted government faced severe, real-life tests after Saddam Hussein's troops invaded Iran in 1980.
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^ Formed in 1979 by clerics who did not trust Iran's existing army, the Revolutionary Guards have grown into a major force in Iran's economy and political offices.
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.The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader.^ The presidency is a relatively weak position with no official authority over foreign policy, the domain of the supreme leader.
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^ Politicians rise and fall, but the supreme leader's authority remains supreme.
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.Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language.^ Zend is the language of the so-called Ayes/a,3 the holy book of the Persians, containing the oldest documents of the religion of Zoroaster.

^ Not till the time of Artaxerxes II. were Mithra and Anaitis received into the official religion of the Persian kings.

[24]

Contents

Name

.The term Iran (ایران) in modern Persian derives from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānā, first attested in Zoroastrianism's Avesta tradition.^ Advocates of an American invasion of Iran say that last months strengthening of the American armada in the Persian Gulf has frightened the Iranian regime.
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^ Farzin Vahdat, "Mehdi Haeri Yazdi and the Discourse of Modernity," in Ramin Jahanbegloo, ed., Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004), pp.
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^ Mohammad Faghfoory, "The Impact of Modernization on the Ulama of Iran, 1925-1941," Iranian Studies 26 (Summer/Fall 1993): 277-312.
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[25] Ariya- and Airiia- are also attested as an ethnic designator in Achaemenid inscriptions. The term Ērān, from Middle Persian Ērān (written as ʼyrʼn) is found on the inscription that accompanies the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam.[26] .In this inscription, the king's appellation in Middle Persian contains the term ērān (Pahlavi ʼryʼn), while in the Parthian language inscription that accompanies it, the term aryān describes Iran.^ Only towards the end of the Parthian sasty and after the rise of the Sassanians, under whom the national ditions were again cultivated in Persia, do we recover the lost Ces of the Persian language in the Pahlavi inscriptions and rature.

^ With such materials the cuneiform script could not be used; instead, the Persian language was written in, Aramaic characters, a method which later led to the so-called Pahlavi, i.e.

^ In Cappadocia, Aramaic inscriptions have been discovered (1900), in which the indigenous god, there termed Bel the king, recognizes the Mazdayasnian Religion (Din Mazdayasnish)i.e.

.In Ardeshir's time, ērān retained this meaning, denoting the people rather than the state.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
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^ His ifi-starred father, at no time more than a nominal ruler, was at Shiraz, apparently deserted by soldiers and people.

^ Clerics I spoke to from the traditional conservative camp associated with Khamenei were paternalistic in their view of the state rather than outright authoritarian.
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.Notwithstanding this inscriptional use of ērān to refer to the Iranian peoples, the use of ērān to refer to the geographical empire is also attested in the early Sassanid period.^ As has already been indicated, it was in their religious attitudes that the essential difference lay between the Sassanid Empire and the older Iranian states.

An inscription relating to Shapur I, Ardashir's son and immediate successor, includes regions which were not inhabited primarily by Iranians in Ērān regions, such as Armenia and the Caucasus."[27] In Kartir's inscriptions the high priest includes the same regions in his list of provinces of the antonymic Anērān.[27] Both ērān and aryān come from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānām, (Land) of the (Iranian) Aryas. .The word and concept of Airyanem Vaejah is present in the name of the country Iran (Lit.^ In Herodotus their place is taken by the Pactyans, whose name survives to the present day in the word Pushtu , with which the Afghans denote their language (Herod.

.Land of the Aryans) inasmuch as Iran (Ērān) is the modern Persian form of the word Aryānā.^ Stephanie Cronin, "Modernity and Rural Resistance in Iran: Southern Tribal Uprisings of 1929," Studies in Persianate Societies 1 (2003/1382): 57-81.
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^ The whole country is designated Ariana (Zend, Airyana) the land Descent of the Aryans the original of the Middle-Persian of the Eran and the modern Iran; the Greek geo- 1rau1ma~ui~, graphers Eratosthenes and Strabo were in error when they limited the name to the eastern districts of Iran.

^ Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak, Recasting Persian Poetry: Scenarios of Poetic Modernity in Iran (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995).
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.Since Sassanian era the country has been known to its own people as Iran; however, to the western world, the official name of Iran from the 6th century BCE until 1935 was Persia or similar foreign language translations (La Perse, Persien, Perzie, etc.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
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^ Turkey, however, is a fair parellel with Persia, from the similarity of manners, religion, and race.

^ An inroad of Turks, therefore, backed though it may be by the name and reputation of England and France, will have little allurement for people in their condition, who, from similarity of religion, hardly feel their conquerors to be foreigners.

).[9] .In that year, Reza Shah asked the international community to call the country by the name "Iran". A few years later, some Persian scholars protested to the government that changing the name had separated the country from its past, so in 1949[9][10] Mohammad Reza Shah announced that both terms could officially be used interchangeably.^ In 1897 M. J. de Morgan, who had been on a scientific mission in Persia some years before and later in Egypt, was appointed chief of a mission to Persia, and began work at Susa in December.

^ The US hopes that an attack on Iran will inevitably result in a chaos in the country, and that it will be possible to bribe some of the Iranian generals and thus to create a fifth column in the country.
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^ The change in personnel signified also a transfer of superintendence of the Persian legation, which passed from the government in India to the authorities in England.

.Now both terms are common, but "Iran" is used mostly in the modern political context and "Persia" in a cultural and historical context.^ Arsacids now began to assume the old title king of kings (the s/iahanshah of modern Persia),though previously their coins, as a rule, had borne only the legend great king.

^ Though fallen from its high estate, even now Tabreez is considered one of the finest cities in Persia, both in population and wealth.

^ "Because now the major threat for both Iran and the U.S.A. is al Qaeda."
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Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the official name of the country has been the "Islamic Republic of Iran."

Geography and climate

Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Mazanderan.
Simplified Climatic Map of Iran      Caspian Mild      Mountains      Desert and Semi-Desert
.Iran is the eighteenth largest country in the world,[28] with an area of 1,648,000 km2 (636,000 sq mi).^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
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^ Taking the area of Persia at 628,000 sq.

[29] .Its area roughly equals that of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined, or somewhat more than the US state of Alaska.^ He was then fifty-seven years of age, and had ruled over part of Persia for more than eighteen yearsover the kingdom generally for about three years, and from his coronation for about one year only.

^ More fortunate than poor Stoddart and Conolly in their expedition to the rival Uzbek state of Bokhara, Mr. Thomson returned in safety from his perilous undertaking.

^ All classes enjoy abundance of liberty, more so, I think, than among us.

[30] .Its borders are with Azerbaijan (432 km/268 mi) and Armenia (35 km/22 mi) to the north-west; the Caspian Sea to the north; Turkmenistan (992 km/616 mi) to the north-east; Pakistan (909 km/565 mi) and Afghanistan (936 km/582 mi) to the east; Turkey (499 km/310 mi) and Iraq (1,458 km/906 mi) to the west; and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.^ Khorasan to the Perso-Afghan border, its western limit being indicated by a long line to the northwest from near Shiraz, taking in the whole upper country to the Russian frontier and the Elburz; (2) the provinces south and south-west of the Caspian; (3) a narrow strip of wooded country south-west of the Zagros range, from the Diyala River in Turkey in Asia to Shiraz; (4) the Persian side of the Shatt-el-Arab, and Aralictan, east of the Tigris; and (5) the shores of the Persian Gulf and Baluchistan.

^ (I) into the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, 135,000 sq.

^ For the provinces remaining tinsubdued on the extreme frontiers to the west, the north and the east are in their view almost negligible quantities.

.Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan.^ The Caspian Sea washes the coasts of the Persian provinces of Talish, Geelan, Mazenderan, Asterabad, and Persian Toorkomania.

^ The real lowlands are the tracts near the sea-coast belonging to the forest-clad provinces of the Caspian in the north and the shores of the Persian Gulf below Basra and elsewhere.

^ Ali Geranmayeh, "The Caspian Sea in Iranian History and Politics," Central Asian Quarterly 2:3 (Summer 1995).
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.It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another.^ "It's the most unusual relationship we have with any country in the world," explains US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns.
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^ These mountains (the first range of them we crossed immediately after leaving the Cheshmeh Aalā) separate Tehran from the Caspian.

^ These ladies have each a separate little establishment, and some a separate court from the rest, but all the courts have a communication with one another.

.The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros and Alborz Mountains; the last contains Iran's highest point, Mount Damavand at 5,610 m (18,405 ft), which is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.^ Shahan Kuh, Kuh-iGerra, Zardeh Kuh and Kuh-i-Karan (by some writers called Kuh-i-Rang), all in the Bakhtiari country west of Isfahan, are 12,800 to 13,000 ft.

^ In contrast, Iran's nuclear facilities, which are officially described as intended only for civilian purposes, are dispersed around the country and some are in fortified bunkers underground.
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^ The Saudis are driven by their fear that Iran could tilt the balance of power not only in the region but within their own country.
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[31]
.The Northern part of Iran is covered by dense rain forests called Shomal or the Jungles of Iran.^ The Democratic victories this month led to a surge of calls for the Administration to begin direct talks with Iran, in part to get its help in settling the conflict in Iraq.
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^ When Hezbollah led street demonstrations in Beirut in December, John Bolton, who was then the U.S. Ambassador to the U.N., called them part of the Iran-Syria-inspired coup.
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^ Despite this revelation and despite having called Iran part of the Axis of Evil in his State of the Union that year President Bush continued to focus on Iraq.
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.The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert, in the north-central portion of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut, in the east, as well as some salt lakes.^ To do this, he must convince Europe, China and Russia that a nuclear Iran will be catastrophic for Middle East stability as well as for their own economies.
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^ I have been able to see the anderoons or harams of the Shah and some of the principal personages of his Court; and to judge, to a certain extent, with my own eyes, of the condition of women in that portion of the East.

^ According to him, the whole land is divided into two portions–one being desert with salt, and the other desert without salt.

.This is because the mountain ranges are too high for rain clouds to reach these regions.^ That range places Israel, Iran's sworn enemy, well within reach, as well as U.S. bases in the Gulf region and parts of southeastern Europe.
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^ I had on a previous occasion seen these fountains, which take their rise in a small basin at the summit of very high mountains.

^ With their range of 1,300 kilometers, Shihab-3 missiles are capable of reaching Israel and other countries throughout the region.
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.The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran borders the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab (or the Arvand Rūd) river.^ The Iranian navy will now be deployed only in the Gulf of Oman and along the Caspian Sea.
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^ Along the shores of the Caspian, particularly in Gilan and Mazandaran , and of the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Shatt el Arab down to Bander Abbasi, the air during a great part of the year contains much moisturedry- and wet-bulb thermometers at times indicating the same temperatureand at nights there are heavy falls of dew .

^ Khorasan to the Perso-Afghan border, its western limit being indicated by a long line to the northwest from near Shiraz, taking in the whole upper country to the Russian frontier and the Elburz; (2) the provinces south and south-west of the Caspian; (3) a narrow strip of wooded country south-west of the Zagros range, from the Diyala River in Turkey in Asia to Shiraz; (4) the Persian side of the Shatt-el-Arab, and Aralictan, east of the Tigris; and (5) the shores of the Persian Gulf and Baluchistan.

.Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Sea of Oman.^ It is widely believed that Iran would respond to an attack by blockading the Strait of Hormuz, a 20-mile-wide narrows in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf through which about 40 percent of the world's oil exports are transported.
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^ The small sandy island of Ashoorada is situated in the gulf or bay of Asterabad, about twelve miles from the coast nearest to that city, which is twenty miles from the sea.

^ (I) into the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, 135,000 sq.

.Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests.^ Iran has more than seven hundred undeclared dock and port facilities along its Persian Gulf coast.
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^ There are no towns; the villages are built along the coast, but are not very numerous; the houses are dispersed through the forest, which is not thick and reaches close to the sea.

^ The real lowlands are the tracts near the sea-coast belonging to the forest-clad provinces of the Caspian in the north and the shores of the Persian Gulf below Basra and elsewhere.

.On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year.^ The thermometer falls to 27° below zero, Fahrenheit; and nevertheless wheat and barley are produced in abundance in the ample plain or valley below.

Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (85 °F).[32][33] .Annual precipitation is 680 mm (27 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (67 in) in the western part.^ He was then fifty-seven years of age, and had ruled over part of Persia for more than eighteen yearsover the kingdom generally for about three years, and from his coronation for about one year only.

^ Gipsies are found in all parts of Persia, but in Geelan they are more numerous than elsewhere.

^ Time and violence have done their work; although it is supposed that research among its ruins would bring to light more antiquities than are to be found in any part of the Crimea.

To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. .The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (eight in) of rain, and have occasional deserts.^ But the Persians say, and with justice, that an occasional chepawool of these pirates was less irksome than the presence and interference of consul and commodore.

^ In Tajrish, an election official told me that he had seen just 200 voters far fewer than in the presidential election less than two years ago.
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[33] Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100 °F). .The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers.^ Advocates of an American invasion of Iran say that last months strengthening of the American armada in the Persian Gulf has frightened the Iranian regime.
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^ The southern boundary is the coast line of the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf from Gwetter to the mouth of the Shatt el Arab, a distance of about 870 m., comprised Southern , .

^ Stephanie Cronin, "Modernity and Rural Resistance in Iran: Southern Tribal Uprisings of 1929," Studies in Persianate Societies 1 (2003/1382): 57-81.
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The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (five to fourteen inches).[33]
.Iran's wildlife is composed of several animal species including bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynx, and foxes.^ Among the wild animals are the lion , tiger, leopard , lynx , brown bear , hyena , hog, badger , porcupine , pole -cat, weasel , marten , wolf , jackal , fox , hare , wild ass, wild sheep, wild cat, mountaingoat, gazelle and deer.

^ Lynxes and bears were to be found in the same vicinity, and the wild pig was both numerous and destructive.

.Domestic animals include, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels.^ Cromwell exclaim; but I say, "The Lord deliver me from Turkish Armenia, its subterranean dwellings and their blinding smoke, with cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, asses, horses, fleas, bugs, and other small deer unmentionable, for companions and comrades!"

^ They consist of stables of vast extent, sunk under ground, and filled with buffaloes, cows, sheep, horses, poultry; here the family live, and here too we lived.

^ There were camels, horses, asses, sheep, cattle, cats, dogs, men, women, and children.

The pheasant, partridge, stork, eagles and falcon are also native to Iran.

Provinces and cities

.Iran is divided into thirty provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (استاندار, ostāndār).^ In the important provinces and subprovinces the governors are assisted by a man of experience, to whom the accounts and details of the government are entrusted.

^ The Aryans of Iran are divided into numerous tribes; these, again, being subdivided into minor tribes and clans.

^ The great majority of the civilized provinces were subdivided into local administrative districts governed by officials of the king and his satraps.

.The provinces are divided into counties (shahrestān), and subdivided into districts (bakhsh) and sub-districts (dehestān).^ The Aryans of Iran are divided into numerous tribes; these, again, being subdivided into minor tribes and clans.

^ The great majority of the civilized provinces were subdivided into local administrative districts governed by officials of the king and his satraps.

^ The political divisions of Persia, provinces, sub-provinces, districts, &c., ruled by, hakims number over 200 (cf.

Iran has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%.[34] The United Nations predicts that by 2030, 80% of the population will be urban.[35] .Most internal migrants have settled near the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom.^ In this way the inhabitants of the immense city of Reï, near Tehran, were exterminated.

^ Isfahan was then one of the most magnificent cities in Asia, containing more than 600,000 inhabitants.

The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[36] .Tehran, with a population of 7,705,036, is the largest city in Iran and is the Capital.^ Add in its location, its population of nearly 70 million (the largest in the Middle East) and its ambitions to regional leadership, and the significance of Iran's future international role is undeniable.
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Tehran is home to around 11% of Iran's population. .Tehran, like many big cities, suffers from severe air pollution.^ Hassan A. Ronaghy, "Major Source of Air Pollution in Iranian Cities," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 17:1 (April 2001): 56-65.
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It is the hub of the country's communication and transport network.
.Mashhad, with a population of 2,410,800, is the second largest Iranian city and the centre of the province of Razavi Khorasan.^ He occupied the K ~rm&in city of Kerman, then a flourishing commercial town, e half-way between the Persian Gulf and the province of Khorasan.

.Mashhad is one of the holiest Shi'a cities in the world as it is the site of the Imam Reza shrine.^ It possesses some interest as being the site of one of the cities near which Mark Antony is supposed to have passed in his retreat from Persia.

.It is the centre of tourism in Iran and between 15 and 20 million pilgrims go to the Imam Reza's shrine every year.^ (Iran lost nearly 1 million citizens between 1980 and 1988 without blinking.
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^ Since then, Swiss good offices represent US interests in Iran and Swiss diplomats serve as go-betweens (and more, if desired).
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^ They ignored warnings from the intelligence community about the ties between Iraqi Shiite leaders and Iran, where some had lived in exile for years.
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[37][38]
.Another major Iranian city is Isfahan (population 1,583,609), which is the capital of Isfahan Province.^ Hassan A. Ronaghy, "Major Source of Air Pollution in Iranian Cities," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 17:1 (April 2001): 56-65.
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^ Taheri, 80, said during an interview at his bedside in the central Iranian city of Isfahan that "taking weapons of mass destruction as a whole, I'm against it."
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The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city contains a wide variety of Islamic architectural sites ranging from the eleventh to the 19th century. .The growth of the suburban area around the city has turned Isfahan into Iran's second most populous metropolitan area (3,430,353).^ He related this to concerns that Iran or Syria might decide to turn Lebanon into a theatre of conflict.
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^ The rhetoric between the United States and Iran has intensified of late, with Washington most recently blaming Tehran for funneling weapons into Iraq.
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^ The only gamble that could turn things around is removal of Iran as a regional influence.
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[39]
.The fourth major city of Iran is Tabriz (population 1,378,935), the capital of the East Azerbaijan provience.^ The chief events of his reign were a successful war against Tatar invaders and the substitution of the new city of Sultania as capital ror Tabriz, which had been Ghazans headquarters.

^ Farzin Sarabi, "The post-Khomeini era in Iran: The elections of the Fourth Islamic Majles," Middle East Journal 48:1 (Winter 1994).
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^ Add in its location, its population of nearly 70 million (the largest in the Middle East) and its ambitions to regional leadership, and the significance of Iran's future international role is undeniable.
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It is also the second industrial city of Iran after Tehran. .Tabriz had been the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s and one of its former capitals and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty.^ The governorship of the province of Azerbaijan was an exception until the end of ioo, being always held by the Valiahd, heir apparent, or crown prince.

^ The last-named Persian poet was apparently one of the earliest eulogists of the Seljul~s, and it was under this Turkish dynasty Bncomiasts that lyrical romanticism rose to the highest pitch .

^ Shiva Balaghi, "Print Culture in Late Qajar Iran: the Cartoons of Kashk_l ," Iranian Studies 34:1-4 (2001): 165-182.
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.The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history.^ When I visited recently with Mr. Peres, who is now Israels president, I asked him if there is a chance that his country has over-learned the lessons of Jewish history.
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.The fifth major city is Karaj (population 1,377,450), located in Tehran province and situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountains; however, the city is increasingly becoming an extension of metropolitan Tehran.^ Naturally, however, the wild tribes of the mountains and deserts, who could be curbed only by strict imperial control, asserted their independence and harassed the neighboring provinces.

^ In other words, it would seem that Tehran is becoming increasingly isolated and is looking for support, which could explain the idea for the international conference, he said.
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.The sixth major Iranian city is Shiraz (population 1,214,808); it is the capital of Fars Province.^ Hassan A. Ronaghy, "Major Source of Air Pollution in Iranian Cities," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 17:1 (April 2001): 56-65.
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^ J.I. Clarke, The Iranian City of Shiraz , University of Durham, Department of Geography, Research Paper 7, 1963.
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The Elamite civilization to the west greatly influenced the area which soon came to be known as Persis. .The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in or near Shiraz.^ The Persian Empire under Hulagu and his descendants extended from the dominions of Jagatai on the north to that of the Egyptian dynasts on the south, and from the Byzantine Empire on the west to the confines of China.

^ Hulagu at Once proceeded to destroy a number of nascent dynasties which endeavoured to establish themselves on the ruins of the Khwarizm Empire; about 1255 he destroyed the dynasty of the i by the capture of their stronghold of Alamut (Eagles Nest ), and finally in 1258 captured Bagdad.

^ To most of the provinces the Achaemenid dominion was synonymous with two centuries of peace and order.

Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire and is situated 70 km northeast of modern Shiraz. UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis as a World Heritage Site in 1979.
Cities by population

Rank City Province Population in 2006 Rank City Province Population in 2006
1 Tehran Tehran 7,705,036 10 Urmia West Azerbaijan 583,255
2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 2,427,316 11 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 552,706
3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,602,110 12 Rasht Gilan 551,161
4 Tabriz East Azerbaijan 1,398,060 13 Kerman Kerman 496,684
5 Karaj Tehran 1,377,450 14 Hamedan Hamedan 473,149
6 Shiraz Fars 1,227,311 15 Arak Markazi 438,338
7 Ahvaz Khuzestan 969,843 16 Yazd Yazd 423,006
8 Qom Qom 951,918 17 Ardabil Ardabil 412,669
9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 784,602 18 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 367,508

History

Early history (9000 BCE – 625 BCE)

19th century reconstruction of a map of the world by Eratosthenes, c.200 BCE. The name Ariana (Aryânâ) was used to describe the region where the Iranian Plateau is found.
.Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BCE,[40][41][42] centuries before the earliest civilizations arose in nearby Mesopotamia.^ Younes P. Benab, "Tabriz in Perspective: A Historical Analysis of the Current Struggle of Iranian Peoples," RIPEH 2:2 (June 1978): 1-42.
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[43] .Proto-Iranians first emerged following the separation of Indo-Iranians, and are traced to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.^ Some scholarl attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group.

^ The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel .

[44] .Aryan, (Proto-Iranian) tribes arrived in the Iranian plateau in the third and second millennium BCE, probably in more than one wave of emigration, and settled as nomads.^ More by good luck than good guiding I was happy to find, on reaching the end of the passage I had selected, that it was the right one, and the lad who had guided me waiting my return.

^ One in my possession is adorned with the following,–"I am sharper than the wit of Plato: I am more murderous than the eyebrow of a young damsel."

^ Dead dogs, and here and there a dead horse half eaten, offended more than one sense.

.Further separation of Proto-Iranians into "Eastern" and "Western" groups occurred due to migration.^ Some scholarl attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group.

^ The inhabitants of Persis properfrom which the eastern tribes of Carmanians, Utians, &c., were excluded and Th formed into a separate satrapypay no taxes.

.By the first millennium BCE, Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the western part, while Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea.^ The inhabitants of these spacious territories carry on an extensive commerce, in part with the Persian ports on that sea, in part with the Russian districts on its northern and western shores.

^ The first district comprises most of the south-western provinces and the whole of the coast region as far east as Gwetter; the second relates to the tracts west, south and east of the southern part of the Caspian Sea.

^ The real lowlands are the tracts near the sea-coast belonging to the forest-clad provinces of the Caspian in the north and the shores of the Persian Gulf below Basra and elsewhere.

.Other tribes began to settle on the eastern edge, as far as on the mountainous frontier of north-western Indian subcontinent and into the area which is now Balochistan.^ He strengthened his position in Khorasan by planting colonies of Kurdish horsemen on the frontier, or along what is called the atak or skirt of the Turkoman mountains north of Persia.

^ The Uxians, moreover, with the Cossaeans and other mountain tribes, maintained their independence exactly as under the later Achaemenids (Strabo xvi.

^ Shamil in Persia is regarded as chief of the Lezgees, a tribe, the fiercest among these mountaineers, who inhabit the tracts towards the Caspian, at the eastern extremity of the Caucasus.

.Others, such as the Scythian tribes spread as far west as the Balkans and as far east as Xinjiang.^ Among others the wandering Turkish tribes in Fars have the credit of possessing good steeds.

^ Soon, however, the nomads (Dahae) gained their independence, and, as we have seen, repeatedly attacked and devastated the Parthian Empire in conjunction with the Tocharians and other tribes of Sacae and Scythians.

Avestan is an eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Gathas in c. 1000 BCE.

Pre-Islamic statehood (625 BCE – 651 CE)

The Cyrus Cylinder a document issued by Cyrus the Great and regarded by some as a charter of human rights.
.The Medes are credited with the unification[2] of Iran as a nation and empire (625[2]–559  BCE), the largest of its day, until Cyrus the Great established a unified empire of the Medes and Persians leading to the Achaemenid Empire (559–330  BCE), and further unification between peoples and cultures.^ Simultaneously there arose in the East the powerful Indo-Scythian empire of the Kushana, which doubtless limited still further the Parthian possessions in eastern Iran.

^ The empire, which in extent did not exceed that of the Arsacids with its vassal states, was protected on the east and west by the great Mlii deserts of central Iran and Mesopotamia.

^ Although the Arsacids are strangers to any deep religious interest (in contrast to the Achaemenids and Sassanids), they acknowledge the Persian gods and the leading tenets of Zoroastrianism.

.After Cyrus' death, his son Cambyses continued his father's work of conquest, making significant gains in Egypt.^ The east of Iran was further subdued, and, after Cyrus met his end (528 B.C.) in a war against the eastern Nomads (Dahae, Massagetae ), his son Cambyses conquered Egypt (525 B.C.).

^ The extent of the Persian Empire was, in essentials, defined by the great conquests of Cyrus and Cambyses.

^ Within the empire, the two great civilized states incorporated by Cyrus and Cambyses, Babylon and Egypt, occupied a position of their own.

.Following a power struggle after Cambyses' death, Darius I was declared king (ruled 522–486 BCE).^ After his defeat of Nabonidus, Cyrus ~ proclaimed himself King of Babel ; and the same title was born by Cambyses, Smerdis and Darius.

.Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire eventually became the largest and most powerful empire in human history up until that point.^ The wreck of Xerxes expedition is the turning-point in the history of the Persian Empire.

^ History of the Achaemenian Empire.The history of the Persian Empire was often written by the Greeks.

^ The Persian Empire under Hulagu and his descendants extended from the dominions of Jagatai on the north to that of the Egyptian dynasts on the south, and from the Byzantine Empire on the west to the confines of China.

[45] .The borders of the Persian empire stretched from the Indus and Oxus Rivers in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west, extending through Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and Egypt.^ He had extended his boundary on the east to the Indus, and to the Oxus on the north.

^ The centre of force in Persian politics now changes from west to east.

^ Thus the task now faced them of annexing the remainder of the Macedonian Empire, the whole East from the Euphrates to the Indus, and of thereby saving Greek civilization (cf.

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, at about 500 BCE
.In 499 BCE Athens lent support to a revolt in Miletus which resulted in the sacking of Sardis.^ Nevertheless, Darius left European Greece to itself, till the support accorded to the ronian and Carian insurgents by Athens and Eretria (499 B.C.) made war inevitable.

.This led to an Achaemenid campaign against Greece known as the Greco-Persian Wars which lasted the first half of the 5th century BCE. During the Greco-Persian wars Persia made some major advances and razed Athens in 480 BCE, but after a string of Greek victories the Persians were forced to withdraw.^ Persia has already made some advance.

^ Like the Greek drama and the mysteries of the European middle ages , it is the offspringof purely religious ceremony, which for centuries has been performed annually during the first ten days of the month Muharramthe recital of mournful lamentations in memory of the tragic fate of the house of the caliph All, the hero of the Shiitic Persians.

^ In this house, built expressly for the accommodation of the Russian representative, was signed the treaty which, twenty-eight years ago, concluded the last war between Russia and Persia.

Fighting ended with the peace of Callias in 449 BCE.
.The rules and ethics emanating from Zoroaster's teachings were strictly followed by the Achaemenids who introduced and adopted policies based on human rights, equality and banning of slavery.^ The latter prince was the worthier of the throne, but the other better suited the policy of the eunuchs and those noblemen who had the right of election.

^ The interpretation of the Persian seiform, the character and dialect of which were equally known, was begun by G. F. Grotefend, who was followed by Burnouf, Sir Henry Rawlinson and J. Oppert.

.Zoroastrianism spread unimposed during the time of the Achaemenids and through contacts with the exiled Jewish people in Babylon freed by Cyrus, Zoroastrian concepts further propagated and influenced the Abrahamic religions.^ You represent a nation whose ancient Persian forebearsthemselves migrants from Europeconquered Babylon and freed the Jewish people from captivity, permitting their return to the Land of Israel after the destruction of the first Jewish state.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe that the U.S. is at risk for such an attack because she has abandoned the Israeli people during a critical time of need.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Cyrus himself gave the exiled Jews in Babylon permission to return and rebuildJerusalem.

.The Golden Age of Athens marked by Aristotle, Plato and Socrates also came about during the Achaemenid period while their contacts with Persia and the Near East abounded.^ It possesses some interest as being the site of one of the cities near which Mark Antony is supposed to have passed in his retreat from Persia.

^ Fath ~Ali Shah came to the throne at about thirty-two years of age, and died at sixty-eight, after a reign of thirty-six years.

^ July .-Summer in Persia, as I have already described, is most wearisome, but this year was a more than ordinary trial during our period of banishment.

.The peace, tranquility, security and prosperity that were afforded to the people of the Near East and Southeastern Europe proved to be a rare historical occurrence, an unparalleled period where commerce prospered, and the standard of living for all people of the region improved.^ "If we improve the standard of living, that will unite the people, and that will bring security."
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abagha was a peaceful ruler and endeavoured by wise administration to give order and prosperity to a country torn asunder by a long period of intestine war and the Mongol invasion.

^ Strolling about the heights near the town later in the evening, we were shown, far to the north-east, the hills where Shamil was said to be living in defiance of the Emperor of all the Russias.

[46]
.In 334 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded the Achaemenid Empire, defeating the last Achaemenid Emperor Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333 BCE. He left the annexed territory in 328–327. In each of the former Achaemenid territories he installed his own officers as caretakers, which led to friction and ultimately to the partitioning of the former empire after Alexander's death, and the subsequent formation of the Seleucid Empire.^ After capturing Alamoot, for thirty-five years he never left that fortress, and twice only did he move from the chamber whence issued his mandates of death.

.The Parthian Empire (238 BCE–226 CE), led by the Arsacid Dynasty, was the third Iranian kingdom to dominate the Iranian plateau, after defeating the Greek Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca.^ Robert Grant Watson, A history of Persia from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the year 1858 with a review of the principal events that led to the establishment of the Kajar dynasty (London: Smith, Elder and co., 1866).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As has already been indicated, it was in their religious attitudes that the essential difference lay between the Sassanid Empire and the older Iranian states.

^ This would show how the national Iranian element in the Parthian Empire was continually gathering strength.

.150 BCE and 224 CE. These were the third native dynasty of ancient Iran and lasted five centuries.^ The development of Persian poetry under these first native dynasties was slow.

^ Malcolm E. Yapp, "1900-1921: The Last Years of the Qajar Dynasty," in Hossein Amirsadeghi, ed., Twentieth Century Iran (London: Heinemann, 1977), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.After the conquests of Media, Assyria, Babylonia and Elam, the Parthians had to organize their empire.^ The Parthian Empire, as founded by the conquests of Mithradates I. and restored, once by Mithradates II. and again by Phraates III., was, to all exterior appearance, a conOrganizatinuation of the Achaemenid dominion.

^ But the power of the mo-Persian Empire was not great enough for further conquests, though its army was capable and animated by a far stronger national feeling than that of the Parthians.

^ The Parthians proved incapable of creating a firm, united organization, such as the Achaemenids before them, and the Sassanids after them gave to their empire.

.The former elites of these countries were Greek, and the new rulers had to adapt to their customs if they wanted their rule to last.^ "They want him to be George Washington, to bind together the new country of Iraq," says Lang.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they coordinated their production and marketing decisions, these two countries could be twice as dominant in international gas markets as Saudi Arabia is in the global oil market.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They want to minimize the consequences of sanctions now that they have been imposed, said Mohammad Atrianfar, an executive at the daily Shargh, which was closed last fall, and a reformist politician.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, the cities retained their ancient rights and civil administrations remained more or less undisturbed.^ The more international media coverage Iran’s civil rights leaders receive, the more emboldened the Iranian people will be in their demands for democracy.
  • OMID: The Future of Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC omidforiran.org [Source type: General]

^ This gallery contains different historical remainings of the PERSIA (Ancient Iran),in the individual galleries, belonging not only to Iran and Iranians but also to human civilization.
  • PERSIA, the Ancient Iran Photo Gallery by Ali Majdfar at pbase.com 14 January 2010 15:41 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intelligence has just arrived from Tabreez of an extraordinary device adopted by the moollas of that city for restoring the right of bast, or sanctuary, to its ancient vigour.

.Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east, limiting Rome's expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia).^ When Tigranes attempted to seize Cappadocia, and the Roman praetor P. Cornelius Sulla advanced against him, Mithradates in 92 B.C. concluded the first treaty between Parthia and Rome (Plut.

^ Simultaneously there arose in the East the powerful Indo-Scythian empire of the Kushana, which doubtless limited still further the Parthian possessions in eastern Iran.

^ The empire, which in extent did not exceed that of the Arsacids with its vassal states, was protected on the east and west by the great Mlii deserts of central Iran and Mesopotamia.

.By using a heavily armed and armoured cataphract cavalry, and lightly armed but highly mobile mounted archers, the Parthians "held their own against Rome for almost 300 years".[47] Rome's acclaimed general Mark Antony led a disastrous campaign against the Parthians in 36 BCE, in which he lost 32,000 men.^ Rome, nevertheless concluded a treaty with Lucullus (69 B.C.) and with Pompey , aBd even supported the latter in his campaign against Tigranes in 66.

^ In the army of 50,000 mounted men which took the field against Mark Antony there were, says Justin, only 400 freemen.

^ The whole country was overrun by Antony B.C. 34, in his Parthian wars, which it is conjectured led him to the neighbourhood of Tabreez.

By the time of Roman emperor Augustus, Rome and Parthia were settling some of their differences through diplomacy. By this time, Parthia had acquired an assortment of golden eagles, the cherished standards of Rome's legions, captured from Mark Antony, and Crassus, who suffered a defeat at Carrhae in 53 BCE.[48]
Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (kneeling) and Philip the Arab (standing)
.The end of the Parthian Empire came in 224 AD, when the empire was loosely organized and the last king was defeated by Ardashir I, one of the empire's vassals.^ Ardashir I., moreover, and his successors endeavoured to establish the validity of the royal will by absorbing the vassal states and instituting a firmer organization.

^ The last of these witnessed the fall of Artabanus (A.D. 226), though a Parthian king, Artavasdesperhaps a son of Artabanus IV.who is only known to us from his own coins, appears to have retained a portion of the empire for some time longer.

^ For the literature dealing with the Parthian Empire and numismatics , see PARTHIA, under which heading will be found a complete list of the kings, so far as we are able to reconstitute them.

.Ardashir I then went on to create the Sassanid Empire.^ The Parthians proved incapable of creating a firm, united organization, such as the Achaemenids before them, and the Sassanids after them gave to their empire.

.Soon he started reforming the country both economically and militarily.^ The country's economic problems were starting to be resolved.
  • History: The Iranian Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cyberessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shah introduces his "White Revolution," a package of comprehensive social and economic reforms that aim to modernize the country.
  • frontline: terror and tehran: chronology - u.s. iran relations, 1906-2002 | PBS 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: News]

^ Tensions between reformers in parliament and conservatives in the judiciary and the Guardian Council, over both social and economic changes, increased after Khatami's reelection.
  • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/world/countries/iran.html?nav=el 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, referring to it as Erânshahr or Iranshahr, Eranshahr.svg, "Dominion of the Aryans", (i.e. of Iranians), with their capital at Ctesiphon.[49] .Unlike the diadochic Seleucids and the succeeding Arsacids, who used a vassalary system, the Sassanids—like the Achaemenids—had a system of governors (MP: shahrab) personally appointed by the Emperor and directed by the central government.^ Although the Arsacids are strangers to any deep religious interest (in contrast to the Achaemenids and Sassanids), they acknowledge the Persian gods and the leading tenets of Zoroastrianism.

^ Unless in an extraordinary case, his Majesty would not like to use force in the removal of a person who had thus thrown himself on his protection or on his mercy.

^ At the same time Persia would not listen to the overtures of peace made to her by the governor-general who had succeeded Zizianov.

The Romans suffered repeated losses particularly by Ardashir I, Shapur I, and Shapur II.[50] During their reign, Sassanid battles with the Roman Empire caused such pessimism in Rome that the historian Cassius Dio wrote:
Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.
.Here was a source of great fear to us.^ You've got rights here in the US, IF you don't like what's going on, You have the right to LEAVE. Why don't you go live in IRAN if you think it's so great.

^ You've got rights here in the US, IF you don't like what's going on, You have the right to LEAVE. Why don't you go live in IRAN if you think it's so great."

^ Here is a great blog post to read about the US Independence Day from my blogger friend in New Zealand.
  • Iran Parliament to Debate Death Penalty for Bloggers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.readwriteweb.com [Source type: General]

.So formidable does the Sassanid king seem to our eastern legions, that some are liable to go over to him, and others are unwilling to fight at all
.^ For some reason, my mail does not seem to arrive at all.
  • Iran - Marjolein's Travel Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.iamback.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereafter the Safavids had to maintain a defense that mixed diplomacy and treaties for some enemmies while fighting other enemies.
  • The Economic History and Economy of Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bickerman says, "The identity of some kings who issued coins...remains uncertain," and, "not all pretenders and temporary rulers are mentioned in this list," though a fair number of overlapping reigns do seem to be mentioned.
  • Media, Persia, Parthia, & Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[51]
Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
In 632 raiders from the Arab peninsula began attacking the Sassanid Empire. .Iran was defeated in the Battle of al-Qâdisiyah, paving way for the Islamic conquest of Persia.^ The nuclear issue has paved the way for other forms of pressures on Iran, Mr. Shirzad said.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for terror, al-Qaida boss Ayman Zawahiri's recent tirade against the Islamic Republic notwithstanding, Iran has apparently intensified its cooperation with al-Qaida.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But out of the public eye, a chillingly similar battle has been under way on the Iraqi border with Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During Parthian, and later Sassanid era, trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Indian subcontinent, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world.^ In 1897 M. J. de Morgan, who had been on a scientific mission in Persia some years before and later in Egypt, was appointed chief of a mission to Persia, and began work at Susa in December.

^ Thus the great empire was reduced to immobility and stagnationa process which was assisted by the deteriorating influences of civilization and world-dominion upon the character Internal of the ruling race.

^ Ten years later, "A Clean Break" looks like nothing less than a playbook for U.S.-Israeli foreign policy during the Bush-Cheney era.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parthian remains display classical Greek influences in some instances and retain their oriental mode in others, a clear expression of the cultural diversity that characterized Parthian art and life.^ The Parthian magnates, on the other hand, with the army, would have little to do with Greek culture and Greek modes of life, which they contemptuously regarded as effeminate and unmanly.

^ On the other side, the reign of Vologaeses I. is characterized by a great advance in the Oriental reaction against Hellenism.

^ Margaret Caton and Neil Siegel, eds., Cultural Parameters of Iranian Musical Expression (Redondo Beach, Cal.: Institute of Persian Performing Arts, 1986).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[52]
The Parthians were innovators of many architecture designs such as that of Ctesiphon, which later influenced European Romanesque architecture.[53][54] .Under the Sassanids, Iran expanded relations with China.^ It is often asserted that what is needed in relation to Iran is a diplomacy comparable to that which, in the 1970s, moved China from hostility to cooperation with the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arts, music, and architecture greatly flourished, and centers such as the School of Nisibis and Academy of Gundishapur became world renowned centers of science and scholarship.

Middle Ages (652–1501)

Map of Iranian Dynasties c. 1000
.After the Islamic conquest of Persia, most of the urban lands of the Sassanid empire with the exception of Caspian provinces and Transoxiana came under Islamic rule.^ Low state of the revenue of Persia – System of the late Shah – Taxes – Expenditure – Revenue from the principal provinces – Cultivation of land – Causes of the decline of Persia .

^ Mazenderān, owing to its secluded position, is perhaps the province in Persia most infected with a fanatical attachment to the Mahommedan faith.

^ In the Caspian provinces he found the fauna, on the whole, Palaearctic also, most of the animals being identical with those of south-eastern Europe .

[55] .Many provinces in Iran defended themselves against the Arab invaders, although none in the end was able to repulse the invaders.^ "If a nation arms itself with such weapons, it is quite logical for other nations to think of defending themselves against these kinds of weapons.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lavrov said Tuesday the Hamas chief pledged to end missile attacks and violence against Israel, although Mashaal reaffirmed his group's refusal to recognize Israel.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As tensions with Iran rise, many gulf countries have come to see themselves as the likely first targets of an Iranian attack.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when the Arabs had subdued the country, many of the cities rose in rebellions, killing Arab governors, although reinforcement by Arab armies succeeded in putting down the rebellions.^ In recent months, however, he has increasingly been seen by many Sunnis not as a symbol of Arab unity but as a participant in a sectarian war.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many countries are genuinely worried about Irans program.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He rose to the rank of brigadier and khan, and notwithstanding that he continued to be a Christian, he was made military governor of the holy and bigoted city of Meshed.

.However, the Iranians' conversion to Islam was a complex process and is generally considered to have been gradual and the notion of force has largely been discredited,[56] although occasional acts of violence did take place, with Zoroastrian scriptures being burned and Zoroastrian priests being executed.^ The real invasion, if it ever takes place, must be by Herat, although, no doubt, a diversion would be made by Khiva and the Hindoo Koosh.

^ Soon, however, the two elements began to coalesce; in the Seleucid Empire, the process seems generally to have been both rapid and complete.

^ I must take up my journey, however, from our last halting-place, Tabreez, which we left on the 30th of March.

[55][57]
.By the 9th century, Islam became a dominant religion in Persia and the conversion of Iranians to Islam brought profound changes to their life and culture.^ The Medes, then, were an Iranian nation, already occupying in the 9th century B.C. their later home in the centre of the Median highland.

^ In these traits are engrained the general conditions of history and culture, under which the Iranians lived: on the one hand, the contrast between Iranian and Turanian; on the other, the dominating position of Babylon, which influenced most strongly the civilization and religion of Iran.

^ But, meanwhile, in its Iranian home and especially in Persis, the religion of Zoroaster lived a quiet life, undisturbed by the proceedings of the outside world.

[55] However in some regions, like Fars province, Zoroastrianism was strong up to the 9th century, although Sufis like Abu Eshaq Kazeruni, the founder of Kazeruni Sufi order brought mass conversion of Zoroastrians to Islam in the 10th century.[55]
.During the Abbasid caliphate decline, independent[58][59] and semi-independent native Iranian dynasties arose in different parts of Persia including the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, Afrighids, Ghurids, Sallarid, Justanids, Shaddadids and Buyids.^ The natives of Mazenderan are strict Mussulmans, and have not yet adopted the wine-drinking habits not uncommon in other parts of Persia.

^ From Nadir Shah to the Kajar Dynasty.After the death of Nadir Shah something like anarchy prevailed for thirteen years ~ d f in the greater part of Persia as it existed under Anarchy.

^ With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.

.Socially, the Arabs abolished the previous social class system of Sassanians while later, especially under the Ummayyads, another form of discrimination and exclusion against non-Arabs evolved.^ And though this may sound like another non-starter, this might build on and evolve from the reportedly on-going (sic!
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iranians under quietly accepted the foreign yoke, and the higher Greek Rule, classes adopted the external forms of the alien civilization (cf.

[60] .In reaction to these, Abu Moslem, an Iranian[61][62] general, expelled the Umayyads from Damascus and helped the Abbasid caliphs to conquer Baghdad.^ All of these private initiatives are vital for raising public awareness in the West about the lethality of the Iranian threat to Israel and to global security in general.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Abbasid caliphs frequently chose their "wazirs" (viziers) among Iranians, and Iranian governors acquired a certain amount of local autonomy.^ Indiscriminate cutting has occasionally been confined within certain bounds, but such restrictions were generally either of short duration or made for the convenience and profit of local governors.

.Thus in 822, the governor of Khorasan, Tahir, proclaimed his independence and founded a new Persian dynasty of Tahirids.^ By the action of Abmad Abdali, Afghanistan was at once lost to the Persian crown, for this leader was strong enough to found an independent kingdom.

^ The new empire founded by Ardashir 1.the Sassanian, or Neo-Persian Empireis essentially different from that of his Arsacid predecessors.

^ It is convenient at this point to mention several other minor dynasties founded by nominal governors in various parts of Mi Persia and its borderland.

And by the Samanid era, Iran's efforts to regain its independence had been well solidified.[63]
.Attempts of Arabization thus never succeeded in Iran, and movements such as the Shuubiyah became catalysts for Iranians to regain their independence in their relations with the Arab invaders.^ Shireen Hunter, "Iran and the Arab World," in Myron Rezun, ed., Iran at the Crossroads: Global Relations in a Turbulent Decade (Boulder, Co.: Westview, 1989), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The US hopes that an attack on Iran will inevitably result in a chaos in the country, and that it will be possible to bribe some of the Iranian generals and thus to create a fifth column in the country.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such sanctions could include penalties against foreign companies that sell Iran refined petroleum and provide an insurance policy for Iranian shipping.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .Other notable major revolts, some by Iranian Muslims and others by practitioners of old Iranian religions against Arab rule were lead by Al-Muqanna, Sunpadh, Khurramites, Babak Khorramdin, Maziar, Mardavij, Ustadh Sis and Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari.^ Some scholarl attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group.

^ Hazm the Abbasids were a Persian dynasty which destroyed the old tribal system of the Arabs and ruled despotically as Chosroes had done.

^ America will appeal to pro-Western Arabs, Muslims, and Iranians.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cultural revival of the post-Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of Iranian national identity. The resulting cultural movement reached its peak during the 9th and 10th centuries. .The most notable effect of the movement was the continuation of the Persian language, the official language of Iran to the present day.^ They both speak dialects the greater part of which is Persian, bearing a strong resemblance to the colloquial language of the present day, divested of its large Arabic mixture.

^ In Herodotus their place is taken by the Pactyans, whose name survives to the present day in the word Pushtu , with which the Afghans denote their language (Herod.

^ Mohammad Ali Jazayeri, "The Modernization of the Persian Vocabulary and Language Reform in Iran," in István Fodor and Claude Hagège, eds., Language Reform: History and Future , Vol.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Ferdowsi, Iran's greatest epic poet, is regarded today as the most important figure in maintaining the Persian language.^ Although we have no record of Median language we cannot regard it as differing to any great ant from the Persian.

^ I. Kurdish, a language nearly, akin to New Persian, with which it has important characteristics in common.

^ Calling the crisis over Irans nuclear program the most serious weighing on the international order today, Mr. Sarkozy also reiterated his position that a nuclear-armed Iran was unacceptable for France.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After an interval of silence Iran re-emerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam.
Khwarezmid Empire around 1200
In 1218, the eastern Khwarazmid provinces of Transoxiana and Khorasan suffered a devastating invasion by Genghis Khan. .During this period more than half of Iran's population was killed,[65] turning the streets of Persian cities such as Neishabur into "rivers of blood", as the severed heads of men, women, and children were "neatly stacked into carefully constructed pyramids around which the carcasses of the city's dogs and cats were placed".[66] Between 1220 and 1260, the total population of Iran had dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.^ (I) into the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, 135,000 sq.

^ Both women brazenly violated every traffic law known to man, but with their head scarves in place, the loose ends firmly clenched between their teeth.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Go more into that, the US and Iran and nuclear weapons.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
.In a letter to King Louis IX of France, Holaku, one of the Genghis Khan's grandsons, alone took responsibility for 200,000 deaths in his raids of Iran and the Caliphate.^ A retired American diplomat, who has experience in the Gulf, confirmed that the Qatari government is very scared of what America will do in Iran, and scared to death about what Iran would do in response.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was at one time imagined that Persia took from England, by the way of Trebizond alone, manufactured goods to the value of a million sterling.

[68] .He was followed by yet another conqueror, Tamerlane, who established his capital in Samarkand.^ Those who follow him are ruthless to the unbeliever but merciful to one another.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True, though trite, it is easy to be wise after the event; yet who can help regretting that a different plan was not followed in the subjugation of Sebastopol?

[69] .The waves of devastation prevented many cities such as Neishabur from reaching their pre-invasion population levels until the 20th century, eight centuries later.^ If invasion be practicable, the best mode of preventing it is by preparation, and by surrounding it by such difficulties as will make the undertaking an act of desperation.

[70]
In 1387, Tamerlane avenged a revolt in Isfahan by massacring 70,000 people.[71] .But both Hulagu, Tamerlane, and their successors soon came to adopt the ways and customs of that which they had conquered, choosing to surround themselves with a culture that was distinctively Persian.^ They were both in a takhterewan, surrounded by guards.

^ They call themselves Soonnee Mahommedans, and on that pretext make it lawful to carry off Persian Sheeahs.

^ Persians were of all mankind the readiest to adopt foreign customs, good or bad, a sentence which is equally applicable to the Romans , and which in the case of both nations goes far to explain, not merely their successes, but also the character of their empires.

[72] .The mid-14th-century Black Death killed about 30% of the country's population.^ At his death, this person presented himself to the Prime Minister, and, with protestations of loyalty and devotion, announced that 30,000 tomans (about 15,000 l .

[73]
Illustration from Jami "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniature into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.
.Iran was gradually Islamized after the collapse of the Sassanid empire; however, it was not Arabized.^ Soon afterwards, however, the Roman Empire seemed to collapse utterly.

.Iranian culture re-emerged with a separate and distinctive character and made an immense contribution to the Islamic civilization.^ Gustav Thaiss, "Unity and Discord: The Symbol of Husayn in Iran," in Charles J. Adams, ed., Iranian Civilization and Culture (Montreal: McGill University, 1972).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[74][75] .When Islam came through Iran, there developed Iranian Islam or Persian Islam rather than the original Arab Islam, and this new Islam is sometimes referred to by scholars as Islam-i Ajam (Persian Islam).^ In short, there is a new willingness among the Iranian political elite to avoid the rhetoric of confrontation and to negotiate.
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^ Among the kings then following, only known to us from their coins, there appears a dynasty with Iranian and sometimes peculiarly Parthian names which seems to have reigned in the Punjab and Arachosia.

^ Advocates of an American invasion of Iran say that last months strengthening of the American armada in the Persian Gulf has frightened the Iranian regime.
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[74][76]
.It was this Persian Islam and Sufism which was brought to new areas and new peoples like the Turks of Central Asia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Indian subcontinent.^ The new empire founded by Ardashir 1.the Sassanian, or Neo-Persian Empireis essentially different from that of his Arsacid predecessors.

^ Scott Levi, "The Indian Merchant Diaspora in Early Modern Central Asia and Iran," Iranian Studies 32:4 (1999): 483-512.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the resolution of Julian (363) to begin an energetic attack on the Persian Empire, the conflict, after the lapse of a quarter of a century, assumed a new phase.

[74] .Among the major Iranian Muslims who cultivated Sufism and helped the spread of Islam through Sufism, one can mention Habib Ajami, Hallaj, Hasan Basri, Junayd Baghdadi, Bayazid Bistami, Maruf Karkhi, Abdul Qadir Jilani, Moinuddin Chishti, Jalaluddin Rumi, Najmuddin Kubra, and Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari.^ He brought with him one of his boon companions, who, when helping himself to wine, observing a drop at the mouth of the bottle, stretched out his tongue and licked it up.

^ To these was added an intriguing veteran major, who actually invited part of the regiment to pelt with stones one of the rival colonels.

Note should also be made of Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi school of thought which is followed by most Muslims today.
.Arabic writer Ibn Khaldun has remarked that the sedentary culture which was necessary for the development of civilization was rooted in the Persian empire.^ They were the predecessors of the Persians in the empire and the more civilized people.

^ For the development of the Asiatic religions, the Persian Empire was of prime importance.

[77]
.One of the main developments after the advent of Islam in Iran was the rise of the New Persian language as an important Indo-European language.^ Their subjects, on the contrary, speak absolutely different tongues: for the attempts to explain the languages of the Cossaeans, Mitannians, and Arzapians as Indo-European (Iranian) have ended in failure (cf.

^ The Anti-Defamation League and AIPAC are waging public campaigns against European oil and gas companies that are involved in developing Iran's oil and gas fields.
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^ The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel .

.The New Persian language was an evolution of Middle Persian, which in turn was derived from Old Persian.^ I. Kurdish, a language nearly, akin to New Persian, with which it has important characteristics in common.

^ Old y often appears as j: Zend yOma (glass), New Persian jam; yavan (a youth), New Persian javan.

^ The languages which it disguises rather Middle ,n expressesMiddle Persian, as we may call it Persian.

.New Persian absorbed a considerable amount of Arabic vocabulary[78][79] during this era, although the Arabic vocabulary that was Persianized[80] often took a different meaning than the Arabic origin.^ But experience shows that engagement means something different in Iran than in the West.
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^ Old y often appears as j: Zend yOma (glass), New Persian jam; yavan (a youth), New Persian javan.

^ During my abode among the Sheghaghees an occurrence took place so intimately connected with the religious sentiments of the Persians that this seems to be the proper time to describe it.

.In terms of contribution to the Arabic language, Iranians like Sibawayhi[81] pioneered writing books of grammar of the Arabic language.^ I have since heard that, like Koran, the word is derived from an Arabic term meaning "to read."

.Culturally, Iranians preserved their language, while they used Arabic for scientific and philosophical discourses;[82] this enabled them to reach a worldwide audience for the first time.^ They will use the time to increase international pressure on countries that do business with Iran and sell it arms.
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^ The first are the invaders from Toorkistan, who, from time immemorial, have established themselves in Persia, and who still preserve their language.

^ They will use the time to conduct covert operations against nuclear and regime targets.
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[82] .After the 10th century, Persian, written in the modified Perso-Arabic script alongside Arabic, was used for scientific, philosophical, historical, mathematical, musical, and medical works, as important Iranian writers such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Avicenna, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, Gurgani, Naser Khusraw, Biruni, Abdul Qadir Maraghi made contributions to Persian scientific writing.^ The uranium that the Iranians took from their Isfahan plant will be weapons grade and attached to Shihab-3 missiles or transferred to Hizbullah, al-Qaida or Hamas terrorists for use long before such hypothetical sanctions would even be noticed.
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^ Jennifer M. Scarce, "The Architecture and Decoration of the Gulistan Palace: The Aims and Achievements of Fath `Ali Shah (1797-1834) amd Nasir al-Din Shah (1848-1896)," Iranian Studies 34:1-4 (2001): 103-116.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abbas Amanat, Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During this era, Iranians continued on a much larger scale the cultural and scientific enterprises set up by the Sassanids.^ We set that up during the Cold War.
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^ Wilhelm Eilers, "Education and Cultural Development in Iran during the Pahlavi Era," in George Lenczowski, ed., Iran under the Pahlavis (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1978), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kamran M. Dadkhah, "Iran's Economic Policy During the Mosaddeq Era," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 16:2 (November 2000): 39-54.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[83] The blossoming Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, and art became major elements in the forming Muslim civilization. .The Islamic Golden Age, which is characterized by developments in science, owed to a large extent its importance to vital contributions made by Iranians.^ Although these tenets are perfectly well known as existing to a large extent among these tribes, not the slightest attempt is made to disturb their opinions.

[84] .The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak in the 10th and 11th centuries, during which Persia was the main theatre of scientific activity.^ Ann K.S. Lambton, Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia: Aspects of Administrative, Economic, and Social History, 11th to 14th Century (Albany: SUNY Press, 1988).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Richard N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia: Arabs in the East (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[83] .The Persian influence of this period relied heavily upon the achievements of the Sassanids, and the weight of this influence has led the Muslim world to accept Islamic civilization as the Perso-Islamic civilization.^ C. Edmund Bosworth, "The Persian contribution to Islamic historiography in the pre-Mongol period," in Richard Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh, eds., The Persian Presence in the Islamic World (Cambridge: CUP, 1998), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus the great empire was reduced to immobility and stagnationa process which was assisted by the deteriorating influences of civilization and world-dominion upon the character Internal of the ruling race.

^ He reigned fourteen years, and his reign was a succession of barbarities, which can only be attributed to an evil disposition acted upon by an education void of all civilizing influences.

[85]
Even in the development of Arabic scientific prose itself, which differs in style from that of the Quran, Persian scholars like Ibn al-Muqaffa had a major role. .Indeed, the class of clerks and civil administrators that was responsible for the cultivation of the sciences in the early Islamic centuries consisted mostly of Persians.^ The works of James Morier , especially his Adventures of Hajji Baba of .Tspahan, throw much light on Persian society in the early years of the 19th century.

^ Hormoz Ebrahimnejad, "Theory and Practice in Nineteenth-Century Persian Medicine: Intellectual and Institutional Reforms," History of Science 38 (2000): 171-178.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ H. Kuklan, "The Administrative System in the Islamic Republic of Iran: New Trends and Directions," Revue internationale de sciences administratives 3 (1981): 218-224.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[86] The contributions of Iranians to the Arabic language are however not limited to scientific prose but are also found in Arabic poetry. The contributions by Iranians are characterised as "the lively and graceful fancy, elegance of diction, depth and tenderness of feeling, and a rich store of ideas".[87]
.Iranian philosophy after the Islamic conquest is characterized by different interactions with Old Iranian philosophy, with Greek philosophy, and with the development of Islamic philosophy.^ A year ago you could have characterized the interaction with the Iranians as professional, said Vice Adm.
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The Illumination School and Transcendent Philosophy are regarded as two of the main philosophical traditions of this era in Persia. .These movements continued well into the 11th century, during which the Nizamiyya university was founded and hundreds of Iranian scholars and scientists contributed greatly to technology, science, and medicine, later influencing the rise of European sciences during the Renaissance.^ His operations had converted Kief into a small English colony, from the numerous artisans whom Mr. Vignolles had brought from England to contribute their practical skill to his science.

^ Armenia was rent into factions during the wars of the Romans and the Sassanians, till at length, near the middle of the fifth century, these two powers made a formal division of the country.

^ At each movement of the wheels and of the horses, these planks sank into the water, sometimes to an alarming depth; but though the passage looked hazardous, it was free from danger.

[88]

Early modern era (1501–1921)

Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Dynasty (1501–1736)
.Iran's first encompassing Shi'a Islamic state was established under the Safavid Dynasty (1501–1722) by Shah Ismail I.^ From Nadir Shah to the Kajar Dynasty.After the death of Nadir Shah something like anarchy prevailed for thirteen years ~ d f in the greater part of Persia as it existed under Anarchy.

^ The men had been arrested while trying to establish an Islamic mini-state in northern Lebanon.
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^ Roger M. Savory, "A Secretarial Career under Tahm_sp I (1524-1576), Islamic Studies (Karachi) 2 (1963): 343-352, reprinted in Studies on the History of Safavid Iran (London: Variorum Reprints, 1987).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Safavid Dynasty soon became a major political power and promoted the flow of bilateral state contacts.^ The United States is the only major power not sending a diplomat with Mr. Solana.
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.The Safavid peak was during the rule of Shah Abbas The Great.^ Sholeh A. Quinn, Historical Writing During the Reign of Shah `Abbas: Ideology, Imitation and Legitimacy in Safavid Chronicles (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ V.B. Moreen, "The Persecution of Iranian Jews During the Reign of Shah `Abbas II (1642-1666)," Hebrew Union College Annual 52 (1981), pp.
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^ Close to the tomb was a large chamber containing an enormous quantity of blue china of all shapes and sizes, the offering of Shah Abbas to his great ancestor.

[21] The Safavid Dynasty frequently warred with the Ottoman Empire, Uzbek tribes and the Portuguese Empire.
.The Safavids moved their capital from Tabriz to Qazvin and then to Isfahan, where their patronage for the arts propelled Iran into one of its most aesthetically productive eras.^ This last account is extremely probable, and would show that the young Turkoman had wished to make one grand effort to save Isfahan and Shiraz (with Kazvin and the neighboring country), these being, after the capital Tabriz, the most important cities of Uzun ~iasans Persia.

^ The rhetoric between the United States and Iran has intensified of late, with Washington most recently blaming Tehran for funneling weapons into Iraq.
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^ Intelligence has also shown that for the past two years the Iranians have been shifting their most sensitive nuclear-related materials and production facilities, moving some into urban areas, in anticipation of a bombing raid.
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.Under their rule, the state became highly centralized, the first attempts to modernize the military were made, and even a distinct style of architecture developed.^ No attempt has been made to standardize or modernize spelling or use of diacriticals.

^ And one story that really went under the radar screen is, one of the reactors in Iran that's come under scrutiny was actually provided to Iran in the first place by the United States, under the Shah.
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^ Even before his January 10 speech, many inside the military had concluded that the decision to bomb Iran has already been made.
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.In 1722 Afghan rebels defeated Shah Sultan Hossein and ended the Safavid Dynasty, but in 1735, Nader Shah successfully drove out the Afghan rebels from Isfahan and established the Afsharid Dynasty.^ His descendants, except for Jelal ed-din (Jalaluddin) Shah Shuja , the patron of the poet Hafiz, were unimportant, and the dynasty was wiped out by Timur about 1392.

He then staged an incursion into India in 1738, securing the Peacock throne, Koh-i-Noor, and Darya-ye Noor among other royal treasures. .His rule did not last long, however, as he was assassinated in 1747. The Mashhad based Afshar Dynasty was succeeded by the Zand dynasty in 1750, founded by Karim Khan, who established his capital at Shiraz.^ While differing widely in character, he was a worthy successor of Karim Khan, the great founder of the Zend dynasty.

^ The last ilnportant dynasty in Persia prior to the Mongol invasion was that of the Saigharids in Fars, founded by the descendants of a Turkish general Salaghar, who had formerly been a Turkoman leader and ultimately became chamberlain to Toghrul Beg.

^ Soon after this, in 820 (205 A.IL), Thhir, who aided MamUn to wrest the caliphate from his brother AmIn, succeeded in establishing the first semiindependent Persian dynasty in Khorksgn, which was overthrown ~n 872 (259 All.

.His rule brought a period of relative peace and renewed prosperity.^ His rule brought a period of peace and renewed prosperity.
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^ Abagha was a peaceful ruler and endeavoured by wise administration to give order and prosperity to a country torn asunder by a long period of intestine war and the Mongol invasion.

^ After almost one hundred years of Mongol devastation, Rashid ad-Din's policies brought about a short-lived period of peace and prosperity.
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.The Zand dynasty lasted three generations, until Aga Muhammad Khan executed Lotf Ali Khan, and founded his new capital in Tehran, marking the dawn of the Qajar Dynasty in 1794. The Qajar chancellor Amir Kabir established Iran's first modern college system, among other modernizing reforms.^ Shaul Bakhash, Iran: Monarchy, Bureaucracy, and Reform under the Qajars, 1858-1896 (London: Ithaca Press for the Middle East Centre, St. Antony's College, 1978).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The last, according to Watson, becarns settled in Iran and Turan, and seem at first to have given then name to all the tribe.

^ Tehran cleary received the message and viewed the US-backed Israeli war on Hizbullah as the first stage of a war on Iran.
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.Iran suffered several wars with Imperial Russia during the Qajar era, resulting in Iran losing almost half of its territories to Imperial Russia and the British Empire, via the treaties of Gulistan, Turkmenchay and Akhal.^ In this house, built expressly for the accommodation of the Russian representative, was signed the treaty which, twenty-eight years ago, concluded the last war between Russia and Persia.

^ Wilhelm Eilers, "Education and Cultural Development in Iran during the Pahlavi Era," in George Lenczowski, ed., Iran under the Pahlavis (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1978), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kamran M. Dadkhah, "Iran's Economic Policy During the Mosaddeq Era," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 16:2 (November 2000): 39-54.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Great Persian Famine of 1870–1871 is believed to have caused the death of 2 million persons.^ "The colonel of this regiment finished his earthly career the day after our return, and the cause of his death affords a good specimen of Persian manners and customs.

^ Shoko Okazaki, "The great Persian famine of 1870-71," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 49 (1986): 183-192.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[89]
.In spite of The Great Game Iran managed to maintain her sovereignty and was never colonized, unlike neighbouring states in the region.^ To maintain, Or regain, the suzerainty over Mesopotamia and the vassal states of that region, as also over Atropatene and Armenia, was its most imperative task.

^ In other words, the U.S. can't nuke Iran, but Israel, which never signed the treaty and maintains an unacknowledged nuclear arsenal, can.
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^ The empire, which in extent did not exceed that of the Arsacids with its vassal states, was protected on the east and west by the great Mlii deserts of central Iran and Mesopotamia.

.Repeated foreign intervention and a corrupt and weakened Qajar rule led to various protests, which by the end of the Qajar period resulted in Iran's constitutional revolution establishing the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy.^ Haggay Ram, "Exporting Iran's Islamic Revolution: Steering a Path between Pan-Islam and Nationalism," Terrorism and Political Violence 8:2 (Summer 1996): 7-24.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mangol Bayat, "The cultural implications of the Constitutional Revolution," in Edmond Bosworth and Carole Hillenbrand, eds., Qajar Iran: Political, Social, and Cultural Change, 1800 1925 (Costa Mesa, Cal.: Mazda Publishers, 1992), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pirmoazzen said that two UN resolutions against Iran in the first 18 months of the government's term demonstrated that the current foreign ministry was incapable of looking after Iran's national interests.
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Recent history (1921–present)

Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq
.In 1925, Reza Khan overthrew the weakening Qajar Dynasty and became Shah.^ Nikki R. Keddie, Qajar Iran and the Rise of Reza Khan 1796-1925 (Costa Mesa: Mazda, 1999).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyrus Ghani, Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah from Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Rule (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Reza Shah initiated industrialization, railroad construction, and the establishment of a national education system.^ M. Reza Ghods, "Iranian Nationalism and Reza Shah," Middle Eastern Studies 27 (January 1991): 35 45.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Reza Shah sought to balance Russian and British influence, but when World War II started, his nascent ties to Germany alarmed Britain and Russia.^ But Russian financial and commercial influence ii?

^ The five permanent members of the Security Council (the US, Britain, China, France and Russia) and Germany have also offered it incentives to give up the programme.
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^ Reader Bullard, Letters from Tehran: A British Ambassador in World War II Persia (London: I.B. Tauris, 200?
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.In 1941, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran to use Iranian railroad capacity during World War II.^ Tell Iran and the world that you have 'em and will use 'em!
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^ Willem Floor, "The Art of Smoking in Iran and Other Uses of Tobacco," Iranian Studies 35:1-3 (2002), pp.
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^ John R. Perry, "Forced Migration in Iran during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," Iranian Studies 8:4 (1975): 199-215.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Shah was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.^ Reza Pahlavi, the son of the late Shah, has been shopped around Washington as a prospective leader of Iran.
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^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mission for my Country (London: Hutchinson, 1960).
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^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mission for My Country , excerpts.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1951, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh was elected prime minister. .As prime minister, Mossadegh became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves.^ E arlier this year, the government of Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert created a task force to coördinate all the available intelligence on Iran.
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^ If Iran gains nuclear capacity, Israel will have judged him a failure as prime minister; if he does serious damage to his countrys standing in Washington, he will have failed as well.
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^ Its large market, economic output, industrial potential, and vast oil and natural gas reserves make it central to American geostrategic and energy interests.
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.In response, The British government, headed by Winston Churchill, embargoed Iranian oil and successfully enlist the United States to join in a plot to depose the democratically elected government of Mossadegh, and in 1953 President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized Operation Ajax.^ Formula for the future My 90-minute conversation with the senior Iranian government official ended with him describing a way forward between the United States and Iran.
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^ Indyk added, At the end of the day, the United States can live with Iranian, Pakistani, and Indian nuclear bombsbut for Israel theres no Mutual Assured Destruction.
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^ It would be a noble thing for the United States to support Israels efforts to stop an Iranian bomb or, if it comes to that, to back Israels response to an attack.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operation was successful, and Mossadegh was arrested on 19 August 1953. The coup was the first time the US had openly overthrown an elected, civil government.^ And while that was going on, the reactor and the people in the reactor in the Romanian government used that reactor that the US supplied and the highly enriched uranium to separate plutonium, which is the first step to make an atomic bomb.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Empress Farah in official uniform
.After Operation Ajax, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became increasingly autocratic.^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mission for my Country (London: Hutchinson, 1960).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyrus Ghani, Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah from Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Rule (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mission for My Country , excerpts.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With American support, the Shah was able to rapidly modernize Iranian infrastructure, but he simultaneously crushed all forms of political opposition with his intelligence agency, SAVAK.^ Afshin Matin-asgari, Iranian Student Opposition to the Shah (Costa Mesa, Cal.: Mazda, 2001).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the hazy world of Iranian politics, such a public rebuke was seen as a sign that the supreme leader who has final say on all matters of state might no longer support the president as the public face of defiance to the West.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A former high-ranking C.I.A. officer told me, The Americans have provided both political and financial support.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became an active critic of the Shah's White Revolution and publicly denounced the government.^ America and Iran have been at loggerheads ever since Ayatollah Khomeini's revolution of 1979.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zibakalam described Mesbah-Yazdis reading of velayat-i-faqih as a radical version of the one first proposed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hardliners in Iran, scarred by the past, cited Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's dictum that any friendship between the US and Iran was like that between a wolf and a sheep.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Khomeini was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964 Khomeini publicly criticized the United States government. .The Shah was persuaded to send him into exile by General Hassan Pakravan.^ They took the money, and marched off next morning, sending notice to the real Shah that they were ready to join him.

^ The Persian~ then carried all before them; and the hereditary chiefs of Shirvan, Sheki and Baku returned from exile to co-operate with the shahs general in the south.

Khomeini was sent first to Turkey, then to Iraq and finally to France. While in exile, he continued to denounce the Shah.

Iranian Revolution

.The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution,[91][92][93] began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.^ Christopher Spencer, "Drugs and Iran after the Islamic revolution," International Journal of Addictions 25 (1990-91): 171-179.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vanessa Martin, "Shaikh Fazlallah Nuri and the Iranian Revolution of 1905-9," Middle Eastern Studies 23:1 (January 1987): 41-53.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Akbar Karbassian, "The Islamic Revolution and the Management of the Iranian Economy," Social Research 67:2 (Summer 2000): 621-640.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[94] .After strikes and demonstrations paralysed the country and its economy, the Shah fled the country in January 1979 and Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran.^ Eliz Sanasarian, "Ayatollah Khomeini and the Institutionalization of Charismatic Rule in Iran, 1979-1989," Journal of Developing Societies 11:2 (1995): 189-205.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Persian~ then carried all before them; and the hereditary chiefs of Shirvan, Sheki and Baku returned from exile to co-operate with the shahs general in the south.

^ Shah, ministers, meerzas, soldiers, priests, merchants, all went pell-mell into Tehran, although a month of the country season still remained.

.The Pahlavi Dynasty collapsed ten days later, on 11 February, when Iran's military declared itself "neutral" after guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting.^ After severe street fighting the Cossacks deserted to the rebels, and the shah took refuge in the Russian legation (July is).

^ And Iran is racing to arm itself with atomic bombs, he said, adding that there was still time to stop the Iranians.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So sooner or later, somebody will have to decide to try and stop Iran by military means because a nuclear Iran will dramatically alter the strategic situation in the Middle East.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979 when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.^ Jalil Roshandel, "Evolution of the Decision-Making Process in Iranian Foreign Policy, 1979-1999," in Eric Hoogland, ed., Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transformation in Iran since 1979 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Haggay Ram, "Exporting Iran's Islamic Revolution: Steering a Path between Pan-Islam and Nationalism," Terrorism and Political Violence 8:2 (Summer 1996): 7-24.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Shahrough Akhavi, "Elite Factionalism in the Islamic Republic of Iran," The Middle East Journal 41:2 (Spring 1987): 181-204.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[22][23]
.In December 1979, the country approved a theocratic constitution, whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country.^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bruce Mazlish, "The Hidden Khomeini," New York Magazine 24 December 1979: 49-54.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

The speed and success of the revolution surprised many throughout the world,[95] as it had not been precipitated by a military defeat, a financial crisis, or a peasant rebellion.[96] .Although both nationalists and Marxists joined with Islamic traditionalists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were killed and executed by the Islamic regime afterward, and the revolution ultimately resulted in an Islamic Republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.^ Zibakalam described Mesbah-Yazdis reading of velayat-i-faqih as a radical version of the one first proposed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tens, perhaps hundreds, of thousands of people have been killed.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gharavian spoke in an hour-long interview at the Imam Khomeini Institute, which has produced tens of thousands of clerics under Mesbah-Yazdi's tutelage.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]
Ayatollah Khomeini, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran
.Iran's relationship with the United States deteriorated rapidly during the revolution.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States does not want to go into Iran, but, if Israel feels more and more cornered, there may be no other choice.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States has to take action against Iran and Syria before April 2007.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 4 November 1979, a group of Iranian students seized US embassy personnel, labelling the embassy a "den of spies".[98] They accused its personnel of being CIA agents plotting to overthrow the revolutionary government, as the CIA had done to Mohammad Mossadegh in 1953. While the student ringleaders had not asked for permission from Khomeini to seize the embassy, Khomeini nonetheless supported the embassy takeover after hearing of its success.^ After the Afghan war, US negotiators worked closely with Iranian counterparts to form a new Afghan government.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically they will attack a few soldiers at the fringe of a larger group, said Sadun Edesa, 22, an Iranian Kurd who said he had been fighting for five years.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the leftist Islamist students proposed seizing the American Embassy in 1979, Ahmadinejad opposed the action as imprudent, but he suggested that if they went ahead with it, they should seize the Soviet Embassy as well.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99]
.While most of the female and African American hostages were released within the first months,[99] the remaining fifty-two hostages were held for 444 days.^ He approved apparently of our mode of living, for he hid himself in an empty room in the Mission for two days after their departure, and remained with us ever since.

Subsequently attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to negotiate or rescue were unsuccessful. .In January 1981 the hostages were set free according to the Algiers declaration.^ Russell Leigh Moses, Freeing the Hostages: Reexamining U.S.-Iranian Relations and Soviet Policy, 1979-1981 (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1996).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to take advantage of what he perceived to be disorder in the wake of the Iranian Revolution and its unpopularity with Western governments.^ The Iranian economy has been mismanaged at least since the revolution, and to fix it would require measures no populist would be willing to take.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newly minted government faced severe, real-life tests after Saddam Hussein's troops invaded Iran in 1980.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manouchehr Ganji, Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of the Resistance (Westport: Praeger, 2002).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The once-strong Iranian military had been disbanded during the revolution.^ Once we do Iraq, we'll have a military presence in Iraq, which would enable us to handle the Iranians from closer quarters, would give us more leverage.'"
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sepehr Zabih, The Iranian Military in Revolution and War (New York: Routledge, 1988).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mohammad Tavakoli Targhi, "Refashioning Iran: Language and Culture During the Constitutional Revolution," in Iranian Studies 23 (1990).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Saddam sought to expand Iraq's access to the Persian Gulf by acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah's rule.^ For a long time various attempts had been made to induce the Shah's government to put a stop to the importation of negro slaves from Africa by the Persian Gulf.

^ Among the changes of the sound system in New Persian, as contrasted with earlier periods, especially with Old Persian, the first that claims mention is the change of the tenues k, t, p, c, into g, d, b, 1.

^ M.S. Navias and E.R. Hooton, Tanker Wars: The Assault on Merchant Shipping During the Iran-Iraq Crisis, 1980-1988 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Of chief importance to Iraq was Khuzestan which not only has a substantial Arab population, but boasted rich oil fields as well.^ In May, according to a well-informed oil-industry expert, the Emir of Qatar made a private visit to Tehran to discuss security in the Gulf after the Iraq war.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has vowed that America, Israel and Britain will disappear "like the pharaohs" of Egypt and he believes that oil-rich Iran is well on its way to becoming the regional superpower.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the unilateral behalf of the United Arab Emirates, the islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs became objectives as well.^ Mohammad Reza Dabiri, "Abu Musa Island: A Binding Understanding or a Misunderstading," Iranian Journal of International Affairs 5:3-4 (1993/1994): 575-583.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hussein Sirriyeh, "Conflict over the Gulf Islands of Abu Musa and the Tunbs, 1968 1971," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 8 (Winter 1984), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pirouz Motjtahed-Zadeh, The Islands of Tunb and Abu Musa: An Iranian Argument in Search of Peace and Co-operation in the Persian Gulf (London: SOAS, Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, 1995).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On 22 September 1980 the Iraqi army invaded Iran at Khuzestan, precipitating the Iran–Iraq War.^ Shahram Chubin, "Israel and the Iran-Iraq War," International Defense Review (July 1985): 303-304.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Maryam Poya, Women, Work & Islam: Ideology and Resistance in Iran (London: Zed Books, 1999), chapter 4 "The Impact of the Iran-Iraq War."
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ M.S. Navias and E.R. Hooton, Tanker Wars: The Assault on Merchant Shipping During the Iran-Iraq Crisis, 1980-1988 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although Saddam Hussein's forces made several early advances, by 1982, Iranian forces managed to push the Iraqi army back into Iraq.^ His research on both Saddam Hussein's Iraq ...
  • Global Politician - Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius came too late; the internal disorders of the Persians had attracted the attention of it neighbors, and in 332 the Macedonian army advanced into Persia, sweeping everything before it.
  • Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India said it would reestablish diplomatic relations with Pakistan, Nepal opened negotiations with its rebels, the United States made a truce with an Iranian -backed guerrilla army in Iraq , and mercenaries in Ivory Coast murdered a rebel leader who told them to lay down their weapons.
  • Iran (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi'a Arabs living in the country.^ In Syria, he said, the result would be to push the country into chaos and internal battles like in Iraq.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Haggay Ram, "Exporting Iran's Islamic Revolution: Steering a Path between Pan-Islam and Nationalism," Terrorism and Political Violence 8:2 (Summer 1996): 7-24.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Next month, on the anniversary of the Islamic revolution, he intends to celebrate what he calls his country's mastery of nuclear technology.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war then continued for six more years until 1988, when Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.^ Mossadeq's intransigence and inclination to accept Tudeh support, the Cold War atmosphere, and the fear of Soviet influence in Iran also shaped United States thinking.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "On 21 June, Khomeini indicated that Iran would invade Iraq shortly, and on 22 June, the Iranian Chief-of-Staff Shirazi declared to "continue the war until Saddam Hussein is overthrown so that we can pray at Karbala and Jerusalem"."
  • Iran's Power Play in Iraq 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Phraates, his successor, removed the seat of government from the north of the empire to Taisefoon, or, as the Greeks called it, Ctesiphon, a suburb of Seleucia , which continued to be the capital until the Mohammedan conquest, more than six hundred years later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 14 January 2010 15:41 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be anywhere between 500,000 and 1,000,000; with more than 100,000 Iranians being victims of Iraq's chemical weapons.^ Once we do Iraq, we'll have a military presence in Iraq, which would enable us to handle the Iranians from closer quarters, would give us more leverage.'"
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, based on the public estimates that Iraq cost $100 billion last year , it would appear the US economy pays 30% more for oil as anyone else.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the value of the revenue paid in kind be estimated in money, it amounts to something more than 500,000 tomans, which would make the total revenue of Persia ascend to about 3,177,000 tomans, or 1,588,000 l .

[100] .Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war.^ Iran will garner weapons and use them on Israel.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to all of the above, the US will use nuclear weapon against Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plutonium issue is one of several over which the United Nations Security Council has imposed sanctions to get Iran to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the watchdog that is investigating American charges that Iran is covertly developing nuclear weapons.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101][102][103]
.Following the Iran–Iraq War President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and his administration concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and strengthening the economy without making any dramatic break with the ideology of the revolution.^ Most know the Office of Special Plans as a rogue Administration faction determined to find intelligence to support the Iraq War.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For all that, Sick acknowledges, this policy carries a significant risk of provoking war with Iran: "Basically, this is a signal to Maliki that we are not going to tolerate Shiite cooperation with Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Administration needed to make the case that Irans weapons program posed an imminent threat, Gates would be a better advocate than someone who had been associated with the flawed intelligence about Iraq.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rafsanjani served until 1997 when he was succeeded by the moderate reformist Mohammad Khatami. .During his two terms as president, Khatami advocated freedom of expression, tolerance and civil society, constructive diplomatic relations with other states including EU and Asian governments, and an economic policy that supported free market and foreign investment.^ And while the security of its people, its territorial integrity & its freedom from radiological & other existential hazards are fundamental concerns of its leaders, the same applies to any other civilized state.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 2002, Larry Franklin began passing classified information involving United States policy towards Iran to two AIPAC employees and an Israeli diplomat.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kamran M. Dadkhah, "Iran's Economic Policy During the Mosaddeq Era," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 16:2 (November 2000): 39-54.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, Khatami is widely regarded as having been unsuccessful in achieving his goal of making Iran more free and democratic.^ Regime change, or even the more modest goal of removing Iran as a regional influence are beyond the ability of the US military.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington has also accused Iran of building up its nuclear program, with the ultimate goal of making a nuclear bomb -- something Tehran has long denied.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The choice of Fallon makes more sense if Bush foresees a bigger role for two aircraft carrier groups off Irans coast.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .In the 2005 presidential elections, Iran made yet another change in political direction, when conservative populist candidate Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected over Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.^ This fall, Rafsanjani, who had suffered a humiliating defeat at Ahmadinejads hands in the presidential election of 2005, was reportedly persuaded to run again for the Assembly of Experts by the supreme leader or people close to him.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The campaign turned on the competition between two incumbents, Ayatollah Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi widely reputed to be Ahmadinejads spiritual leader and Ayatollah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the pragmatic former president who lost the presidential race to Ahmadinejad in 2005.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because liberal-minded Iranians boycotted the 2005 presidential election, and because Ahmadinejad so adeptly played the populist card, the militants, the unemployed and the cultural conservatives of neighborhoods like this one were in the drivers seat, steering the politics of this crucial nation while their opponents warned of their presumed doctrinaire views and political naïveté.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105]
.A significant challenge to Ahmadinejad's political power, and the foundations of the Islamic Republic itself occurred during the 2009 Iranian presidential election that was held on 12 June 2009,[106] the tenth presidential election to be held in the country.^ Because liberal-minded Iranians boycotted the 2005 presidential election, and because Ahmadinejad so adeptly played the populist card, the militants, the unemployed and the cultural conservatives of neighborhoods like this one were in the drivers seat, steering the politics of this crucial nation while their opponents warned of their presumed doctrinaire views and political naïveté.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iranians know that the US is experiencing economic turmoil, and a possible repeat of the 2000 disputed presidential election.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Young Ahmadinejad led a politically and religiously conservative Islamist student group during the Islamic Revolution, the writers claim.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .The Interior Ministry, announced incumbent president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad had won the election with 62.63% receiving 24.5 million vote, while Mir-Hossein Mousavi had come in second place with 13.2 milion votes 33,75%.^ Where does the unswerving confidence of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad come from?
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The passage of the resolution hastened the demise of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejads confrontational approach to the West.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the President of Iran, has effectively used the program to rally the nation behind him, and against Washington.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108][109] .The European Union and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities during the vote,[110] and some analysts and journalists from the United States and United Kingdom news media voiced doubts about the authenticity of the results.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamas' renunciation of violence and recognition of Israel are key demands of the Quartet of Middle East peace brokers Russia, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many countries, including the United States, condemned the attack.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111][112][113]
Mousavi issued a statement accusing the Interior Ministry, responsible for conducting the election, of widespread election fraud and urged his supporters to engage in peaceful protests. He also lodged an official appeal with the Guardian Council for new and more transparent elections. .Protests, in favour of Mousavi and against the alleged fraud, broke out in Tehran.^ This year, seven Bābees were executed at Tehran for an alleged conspiracy against the life of the Prime Minister.

.Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged the nation to unite behind Ahmadinejad, labeling his victory as a "divine assessment".[114] Khamenei then announced there would be an investigation into vote-rigging claims.^ I asked whether he meant Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei himself.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has made defiant pronouncements about the destruction of Israel and his countrys right to pursue its nuclear program, and last week its supreme religious leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, said on state television that realities in the region show that the arrogant front, headed by the U.S. and its allies, will be the principal loser in the region.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just one month after the United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on Iran to curb its nuclear program, two hard-line newspapers, including one owned by the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, called on the president to stay out of all matters nuclear.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115]
.On 16 June, the Guardian Council announced it would recount 10% of the votes and concluded there were no irregularities at all, dismissing all election complaints.^ Caprice and idleness are unsafe guardians for human beings of an inferior race, when there is no "Times" to denounce and correct the wantonness of power.

^ Caroline responds: The IAEA has also just announced that there was no nuclear installation in Syria.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no actual religious war; all sectarian distinction had been disavowed; the contest was between vigorous Mahommedans and effete Mabommedans.

[116][117][118] .However, Mousavi stated that a recount would not be sufficient since he claimed 14 million unused ballots were missing, giving the Interior Ministry an opportunity to manipulate the results.^ The attack would be the first with nuclear weapons since 1945, when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .On June 19, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei denounced the pro-Mousavi demonstrations as illegal,[120] and protests the next day were met with stiff resistance from government forces, with many reported deaths.^ I asked whether he meant Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei himself.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sources work for a European head of government who met the Israeli leader some time after the Bush visit.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I believe this is the logic of Islamic morals," Gharavian said, professing himself "100 percent sure" that Khomeini and Iran's current supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, "based on Islamic principles, have the same logic: Islam does not allow anyone to initiate harming a human being."
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[121]

Government and politics

Iran's complex and unusual political system combines elements of a modern Islamic theocracy with democracy.
.The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution.^ Husayn Mehrpur, "The Council of Guardians under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran," Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly 8 (1988): 65-76.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Eric Rouleau, "European Union and French Views of the Islamic Republic," in Eric Hoogland, ed., Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transformation in Iran since 1979 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ H. Kuklan, "The Administrative System in the Islamic Republic of Iran: New Trends and Directions," Revue internationale de sciences administratives 3 (1981): 218-224.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Accordingly, it is the duty of the Islamic government to furnish all citizens with equal and appropriate opportunities, to provide them with work, and to satisfy their essential needs, so that the course of their progress may be assured.^ The shah soon afterwards (May 26, i888) issued a proclamation assuring freedom of life and property to all his subjects, and (Oct.

^ Of course it may be that all that is being said at the top is only an assessment, and that those responsible for our defense against Iranian missiles have full confidence in the Arrow.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is equal need, on the part of America's partners, for decisions permitting them to pursue a parallel course.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122]
The system comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. .The Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.^ Shahrough Akhavi, "Elite Factionalism in the Islamic Republic of Iran," The Middle East Journal 41:2 (Spring 1987): 181-204.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As for terror, al-Qaida boss Ayman Zawahiri's recent tirade against the Islamic Republic notwithstanding, Iran has apparently intensified its cooperation with al-Qaida.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Husayn Mehrpur, "The Council of Guardians under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran," Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly 8 (1988): 65-76.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[123] .The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has sole power to declare war or peace.^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shah made great efforts to renew the war; but divisions took place in his sons camp, not conducive to successful operations, and new proposals of peace were made.

^ It cites the military's new counter-insurgency manual, which suggests that a nation can be secured with a force of one soldier for every 40 to 50 inhabitants.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123]
.The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader.^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irans elections for city councils and for the Assembly of Experts, the 86-member clerical board that will select the next supreme leader should anything happen to the current leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ahmadinejad has said that Iran would make a formal counterproposal by August 22nd, but last week Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Irans supreme religious leader, declared, on state radio, Negotiation with the United States has no benefits for us.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] .The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem.^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irans elections for city councils and for the Assembly of Experts, the 86-member clerical board that will select the next supreme leader should anything happen to the current leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No elected leader can serve, let alone execute a policy agenda, without the acquiescence of the supreme leader and his associates.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124] .The Assembly of Experts is responsible for supervising the Supreme Leader in the performance of legal duties.^ The constitution also created an Assembly of Experts of clerics to elect the supreme leader.
  • International Socialist Review -- Obama in office 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Assembly of Experts (Ulama) met in emergency session on June 4 and elected President Khamenei the new Valy-e-Faqih (supreme spiritual leader), simultaneously promoting him to the status of ayatollah.
  • Brief History of Modern Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The supreme leader, the recognized head of state, is elected by the Assembly of Experts and can only be removed by a vote of this assembly.
  • Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority.^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the hazy world of Iranian politics, such a public rebuke was seen as a sign that the supreme leader who has final say on all matters of state might no longer support the president as the public face of defiance to the West.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States increased pressure on Iran over its role in Iraq has also raised concerns in Tehran and may be behind efforts to restrain the president, political analysts in Tehran said.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123][125] .The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and can only be re-elected for one term.^ One of the sons here alluded to was Ismail, whom Malcolm makes to have been only seven years of age when he fled to Gilan in 1492.

^ He was then fifty-seven years of age, and had ruled over part of Persia for more than eighteen yearsover the kingdom generally for about three years, and from his coronation for about one year only.

[125] .Presidential candidates must be approved by the Council of Guardians prior to running in order to ensure their allegiance to the ideals of the Islamic revolution.^ Husayn Mehrpur, "The Council of Guardians under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran," Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly 8 (1988): 65-76.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[126]
.The President is responsible for the implementation of the Constitution and for the exercise of executive powers, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters.^ The functions of the executive, except in the matters that are directly placed under the jurisdiction of the Leadership by the Constitution, are to be exercised by the president and the ministers.
  • Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran | Foundation for Iranian Studies 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC fis-iran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His is the responsibility for implementing the Constitution and acting as the head of the executive, except in matters directly concerned with (the office of) the Leadership.
  • Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran | Foundation for Iranian Studies 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC fis-iran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Khomeini and other leaders began to say that a simple withdrawal of all forces to the pre-September 1980 borders was no longer sufficient.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] .The President appoints and supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature.^ Not until September in the following year did the Persian army withdraw from before the walls of the city; and then the movement only took place on the action of the British govern- ~ .

^ "Before the return of the Mahdi, there must be a suitable representative to govern in the Mahdi's place," Tanter explained.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ministers were not responsible to the Crown in a way that ministers of a European government are: they rarely took any initiative, and generally referred their affairs to the grand vizir or to the shah for final decision.

[127] .Eight Vice-Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.^ They are all mounted, it being the practice to station upwards of 30 men to each gun, who are to defend as well as fight it.

^ The party was numerous and miscellaneous, presided over by the quarantine master, who was a Spanish gentleman, and a model of courtesy and dignity, which qualities he preserved under very trying circumstances.

^ Two years ago they were thirty-eight Americans in number, men, women, and children, who enjoy English protection.

[128]
.Unlike many other states, the executive branch in Iran does not control the armed forces.^ The United States does not have an embassy in Iran.
  • Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It brought new elites to power, altered the pattern of Iran’s foreign relations, and led to the transfer of substantial wealth from private ownership to state control.

^ Does the hypocrisy of the United States telling Iran to not meddle in Iraq register on anyone else’s radar?
  • Think Progress » Bolton: I ‘Absolutely’ Hope The U.S. Will Attack Iran In The Next ‘Six Months’ 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Although the President appoints the Ministers of Intelligence and Defense, it is customary for the President to obtain explicit approval from the Supreme Leader for these two ministers before presenting them to the legislature for a vote of confidence.^ Ministers will be appointed by the President and will be presented to the Assembly for a vote of confidence.
  • Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran | Foundation for Iranian Studies 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC fis-iran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Incumbent president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was declared the winner, while opposition leader and former Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi claimed fraud.
  • Global Voices Online » Iranian Election 2009 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: News]

^ The Supreme Leader appoints officials to key positions including the head of judiciary and the Council of Guardians.
  • Iran (09/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran's current president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was first elected in a run-off poll in the 2005 presidential elections and re-elected in the 2009 presidential elections.^ Instead, the Americans got bogged down in the Iraqi quagmire, and Iran elected a frightening new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, in 2005.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2005 presidential election, Malekian voted for the winner, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and when I asked if he was happy with the president, he answered frankly.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli government has warned repeatedly that it will never allow nuclear weapons to be made in Iran, whose president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has declared that "Israel must be wiped off the map".
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of 2008, the Legislature of Iran (also known as the Majlis of Iran) is a unicameral body.[129] .Before the Iranian Revolution, the legislature was bicameral, but the upper house was removed under the new constitution.^ Houri Berberian, Armenians and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1905-1911: The Love of Freedom has no Fatherland (Boulder: Westview, 2000).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of these ministers were abolished under the new constitution, and the heads of subsidiary departments are entitled mudir or rais, and are placed under the responsible ministers.

^ Said Amir Arjomand, "Religion and Ideology in the Constitutional Revolution," Iranian Studies 12:3-4 (1979): 283-291.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Majlis of Iran comprises 290 members elected for four-year terms.^ He also proposed to substitute for the elected Majlis a council of forty members, nominated by himself; but under pressure from Great Britain.

[129] The Majlis drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All Majlis candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Council of Guardians.[130]
.The Council of Guardians comprises twelve jurists including six appointed by the Supreme Leader.^ Even after the Guardian Council an appointed body that answers to the supreme leader and that vets candidates and legislation had disqualified almost half the proposed candidates, including most of the reformists and a large number of Mesbah-Yazdis students, clerics associated with Mesbah-Yazdi still stood a reasonable chance of winning dozens of the 86 seats.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the Haqqani scholars, it seemed that the reformists were challenging the doctrine of velayat-i-faqih, which is based on the sovereign power of the chief jurist, the supreme leader.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The others are elected by the Parliament from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary.[125][131] The Council interprets the constitution and may veto Parliament. .If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to Parliament for revision.^ Husayn Mehrpur, "The Council of Guardians under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran," Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly 8 (1988): 65-76.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[125] .In a controversial exercise of its authority, the Council has drawn upon a narrow interpretation of Iran's constitution to veto parliamentary candidates.^ Moreover, the constitutional grounding on which the council bases its authority is disputed in Iran.
  • Iran 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, he selects six members of the Guardian Council, an influential body which has to pass all legislation and which can veto would-be election candidates.
  • Islamic Republic of Iran 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliamentary elections could represent a real contest for power in Iran's political system-but only if arbitrary bans on candidates and other constraints on political life are lifted.
  • Iran 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between Parliament and the Council of Guardians, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country.^ "There are 24 strong batteries around Natanz, making it one of the most protected sites on earth," said an Israeli military source.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the death of the emperor Alexander in December 1825 Prince Menshikov was sent to Teheran to settle a dispute which had arisen between the two governments regarding the prescribed frontier.

^ The best they could do was to revise the Constitution after Khomeinis death, greatly expanding the powers of the clerical councils and of the supreme leader at the expense of the elected offices.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132]
Shirin Ebadi, lawyer, human rights activist and 2006 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
.The Supreme Leader appoints the head of Iran's Judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.^ In 1897 M. J. de Morgan, who had been on a scientific mission in Persia some years before and later in Egypt, was appointed chief of a mission to Persia, and began work at Susa in December.

^ The sources work for a European head of government who met the Israeli leader some time after the Bush visit.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of his Majesty's principal wife, as one would anticipate, it is this lady who holds the chief place at court–among the womankind, be it well understood.

[133] .There are several types of courts including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and "revolutionary courts" which deal with certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security.^ The functions of the representatives of the s/ar are now limited to civil cases, while all criminal cases are referred to the urf, which, however, also takes cognizahce of civil disputes, should the parties desire it.

^ The unit of measure is the zar or gez, of which, as in the case of the man, there are several variants.

^ Unless there be security in life and property–if both the one and the other are at the nod of arbitrary power–a nation may exist, but it can never prosper, never advance.

.The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.^ Its decisions are final and not subject to appeal.
  • Iran 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whereas court verdicts are subject to appeal by higher courts, the decisions of the council are not subject to independent appeal.
  • Iran 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[133] The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay people. .The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader.^ It can come only when the Supreme Leader approves it.

^ The supreme leader, the recognized head of state, is elected by the Assembly of Experts and can only be removed by a vote of this assembly.
  • Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Head of the Judicial Power is appointed by the Supreme Religious Leader for a 5-year term (Art.

.The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed.^ On December 16, Madadi was released from jail following an appeals court ruling that cleared him of the charge of acting against national security.
  • Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[133]
.The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms.^ Still, Malekian said that he voted for the most severe fundamentalist among the candidates running for the clerical Assembly of Experts.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number are expected to seek election this fall to the Assembly of Experts, the one body in Iran's theocratic system with the power to remove the supreme leader, the cleric who has ultimate authority.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irans elections for city councils and for the Assembly of Experts, the 86-member clerical board that will select the next supreme leader should anything happen to the current leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As with the presidential and parliamentary elections, the Council of Guardians determines candidates' eligibility.[133] .The Assembly elects the Supreme Leader and has the constitutional authority to remove the Supreme Leader from power at any time.^ The Supreme Leader holds power for life unless removed by the Assembly of Experts.
  • Iran (09/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution also created an Assembly of Experts of clerics to elect the supreme leader.
  • International Socialist Review -- Obama in office 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Iran is a constitutional Islamic republic with a theocratic system of government where ultimate political authority is vested in the highest religious authority, the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

[133] It has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions[133]
.Local City Councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran.^ But it is all but impossible to see how any such operations can prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons in the short term.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E arlier this year, the government of Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert created a task force to coördinate all the available intelligence on Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And all this while Iran funneled weapons to Hezbollah, shipped explosives into Iraq and defied Security Council resolutions.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to article seven of Iran's Constitution, these local councils together with the Parliament are "decision-making and administrative organs of the State". This section of the constitution was not implemented until 1999 when the first local council elections were held across the country.^ Rice announces Iran sanctions 25 Oct 2007: 'These actions will provide a powerful deterrent,' says the US secretary of state.
  • The visionary shah who inspired an Islamic republic | Elaheh Rostami-Povey | Comment is free | The Guardian 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Last week's controversial election outcome in Iran should not deter the United States from pursuing better relations with it, according to Independent Institute Senior Fellow Ivan Eland.
  • Iran's Twitter Revolution 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ ZNet Article Mahmoud Ahmadinejad--the man many Iranians believe stole the presidency in Iran's contested June 12 elections--two weeks ago nominated three women to head ministries and this week Iran's parliament...
  • ZNet - Iran 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.Councils have many different responsibilities including electing mayors, supervising the activities of municipalities; studying, planning, co-ordinating and implementing of social, cultural, educational, health, economic, and welfare requirements of their constituencies.^ On the 7th of October the national council, or as many members of it as could be got together, was welcomed by the shah and elected a president.

^ But the reformers made a strong showing at local council elections in December, with many voters worried about Iran's increasing diplomatic isolation and economic problems.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avraham Cohen, "Iranian Jewry and the Educational Endeavors of the Alliance Israélite Universelle," Jewish Social Studies 48 (1986): 15-44.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

Foreign relations and military

HESA Saeqeh was first test-flown in 2004 and has been delivered to the air force since 2007
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.Iran's foreign relations are based on two strategic principles: eliminating outside influences in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond all this, both regionally and globally Iran is escalating its diplomatic and strategic offensive against the US. It has widened its diplomatic operations in the Western hemisphere from Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua to the Caribbean by opening diplomatic relations with Grenada and St. Vincent, and it is pursuing diplomatic ties with Jamaica.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The outcome hinges on which countries will assume dominance in developing Iran's enormous oil and natural gas reserves.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran maintains diplomatic relations with almost every member of the United Nations, except for Israel, which Iran does not recognize, and the United States since the Iranian Revolution.^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formula for the future My 90-minute conversation with the senior Iranian government official ended with him describing a way forward between the United States and Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hope the Nations of the World tells Iran they can't have Nuclear Weapons or continue to taunt Israel!
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134] .Since 2005, Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the Western world due to suspicions that Iran could divert the civilian nuclear technology to a weapons program.^ For the sake of peace, the world must not allow Iran to have a nuclear weapon.''
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran insists its nuclear program is for civilian nuclear power.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to all of the above, the US will use nuclear weapon against Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has led the UN Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran on select companies linked to this program, thus furthering its economic isolation on the international scene.^ U.N. Security Council unanimously imposed sanctions.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Iran refused, diplomacy led in December to the imposition of economic sanctions by the Security Council.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the US will fail to pass additional sanctions against Iran in the UN Security Council.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. Director of National Intelligence said in February 2009 that Iran would not realistically be able to a get a nuclear weapon until 2013, if it chose to develop one.^ Up until Iran will stop its nuclear programme," he said.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clawson acknowledged that intelligence on Irans nuclear-weapons progress was limited.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia is often reviled, but if we were to judge of the national character by what we saw, candour would oblige us to declare that intelligence, cordiality, and liberality are the prevailing qualities.

[135]
One of Iran's three SSK Kilo class submarines
.The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), totaling about 545,000 active troops.^ Also this week, Yahya Rahim Safavi, the former commander of the Revolutionary Guards Corps and current senior adviser to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei for security affairs, announced that Iran has shifted responsibility for naval warfare on the Persian Gulf from its regular naval forces to its more fanatical Revolutionary Guards.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Shifting to StratCom indicates that they are talking about a really punishing air-force and naval air attack [on Iran]," says Lang.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Revolutionary Guards now resemble Mafia families more than ideological shock troops.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force totaling around 900,000 trained troops.^ Hakim and Sadr command some 80,000 to 100,000 men, who are armed, funded, and trained by Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136] .Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the IRGC, called the Basij, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members.^ Bush has directed StratCom to draw up plans for a massive strike against Iran, at a time when CentCom has had its hands full overseeing operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the new coinage came into use (1877) the proportion of pure silver was from 92 to 9~%; subsequently the proportion was for some time 90%; now it is about 894%.

^ At the same time a uniform duty of 5% ad valorem was established.

.Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service; GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men". This would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world.^ You know, its the one thing that could blow up the world.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of his Majesty's principal wife, as one would anticipate, it is this lady who holds the chief place at court–among the womankind, be it well understood.

^ It could also be designed to persuade the United States to act to soften up world opinion ahead of an Israeli pre-emptive strike.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137] .In 2007, Iran's military spending represented 2.6% of the GDP or $102 per capita, the lowest figure of the Persian Gulf nations.^ Advocates of an American invasion of Iran say that last months strengthening of the American armada in the Persian Gulf has frightened the Iranian regime.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One was US concern over Iran's likely retaliation, which would probably include a wave of attacks on US military and other personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as on shipping in the Persian Gulf.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This cannot happen unless Iran's leaders decide whether they are representing a cause or a nation -- whether their basic motivation is crusading or international cooperation.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[138] Iran's military doctrine is based on deterrence.[139]
.Since the Iranian revolution, to overcome foreign embargo, Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, submarines, military vessels, guided missile destroyer, radar systems, helicopters and fighter planes.^ Jalil Roshandel, "Evolution of the Decision-Making Process in Iranian Foreign Policy, 1979-1999," in Eric Hoogland, ed., Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transformation in Iran since 1979 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such sanctions could include penalties against foreign companies that sell Iran refined petroleum and provide an insurance policy for Iranian shipping.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is impossible to verify the claims, the PKK leader, Murat Karayilan, said the PJAK fighters had killed at least 150 Iranians in Iran since August.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[140][141][142] In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3 and Sajjil missiles, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[143] .The Fajr-3 (MIRV) is currently Iran's most advanced ballistic missile, it is a liquid fuel missile with an undisclosed range which was developed and produced domestically.^ The West accuses Iran of seeking to develop atomic weapons and is demanding that it suspend a uranium enrichment programme that Tehran says is only to produce electricity.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran has a relatively sophisticated arsenal of short- and medium-range missiles.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IAEA's report claimed that Iran has taken steps to enable its Shihab-3 ballistic missiles to carry nuclear warheads.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Economy

.
There is an estimated population of 1.2 million weavers in Iran producing carpets for domestic markets and international export.
^ One of her responsibilities was to oversee a projected $85 million program to produce anti-Iran propaganda and support dissidents.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add in its location, its population of nearly 70 million (the largest in the Middle East) and its ambitions to regional leadership, and the significance of Iran's future international role is undeniable.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, there are the private initiatives to use international law, capital markets and political pressure to deter Teheran from acquiring nuclear weapons and to persuade states not to cultivate ties with Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144]
.Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.^ The United States does not want to go into Iran, but, if Israel feels more and more cornered, there may be no other choice.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The culmination of the reformers' defeats came in 2005, when voters elected the hardline Ahmadinejad, who promised to use Iran's large oil revenues to help the poor.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The small ports, known as invisible piers, were constructed two decades ago by Irans Revolutionary Guards to accommodate small private boats used for smuggling.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[145] .Its economic infrastructure has been improving steadily over the past two decades but continues to be affected by inflation and unemployment.^ Over the past two decades, Tehran has nurtured cultural, economic, and political ties with various regional forces, most notably the Shiites of Iraq.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past two decades, Hizbullah has evolved into a Lebanese political force, but it continues to rely on Iranian support to sustain its military capabilities.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146] In the early 21st century the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture. .In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The culmination of the reformers' defeats came in 2005, when voters elected the hardline Ahmadinejad, who promised to use Iran's large oil revenues to help the poor.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The outcome hinges on which countries will assume dominance in developing Iran's enormous oil and natural gas reserves.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[147]
.Government spending contributed to an average annual inflation rate of 14% in the period 2000–2004. As of 2007, Iran has earned $70 billion in foreign exchange reserves mostly (80%) from crude oil exports.^ To do this, it must be able to wreck Iran's offshore oil platforms and production while preventing Iran from shutting down everyone else by blocking the Straits of Hormuz to oil exports.
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^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iranian government has tried to create jobs swiftly and pacify the people by spending the oil money on new government-run projects.
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[148] In 2007, the GDP was estimated at $206 billion ($852 billion at PPP), or $3,160 per capita ($12,300 at PPP).[29] Iran's official annual growth rate was at 6% (2008).[149] .Because of these figures and the country’s diversified but small industrial base, the United Nations classifies Iran's economy as semi-developed (1998).^ The plutonium issue is one of several over which the United Nations Security Council has imposed sanctions to get Iran to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the watchdog that is investigating American charges that Iran is covertly developing nuclear weapons.
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^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The policy shift has brought Saudi Arabia and Israel into a new strategic embrace, largely because both countries see Iran as an existential threat.
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[150]
.
Iran's automobile production crossed the 1 million mark in 2005. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East.
^ Eric Hooglund, "The Pulse of Iran Today," in Middle East Insight 11:5 (July-August 1995): 40-47.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To do this, he must convince Europe, China and Russia that a nuclear Iran will be catastrophic for Middle East stability as well as for their own economies.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shahrough Akhavi, "Elite Factionalism in the Islamic Republic of Iran," The Middle East Journal 41:2 (Spring 1987): 181-204.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents.
.Close to 1.8% of national employment is generated in the tourism sector which is slated to increase to 10% in the next five years.^ What would be more attainable (at least theoretically) would be destruction of Irans nuclear program and their removal as a regional player for the next 10 years.
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^ The Persian general followed close in his rear and again defeated him outside Isfahan in November of the same year.

^ This was not so formerly, when not infrequently an official, generally a near relation of the shah, held the same governorship for five, ten or even more years.

[151] .About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004; most came from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while a small share came from the countries of the European Union and North America.^ Those arguing for the loopholes include clerics closely identified with the country's most hard-line conservatives, the most ardent defenders of Iran's theocratic system.
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^ The shahs visit to Europe in the same year cost the exchequer about 180,000.

^ Robert Olson, "Foreign Policy of the Soviet Union toward the Turkoman Rebellion in Eastern Iran in 1924-1925 and the Kurdish Rebellion of Shaykh Said in Eastern Turkey in 1925: A Comparison," Central Asian Survey 9:4 (1990):75-83.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Iran currently ranks 89th in tourist income, but is rated among the "10 most touristic countries" in the world.^ "It's the most unusual relationship we have with any country in the world," explains US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those arguing for the loopholes include clerics closely identified with the country's most hard-line conservatives, the most ardent defenders of Iran's theocratic system.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sussan Siavoshi, "Ethnic Nationalism: The Case of Iran's Azerbaijan," Current World Leaders 34:2 (1991): 255-269.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[152] .Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.^ It was indispensable to every state which towarcia hoped to play some part in the world and was iiot so ifelienisn,.

^ The varieties of the vines, collected from all parts of the world, are not less than two or three hundred.

^ Innkeeping is one of their favourite employments–perhaps from the opportunity it affords for retaliating on the Gentile some of the numerous wrongs they have so long endured from him all over the world.

.The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one and indicated that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy.^ The culmination of the reformers' defeats came in 2005, when voters elected the hardline Ahmadinejad, who promised to use Iran's large oil revenues to help the poor.
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^ Of course, Iran's creed is "if we cannot export oil, no one else will."
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^ By continuing to reject a grand bargain with Tehran, the Bush administration has done nothing to increase the chances that Iran will accept meaningful long-term restraints on its nuclear activities.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceuticals industry.^ Ronald W. Ferrier, "The Development of the Iranian Oil Industry," in Hossein Amirsadeghi, ed., Twentieth Century Iran (London: Heinemann, 1977), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[153] .The strong oil market since 1996 helped ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt service payments.^ The deal aims to ease concerns Tehran could build a nuclear weapon by removing most of Iran's low-enriched uranium from the country.

^ I visited Tehran in 1991, and since I was then the Chairman of Pak Railways, I expressed my desire to see the train of the Shah of Iran.
  • PERSIA, the Ancient Iran Photo Gallery by Ali Majdfar at pbase.com 14 January 2010 15:41 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a while and the dollar has fallen, less forieghn goods will flood our markets, (too expensive) and Americans will again be desirable to employ since shippin in country will take less oil.

.Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone.^ Erzeroom is a large town, dirtier and more disagreeable, I think, than.

^ They live, especially the married women, in a state of seclusion much more severe than that imposed on Persian females.

^ A donors conference in Paris, in January, which the U.S. helped organize, yielded pledges of almost eight billion more, including a promise of more than a billion from the Saudis.
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[154][155] In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. .The objective is to move towards free market prices in a 5-year period and increase productivity.^ Such is the beginning of the free press to be established in Persia five hundred years hence; for within any less period it is hopeless.

Over the past 15 years, the authorities have placed an emphasis on the local production of domestic-consumption oriented goods such as home appliances, cars, agricultural products, pharmaceutical, etc. .Today, Iran possesses a good manufacturing industry, despite restrictions imposed by foreign countries.^ A smaller group also blamed Ahmadinejads inflammatory foreign-policy rhetoric for the United Nations Security Council resolution imposing sanctions on Iran.
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.However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years.^ Such a law, added to the wealth of England, would render her invincible if attacked, and make other nations slow to provoke her enmity.

.Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness.^ All of these private initiatives are vital for raising public awareness in the West about the lethality of the Iranian threat to Israel and to global security in general.
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^ The public is taught to believe that there is nothing monstrous about such a possibility and that, on the contrary, a nuclear strike is quite feasible.
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^ I hear that in each regiment of Azerbijan there are several hundreds of these animals, who carry the soldiers' baggage, as well as a great many of the soldiers themselves.

.Iran has leading manufacture industry in the fields of car-manufacture and transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, power and petrochemicals in the Middle East.^ To do this, he must convince Europe, China and Russia that a nuclear Iran will be catastrophic for Middle East stability as well as for their own economies.
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^ To undermine Iran, which is predominantly Shiite, the Bush Administration has decided, in effect, to reconfigure its priorities in the Middle East.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia sees Iran as a beachhead against American interests in the Middle East, and theyre playing a very sophisticated game, he said.
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[156]

Energy

.
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas.
^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
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^ Its large market, economic output, industrial potential, and vast oil and natural gas reserves make it central to American geostrategic and energy interests.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's fourth oil producer.
Iran ranks second in the world in natural gas reserves and also second in oil reserves.[157] It is OPEC's 2nd largest oil exporter. It has the potential to become an energy superpower.[158] .In 2005, Iran spent $4 billion on fuel imports, because of contraband and inefficient domestic use.^ Russia is quite comfortable with Iran having nuclear fuel cycles that would be monitored, and theyll support the Iranian positionin part, because it gives them the opportunity to sell billions of dollars worth of nuclear fuel and materials to Tehran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The culmination of the reformers' defeats came in 2005, when voters elected the hardline Ahmadinejad, who promised to use Iran's large oil revenues to help the poor.
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[159] .Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels per day (640,000 m3/d) in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags.^ At $60 barrel, the US is paying approximately $290 billion per year for imported oil.
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^ What a contrast, and what a theme for reflection, does its present state afford, compared to the days when 300,000 Russians were collected in its bazars, and sold as slaves to the merchants of Constantinople!

^ Its large market, economic output, industrial potential, and vast oil and natural gas reserves make it central to American geostrategic and energy interests.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005.
.In 2004, a large share of Iran's natural gas reserves were untapped.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its large market, economic output, industrial potential, and vast oil and natural gas reserves make it central to American geostrategic and energy interests.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. .Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its large market, economic output, industrial potential, and vast oil and natural gas reserves make it central to American geostrategic and energy interests.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant is to come online in 2009.
Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. .The government’s goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants and by adding hydroelectric, and nuclear power generating capacity.^ In 1879 the Persian government was induced to spend 30,000 on the erection of a gas factory in Teheran, but work was soon stopped for want of good coal.

^ Especially a government willing to renounce nuclear power and re-align with US interests.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drawback to the new American position, Clawson added, was that the Iranians might take Bushs agreeing to join the talks as a sign that their hard line has worked.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iran’s first nuclear power plant at Bushehr is set to go online by 2010.[160][161]

Demography

Major Ethnic Groups of Iran
.Iran is a diverse country consisting of people of many religions and ethnic backgrounds cemented by the Persian culture[162].^ At the same time, an Iran concentrating on the development of the talents of its people and the resources of its country should have nothing to fear from the United States.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus a strong Persian propagandism arose especially in Armenia and Cappadocia, where the religion took deep root among the people, but also in Lydia and Lycia.

^ As tensions with Iran rise, many gulf countries have come to see themselves as the likely first targets of an Iranian attack.
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.The majority of the population speaks the Persian language, which is also the official language of the country, as well as other Iranian languages or dialects.^ Their subjects, on the contrary, speak absolutely different tongues: for the attempts to explain the languages of the Cossaeans, Mitannians, and Arzapians as Indo-European (Iranian) have ended in failure (cf.

^ The Lek tribes speak their own dialect, besides either Persian or Turkish, according to locality.

^ According to this camp, what changed the minds of Iranian officials was only the United Nations resolution threatening economic sanctions, and the possibility of other resolutions and more serious sanctions.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turkic languages and dialects (most importantly Azeri) are spoken in different areas in Iran.^ The name Old Bactrian suggests that the language was limited to the small district of Bactria, or at least that it was spoken therewhich is, at the most, only an Zend.

^ If Chinese be the most extensively written language in the world, since millions speaking different dialects are still able to read the same character, it may be difficult to determine whether English, Spanish, or Turkish be the most diffused orally throughout the world.

Additionally, Arabic is spoken in the southwestern parts of the country.
.The exact ethnic breakdown of Iran is unknown as there are no official numbers, however some organizations have made estimates.^ Israeli intelligence, however, has also failed to provide specific evidence about secret sites in Iran, according to current and former military and intelligence officials.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senior White House officials have made several visits to Saudi Arabia recently, some of them not disclosed.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States does not want to go into Iran, but, if Israel feels more and more cornered, there may be no other choice.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CIA World Factbook released the estimate: Persians (51%), Azeris (24%), Gilaki and Mazandarani (8%), Kurds (7%), Arabs (3%), Baluchi (2%), Lurs (2%), Turkmens (2%), Laks, Qashqai, Armenians, Persian Jews, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, Tats, Mandaeans, Gypsies, Brahuis, Hazara, Kazakhs and others (1%).^ John Marlowe, "Arab-Persian Rivalry in the Persian Gulf," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 51:1 (January 1964): 23-31.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.

^ Intermarriage with Georgians and Circassians, Koords, Arabs, Albanians, Sclavonians, Greeks, and Armenians, has no doubt modified the frightful Mongolian features of the genuine Turk.

[29] .However according to them Persian and its dialects are spoken as first language by 58% while Azeri is spoken by 26%, Kurdish by 9%, Luri by 3%, Balochi by 1%, Arabic by 1% and that some 2% have other languages as first language.^ They both speak dialects the greater part of which is Persian, bearing a strong resemblance to the colloquial language of the present day, divested of its large Arabic mixture.

^ These eels have, however, become complete Persians, and have preserved no trace of their origin either in language or appearance.

^ The Lek tribes speak their own dialect, besides either Persian or Turkish, according to locality.

[29]
.The Library of Congress Persians (65%), Azeris (16 %), Kurds (7%), Lurs (6%), Arabs (2%), Baluchi (2%), Turkmens (1%), Turkic tribal groups such as the Qashqai (1%), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups such as Armenians, Assyrians, and Georgians (less than 1%).^ Sakina Berengian, Azeri and Persian Literary Works in Twentieth Century Iranian Azerbaijan (Berlin: Schwarz, 1988).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A Persian who obtains an advance of money at less than 12% considers that he gets money for nothing.

^ Electors must be males and Persian subjects of not less than 25 years of age and of good repute.

.According to them Persian is spoken as a mother tongue by at least 65% of the population and as a second language by a large proportion of the remaining 35%.^ The name Old Bactrian suggests that the language was limited to the small district of Bactria, or at least that it was spoken therewhich is, at the most, only an Zend.

^ Side by side with the Persian, the Aramaic, which had long been widely diffused as ~ ~eech of commerce, enjoyed currency in all the western hail of the empire as a second dominant language.

^ They both speak dialects the greater part of which is Persian, bearing a strong resemblance to the colloquial language of the present day, divested of its large Arabic mixture.

[163]
Iran religiosity
Religion Percent
Shia Islam
  
89%
Sunni Islam
  
9%
Other
  
2%
.Iran's population increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th century, reaching about 75 million by 2009.[164] In recent years, however, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly.^ Israeli intelligence, however, has also failed to provide specific evidence about secret sites in Iran, according to current and former military and intelligence officials.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other side is making pronouncements so they have to as well, he said, speaking of Irans recent announcements about its weapons capacity.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is enough, however, to convince some Israelis that Iran is reaching the "point of no return" at which it has the technical know-how to build a nuclear bomb.
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.Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 105 million by 2050.[165][166] More than two-thirds of the population is under the age of 30, and the literacy rate is 83%.^ The likelihood that more restrictive sanctions against Iran will either make it through the United Nations' bureaucratic quagmire or dissuade Iran from darting down the path toward nuclear technology is about as dim as that of a popular uprising among the people under 30 who make up 70 percent of Iran's population.
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^ As there was nothing under the thin gauze, the result of course was more display than is usual in Europe.

^ Mehran Kamrava, "The Civil Society Discourse in Iran," British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 28:2 (November 2001): 165-185.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Women today compose more than half of the incoming classes for universities around the country and increasingly continue to play pivotal roles in society.^ Two countries are more than enough.
  • Think Progress » Bolton: I ‘Absolutely’ Hope The U.S. Will Attack Iran In The Next ‘Six Months’ 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ They live, especially the married women, in a state of seclusion much more severe than that imposed on Persian females.

^ The fact is Iran is one of the most liberal and democratic countries in the world, more than any other state in the Middle East, including Turkey.

.Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq.^ He was then fifty-seven years of age, and had ruled over part of Persia for more than eighteen yearsover the kingdom generally for about three years, and from his coronation for about one year only.

^ One was US concern over Iran's likely retaliation, which would probably include a wave of attacks on US military and other personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as on shipping in the Persian Gulf.
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^ Indus and Tigris , covers more than a million square miles.

[167] .Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation.^ After the Afghan war, US negotiators worked closely with Iranian counterparts to form a new Afghan government.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no official tallies of Iranian casualties, although Mr Jalilizadeh put the total at about 100 since last year.
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[168] According to estimates, about three million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the Iranian Revolution in 1979.[169]
Population of Iran
.Religion in Iran is dominated by the Twelver Shi'a branch of Islam, which is the official state religion and to which about 89% of Iranians belong.^ Formula for the future My 90-minute conversation with the senior Iranian government official ended with him describing a way forward between the United States and Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iranian officials in Tehran did not respond to requests for comment about the guerillas or the captured soldier.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, Israel would be assured that its security was paramount and that Washington and Saudi Arabia and other Sunni states shared its concern about Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 9% of Iranians belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, mainly Kurds and Iran's Balochi Sunni.^ First, Israel would be assured that its security was paramount and that Washington and Saudi Arabia and other Sunni states shared its concern about Iran.
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^ ReligionAbout 9,000,000 of the population are Mahommedans of the Shiah faith, and 800,000 or 900,000, principally Kurds in north-western Persia, are said to belong to the other great branch of Islam , the Sunni, which differs from the former in religious doctrine and historical belief, and is the state religion of the Turkish Empire and other Mahommedan countries.

^ "Along with our Sunni alliesSaudi Arabia, Jordan, and Egypt[the administration is] terribly concerned about Iran emerging as the new colossus.
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.The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Bahá'ís, Mandeans, Hindus, Yezidis, Yarsanis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians.^ Walter P. Zenner, "The Non-Muslim Minorities of Iran," Harvard University.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[29]
The latter three minority religions are officially recognized and protected, and have reserved seats in the Majlis (Parliament). .However the Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest religious minority,[170] is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran.^ Israeli intelligence, however, has also failed to provide specific evidence about secret sites in Iran, according to current and former military and intelligence officials.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It possesses some qualities calculated to attract regard, and the inflexible tenacity with which the Armenian has clung to his faith during centuries of persecution claims respect.

^ Mohammad Hemmasi and Carolyn V. Prorok, "Demographic Changes in Iran's Officially Recognized Religious Minority Populations since the Islamic Revolution," African and Asian Studies 1:2 (2002): 63-86, esp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment.^ Elham Gheytanchi, "Appendix: Chronology of Events Regarding Women in Iran since the Revolution of 1979," Social Research 67:2 (Summer 2000): 439-452.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ America and Iran have been at loggerheads ever since Ayatollah Khomeini's revolution of 1979.
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^ Marcus Gerhardt, "Sport and Civil Society in Iran," in Eric Hoogland, ed., Twenty Years of Islamic Revolution: Political and Social Transformation in Iran since 1979 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[171][172]
.According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security that covers retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services.^ The number of Persian slaves imported and also bred in the country is immense, and in almost every house where servants are kept, one or more, according to the means of the proprietor, are to be found.

^ And so for instance I am one of the people responsible for Iran in our government and yet I have never met an Iranian government official in my 25-year career."
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^ Average Iranians resent their government's generous support for Hizbullah when unemployment and poverty plague the Iranian economy, and many bristle at the risk that support for Hizbullah carries for Iran.
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.This is covered by public revenues and income derived from public contributions.^ His revenue was entirely derived from the voluntary contributions of his flock; and even this scanty source of subsistence had recently, owing to some disagreements, ceased.

.The World Health Organization in the last report on health systems ranks Iran's performance on health level 58th, and its overall health system performance 93rd among the world's nations.^ I hope the Nations of the World tells Iran they can't have Nuclear Weapons or continue to taunt Israel!
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ''Enemies of the Islamic system fabricated various rumors about death and health to demoralize the Iranian nation, but they did not know that they are not dealing with only one person in Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hank Paulson, the US Treasury Secretary, claimed last month that Iran was using the western banking system to sponsor international terrorism and nuclear procurement.
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[173]

Culture

City Theater of Tehran, the largest Theater auditorium in the Middle East
.The Culture of Iran is a mix of ancient pre-Islamic culture and Islamic culture.^ PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN .
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ T. Cuyler Young, "Interaction of Islamic and Western Thought in Iran," in T. Cuyler Young, ed., Near Eastern Culture and Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hamid Naficy, "Islamizing the Film Culture," in S. Farsoun and M. Mashayekhi, eds., Iran: Political Culture in the Islamic Republic (London: Routledge, 1992).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Iranian culture probably originated in Central Asia and the Andronovo culture is strongly suggested as the predecessor of Iranian culture ca.^ Ali A. Jalali, "Iran-Central Asia: Reminiscing the Past and Looking to the Future," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 16:2 (November 2000): 72-78.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, the Iranians suggested that Qatar, which is the site of the regional headquarters of the U.S. Central Command, would be its first target in the event of an American attack.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scott Levi, "The Indian Merchant Diaspora in Early Modern Central Asia and Iran," Iranian Studies 32:4 (1999): 483-512.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.2000 BC. Iranian culture has long been a predominant culture of the Middle East and Central Asia, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that.^ Indeed, hope has been the central pillar of US Middle East policy for the last five years.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afshin Matin-asgari, "Tehran Memoirs and Diaries, Winter 1979 and Summer 1997," Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 20:1-2 (2000): 171-179.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nasrine Hakami, Pèlerinage de l'Emâm Rezâ: Étude Socio-économique (Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1989).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Sassanid era was an important and influential historical period in Iran as Iranian culture influenced China, India and Roman civilization considerably,[174] and so influenced as far as Western Europe and Africa.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
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^ Iranians (Ariani), ranking them (as well as the Indians, Romans and Carthaginians) on a level with the Greeks, as regards their capacity for adopting city civilization.

^ Wilhelm Eilers, "Education and Cultural Development in Iran during the Pahlavi Era," in George Lenczowski, ed., Iran under the Pahlavis (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1978), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[175] This influence played a prominent role in the formation of both Asiatic and European medieval art.[176] .This influence carried forward to the Islamic world.^ Washingtons performance should concern anyone who cares about long-term American influence in the Islamic world.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were based on some of the practises taken from the Sassanid Persians to the broader Muslim world.^ The students are instructed in Arabic and Persian literature, religion, interpretation of the Koran, Mussulman law, logic , rhetoric , philosophy and other subjects necessary for admittance to the clergy, for doctors of law, &c., while modern sciences are neglected.

^ These are some of the inducements which led to the occupation of this spot of Persian territory by the Russian government, which act was perpetrated in 1841, immediately after the catastrophe of Cabul became known.

^ George Saliba, "Persian scientists in the Islamic world: astronomy from Maragha to Samarqand," in Richard Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh, eds., The Persian Presence in the Islamic World (Cambridge: CUP, 1998), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[177][178][179]
.After Islamicization of Iran Islamic rituals have penetrated in the Iranian culture.^ Ali Akbar Mahdi, "Iranian women: between Islamicization and globalization," in Ali Mohammadi, ed., Iran Encountering Globalization: Problems and Prospects (London: Routledge, 2003), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Shiva Balaghi, "Print Culture in Late Qajar Iran: the Cartoons of Kashk_l ," Iranian Studies 34:1-4 (2001): 165-182.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Golnar Mehran, "Socialization of Schoolchildren in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iranian Studies 22:1 (1989): 35-50.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

The most noticeable one of them is commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali. .Every year in Day of Ashura most of Iranians, including Armenians and Zoroastrians participate in mourning for the martyrs of battle of Karbala.^ The nuclear program is popular with the Iranian people, including thosethe young and the secularwho are most hostile to the religious leadership.
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^ Even now repeated shocks are felt, sometimes to a most alarming extent, every year, warning the citizens against a catastrophe.

.Daily life in modern Iran is closely interwoven with Shia Islam and the country's art, literature, and architecture are an ever-present reminder of its deep national tradition and of a broader literary culture.^ Farzin Vahdat, "Mehdi Haeri Yazdi and the Discourse of Modernity," in Ramin Jahanbegloo, ed., Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Roksana Bahramitash, "Women's Employment in Iran: Modernization and Islamization," in Ramin Jahanbegloo, ed., Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This conundrum can be solved without conflict only if Iran adopts a modernism consistent with international order and a view of Islam compatible with peaceful coexistence.
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[179][180]
Ferdowsi, poet, author of the Shāhnāmeh
.The Iranian New Year (Nowruz) is an ancient tradition celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of spring in Iran.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
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^ Jahangir Amuzegar, "Iran under New Management," SAIS Review 18:1 (Winter-Spring 1998): 73-92.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abbas Valadkhani, "An Analysis of Iran's Third Five-Year Development Plan in the Post-Revolution Era (2000-2005)," Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 17:2 (November 2001): 1-21.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

It is also celebrated in Afghanistan, Republic of Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and previously also in Georgia and Armenia. It is also celebrated by the Iraqi and Anatolian Kurds.[181] Nowrouz was nominated as one of UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2004.[182]
Hafezi'eh, tomb of the Hafez in Shiraz City
The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. The main Persian cuisines are combinations of rice with meat, chicken or fish and some onion, vegetables, nuts, and herbs. .Herbs are frequently used along with fruits such as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins.^ The Persian fruit is excellent and abundant, and large quantities, principally dried and called khushkbar (dry fruit), as quinces, peaches, apricots, plums (of several kinds), raisins, figs, almonds, pistachios, walnuts and dates (the last only from the south), as well as oranges (only from the Caspian provinces), are exported.

.Iranians also usually eat plain yogurt (Persian: ماست, māst) with lunch and dinner; it is a staple of the diet in Iran.^ That was usually all it took to derail an Iranian operation aimed at rooting out guerillas inside Iran, he said.
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.To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavourings such as saffron, dried limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.^ Double the quantity required is demanded, as well as a variety of articles which the unfortunate villagers never heard of, and which, to use their own phrase, "their grandfathers never saw in a dream"–such as saffron, tea, cloves, cinnamon, &c.

.Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.^ We had made preparation for a long march, as it was called, next day; but during the night so violent a storm of snow arose, accompanied by a boorān, that movement was impracticable.

Iran is also famous for its caviar.[183] Iranian food is not spicy.
.Iranian cinema has thrived in modern Iran, and many Iranian directors have garnered worldwide recognition for their work.^ Mohammad Faghfoory, "The Impact of Modernization on the Ulama of Iran, 1925-1941," Iranian Studies 26 (Summer/Fall 1993): 277-312.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Average Iranians resent their government's generous support for Hizbullah when unemployment and poverty plague the Iranian economy, and many bristle at the risk that support for Hizbullah carries for Iran.
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^ As tensions with Iran rise, many gulf countries have come to see themselves as the likely first targets of an Iranian attack.
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.Iranian movies have won over three hundred awards in the past twenty-five years.^ (China, a major purchaser of Iranian oil, is negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with Iran for the purchase of liquefied natural gas over a period of twenty-five years.
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^ Typically they will attack a few soldiers at the fringe of a larger group, said Sadun Edesa, 22, an Iranian Kurd who said he had been fighting for five years.
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^ America quickly fixed its sights on the Taleban in Afghanistan with whom the Iranians had nearly come to war just three years earlier.
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One of the best-known directors is Abbas Kiarostami. .The media of Iran is a mixture of private and state-owned, but books and movies must be approved by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance before being released to the public.^ To do this, he must convince Europe, China and Russia that a nuclear Iran will be catastrophic for Middle East stability as well as for their own economies.
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^ The United States has to take action against Iran and Syria before April 2007.
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^ But while China can provide capital, its state-owned energy companies are not much more technically capable right now than Iran's.
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The Internet has become enormously popular among the Iranian youth. .Iran is now the world's fourth largest country of bloggers.^ Iran has the world's second-largest proven reserves of conventional crude oil, after Saudi Arabia, and the second-largest reserves of natural gas, after Russia.
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[184]

Language and literature

Geographic distribution of the Modern Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple) and Kurdish (turquoise), Lurish (red), Baloch (Yellow), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages
.Article 15 of the Iranian constitution states that the "Official language (of Iran)...^ Peter Smith, "A Note on Babi and Baha'i Numbers in Iran," Iranian Studies 15 (1984): 295-301.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Roger M. Savory, "The Safavid State and Polity," Iranian Studies 7 (1974): 179-212, reprited in Studies on the History of Safavid Iran (London: Variorum Reprints, 1987).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Homa Katouzian, State and Society in Iran: From Constitution to the Rise of the Pahlavi State (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

is Persian...[and]... the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian." .Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language.^ Not only has this lost its cachet with much of the Iranian public, it also serves to compound Irans economic problems by blackening its image abroad.
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.Next to Persian, there are many publications and broadcastings in other relatively popular languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in less popular ones such as Arabic and Armenian.^ In short, she said so much, that if there had been a good road, I should have been tempted to have visited a place so different from Irak; but this is one of the worst points of Persia,–that one is precluded from agreeable excursions, such as are so pleasant in other countries, by the impracticable roads, hardly safe, even for those accustomed to traverse them, on horseback.

^ The public is taught to believe that there is nothing monstrous about such a possibility and that, on the contrary, a nuclear strike is quite feasible.
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^ Besides these, however, numbers of other Persians were despatched to the provinces, settled there, and endowed with lands.

.Many languages originated in Iran, but Persian is the most used language.^ These eels have, however, become complete Persians, and have preserved no trace of their origin either in language or appearance.

^ The Sheghaghees use two languages indifferently, Turkish and their own Lekee, a dialect of Persian.

^ With such materials the cuneiform script could not be used; instead, the Persian language was written in, Aramaic characters, a method which later led to the so-called Pahlavi, i.e.

.Persian belongs to the Aryan or Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages.^ (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the Asiatic base-language) is subdivided into (1) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages , (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN) Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian.

^ These, in part, are rooted in the primeval Indo-European days, though their ultimate form dates only from the Aryan epoch.

^ Their subjects, on the contrary, speak absolutely different tongues: for the attempts to explain the languages of the Cossaeans, Mitannians, and Arzapians as Indo-European (Iranian) have ended in failure (cf.

.The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenid Empire,[185] and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt.^ The Parthian Empire, as founded by the conquests of Mithradates I. and restored, once by Mithradates II. and again by Phraates III., was, to all exterior appearance, a conOrganizatinuation of the Achaemenid dominion.

^ Not a trace of ruins is to be found in Demawend, although among Persian traditions its antiquity reaches the fabulous days of their history–those of Kaïomers and Jemsheed.

^ In the Indo-Scythian Empire the Persian gods were zealously worshipped; in Armenia the old national religion was almost entirely banished by the Persian cults (Gelzer, Zur armen.

.In the late 8th century, Persian was highly Arabized and written in a modified Arabic script.^ With such materials the cuneiform script could not be used; instead, the Persian language was written in, Aramaic characters, a method which later led to the so-called Pahlavi, i.e.

^ November , 1851.–W E were alarmed late one night, not long ago, by my husband being aroused to receive a letter which one of his Persian friends had written to him.

^ Arabic literature and speech exercised so powerful an influence on New Persian, especially on the written language, that it could not withsfand the admission of an immense number of Semitic words.

This caused a movement supporting the revival of Persian. .An important event of this revival was the writing of the Shahname by Ferdowsi (Persian: Epic of Kings), Iran's national epic, which is said to have been written entirely in native Persian.^ Javad Zarif, now Iran's ambassador to the United Nations, said this was a big surprise at after the co-operation over the Afghan government.
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^ Iraq is the disaster we have to get rid of, and Iran is the disaster we have to avoid, Joseph Cirincione, the vice-president for national security at the liberal Center for American Progress, said.
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^ Expressing a similarly tempered view in a speech at the National Press Club, Negroponte said, I think its important that this issue be kept in perspective.
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.This gave rise to a strong reassertion of Iranian national identity, and is in part credited for the continued existence of Persian as a separate language.^ They both speak dialects the greater part of which is Persian, bearing a strong resemblance to the colloquial language of the present day, divested of its large Arabic mixture.

^ Only towards the end of the Parthian sasty and after the rise of the Sassanians, under whom the national ditions were again cultivated in Persia, do we recover the lost Ces of the Persian language in the Pahlavi inscriptions and rature.

^ Mehrdad Kia, "Persian Nationalism and the Campaign for Language Purification," Middle Eastern Studies 34 (1998): 9-36.
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بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی
عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی
For thirty years, I suffered much pain and strife
with Persian I gave the Ajam verve and life
Ferdowsi (935–1020)
Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429
17th century painting from Hasht-Bahesht palace, Isfahan
.Persian beside Arabic has been a medium for literary and scientific contributions to the Islamic world especially in Anatolia, central Asia and Indian sub-continent.^ C. Edmund Bosworth, "The Persian contribution to Islamic historiography in the pre-Mongol period," in Richard Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh, eds., The Persian Presence in the Islamic World (Cambridge: CUP, 1998), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ George Saliba, "Persian scientists in the Islamic world: astronomy from Maragha to Samarqand," in Richard Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh, eds., The Persian Presence in the Islamic World (Cambridge: CUP, 1998), pp.
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^ Arabic literature and speech exercised so powerful an influence on New Persian, especially on the written language, that it could not withsfand the admission of an immense number of Semitic words.

.Poetry is a very important part of Persian culture.^ The Persian peasant is perhaps the best part of the nation, but oppression has made him callous, and not very sensible to emotions of gratitude.

.Poetry is used in many Persian classical works, whether from literature, science, or metaphysics.^ In the various departments of general Persian literature not touched upon in the foregoing pages the same wonderful activity has prevailed as in the realm of poetry and fiction, Historical since the first books on history and medicine appeared Works.

^ II. Modern Persian Literature.Persian historians are greatly at variance about the origin of their national poetry.

^ Olga M. Davidson, Comparative Literature and Classical Persian Poetics: Seven Essays (Costa Mesa: Mazda, 2000).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Persian literature has been considered by such thinkers as Goethe as one of the four main bodies of world literature.^ In passing through the streets of Tehran, one would be disposed to consider the Persians a very musical race.

^ In a long intercourse with Persians, one is apt to imagine that there is no such thing as conscience throughout the land; but this is a mistake.

^ The occurrence is alarming, too; for no one thinks it will remain long without a sequel, as these Yemoot Toorkomans are nominally Persian subjects, or at least claimed as such.

[186]
.The Persian language has produced a number of famous poets; however, only a few poets as Rumi and Omar Khayyám have surfaced among western popular readership, even though the likes of Hafez, Saadi, Nezami[187] Attar, Sanai, Naser Khusraw, Jami are considered by many Iranians to be just as influential.^ None but the strong children survive; and the result is that the Persians, though few in number, are strong, stout, and hardy.

^ These eels have, however, become complete Persians, and have preserved no trace of their origin either in language or appearance.

^ Turkish is so completely the colloquial language of Azerbijan, that, excepting in towns, and even there only among the better classes, Persian is not understood.

The books of famous poets have been translated into western languages since 1634. An example of Persian poetic influence is the poem below which is widely popular:
بنى آدم اعضاء يک پیکرند
که در آفرينش ز يک گوهرند
چو عضوى بدرد آورد روزگارد
دگر عضوها را نماند قرار
Of one Essence is the human race
thus has Creation put the base
One Limb impacted is sufficient
For all Others to feel the Mace
Saadi (1184–1283)

Art and architecture

Greater Iran is home to one of the richest artistic traditions in world history and encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. .Carpet-weaving is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia.^ This is one of the most harassing, and probably one of the most ancient abuses to which Persians are subject.

^ One of the most usual is to the ruins of the ancient city of Rēi, four miles from town.

^ This event brings us to one of the most interesting periods of Persian history, any account of which must be defective without a prefatory sketch of Ismail Sufi.

.Persians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture and also have extraordinary skills in making massive domes which can be seen frequently in the structure of bazaars and mosques.^ When any one gives a charitable feast to the poor–a common practice among the Persians–he is entitled to make use of this china, which, consequently, is in a perpetual state of diminution.

^ And while that was going on, the reactor and the people in the reactor in the Romanian government used that reactor that the US supplied and the highly enriched uranium to separate plutonium, which is the first step to make an atomic bomb.
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^ I have never seen a Persian unkind to his own horse or his slave, and when overtaken by poverty he will first sell his shirt , then his slave.

The main building types of classical Iranian architecture are the mosque and the palace. .Iran, besides being home to a large number of art houses and galleries, also holds one of the largest and valuable jewel collections in the world.^ That approach, he said, is the only one that can enable us to avoid being faced with an alternative that I call catastrophic: an Iranian bomb or the bombing of Iran.
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^ The large number of new and excellent houses in preparation showed evident signs of wealth and increasing commerce.

^ The number of Persian slaves imported and also bred in the country is immense, and in almost every house where servants are kept, one or more, according to the means of the proprietor, are to be found.

.Iran ranks seventh among countries in the world with the most archeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity as recognized by UNESCO.^ "It's the most unusual relationship we have with any country in the world," explains US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns.
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^ The histories, the travels, and the novels of these distinguished writers have made the world acquainted with the literature, the geography, the commerce, and the antiquities of that country.

^ Those arguing for the loopholes include clerics closely identified with the country's most hard-line conservatives, the most ardent defenders of Iran's theocratic system.
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[188] Fifteen of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites are creations of Iranian architecture.
Panoramic view of Naqsh-e Jahan Square

Science and technology

13th century manuscript depicting an epicyclic planetary model
Ancient Iranians built Qanats and Yakhchal to provide and keep water. .The first windmill appeared in Iran in the 9th century.^ Michael Morony, "The Conquerors and Conquered: Iran," G.H.A. Juynbull, ed., Studies on the First Century of Islamic Society (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1982).
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[189] Iranians contributed significantly to the current understanding of astronomy, natural science, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī is widely hailed as the father of algebra. Ethanol (alcohol) was first identified by Persian alchemists such as Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi. .Throughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of the Ancient Greeks and Persians were furthered and preserved within Persia.^ The Gyro paedia is a didactic romance, written with a view to Greek institutions and rarely preserving genuine information on the Persian Empire.

^ There is a spirit of change abroad among the Persians, which will preserve his system from extinction; besides which, his doctrines are of an attractive nature to Persians.

^ Their features are more delicate than those of the other inhabitants of Persia, and bear a strong resemblance to those of the ancient Persians, as they are preserved in the sculptures at Persepolis and Shahpoor.

.The Academy of Gundishapur was a renowned centre of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity and was the most important medical centre of the ancient world during the sixth and seventh centuries.^ Near Verameen a most remarkable antiquity still survives the lapse of twenty centuries, that is, if what we hear be true.

^ Peabody, have been most kind in lending us this comfortable house during our stay in this city.

^ Late in the evening of September 1st, we reached Warsaw, where we were most kindly received by the late excellent General Du Plat, then Consul-General in that city.

[190] .During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.^ Few men have enjoyed so distinguished a reputation for medical knowledge in Persia as this gentleman, to which his abilities well entitled him.–J. S. .

^ July .-Summer in Persia, as I have already described, is most wearisome, but this year was a more than ordinary trial during our period of banishment.

^ They were absolute private property, handed down from father to son for centuries, and in the Hellenistic period not rarely became independent kingdoms.

Iran's first domestically made satellite (Omid) was placed into orbit through Safir rocket in 2009
Iran strives to revive the golden age of Persian science. The country has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate followed by China.[191] .Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists remain highly productive in several experimental fields as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, and polymer chemistry.^ Admiral Walsh said that American warships remained in international waters, and that Iranian and American ships kept close watch on one another.
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^ But though he remains highly respected among clerics, Rafsanjani is not a beloved figure in Iranian public life.
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Iranian scientists are also helping construct the Compact Muon Solenoid, a detector for CERN's Large Hadron Collider. .In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores and now runs 96 cores.^ The bad news is that in addition to the continued investment of large sums in the Arrow, we will now also have to pay for the procurement of an American-made missile defense system.
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^ Youssef S. Aliabadi, "The Idea of Civil Liberties and the Problem of Institutional Government in Iran," Social Research 67:2 (Summer 2000): 345-376.
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^ Farhad Kazemi, Politics and Culture in Iran (Ann Arbor: Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1988).
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Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS.[192]
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics is a UNESCO chair in biology.[193] .In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Rouyan research centre in Tehran.^ According to Iranian news sources, from January to late August 2006 the prices of fruits and vegetables in urban areas rose by 20 percent.
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^ Absent capturing an Iranian nuclear scientist and documents, its impossible to set back the program for sure.
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[194] .According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khademhosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world.^ Ali Paydarfar, "Differential Life-Styles Between Migrants and Nonmigrants: A Case Study of the City of Shiraz, Iran," Demography 11 (1974): 509-520.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mehrdad Kia, "Mirza Fath Ali Akhundzadeh and the Call for Modernization of the Islamic World," Middle East Studies 31 (1995): 423-448.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, "Social Hierarchy in Provincial Iran: The Case of Qajar Iran," Iranian Studies 10 (Summer 1977): 129-163.
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[195] Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.[196][197][198]
An 18th century Persian astrolabe
.The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s.^ Other groups, like the Israel Project, conduct intensive briefings for the media in the US and Europe to educate reporters and editors about the Iranian nuclear program.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absent capturing an Iranian nuclear scientist and documents, its impossible to set back the program for sure.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the Iranians would not have launched themselves into a very dangerous confrontation with the West on the basis of a weapons program that they no longer pursue.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iran is the 7th country in production of uranium hexafluoride.^ The Russian proposal lays out a complicated plan in which Iran would supply the uranium hexafluoride from Isfahan, shipping it to Russia for enrichment.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[199] .Iran now controls the entire cycle for producing nuclear fuel.^ Is it when you master the nuclear fuel cycle?
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, there appeared to be a world-wide mandate for stricter controls on the production of nuclear fuels which could be used in weapons.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 29% in each country agreed the UN should stop countries from producing their own nuclear fuel, but provide them with the fuel they need.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[200] .Iran's current facilities includes several research reactors, a uranium mine, an almost complete commercial nuclear reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include a uranium enrichment plant.^ In late April, the military leadership, headed by General Pace, achieved a major victory when the White House dropped its insistence that the plan for a bombing campaign include the possible use of a nuclear device to destroy Irans uranium-enrichment plant at Natanz, nearly two hundred miles south of Tehran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it would be difficult to completely destroy all of Iran's several dozen nuclear facilities, senior officials and IAF officers believe that a successful strike on a number of key elements of the nuclear program - such as the uranium enrichment center in Natanz, the heavy water facility at Arak and the Isfahan nuclear technology center - would be enough to stop the country's race for nuclear power.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider that, since the beginning of the current tensions, the West has retreated from demands that Iran cease conversion of yellowcake to uranium gas and end enrichment entirely to the current demand for nothing more than a temporary suspension of uranium enrichment activities.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Iranian Space Agency launched its first reconnaissance satellite named Sina-1 in 2006, and a space rocket in 2007,[201] which aimed at improving science and research for university students.^ J.I. Clarke, The Iranian City of Shiraz , University of Durham, Department of Geography, Research Paper 7, 1963.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ J.I. Clarke and B.D. Clark, Kermanshah, An Iranian Provincial City , University of Durham, Department of Geography, Research Paper 10, 1969.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[202] .Iran placed its domestically built satellite, Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, on February 2, 2009,[203] through Safir rocket, becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.^ The histories, the travels, and the novels of these distinguished writers have made the world acquainted with the literature, the geography, the commerce, and the antiquities of that country.

^ Hooshang Amirahmadi, "Iranian-Saudi Arabian Relations since the Revolution," in Hooshang Amirahmadi and Nader Entessar, eds., Iran and the Arab World (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Patrick Clawson, "Knitting Iran Together: The Land Transport Revolution, 1920-1941," Iranian Studies 26 (1993): 235-250.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[204]
.Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science.^ Iranians outside Iran .
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Sreberny Mohammadi and A. Mohammadi, "Iranian Exiles as Opposition: Some Theses on the Dilemmas of Political Communication Inside and Outside Iran," in Asghar Fathi, ed., Iranian Refugees and Exiles since Khomeini (Costa Mesa: Mazda, 1991), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh.[205] Iranian cardiologist, Tofy Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart. Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. .Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran.^ And yet, he said, the report was being used by White House hawks within the Administration to prove the White Houses theory that the Iranians are on track.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That approach, he said, is the only one that can enable us to avoid being faced with an alternative that I call catastrophic: an Iranian bomb or the bombing of Iran.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the reformers made a strong showing at local council elections in December, with many voters worried about Iran's increasing diplomatic isolation and economic problems.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[206] Iranian-American string theorist Cumrun Vafa proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem together with Edward Witten.

Sports

Dizin skiing resort, Iran
.With two thirds of Iran's population under the age of 25, many sports are practised in Iran, both traditional and modern.^ Submission or resistance seems to have been equally fatal; and slaughter–the indiscriminate slaughter of the young and the aged, of man and of woman–was the lot of the wretched population in both cases.

^ Farzin Vahdat, "Mehdi Haeri Yazdi and the Discourse of Modernity," in Ramin Jahanbegloo, ed., Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Roksana Bahramitash, "Women's Employment in Iran: Modernization and Islamization," in Ramin Jahanbegloo, ed., Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004), pp.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

Iran is the birthplace of polo,[207] and Varzesh-e Pahlavani. .Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Iran's national sport, however today, the most popular sport in Iran is football (soccer), with the national team having reached the World Cup Final Tournament three times, and having won the Asian Cup on three occasions.^ I hope the Nations of the World tells Iran they can't have Nuclear Weapons or continue to taunt Israel!
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To whom did Ahmadinejad refer to when he told the United Nations in September: "I emphatically declare that today's world, more than ever before, longs for ...
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if Israel were to launch an attack on Iran without US approval its planes could not reach their targets without the US becoming aware of their flightpath and having time to ask them to abandon their mission.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1974, Iran became the first country in the Middle East to host the Asian Games.^ Eric Hooglund, "The Pulse of Iran Today," in Middle East Insight 11:5 (July-August 1995): 40-47.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To do this, he must convince Europe, China and Russia that a nuclear Iran will be catastrophic for Middle East stability as well as for their own economies.
  • Iran re-emerges (19.6.68, update 20.5.09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.solami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shahrough Akhavi, "Elite Factionalism in the Islamic Republic of Iran," The Middle East Journal 41:2 (Spring 1987): 181-204.
  • http://web.mit.edu/isg/iranica.html 25 January 2010 7:07 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Iran is home to several unique skiing resorts,[208] with the Tochal resort being the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m/12,238 ft at its highest station), and located only fifteen minutes away from Tehran.^ There are several important ranges in Khorasan, and one of them, the Binalud, west of Meshed and north of Nishapur, has several peaks of 11,000 to 12,000 ft.

^ Persian Gulf, where vegetation is very scanty, stations only a few miles away from the coast and not more than 20 or 30 ft.

^ The above beautiful range of mountains, crowned with the magnificent peak of Demawend, saves Tehran from being one of the most frightful places in the world.

.Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for hiking, rock climbing,[209] and mountain climbing.^ The annexation of Iran by Seleucus Nicator led to a war for the countries on the Indian frontier; his opponent being Sandracottus or Chandragupta Maurya , the founder Seleucus I. of the great Indian Empire of Maurya (Palimbothra).

^ The country hereabout being flat, and Ararat not being many miles distant, we beheld the mountain in all its solitary grandeur.

[210][211][212]

See also

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Further reading

  • Benjamin Walker, Persian Pageant: A Cultural History of Iran, Arya Press, Calcutta, 1950.

External links

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