The Full Wiki

Iraq: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Iraq

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of Iraq
جمهورية العراق
Jumhūriyat Al-Irāq (Arabic)
كؤماری عه‌راق
Komara Îraqê (Kurdish)
Flag Coat of arms
Mottoالله أكبر   (Arabic)
"Allahu Akbar"  (transliteration)
"God is [the] Greatest"
AnthemMawtini  (new)
Ardh Alforatain  (previous)
Location of Iraq
Capital
(and largest city)
Baghdad
33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433
Official language(s) Arabic, Kurdish
Recognised regional languages Neo-Aramaic, South Azeri (locally called "Turkmen")
Demonym Iraqi
Government Developing parliamentary republic
 -  President Jalal Talabani
 -  Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
Independence
 -  from the Ottoman Empire
1 October 1919 
 -  from the United Kingdom
3 October 1932 
 -  Republic
14 July 1958 
 -  current constitution
15 October 2005 
Area
 -  Total 438,317 km2 (58th)
169,234 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.1
Population
 -  2009 estimate 31,234,000[1] (39th)
 -  Density 71.2/km2 (125th)
184.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $114.151 billion[1] (63rd)
 -  Per capita $3,655[1] (125th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $68.553 billion[1] (58th)
 -  Per capita $2,195[1] (105th)
Currency Iraqi dinar (IQD)
Time zone GMT+3 (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .iq
Calling code 964
.Iraq ([iːˈrɑːk] or [ɪˈræk], Arabic: العراق Al-Irāq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: About this sound جمهورية العراق Jumhūrīyat Al-Irāq, Kurdish: كؤماری عه‌راق‎, Komara Îraqê,[2] Assyrian: ܥܝܼܪܵܩ )ܥܝܪܐܩ)) is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert.^ It's Not Only About Iraq The animating ideology of the caliphate helps explain al-Qaida actions that otherwise make no sense.

^ Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majeed, also known as “Chemical Ali,” was sentenced to death for his role in Iraq's Kurdish genocide .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The most senior U.S. general in Iraq said that if security continues to improve and political progress advances, he may recommend further troop reductions by the end of this summer.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[3]
.Iraq is bordered by Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, and Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south.^ Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey met in Istanbul and issued a statement warning Iraq to take advantage of the opportunity left to it to avoid war."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq Promises Hard Line Against Rebel Attacks on Turkey Iraq has confirmed it will take a hard line against Kurdish rebels attacking Turkey from the north, as Turkey prepares to launch cross-border raids.

^ Aside from the geopolitical risks regarding Saudi Arabia and Iran, another risk factor is actually Japan.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring 58 km (35 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf.^ WORDING: Would you favor or oppose sending American troops back to the Persian Gulf in order to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WORDING: Would you favor or oppose sending American ground troops to the Persian Gulf in an attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Osama bin Laden urged Muslims to attack oil facilities in Iraq and the Persian Gulf.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The capital city, Baghdad (Arabic: بغدادBaġdād), is in the center-east of the country.^ Six counting centers across the country were established in six cities."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 2003 "Workers at Baghdad's Archaeological Museum carry in recovered items that had been looted following the liberation of the Iraqi capital city."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run through the centre of Iraq, flowing from northwest to southeast.^ Two hundred and seventy-five members met at a convention center on the Tigris River while explosions rattled the convention center's windows.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The bodies of seven men were discovered in the Tigris River south of Baghdad, and the bodies of two men were found in the Euphrates river south of Baghdad.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Four American mercenaries employed by Blackwater Security Consulting were pulled from their vehicles in Fallujah, Iraq , hacked to death, burned, and dragged through the streets; the remains of two were then hung from a bridge over the Euphrates River along with a sign that said "Fallujah is the cemetery for Americans."
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.These provide Iraq with agriculturally capable land and contrast with the steppe and desert landscape that covers most of Western Asia.^ This would not be the first time the countries of central and eastern Europe - from the Balkan to the steppes of central Asia - bear the costs of Western policies against Iraq.

^ It was revealed that prior to the U.S. invasion, Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri had, for a fee, provided the United States with detailed assessments of Iraq's military capabilities .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Historically, the territory comprising Iraq was known in Europe by the Greek toponym 'Mesopotamia' (Land between the rivers).^ Central Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia and was a cradle of ancient civilization.

^ Battles have been fought on the fertile strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers countless times over the centuries.

.Iraq has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC.^ Kidnappings Continue in Iraq But Fewer Are Murdered Thousands of Iraqis, and more than 200 foreigners, have been kidnapped in Iraq since March 2003.

.The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is identified as the cradle of civilization and the birthplace of writing and the wheel.^ The bodies of seven men were discovered in the Tigris River south of Baghdad, and the bodies of two men were found in the Euphrates river south of Baghdad.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Throughout its long history, Iraq has been the center of the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid and Abbasid empires, and part of the Achaemenid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, Ottoman and British empires.^ The price of the Iraq war is not yet clear, but the history of Empires is quite unambiguous.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq History - From the Beginning of Man to the Fall of Saddam Iraq exists in an area of the world that has a long history.

^ It has long advised against travelling to Iraq, but is now warning of the danger of British citizens...

[4][5] The Kingdom of Iraq was founded in 1932.
.Beginning with an invasion in 2003, Iraq came under military occupation by a multinational coalition of forces, mainly American and British.^ American and British planes bombed Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ A congressional study found that the occupation of Iraq is unsustainable given the current size of the U.S. military, and the United States released a draft resolution calling on the United Nations to create a multinational peacekeeping force for Iraq that would remain under American military and political control.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The ISF operated in major military actions against insurgents, terrorists, and militias with the support of the Multi-National Force--Iraq.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The occupation ended when sovereignty was transferred to the Iraqi Interim Government June 2004. A new Constitution of Iraq has since been approved by referendum and a new Government of Iraq has been elected.^ Iraq's governing council approved an interim constitution.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ JUNE 28, 2004: U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraq's new interim Governing Council was announced.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.As of March 2010, 96,000 US troops remain in the country.^ The proposals foresee a long-term presence of about 50,000 US troops, down from the current figure of more than 160,000.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ We envisage the U.S. troop presence by year’s end to be under 100,000, with most of the remaining troops to return home by the end of 2007.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ There are currently 146,000 US troops in Iraq and 33,000 in Afghanistan.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[6] There is a deadline for the full withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq by 31 December 2011.[7]

Contents

Etymology

The Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk (Biblical Hebrew Erech) and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Unug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", URU.[8][9] another maintains according to Professor Wilhelm Eilers, "The name al-‘Irāq, for all its Arabic appearance, is derived from Middle Persian erāq lowlands".[10]
.Mesopotamia has always been called "the land of Iraq" in Arabic, meaning "the fertile" or "deep-rooted land".[11] During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī ("Arabian Iraq") for lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī ("Persian Iraq"[12] or "Foreign Iraq"[13]), for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran[12].^ Iran and Us to Hold Iraq Talks Iran and the US are to hold ambassadorial level talks on Iraq, the Iranian foreign minister said today, in the first substantive contacts between the countries for years.

^ The suit calls the incident a “senseless slaying” and claims it was part of “Blackwater’s lengthy pattern of egregious misconduct in Iraq.” [CNN, 10/11/07 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Leaving Iraq now is the West's Ultimate Suicide Instead of leaving Iraq, the US should cooperate with Turkey, Israel and India in invading Syria and Iran.

.The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq.^ A large number of the included cuneiform tablets are from areas which today are part of modern Iraq.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
As an Arabic word, عراق means hem, shore, bank, or edge,[15] so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the .Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area.^ Tony Blair told Al Jazeera that western intervention in Iraq had been “pretty much of a disaster.” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ They dropped two large bombs on a residential area of Baghdad, at the northern edge of the city, and inflicted utter devastation.

[16]
The Arabic pronunciation is [ʕiˈrɑːq]. .In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ (the only pronunciation listed in the Oxford English Dictionary and the first one in Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary) or /ɪˈræk/ (listed first by MQD), the American Heritage Dictionary, and the Random House Dictionary.^ Effort to Save Heritage Puts Lives at Risk First there were whispered threats, then last week shots fired at his house and his car.

/aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in US media.

History

Ancient Iraq

The upper part of the stela of Hammurabi's code of laws
.Iraq has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC.^ Kidnappings Continue in Iraq But Fewer Are Murdered Thousands of Iraqis, and more than 200 foreigners, have been kidnapped in Iraq since March 2003.

.These civilizations produced the earliest writing, literature, sciences, mathematics, laws, and philosophies of the world; hence its common epithet, the "Cradle of Civilization". Iraq was home to the earliest known civilization on Earth, the Sumerian civilization, which arose in the fertile Tigris-Euphrates river valley of southern Iraq in the mid 6th millennium BC.^ Central Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia and was a cradle of ancient civilization.

^ The bodies of seven men were discovered in the Tigris River south of Baghdad, and the bodies of two men were found in the Euphrates river south of Baghdad.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ WHO Warns of Iraq Cholera Outbreak A severe shortage of clean drinking water has left southern Iraq facing a mass cholera outbreak, the World Health Organisation warned today.

It was here in the late 4th millennium BC, that the world's first writing system and recorded history itself were born. .The Sumerian civilization flourished for over 3,000 years and was succeeded by the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC.^ One notable crime was the looting of the National Museum of Iraq , which held a massive collection of ancient artifacts from more than 7,000 years of Mesopotamian civilization.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Over two centuries of Akkadian dominance was followed by a Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC. An Elamite invasion in 2004 BC brought the Third Dynasty of Ur to an end. .By the 18th century BC a new civilization, Babylonia, had risen to dominance in central and southern Iraq while a contemporaneous civilization, Assyria, had formed in northern Iraq.^ NOVEMBER 27, 2006: NBC News decides to refer to war in Iraq as a “civil war.” [MSNBC, 11/27/2006 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ December 2004 Civil Affairs Assistance helps Kurds tell their Story in Northern Iraq U.S. Army Special Operations Command http://www.soc.mil/news/releases/04DEC/041229-01.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 2003 Coalition Improving Water Distribution Efforts in Northern Iraq News Release - U.S. Central Command http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/News_Release.asp?NewsRelease=20030917.txt .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 6th century BC, Cyrus the Great of neighbouring Persia defeated the Neo-Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Opis and Iraq was subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire for nearly four centuries.^ Army Chiefs Resist Call for More Iraq Troops British commanders fear getting sucked into US operations as Falluja battle rages.

.In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the region, putting it under Hellenistic Seleucid rule for nearly two centuries.^ In the 17th century it came under rule of the Ottoman Empire.

[17] .A Central Asian tribe of ancient Iranian peoples known as the Parthians later annexed the region, followed by the Romans, then the Sassanid Persians.^ Central Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia and was a cradle of ancient civilization.

.The region remained a province of the Persian Empire for nine centuries, until the Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the 7th century AD.^ Arab Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century and made it a center of Islamic culture.

Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Empire and the caliphs during their greatest extent.      Under prophet Muhammad, 622–632      Under the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632–661      Under the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
.The Islamic conquest in the 7th century CE established Islam in Iraq.^ Arab Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century and made it a center of Islamic culture.

.Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Mohammed's cousin and son-in-law Ali moved his capital to Kufa "fi al-Iraq" when he became the fourth caliph.^ It's Not Only About Iraq The animating ideology of the caliphate helps explain al-Qaida actions that otherwise make no sense.

^ Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majeed, also known as “Chemical Ali,” was sentenced to death for his role in Iraq's Kurdish genocide .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ But Hussein al-Tahaan, a militiaman turned bureaucrat, pledges civic order, and better pavements, for Iraq's chaotic capital.

.The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century.^ Arab Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century and made it a center of Islamic culture.

(However, eventually there was a separate, independent Caliphate of Cordoba.)
.The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as their capital, and it became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries.^ Baghdad bans Arab TV for broadcasting 'poison' Iraq's governing council banned the Arab world's two leading television channels yesterday from government offices and news conferences, accusing them of broadcasting "poison".

^ Iraq has been largely isolated from its mostly Sunni Muslim Arab neighbors as violence skyrocketed and the influence of Shiite Iran became more pronounced.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Arab Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century and made it a center of Islamic culture.

.Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million,[18] and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age.^ Crime Puts Iraqi Women Under House Arrest Suzanne Goldenberg in Baghdad finds the city's female population crushed by the lawlessness under US occupation.

^ US Releases More Abu Ghraib Prisoners As fresh claims of abuse by US guards in Iraq emerged today, the US military released more than 400 prisoners from Abu Ghraib, the prison at the centre of the scandal.

^ Colour-coded Perception Defies Dangerous Reality in Mosul Mosul is Iraq's second city, with a population of 1.7 million people.

.The Mongols destroyed the city during the sack of Baghdad in the 13th century.^ As Sunnis and Shias emerged into the scurrying, burning, breaking madness of Baghdad yesterday, a city sacking itself, the Sunni-Shia divide was meaningless.

^ Mongolian troops returned to Baghdad for the first time since 1258, when Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, destroyed the city and killed 800,000 people.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ FEBRUARY 11, 2008: Car bombs kill 11 in southern Baghdad during a visit to the city by U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[19]

Mongol rule

.In 1257, Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire's forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad.^ Operation Steel Hammer, intended to end Al Qaeda operations in Hit, west of Baghdad , was launched with a force of 1,500 U.S. Marines , 500 U.S. Army soldiers, and 500 Iraqi soldiers.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Number of Chinese engineers who accompanied the Mongol Khan Hulägu on his siege of Baghdad in 1257: 1,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu demanded surrender but the last Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, Baghdad was decimated.[20] .Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million.^ Estimated number of soccer balls the U.S. government sent Iraq this summer to help "bring life back to normal": 60,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Estimated number of U.S. sorties flown in Iraqi no-fly zones last year: 10,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ An estimated 1 million turned up in various cities in Spain, another country behind the U.S. in supporting a war (about 200,000 in Seville, 600,000 in Madrid, for example).
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
Abbasid-era coins, Baghdad, 1244.
.The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and The Grand Library of Baghdad (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma, lit., House of Wisdom), which contained countless, precious, historical documents.^ More than 100,000 Iraqis filled the streets of Baghdad in a march supporting the Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani in his demand for direct elections .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Aides to congressional members were briefed at the White House, while Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki briefed his national security council in Baghdad.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ November 1882 Editor's drawer/Fiction Editor's drawer By G.T. L. SEE ALSO: Baghdad ; Caliphs ; Historical fiction ; Iraq ; Mutilation, defacement, etc.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The city has never regained its status as major center of culture and influence. .Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for many millennia.^ Some analysts believe civil unrest might unfold in Saudi Arabia, Iran and other Gulf states in the aftermath of an unpopular U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq  [ 3 ] .
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One must also consider that the Gulf War left much of the military and civilian infrastructure destroyed.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other historians point to soil salination as the culprit in the decline in agriculture.[22]
The mid-14th-century Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world.[23] .The best estimate for Middle East—Iraq, Iran, Syria, etc.—is a death rate of a third.^ June 1984 Readings/Graphs/charts The Iran/Iraq arms bazaar SEE ALSO: Arms transfers ; Charts, diagrams, etc.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Why America risks failing in Iraq An anti-colonial country like America needs an anti-colonial perception of the historical developments in the Middle East.

^ Stand in line for human rights when there is news that the Middle East or Iraq or Africa explode.

[24]
In 1401, warlord of Mongol descent Tamerlane (Timur Lenk) invaded Iraq. After the capture of Bagdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.[25] .Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur).^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ In Baghdad at least 28 people were killed when two suicide bombers attacked the Interior Ministry.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Two Us Soldiers Killed in Baghdad Ambush The US military today announced that two US soldiers were killed and four injured when they were ambushed in Baghdad last night.

[26]

Ottoman Empire

.During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq.^ September 2004 Restoring Power : USAIDs Role in Restoring Electricity to Iraq "Most areas of Iraq are now receiving 11-15 hours of electricity service a day.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Satellite television, banned during Saddam Hussein's regime, is now in big demand in Iraq."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now thinking about the past two years, do you think Iraq has made real progress toward establishing a democratic government, or don't you think Iraq has made any progress in this area?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen defeated the Black Sheep and took control. .In the 16th century, most of the territory of present-day Iraq came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the pashalik of Baghdad.^ In the 17th century it came under rule of the Ottoman Empire.

^ A Blackwater helicopter in Iraq dropped CS gas, “a riot-control substance the American military in Iraq can use only under the strictest conditions,” on a crowded checkpoint in Baghdad.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Echoes of the Past A Baghdad graveyard holds reminders of a previous British occupation of Iraq, as well a lesson for the present, writes Luke Harding.

.Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533–1918) the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances.^ September 2004 Restoring Power : USAIDs Role in Restoring Electricity to Iraq "Most areas of Iraq are now receiving 11-15 hours of electricity service a day.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [M]issing from the entire presentation was any serious talk about a threat posed by Iraq, either to the United States or even to any country in the region.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gates of Hell The war in Iraq is more resembling the Battle of Algiers with every passing day.

The Safavid dynasty of Iran briefly asserted their hegemony over Iraq in the periods of 1508–1533 and 1622–1638.
.During the years 1747–1831 Iraq was ruled by the Mamluk officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Sublime Porte, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a program of modernization of economy and military.^ A new study by the Committee to Protect Journalists found that of the 580 journalists who have been killed over the last 15 years, 78 reporters died in Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ April 2004 Iraq Wetlands Restoration Program U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/pdf/iraq_marshlands.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 2005 Democracy Sparks Iraq's Need for More Electricity "Technicians in Iraq are working hard to meet demands for more electricity to power air conditioners, refrigerators and other appliances, a senior American military officer [U.S. Army Brig.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq.[27] .The population of Iraq had shrunk to under 5 million by the early 20th century.^ Colour-coded Perception Defies Dangerous Reality in Mosul Mosul is Iraq's second city, with a population of 1.7 million people.

[28]

Under British influence

Faisal I, the King of Iraq and Syria.
.Ottoman rule over Iraq lasted until the World War I when the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers.^ Iraq's military strength is now less than half the size of the time of the last Gulf War.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush vows not to back down as US toll in Iraq war crosses 2000 "We face a brutal enemy that has got an ideology and a strategy to impose their view on the world.

^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut (1915–16).^ Tjarda to 16 Oct 1945) Commanders of British forces 29 Sep 1945 - 30 Jan 1946 Sir Philip Christison (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Base to Be Handed to Iraqi Force British troops are moving out of a base in southern Iraq where they faced some of the fiercest fighting encountered by UK forces.

^ On 16 December 1998 aircraft from the United States and the United Kingdom began a four-day campaign against Iraqi military targets.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

British forces regrouped and captured Baghdad in 1917. An armistice was signed in 1918.
.Iraq was carved out of the Ottoman Empire by the French and British as agreed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement.^ Base to Be Handed to Iraqi Force British troops are moving out of a base in southern Iraq where they faced some of the fiercest fighting encountered by UK forces.

^ By Gary Younge Army Chief: British Troops Must Pull Out of Iraq Soon General attacks government policy that has 'exacerbated' security risks.

^ Members of the British government said that the bombings on the London tube were not related to the war in Iraq , but only 28 percent of British people agreed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The Sykes-Picot agreement was a secret agreement between UK and France with the assent of Imperial Russia, defining their respective sphere of influence and control in West Asia after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire during the World War I. The Agreement was concluded on 16 May 1916.[29] On 11 November 1920 it became a League of Nations mandate under British control with the name "State of Iraq".
.Britain imposed a Hāshimite monarchy on Iraq and defined the territorial limits of Iraq without taking into account the politics of the different ethnic and religious groups in the country, in particular those of the Kurds and the Assyrians to the north.^ Iran Helping Religious Militias in Iraq, British Envoy Warns Britain's most senior official in Baghdad warned yesterday that Iran was still giving "unwelcome" support to fundamentalist Shia groups in Iraq.

^ Iraq's Universities and Schools Near Collapse As Teachers and Pupils Flee Iraq's school and university system is in danger of collapse in large areas of the country as pupils and teachers take flight in the face of threats of violence.

^ U.S. and Turkish officials were still discussing Turkey's plan to send troops into northern Iraq to prevent the Kurds from establishing an independent state.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.During the British occupation, the Shi'ites and Kurds fought for independence.^ The Gaping Hole in Iraq Occupation has brought social collapse, Bloody Sunday shootings and the waking of a Shi'ite giant.

.Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of war hero T. E. Lawrence in The Times, Britain replaced Arnold Wilson in October 1920 with new Civil Commissioner Sir Percy Cox.^ High commissioners 1 Oct 1920 - 4 May 1923 Sir Percy Cox (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High commissioners 1 Jul 1920 - 30 Jun 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AUGUST 15, 2006: 3,438 Iraq civilians died in July, “the deadliest month of the war for Iraqi civilians.” [New York Times, 8/15/06 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Cox managed to quell the rebellion, yet was also responsible for implementing the fateful policy of close cooperation with Iraq's Sunni minority.^ The US Iraq policy was not bad; if anything, it was badly conceived and lamentably implemented.

^ If Barack Obama's policy on Iraq had been implemented,” he said, “Barack Obama couldn't go to Iraq today.” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[30][31]
.In the Mandate period and beyond, the British supported the traditional, Sunni leadership (such as the tribal shaykhs) over the growing, urban-based nationalist movement.^ The Sandiego Tribune also highlighted ( February 14, 2003 ) that even for the U.S. protest movement, not only is there such diversity, but that the "U.S. anti-war movement [is] based in the mainstream".
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various protestors and critics of such foreign policies, especially by the British and Americans, have opposed these countries supporting and arming Saddam Hussein in the first place.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Land Settlement Act gave the tribal shaykhs the right to register the communal tribal lands in their own name. The Tribal Disputes Regulations gave them judiciary rights, whereas the Peasants' Rights and Duties Act of 1933 severely reduced the tenants', forbidding them to leave the land unless all their debts to the landlord had been settled. .The British resorted to military force when their interests were threatened, as in the 1941 Rashīd `Alī al-Gaylānī coup.^ US 'to Attack Iraq Via Jordan' Military planners prepare to use British forces in an allied assault within months.

^ The U.S. military said this month that 12,000 American troops, in addition to 4,000 British forces, will leave Iraq within six months.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ In the Iraqi territory of the Shatt al-Arab waterway, Iranian forces captured and detained 15 members of the British Royal Navy.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.This coup led to a British invasion of Iraq using forces from the British Indian Army and the Arab Legion from Jordan.^ Territorial Army Soldier Killed in Iraq British troops fired on by crowd after being diverted by roadblock following raid on village.

^ Army Chiefs Resist Call for More Iraq Troops British commanders fear getting sucked into US operations as Falluja battle rages.

^ Chance that a day since December 28 has passed without U.S. or British forces bombing Iraq : 1 in 2 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

World War I

.During World War I the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.^ If the United States is viewed as having lost the war in Iraq, how much would that bother you -- a great deal, a moderate amount, not much, or not at all?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Gulf War of 1991, the United States had imposed military control on the information, which meant that the media portrayal would not have given a complete picture.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Iraq were to use biological or chemical weapons during a war with the United States, it could have tragic consequences, but it would not alter the war's outcome.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war. .By the end of 1918 the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, though only 112,000 were combat troops.^ We envisage the U.S. troop presence by year’s end to be under 100,000, with most of the remaining troops to return home by the end of 2007.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ The top U.S. commander in Iraq said that he remains “absolutely committed” to pulling back all combat troops from urban areas by the end of the month, as provided for in a U.S.-Iraqi security agreement.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ RECOMMENDATION 40: The United States should not make an open-ended commitment to keep large numbers of American troops deployed in Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.During World War I the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement.^ Photographs of Iraq by Gertrude Bell Traveller, mountaineer and Arabic speaker, Gertrude Bell was recruited by British Intelligence during the First World War and later became Oriental Secretary to the High Commissioner in Baghdad.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the southern city of Basra, the British military held a ceremony to honor those who died during the war.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ It was pointed out that the United States has been fighting in Iraq for as long as it fought Germany during World War II .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Treaty of Lausanne, led to the advent of modern Western Asia and Republic of Turkey. .The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan).^ For weeks, amongst various United Nations Security Council members, there was disagreement about how to deal with the Iraq issue.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 2004 UN Continues Humanitarian Work in Iraq United Nations Press Release http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2004/iha856.doc.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Security Council Backs Iraq Force Despite UN mandate, France and Germany unlikely to send troops.

Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became parts of what are today Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

British Mandate of Mesopotamia

British Indian Army personnel entering Baghdad.
.At the end of World War I, the League of Nations granted the area to the United Kingdom as a mandate.^ Failing to rally the citizenry for truly patriotic purposes to strengthen our nation was perhaps one of the greatest missed opportunities since the end of the Cold War.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was pointed out that the United States has been fighting in Iraq for as long as it fought Germany during World War II .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ UN Agrees Long-awaited Smart Sanctions for Iraq The United Nations security council yesterday finally agreed to an overhaul of sanctions that were imposed against Iraq 11 years ago at the end of the Gulf War.

.It initially formed two former Ottoman vilayets (regions): Baghdad and Basra into a single country in August 1921. Five years later, in 1926, the northern vilayet of Mosul was added, forming the territorial boundaries of the modern Iraqi state.^ The funding summary and fact sheet have been consolidated into a single document, as of August 2003.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2003 Moneychanger Weighs Iraqi Dinars at Outdoor Stalll in Baghdad Photo and descriptive text U.S. Department of State http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/gallery/iraq-2003/0616mon1.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Iraqi Government 'within Days' The Iraqi prime minister-designate said today he expected to form the country's first full-term government since the end of Saddam Hussein's regime within the next two days.

.For three out of four centuries of Ottoman rule, Baghdad was the seat of administration for the vilayets of Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra.^ UN Sets Out Rules for Iraq Talks Mohammed el-Baradei, the head of the UN's nuclear watchdog, today set out his conditions for returning to Baghdad for talks with Iraqi officials.

^ New Plan to Curb Iraqi Violence Iraqi leaders were meeting today to try to flesh out a new four-point plan aimed at curbing sectarian violence in Baghdad.

^ In the 17th century it came under rule of the Ottoman Empire.

.During the mandate, British colonial administrators ruled the country, and through the use of British armed forces, suppressed Arab and Kurdish rebellions against the occupation.^ Saddam Hussein's use of chemical weapons on his own people, which we are always reminded of, occurred during the time that Hussein was an ally of the United States, and was armed by the U.S. (which we are hardly reminded of).
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The administration was reportedly planning to create an “inspection crisis” by demanding that Iraq admit arms inspectors and then using the expected refusal to justify an attack.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ British colonial rulers didn't hesitate to use chemical weapons and extermination techniques against the people of the Middle East (Blair never mentions this when he muses about the "civilized world").
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They established the Hashemite king, Faisal, who had been forced out of Syria by the French, as their client ruler.^ Base to Be Handed to Iraqi Force British troops are moving out of a base in southern Iraq where they faced some of the fiercest fighting encountered by UK forces.

^ As John Pilger points out , there are a few who do, but these are not the norm, and they do not usually get the prominence they deserve.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Forces to Pull Out of Falluja US forces today announced an end to their siege of Falluja, saying they will pull out immediately to allow a newly-created, Iraqi security force to secure the city.

.Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.^ The fractious Iraqi opposition and the two main Kurdish factions set up an Iraqi Interim Authority, a government-in-waiting with 14 ministries and a military command.

^ These projects mark the first time there has been public access to the Internet in Umm Qasr and the first time in decades that there have been administrative offices for a locally-selected government."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunni Arab prisoners, many of whom had been severely tortured , were found in the basement of an Iraqi Interior Ministry compound.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[32]

Kingdom of Iraq

.Britain granted independence to Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces.^ Pretender Joins Battle for Baghdad Cousin of murdered King Faisal bids for restoration of Iraq's short-lived monarchy.

^ Base to Be Handed to Iraqi Force British troops are moving out of a base in southern Iraq where they faced some of the fiercest fighting encountered by UK forces.

^ US Assumes Uk Help in Iraq, Says General British support for military action against Iraq is taken for granted in the US, a leading American general said today.

.King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. Ghazi was followed by his under age son, Faisal II.^ Sep 1933 - 4 Apr 1939 Ghazi I (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ US Officer Guilty of Killing Iraqi General During Questioning A US army officer was guilty of negligent homicide in the death of an Iraqi general during an interrogation, a military court ruled on Saturday.

'Abd al-Ilah served as Regent during Faisal's minority.
.On 1 April 1941, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the Golden Square staged a coup d'état and overthrew the government of 'Abd al-Ilah.^ Apr 1941 - 30 May 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (3rd time) (s.a.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mar 1940 - 3 Feb 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (2nd time) (s.a.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ April 2003 Amir Rashid Muhammad al-Ubaydi is in Coalition Custody "Amir Rashid Muhammad al-Ubaydi surrendered Monday and is currently in Coalition custody.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War, the United Kingdom invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers.^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Considering the core economic challenges that our nation faces, and the deplorable oil currency war that I fear we are about to witness in Iraq, this author advocates that the global monetary system be reformed without delay.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The war started on 2 May and an armistice was signed 31 May.
.A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy.^ July 2003 "Members of Iraq's Governing Council pose for a picture following their meeting at the former Ministry of Military Industry in central Baghdad, July 13.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq gained full independence in 1932 and a military coup eventually ended the monarchy in 1958.

The occupation ended on 26 October 1947. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri al-Said, the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from 1930–1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.

Republic of Iraq

.The reinstated Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by a coup d'etat of the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution.^ July 2005 Iraqi Army Activates new 5th Brigade "The Iraqi Army activated its 5th Brigade, 6th Division during a ceremony at Muthana Airfield [Baghdad] June 29 ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahdi Army The Mahdi army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, is an Iraqi militia group created by the Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June 2003.

^ The Iraqi unit from 2nd Battalion, 3rd Brigade, 6th Iraqi Army Division, positively identified one of the men as a known bomb manufacturer.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The coup brought Brigadier General Abdul Karim Qassim to power. .He withdrew from the Baghdad Pact and established friendly relations with the Soviet Union, but his government lasted only until the February 1963 coup, when it was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif.^ Suicide bomber attacks US checkpoint A suicide bomber struck at a US military checkpoint in Baghdad last night, only metres from where crowds had celebrated the collapse of the Iraqi regime.

^ Snipers killed 20 pilgrims at a Shiite festival in Baghdad ; a government employee noted that it was an improvement over last year, when nearly a thousand died in stampedes.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Members of the British government said that the bombings on the London tube were not related to the war in Iraq , but only 28 percent of British people agreed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Salam Arif died in 1966 and his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, assumed the presidency.^ Presidents 8 Feb 1963 - 13 Apr 1966 Abdul Salam Arif (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968 Abdul Rahman Arif (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nov 1963) 13 Apr 1966 - 16 Apr 1966 Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (acting) (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1968, Abdul Rahman Arif was overthrown by the Arab Socialist Baath Party.^ Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968 Abdul Rahman Arif (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ May 1967 - 10 Jul 1967 Abdul Rahman Arif (s.a.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

Ahmed Hasan Al-Bakir became the first Baath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein al Tikriti, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July 1979.
.In 1979, Saddam Hussein took power as Iraqi President after knocking down his close friend and the leader of his party (Ahmed Hasan Al-Bakr) and killing and arresting his leadership rivals.^ A new judge took over the Saddam Hussein trial and had Hussein and co-defendant Barzan Ibrahim removed from the courtroom after Hussein began shouting and Ibrahim called the court "a bastard."
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (2nd time) (s.a.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Shortly after taking power, the political situation in Iraq's neighbor Iran changed drastically after the success of the Islamic Revolution of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in a Shi'ite Muslim theocratic state being established.^ President Bush , in his first State of the Union address, identified Iran , Iraq , and North Korea as an “ axis of evil .” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ June 1984 Readings/Graphs/charts The Iran/Iraq arms bazaar SEE ALSO: Arms transfers ; Charts, diagrams, etc.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ June 2003 Large variety of newspapers being sold in Baghdad Photo and descriptive text U.S. Department of State http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/gallery/iraq-2003/0605thu2.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was seen as a dangerous change in the eyes of the Iraqi government, as Iraq too had a Shi'ite majority and was ruled by Hussein's government which, apart from having numerous Sunnis occupying leading positions, had a pan-Arab but non-religious ideology.^ Baghdad bans Arab TV for broadcasting 'poison' Iraq's governing council banned the Arab world's two leading television channels yesterday from government offices and news conferences, accusing them of broadcasting "poison".

^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

^ New Deadline on Iraq Constitution Iraqi leaders tonight put off a vote on a the country's new constitution in order to gain time to try to win over the Sunni Arab minority.

The Baathist regime advocated women literacy and education. Shown here is Saddam Hussein with Iraqi schoolgirls.
.This left the country's Shiite population split between the members and supporters of the Ba'ath Party, and those who sympathized with the Iranian position.^ He is a member of the Ba'ath Party and Saddam Hussein's half-brother."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Number of members of the Iraqi Communist Party who belong to the Governing Council : 1 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The Shiite militia loyal to Moktada al-Sadr, who reportedly plans to establish a political party , took over a police station in Najaf .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.In 1980, Hussein claimed that Iranian forces were trying to topple his government[citation needed] and declared war on Iran.^ Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After toppling Saddam, this administration may decide that Iran's disloyalty to the dollar qualifies them as the next target in the `war on terror.'
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saddam Hussein supported the Iranian Islamic socialist organization called the People's Mujahedin of Iran which opposed the Iranian government.^ A. Iraq will have a democratic government that will not be overthrown by terrorists or supporters of Saddam Hussein .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

^ JULY 27, 2007: Iraqi government in the midst of the worst crisis since the fall of Saddam Hussein , say several politicians and analysts.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.During the Iran–Iraq War Iraqi forces attacked Iranian soldiers and civilians with chemical weapons.^ Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran and Us to Hold Iraq Talks Iran and the US are to hold ambassadorial level talks on Iraq, the Iranian foreign minister said today, in the first substantive contacts between the countries for years.

^ Current Status of Iraqi 55 Most Wanted Multi National Force-Iraq http://www.mnf-iraq.com/irag-faqs/most-wanted.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hussein's regime was notorious for its human rights abuses; a well-known example is the Al-Anfal campaign[33][34][35] as well as attacks on Kurd civilians inside Iraq, such as the Halabja massacre, as punishment for elements of Kurdish support of Iran.^ See also: Human Rights See also: Kurds In 1987-88 Saddam Hussein's government attacked about 40 Kurdish settlements in northern Iraq with chemical weapons.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush also highlighted the gross human rights abuses that Iraq has long been known for and concluded, "If this is not evil, then evil has no meaning."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UK company backs Iraq at Baghdad fair A British company will open a stall today at the start of the Baghdad international trade fair in a rare show of support for Saddam Hussein's regime.

.During that period at least 100,000 Kurds were killed.^ In Iraq nearly 1,000 Shiite pilgrims were killed during a march across the Al-Aaimmah bridge when rumors of a suicide bomber in the crowd caused a stampede.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Though precise figures are unavailable, it is estimated that approximately 5,000 Kurds died during the attack or within a few hours and approximately 10,000 Kurds were seriously maimed.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peter Schoomaker, the Army's top general, revealed that the United States was developing a plan to keep at least 100,000 soldiers in Iraq through 2009.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[36] .The war ended in stalemate in 1988, largely due to American and Western support for Iraq.^ Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American people are oblivious to the potential economic risks regarding the Iraq war.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Go to: Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 Go to: Table of Contents Iraqi Armed Forces .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was part of the US policy of "dual containment" of Iraq and Iran.^ US Iraq policy: from mistake to disaster?

^ Iran and Us to Hold Iraq Talks Iran and the US are to hold ambassadorial level talks on Iraq, the Iranian foreign minister said today, in the first substantive contacts between the countries for years.

^ The US Iraq policy was not bad; if anything, it was badly conceived and lamentably implemented.

.Between half a million and 1.5 million people from both sides died in the 1980–88 war.^ If there are one million, that is still less than the number of people who died in the wars he started."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the so-called "tilt" toward Iraq, the Reagan-Bush administration decided to assist Iraq in its war against Iran during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Millions of people around the world demonstrated against George W. Bush's coming war on Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[37]
.In 1977, the Iraqi government ordered the construction of Osirak (also spelled Osiraq) at the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, 18 km (11 miles) south-east of Baghdad.^ Iraqi Pm Calls for Halt to Baghdad Wall Washington says it will 'respect' opposition to construction of barrier sealing off Sunni neighbourhood.

^ We do not want to start a conflict with Iran ,” said Iraqi government spokesman Ali al-Dabbagh.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ British Troops Under Attack After Iraqi Deaths Hundreds of Iraqis pelted British soldiers with stones yesterday for the second day running, following earlier clashes in the town of Amara, 230 miles south-east of Baghdad, in which six Iraqis were shot dead.

.It was a 40 MW light-water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR).^ In February 1994, the IAEA completed the removal from Iraq of all weapon-usable nuclear material essentially research reactor fuel.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1981, Israeli aircraft bombed the facility, in order to prevent the country from using the reactor for creation of nuclear weapons.^ In February 1994, the IAEA completed the removal from Iraq of all weapon-usable nuclear material essentially research reactor fuel.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side Note This would also negate the need to use small nuclear weapons by the U.S., as they said they would, which is also discussed further below .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. warned that it reserves the right to use nuclear weapons on Iraq if necessary.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Gulf War

.In 1990, faced with economic disaster following the end of the Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein looked to the oil-rich neighbour of Kuwait as a target to invade to use its resources and money to rebuild Iraq's economy.^ Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ It was revealed that the U.S. military found a directive in the possession of Saddam Hussein telling his followers not to cooperate with foreign Arab jihadists who might enter Iraq to fight the Americans, because their agendas are incompatible.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The Iraqi government claimed that Kuwait was illegally slant drilling its oil pipelines into Iraqi territory, a practice which it demanded be stopped; Kuwait rejected the notion that it was slant drilling, and Iraq followed this in August 1990 with the invasion of Kuwait.^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ August 1990 United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 "Condemns the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait" and "Demands that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Views on Iraq-Kuwait Crisis, 1990-1991 PDF IMAGES .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Upon successfully occupying Kuwait, Hussein declared that Kuwait had ceased to exist and it was to be part of Iraq, against heavy objections from many countries and the United Nations.^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ September 1990 United Nations Security Council Resolution 670 Condemned "Iraq's continued occupation of Kuwait, its failure to rescind its actions and end its purported annexation and its holding of third State nationals against their will, in flagrant violation of resolutions 660 (1990), 662 (1990), 664 (1990) and 667 (1990) and of international humanitarian law ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN agreed to pass economic sanctions against Iraq and demanded its immediate withdrawal from Kuwait (see United Nations sanctions against Iraq).^ August 1990 United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 "Condemns the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait" and "Demands that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only security council resolution expressly authorising the use of force against Iraq was 678, which was passed at the start of the Gulf war in November 1990, and the only action it authorised was such force as was necessary to restore Kuwait's sovereignty.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq invites UN weapons inspector to talks In a move that took the international community by surprise, Iraq has invited the chief United Nations weapons inspector to Baghdad for technical talks, it emerged last night.

.Iraq refused and the UN Security Council in 1991 unanimously voted for military action against Iraq.^ A New York Times article ( January 23, 2003 ) captures this, where it is pointed out that "Bush administration officials said today that next week they would confront France, Germany and other skeptics of military action against Iraq by demanding that they agree publicly that Iraq had defied the United Nations Security Council."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only security council resolution expressly authorising the use of force against Iraq was 678, which was passed at the start of the Gulf war in November 1990, and the only action it authorised was such force as was necessary to restore Kuwait's sovereignty.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly 25 percent of Iraq will not be secure for the election , according to one U.S. military commander, who still insisted the poll date should not be changed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The United Nations Security Council, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, adopted Resolution 678, authorizing U.N. member states to use "all necessary means" to "restore international peace and security in the area." The United States, which had enormous vested interests in the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf region, led an international coalition into Kuwait and Iraq.
.The coalition forces entered the war with more advanced weaponry than that of Iraq, though Iraq's military was one of the largest armed forces in Western Asia at the time.^ Nowhere is this more true than in Iraq.

^ Attacks and casualties suffered by coalition and Iraqi forces and civilians were higher than any other similar time span, said the report.” [AP, 3/14/07 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Nearly 25 percent of Iraq will not be secure for the election , according to one U.S. military commander, who still insisted the poll date should not be changed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Despite being a large military force, the Iraqi army was no match for the advanced weaponry of the coalition forces and the air superiority that the coalition forces provided.^ Attacks and casualties suffered by coalition and Iraqi forces and civilians were higher than any other similar time span, said the report.” [AP, 3/14/07 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ US Forces Battle for Iraqi Rebel City Offensive in Samarra kills almost 100 insurgents as army begins pre-election pacification push.

^ Operation Steel Hammer, intended to end Al Qaeda operations in Hit, west of Baghdad , was launched with a force of 1,500 U.S. Marines , 500 U.S. Army soldiers, and 500 Iraqi soldiers.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military including an occupied public shelter in Baghdad.^ In Iraq ten people were shot dead north of Baghdad, a family of five was killed by gunmen in Samarra, and the U.S. military denied bombing a wedding party in Hit.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ On 16 December 1998 aircraft from the United States and the United Kingdom began a four-day campaign against Iraqi military targets.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Killed By Three Explosions at Baghdad Hotels Cement mixer used as bomb breaches defences Journalists the target, says Iraqi security chief.

[38][39][40]
.Iraq responded to the invasion by launching SCUD missile attacks against Israel and Saudi Arabia.^ Iraq Promises Hard Line Against Rebel Attacks on Turkey Iraq has confirmed it will take a hard line against Kurdish rebels attacking Turkey from the north, as Turkey prepares to launch cross-border raids.

^ Last Wednesday, for example, a Reuters report stated: "The United States threatened possible nuclear retaliation against Iraq if its forces or allies were attacked with doomsday weapons."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Ready for War in Iraq The US now has sufficient troops and equipment in the Gulf to launch an attack on Iraq at any time, the US defence secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, announced today.

.Hussein hoped that by attacking Israel, the Israeli military would be drawn into the war, which he believed would rally anti-Israeli sentiment in neighboring Arab countries and cause those countries to support Iraq.^ Under those circumstances, would you believe the U.S. had lost the war, or not?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Supports legislation that would cut off funding for the war in Iraq .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

However, Hussein's gamble failed, as Israel reluctantly accepted a U.S. demand to remain out of the conflict to avoid inflaming tensions. .The Iraqi armed forces were quickly destroyed, and Hussein eventually accepted the inevitable and ordered a withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.^ Arab world riven by fury and despair As American forces tighten their grip in Baghdad, much of the Arab world appears reluctant to accept the inevitable fall of Saddam Hussein's regime.

^ Go to: Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 Go to: Table of Contents Iraqi Armed Forces .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUNE 15, 2006: With support of Iraq’s President, Iraqi Vice President asks Bush for a timeline for the withdrawal of foreign forces from Iraq [AP, 6/15/06 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Before the forces were withdrawn, however, Hussein ordered them to sabotage Kuwait's oil wells, which resulted in hundreds of wells being set ablaze, causing an economic and ecological disaster in Kuwait.^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Coalition troops seize Iraqi town Troops take Iraqi border town UK forces join ground offensive Baghdad palace bombed Oil Prices Rise As Iraqi Wells Set Ablaze Oil prices jumped this afternoon following TV reports that oil wells in southern Iraq were burning out of control after apparent acts of sabotage.

^ US Begins Secret Talks to Secure Iraq's Oilfields The US military has drawn up detailed plans to secure and protect Iraq's oilfields to prevent a repeat of 1991 when President Saddam set Kuwait's wells ablaze.

.After the decisive military defeat, the agreement to a ceasefire on February 28, and political maneuvering, the UN Security Council continued to press its demands that Hussein accept previous UN Security Council Resolutions, as stated in UNSCR 686.^ October 1994 United Nations Security Council Resolution 949 Condemns Iraqi military deployments near Kuwait and demands that Iraq withdraw military units deployed in southern Iraq and cooperate with the United Nations Special Commission http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/18082.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain and Us Agree Iraq Line Britain and the United States finally reached agreement yesterday on a tough United Nations security council resolution which threatens Saddam Hussein with severe consequences if he fails to grant weapons inspectors unfettered access to Iraq.

^ October 1991 United Nations Security Council Resolution 715 "Demands that Iraq meet unconditionally all its obligations" and cooperate with the U.N. Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/18081.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By April, UNSCR 687 recognized Kuwait's sovereignty had been reinstated, and established the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM).^ United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) "By its resolution 687 of 3 April 1991, the United Nations Security Council established the terms and conditions for the formal cease-fire between Iraq and the coalition of Member States co-operating with Kuwait.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 1991 United Nations Security Council Resolution 715 "Demands that Iraq meet unconditionally all its obligations" and cooperate with the U.N. Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/18081.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For weeks, amongst various United Nations Security Council members, there was disagreement about how to deal with the Iraq issue.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two days later, UNSCR 688 added that Iraq must cease violent repression of ethnic and religious minorities.^ Sunnis and Shias Must Play an Equal Part in a New Iraq More unites the country's rival religious factions than divides them.

^ DECEMBER 2, 2006: “Not working well.” Donald Rumsfeld, describing the Iraq strategy in a classified memo written two days before he resigned.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraq Suicide Bombers Kill 80 Two suicide bombers killed at least 80 people in Iraq today as extreme violence continued for a second consecutive day.

.The aftermath of the war saw the Iraqi military, especially its air force, destroyed.^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Go to: Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 Go to: Table of Contents Iraqi Armed Forces .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1991 the Iraqi Government announced that it had stored some chemical weapons at Khamisiyah before the War and that these chemical weapons were among the munitions destroyed by the U.S. Army troops in March 1991.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In return for peace, Iraq was forced to dismantle all chemical and biological weapons it possessed, and end any attempt to create or purchase nuclear weapons, to be assured by the allowing UN weapons inspectors to evaluate the dismantlement of such weapons.^ To show that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction Links with terrorists such as Al Qaeda Deception by Iraq of the U.N. weapons inspectors, and hiding weapons As detailed further above, all three of these themes have been questioned, and top officials have often said that for example, there is no evidence of nuclear weapons development (though there are some questions about chemical and biological weapons but much has been destroyed in prior years), that the links with terrorism is dubious.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the embargo preventing the import of new materials, satellites eyeing possible sites for new production, and the return of UN inspectors, it is highly dubious that Iraq could develop an offensive chemical weapons arsenal, particularly since virtually all of their ballistic missiles capable of carrying such weapons have also been accounted for and destroyed.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four Years On, Un Team Back in Iraq The first team of UN inspectors landed in Baghdad yesterday to resume their search for chemical, biological and nuclear weapons after a four-year interruption.

.Finally, Iraq would face sanctions if it disobeyed any of the demands.^ Finally, in situations such as this Iraq crisis, the more inclusive U.N. General Assembly, which is where all members get a voice (but not a vote), would be harder to buy out.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bob Woodward reported in a new book that Colin Powell warned President Bush that if he invaded Iraq he would have to face the "you break it, you own it" rule.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The White House plans “to outline a plan for gradual troop reductions [in Iraq] beginning next year that would fall far short of the drawdown” demanded by Congress.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Shortly after the war ended in 1991, Shia Muslim and Kurdish Iraqis engaged in protests against Hussein's regime, resulting in an intifada.^ New Iraqi Government 'within Days' The Iraqi prime minister-designate said today he expected to form the country's first full-term government since the end of Saddam Hussein's regime within the next two days.

^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq 'preparing to Use Chemical Weapons' Iraqi documents obtained by the BBC appear to suggest that the country's president, Saddam Hussein, is preparing to use chemical weapons against western troops in the event of war, it was reported today.

.Hussein responded with violent repression against Shia Muslims, and the protests came to an end.^ Iraqis Protest at Baghdad Talks Street protests by thousands of Iraqis and a boycott by leading Shia Muslims today marred US-sponsored talks on the formation of a new government in Baghdad.

[41] .It is estimated that as many as 100,000 people were killed.^ Estimated barrels of oil illegally exported by Iraq last year: 8,100,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ A suicide melon truck exploded in Mosul , killing six people and damaging many melons .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Many Killed in Baghdad Blasts Two bombs explode near a university in eastern Baghdad, killing up to 65 people, police say, as UN says 35,000 Iraqi civilians died last year.

[42] .The US, UK, France and Turkey claiming authority under UNSCR 688, established the Iraqi no-fly zones to protect Kurdish and Shiite populations from attacks by the Hussein regime's aircraft.^ UK Blocks Us Plans to Spend Oil Fund on Museum Britain has blocked an American plan for a memorial museum in Baghdad to document the atrocities of Saddam Hussein's regime.

^ Suicide bomber attacks US checkpoint A suicide bomber struck at a US military checkpoint in Baghdad last night, only metres from where crowds had celebrated the collapse of the Iraqi regime.

^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Disarmament crisis

.While Iraq had agreed to UNSCR 687, the Iraqi government sometimes worked with inspectors, but ultimately failed to comply with disarmament terms, and as a result, economic sanctions against Iraq continued.^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

^ The IAEA inspectors still travel to Iraq and in January [2002] reported full Iraqi compliance.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blix hails Iraqi cooperation Only hours after the US president, George Bush, threatened to push for a resolution authorising military action against Iraq within days, the chief UN weapons inspector this afternoon described Iraqi cooperation on disarmament as "active or even proactive".

.After the war, Iraq was accused of breaking its obligations throughout the 1990s, including the discovery in 1993 of a plan to assassinate former President George H. W. Bush, and the withdrawal of Richard Butler's UNSCOM weapon inspectors in 1998 after the Iraqi government claimed some inspectors were spies for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.^ Warner calls on President Bush to begin Iraq withdrawal in September.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ George Bush telephoned the French president, but...

^ George Bush has made some false claims as part of the campaign to get support for war on Iraq.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .On multiple occasions throughout the disarmament crisis, the UN passed further resolutions (see United Nations Resolutions concerning Iraq) compelling Iraq to comply with the terms of the ceasefire resolutions.^ Resolution 1441, the United Nations and the 'Diplomacy' .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq invites UN weapons inspector to talks In a move that took the international community by surprise, Iraq has invited the chief United Nations weapons inspector to Baghdad for technical talks, it emerged last night.

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.It is estimated more than 500,000 Iraqi children died as a result of the sanctions.^ More than 500 people were wounded.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ The proposals foresee a long-term presence of about 50,000 US troops, down from the current figure of more than 160,000.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Kidnappings Continue in Iraq But Fewer Are Murdered Thousands of Iraqis, and more than 200 foreigners, have been kidnapped in Iraq since March 2003.

[44][45] .With humanitarian and economic concerns in mind, UNSCR 706 and UNSCR 712 allowed Iraq to sell oil in exchange for humanitarian aid.^ Amount of Iraq's oil revenue since 1996 spent on anything but humanitarian programs, Kuwaiti reparations, or U.N. costs: 0 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ America disabled an oil pipeline that had been carrying 200,000 barrels a day from Iraq to Syria, in flagrant violation of United Nations economic sanctions.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ April 2003 (Update) Australian Humanitarian Aid to Iraq http://www.ausaid.gov.au/hottopics/topic.cfm?Id=8614_8794_4510_8987_445 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was later turned into the Oil-for-Food Programme by UNSCR 986.^ See also: Sanctions and the Oil-for-Food Programme Current Rebublic of Iraq - Ministry of Oil http://www.uruklink.net/oil/ .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2002 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1409 An extension of the Oil-for-Food Programme which introduced a "Goods Review List."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 1997 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1143 Extends the Oil-for-Food Programme for 180 days http://www.treas.gov/offices/eotffc/ofac/legal/unscrs/1143.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the years, U.S. land forces were deployed to the Iraq border, and U.S. bombings were carried out to try to pressure Hussein to comply with UN resolutions.^ Congress Backs Bush on Iraq The US Senate today voted overwhelmingly in favour of a war resolution that leaves the way clear for President Bush to use US military force against Saddam Hussein.

^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

^ At least 140 people were killed in Iraq during fighting that broke out after the Al Askari mosque, a Shiite shrine in Samarra, was bombed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.As a result of these repeated violations, US Secretary of State Madeline Albright, US Secretary of Defense William Cohen, and US National Security Advisor Sandy Berger held an international town hall meeting to discuss possible war with Iraq, which seemed to have little public support.^ Geoffrey William Hoon Secretary of State for Defense http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page1390.asp .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 1991 United Nations Security Council Resolution 715 "Demands that Iraq meet unconditionally all its obligations" and cooperate with the U.N. Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/18081.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2003 Minutes of the International Conference on Cultural Property stolen in Iraq held in Lyon, France Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization) http://www.interpol.int/Public/WorkOfArt/Iraq/Minutes.asp .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In October 1998, U.S. President Bill Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act, calling for "regime change" in Iraq, and initiated Operation Desert Fox.^ December 1998 Text of Letter from President Clinton to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate re the Missile and Aircraft Strikes in Iraq on 16 December 1998 http://clinton6.nara.gov/1998/12/1998-12-18-text-of-a-letter-from-president-on-iraq.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ACLU circulated memos, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, that suggest President George W. Bush directly authorized torture against detainees in Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Go to: Nuclear Resources Go to: Table of Contents Operation Desert Fox - 16-19 December 1998 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following Operation Desert Fox, and end to partial cooperation from Iraq prompted UNSCR 1284, disbanding UNSCOM and replacing it with United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).^ October 2002 onwards Reports to the Security Council on Inspections in Iraq re Disarmament presented by Dr. Hans Blix, Chairman of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=414&sID=6 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNMOVIC replaced the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) which had been established "to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological weapons and missiles with a range of more than 150 km), and to operate a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the same weapons prohibited to it by the Security Council" http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N99/396/09/PDF/N9939609.pdf?OpenElement (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The Bush administration made a number of allegations against Iraq, including that Iraq was acquiring uranium from Niger and that Iraq had secret weapons laboratories in trailers and isolated facilities throughout Iraq;[citation needed] none of these allegations have proven true.^ Do you think the Bush administration should or should not follow each of these recommendations made by the Iraq Study Group?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bush Administration requested an additional $80 billion for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan this year, .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ More ominously, the CIA and FBI have reported that a war in Iraq will definitely lead to terrorist attacks in America and a number of European nations, including Britain.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saddam Hussein, under pressure from the U.S. and the U.N., finally agreed to allow weapons inspectors to return to Iraq in 2002, but by that time the Bush administration had already begun pushing for war.^ Saddam Hussein was dangerous with weapons.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Saddam Hussein was dangerous with the ability to make weapons," Bush said.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.In June 2002, Operation Southern Watch transitioned to Operation Southern Focus, bombing sites around Iraq.^ Operation Southern Watch Operation Southern Watch enforces the No-Fly Zone south of the 33rd Parallel in Iraq with approximately 150 aircraft from the United States and the United Kingdom .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A triple car bombing in southern Iraq killed at least 46 people.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ During Operation Desert Storm (January-March 1991), Khamisiyah was the site of about 100 bunkers which contained ammunition and the site was bombed by Coalition forces.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first CIA team entered Iraq on July 10, 2002. This team was composed of elite CIA Special Activities Division and the U.S. Military's elite Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) operators.^ July 2003 Civil Employees & Military Salaries Arrive Iraqi Destiny , page 3 101st Airborne Division, U.S. Central Command http://www.centcom.mil/Operations/Iraqi_Freedom/Iraqi_Destiny/Issue31.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 2004 New Schools to Withstand Seasons in Northern Iraq U.S. Army Special Operations Command http://www.soc.mil/News/releases/04JUL/040728-04.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 2003 Mosul Prison Guards receive Correctional Training Iraqi Destiny , page 3 101st Airborne Division, U.S. Central Command http://www.centcom.mil/Operations/Iraqi_Freedom/Iraqi_Destiny/Issue30.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Together, they prepared the battle space of the entire country for conventional U.S. Military forces.^ US Abandons Shadowplay in Iraq As the military build-up continues in the Gulf, Julian Borger in Washington sees US forces preparing for house to house combat.

^ Together they died as brothers in arms in Basra, taking the total number of British military deaths in Iraq to 111.

^ Body Counts The western media focused on the number of civilians killed in Iraq, but the country's ill-prepared armed forces suffered far greater losses.

.Their efforts also organized the Kurdish Peshmerga to become the northern front of the invasion and eventually defeat Ansar Al-Islam in Northern Iraq before the invasion and Saddam's forces in the north.^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majeed, also known as “Chemical Ali,” was sentenced to death for his role in Iraq's Kurdish genocide .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The battle led to the killing of a substantial number of terrorists and the uncovering of a chemical weapons facility at Sargat.^ A number of claims were made about unaccounted for biological and chemical weapons with the use of chilling numbers on how serious the concerns were.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Number of sites in Iraq from which materials usable to make biological or chemical weapons are now “missing”: 118 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Yet, Hans Blix also highlighted concerns about unaccounted-for chemical weapons, and processes such as interviewing scientists, as only a small number had been interviewed so far.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47] .In October 2002, the U.S. Congress passed the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq, and in November the UN Security Council passes UNSCR 1441.^ June 2004 U.N. Security Council Endorses Formation of Sovereign Interim Government in Iraq U.S. Department of State http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/33317.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only security council resolution expressly authorising the use of force against Iraq was 678, which was passed at the start of the Gulf war in November 1990, and the only action it authorised was such force as was necessary to restore Kuwait's sovereignty.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Former Marine Platoon Sergeant Jim Massey said that the United States was funneling depleted uranium to Iraq through Ireland .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Invasion and civil war

.On March 20, 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, with the stated reason that Iraq had failed to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons development program in violation of U.N. Resolution 687. The United States asserted that because Iraq was in material breach of Resolution 687, the armed forces authorization of Resolution 678 was revived.^ Iraq ; Iraq War, 2003- ; Physical training ; United States.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq ; Public relations ; United States.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The United States further justified the invasion by claiming that Iraq had or was developing weapons of mass destruction and stating a desire to remove an oppressive dictator from power and bring democracy to Iraq.^ We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ We found the weapons of mass destruction.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Do you think the United States action in the Iraq is morally justified, or not?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002, President George W. Bush declared that Iraq was a member of the "Axis of Evil", and that, like North Korea and Iran, Iraq's attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction posed a serious threat to U.S. national security.^ President Bush , in his first State of the Union address, identified Iran , Iraq , and North Korea as an “ axis of evil .” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ President Bush was still "absolutely convinced " that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ President Bush said that the report proved that Iraq was "a gathering threat ."
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.These claims were based on documents that were provided to him by the CIA and the government of the United Kingdom.^ The report, which drew on intelligence material and documents discovered by weapons inspectors after the war, criticized the United States government for its deliberate exaggerations of Iraq's military capabilities.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Claims about Iraq trying to purchase Uranium from Africa were based on documents that were "not authentic".
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The site concentrates on Government documents and information from the U.S. Executive Branch and while the bulk of the overall resources are primarily from the United States, there are international entries as well.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] Bush added,
.Iraq continues to flaunt its hostilities toward America and to support terror.^ America's Obsession With Iraq Leaves Others Free to Kill Bali's victims are testament to Bush's flawed war on terror.

^ October 2002 U.S. Supports Democracy in Iraq Voice of America Editorial http://www.ibb.gov/editorials/10167.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade...^ If military planners are now to consider the nuclear option any time they confront a surprising military development, the distinction between nuclear and non-nuclear weapons fades away."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weapons programs took decades to develop with a lot of outside assistance, which is now all lacking.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, around the beginning of 2003 new documents discovered at the home of an Iraqi nuclear scientist raised more concerns, due to fears of possibly relating to the development of nuclear weapons.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a regime that agreed to international inspections — then kicked out inspectors.^ "This is a regime that agreed to international inspections - then kicked out the inspectors."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media watchdog Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR) highlights the difference in reporting by contrasting various reports from December 1998 and now, showing that it was fully reported then that inspectors were withdrawn, not kicked out.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inspectors were not kicked out, but withdrawn by the U.S. in order for the bombing to commence.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world... .By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes [Iran, Iraq and North Korea] pose a grave and growing danger.^ We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ We found the weapons of mass destruction.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Weapons of mass destruction.

.They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred.^ Federal officials lowered the terrorist threat level to “yellow” so that they could raise it again to “orange” right before the invasion of Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ In the Middle East, support of authoritarian regimes has contributed to anger, hatred, resentment, and fueling the fires of extremism, providing easy recruits to terrorist causes.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.However, according to a comprehensive U.S. government report, no complete, fully functional weapons of mass destruction have been found since the invasion.^ Weapons of mass destruction.

^ We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ We found the weapons of mass destruction.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[50] .There are accounts of Polish troops obtaining antiquated warheads, dating from the 1980s, two of which contained trace amounts of the nerve gas cyclosarin, but U.S. military tests found that the rounds were so deteriorated that they would "have limited to no impact if used by insurgents against coalition forces."^ Congress Backs Bush on Iraq The US Senate today voted overwhelmingly in favour of a war resolution that leaves the way clear for President Bush to use US military force against Saddam Hussein.

^ Side Note This would also negate the need to use small nuclear weapons by the U.S., as they said they would, which is also discussed further below .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq 'preparing to Use Chemical Weapons' Iraqi documents obtained by the BBC appear to suggest that the country's president, Saddam Hussein, is preparing to use chemical weapons against western troops in the event of war, it was reported today.

.[51][52][53][54][55][56] Iraq was also home to 1.8 tons of low-enriched uranium, miscellaneous other nuclear materials, and chemical weapons paraphernalia; the nuclear material was under the supervision of the IAEA until the beginning of the war.^ Iraq war from its beginning.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The nuclear material - 1.8 tonnes of low enriched uranium and 500 tonnes of natural uranium - had been under IAEA seal since 1991.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most military officers seem to consider the likelihood of our using nuclear weapons in Iraq to be low, they worry about the increased importance placed on them and about the contradictions inherent in contemplating the use of nuclear weapons for the purpose of eliminating weapons of mass destruction .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Post-invasion

Occupation zones in Iraq after invasion.
.Following the invasion, the United States established the Coalition Provisional Authority to govern Iraq.^ How important is it for the United States that Iraq has a stable government that is not an enemy of the U.S.?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think the United States will -- or will not -- be able to establish a stable democratic government in Iraq?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[57] .Government authority was transferred to an Iraqi Interim Government in June 2004, and a permanent government was elected in October 2005. More than 140,000 troops, mainly Americans, remain in Iraq.^ U.S. troop strength in Iraq went under 140,000 this week ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUNE 28, 2004: U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Nowhere is this more true than in Iraq.

.Some studies have placed the number of civilians deaths as high as 655,000 (see The Lancet study), although most studies estimate a lower number; the Iraq Body Count project indicates a significantly lower number of civilian deaths than that of The Lancet Study, though IBC organizers acknowledge that their statistics are an undercount as they base their information off of media-confirmed deaths.^ The British Ministry of Defence found that a study which had placed Iraq's civilian death toll at 655,000 was “robust.” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The United States increased the number of troops in Iraq by 15,000.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Another 22,586–24,159 civilian deaths have been recorded in 2007 through Iraq Body Count’s extensive monitoring of media and official reports.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The website of the Iraq body count states, "Our maximum therefore refers to reported deaths – which can only be a sample of true deaths unless one assumes that every civilian death has been reported.^ A State Department intelligence analyst told a congressional hearing that he had felt pressure to make his reports conform to the administration's position on Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ This was reported by Rolf Ekeus, the chairman of the United Nations body authorised to inspect and destroy Iraq's arsenal following the Gulf War in 1991.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Police Claim Body is Abducted Us Soldier's The body of one of three US soldiers kidnapped in Iraq two weeks ago was found today in the Euphrates, according to the Iraqi police.

It is likely that many if not most civilian casualties will go unreported by the media."[58]
.After the invasion, al-Qaeda took advantage of the national resistance to entrench itself in the country.^ The new leader of Al Qaeda in Iraq claimed that 4,000 foreign insurgents have died since the 2003 invasion.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.On December 30, 2006, Saddam Hussein was hanged.^ DECEMBER 30, 2006: Saddam executed by hanging.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraq to Go Ahead With Hangings Despite Un Call to Halt Them The Iraqi government said yesterday it will execute two of Saddam Hussein's henchmen despite a call from the UN to refrain from hanging them.

^ December 2003 Ambassador Bremer Briefing from Baghdad re the Capture of Saddam Hussein http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20031214-1021.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .Hussein's half-brother and former intelligence chief Barzan Hassan and former chief judge of the Revolutionary Court Awad Hamed al-Bandar were likewise executed on January 15, 2007;[60] as was Taha Yassin Ramadan, Saddam's former deputy and former vice-president (originally sentenced to life in prison but later to death by hanging), on March 20, 2007.[61] Ramadan was the fourth and last man in the al-Dujail trial to die by hanging for crimes against humanity.^ January 15, 2007 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ NOVEMBER 5, 2006: Saddam sentenced to death by hanging.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Former Iraqi Vice President 'to Hang at Dawn' Iraqi officials request transfer of Taha Yassin Ramadan from US custody for execution tomorrow.

President of Iraq Jalal Talabani with U.S. President Barack Obama in 2009.
At the Anfal genocide trial, Saddam's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid (aka Chemical Ali), former defense minister Sultan Hashim Ahmed al-Tay, and former deputy Hussein Rashid Mohammed were sentenced to hang for their role in the Al-Anfal Campaign against the Kurds on June 24, 2007.[citation needed] Al-Majid was sentenced to death three more times: once for the 1991 suppression of a Shi'a uprising along with Abdul-Ghani Abdul Ghafur on December 2, 2008;[62] once for the 1999 crackdown in the assassination of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad al-Sadr on March 2, 2009;[63] and once on January 17, 2010 for the gassing of the Kurds in 1988;[64] he was hanged over a week later on January 25.[65]
.Acts of sectarian violence have led to claims of ethnic cleansing in Iraq, and there have been many attacks on Iraqi minorities such as the Yezidis, Mandeans, Assyrians and others.^ This subtle propaganda technique can serve to discredit or minimize the issue (because one can claim that the vile Iraqi regime said it, so there cannot be any credibility to it whatsoever).
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks and casualties suffered by coalition and Iraqi forces and civilians were higher than any other similar time span, said the report.” [AP, 3/14/07 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Journalists and politicians from the west in countries such as the U.S. and U.K. have shown appropriate cynicism and critique when reporting claims and announcements from the Iraqi regime.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .A U.S. troop surge to deal with increased violence and improve security became a contentious political issue in the United States.^ Security Unit to Be Run By Iraqi Parties The US is planning to set up a paramilitary battalion in Iraq drawn from the five main political parties to help American troops fighting a fast-spreading insurgency, it was reported yesterday.

^ This was probably the most important and divisive issue in the 2006 United Stated Congressional election.

^ For weeks, amongst various United Nations Security Council members, there was disagreement about how to deal with the Iraq issue.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The surge in troops was enacted in early 2007; in his September 2007 testimony to Congress, General Petraeus stated that the surge's goals were being met.^ Odierno said he will make a decision by early September on whether the U.S. troop presence could decrease further.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ A White House report showed that only eight of eighteen benchmarks for progress were being met in Iraq, but President Bush asked Congress to wait for another report in September before passing judgment.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ General David Petraeus told al Arabiya television he believed recent success in reducing violence had restored the United States’ image with Iraqis.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[67] Iraq also suffered a cholera outbreak in 2007.[68]
Violence in Iraq began to decline from the summer of 2007.[69]
The mandate of the multinational force in Iraq, last extended by UN resolution 1790, expired on December 31, 2008.
.On June 29, 2009, U.S. troops formally withdrew from Baghdad streets, in accordance with former U.S. President George W. Bush's security pact with Iraq known as the Status of Forces Agreement.^ George Bush telephoned the French president, but...

^ June 29, 2009 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Brent Scowcroft, the former national security adviser to President George W. Bush, wrote an article in the Wall Street Journal warning President George W. Bush not to start a war with Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The SOFA pact stated, among other things, that U.S. troops will withdraw from Iraq's cities by June 30, 2009, and will leave the country on Dec.^ JUNE 30, 2009.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Speed up the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TREND FOR COMPARISON: Setting a timetable for withdrawing all U.S. troops from Iraq by the end of next year .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

.31, 2011.[70] Throughout the country, as the citizens of Iraq celebrated with fireworks,[71] television programs declared June 30 as National Sovereignty Day.^ October 2003 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 "Reaffirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq" ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AUGUST 19 2006: 1,249 days since the war began — the war in Iraq surpasses the length of WWII. [The Nation, 8/18/2006 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ America disabled an oil pipeline that had been carrying 200,000 barrels a day from Iraq to Syria, in flagrant violation of United Nations economic sanctions.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[72][73] .However, crime and violence initially spiked in the months following the US withdrawal from cities.^ Crime Puts Iraqi Women Under House Arrest Suzanne Goldenberg in Baghdad finds the city's female population crushed by the lawlessness under US occupation.

^ Falluja Violence Continues As Iraqi Force Arrives Iraqi security forces were taking over positions from withdrawing US marines in the flashpoint city of Falluja today as the bloody month-long siege appeared to be nearing an end.

^ US Troops Pull Back From Falluja US troops have reportedly started to fall back from some of their positions around the besieged city of Falluja after a month of deadly clashes with Sunni insurgents.

[74][75][76][77][78] .As Iraqi security forces struggled to suppress the sudden influx of crime, the number of kidnappings, robberies, bomb assaults, and shootings increased dramatically.^ Iraqi Soldiers Killed Amid Nationwide Violence A suicide car bombing today and clashes between Shia militia and Iraqi security forces have left up to 50 people dead.

^ Bomb investigators turn suspicions on Iraqi guards Security staff at UN base were informers under Saddam.

^ Killed By Three Explosions at Baghdad Hotels Cement mixer used as bomb breaches defences Journalists the target, says Iraqi security chief.

[74][78] .According to the Associated Press, Iraqi military spokesman Major General Qassim al-Moussawi said investigations found that 60 to 70 percent of the criminal activity is carried out by former insurgent groups or by gangs affiliated with them — partly explaining the brutality of some of the crimes.^ Iraqi Security Force General Mohamed Shahwani said the insurgents outnumber the U.S. military, .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Al-Basso, a former Iraqi military general and hero of the city, was forced into retirement by the former Iraqi regime, during the Iran-Iraq war, shortly after his brother and nephew were executed for plotting an attack on Saddam Hussein."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We do not want to start a conflict with Iran ,” said Iraqi government spokesman Ali al-Dabbagh.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[74] .United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that the withdrawal caused a change of chemistry with “a real sense of empowerment on the part of the Iraqis.”[79] U.S. troops continue to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.^ Iraq’s defense minister said that his country was seeking to buy F-16 fighter jets from the United States , while his American counterpart, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, said he believed that the Iraq war had entered the “endgame.” In Baghdad, the Iraqi defense minister, Abdel Qader Mohammed Jassim, said buying the jets would be a crucial step if Iraqi forces were to assume more responsibilities from American soldiers.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Geoffrey William Hoon Secretary of State for Defense http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page1390.asp .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks and casualties suffered by coalition and Iraqi forces and civilians were higher than any other similar time span, said the report.” [AP, 3/14/07 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[80] .Despite the initial increase in violence, on November 30, 2009, Iraqi Interior Ministry officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level in November since the 2003 invasion.^ At least 150 Iraqis were killed by a truck bomb in northern Iraq in possibly the deadliest bombing since the United States invaded in 2003, and it was reported that, despite a police security drive, the number of unidentified bodies found in Baghdad had increased sharply in June.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraqi Civilians Dead, Says Study About 100,000 Iraqi civilians - half of them women and children - have died in Iraq since the invasion, mostly as a result of airstrikes by coalition forces, according to the first reliable study of the death toll from Iraqi and US public health experts.

^ UK Scientists Attack Lancet Study Over Iraq Death Toll A study which found that more than 650,000 Iraqi people have died since the US-led invasion was attacked yesterday by scientists in the UK, who claimed that the households interviewed tended to be located in violence-hit streets.

[81]

Geography

Map of Iraq
Iraq is located at 33°00′N 44°00′E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44. Spanning 437,072 km² (168,743 sq mi), it is the 58th-largest country in the world. It is comparable in size to the US state of California, and somewhat larger than Paraguay.
.Iraq mainly consists of desert, but near the two major rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) are fertile alluvial plains, as the rivers carry about 60 million cubic metres (78 million cu.^ Two Soldiers Guilty of Iraqi Prisoner Abuse Two British soldiers were today found guilty of charges of abusing Iraqi prisoners at the Camp Breadbasket aid camp near Basra, in southern Iraq.

^ The increase was mainly due to two attacks in Baghdad and one near Karbala that killed at least 150 people.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Two hundred and seventy-five members met at a convention center on the Tigris River while explosions rattled the convention center's windows.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

yd) of silt annually to the delta. The north of the country is mostly composed of mountains; the highest point being at 3,611 metres (11,847 ft) point, unnamed on the map opposite, but known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). .Iraq has a small coastline measuring 58 km (35 miles) along the Persian Gulf.^ WORDING: Would you favor or oppose sending American troops back to the Persian Gulf in order to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WORDING: Would you favor or oppose sending American ground troops to the Persian Gulf in an attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Osama bin Laden urged Muslims to attack oil facilities in Iraq and the Persian Gulf.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab (known as arvandrūd: اروندرود among Iranians) there used to be marshlands, but many were drained in the 1990s.^ Stroll, if you dare, along the Shatt al Arab, the fast-flowing waterway which connects this city to the Persian Gulf, and you come across a sad looking park.

^ But while there are many, many web sites out there, covering various angles of the protests movements, the following may be some useful starting points, perhaps: .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Iraqi territory of the Shatt al-Arab waterway, Iranian forces captured and detained 15 members of the British Royal Navy.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The local climate is mostly desert, with mild to cool winters and dry, hot, cloudless summers. The northern mountainous regions (Kurdistan region هه‌رێمی کوردستان) have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding.
.With its 115 billion barrels (1.83×1010 m3) of proved oil reserves, Iraq ranks fourth in the world behind Saudi Arabia, Canada, and Iran in the amount of Oil reserves;[82] yet the United States Department of Energy estimates that up to 90% of the country remains unexplored.^ It was estimated that 90 percent of Iraq's artists had fled the country or been killed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Rank of the U.S. among countries that bought the most oil from Iraq last year: 1 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

These regions could yield an additional 100 billion barrels (1.6×1010 m3). .Iraq's oil production costs are among the lowest in the world, but only about 2,000 oil wells have been drilled in Iraq, compared with about 1 million wells in Texas alone.^ It's Not Only About Iraq The animating ideology of the caliphate helps explain al-Qaida actions that otherwise make no sense.

^ The Security Firms Active in Iraq There are about 2,000 contractors working in Iraq for British security firms.

^ This is the future for the world we're in at the moment," a special assistant to Donald Rumsfeld said about the unrest in Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[83]

Climate

Most of Iraq has a hot Arid climate. Summer temperatures average above 40°C (104°F) for most of the country and frequently exceed 48°C(118°F). Winter temperature infrequently exceed 21°C (70°F) with maximums roughly 15 to 16 °C (59 to 61 °F) and night-time lows occasionally below freezing. .Typically precipitation is low, most places receive less than 250mm (10 in) annually, with maximum rainfall during the months of November to April.^ One hundred thirty-five American soldiers died in Iraq in November, tying last April as the deadliest month for U.S. forces during the war.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Most observers believe that the threat is less than it was in 1991, when Iraq invaded Kuwait.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOVEMBER 2004: The most deadly month in Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare except in the very North of the country.

Government and politics

Government

.The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.^ Iraq's governing council approved an interim constitution.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Suppose a democratic government is formed in Iraq in the next few months.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Iraq will have a democratic government that will not be overthrown by terrorists or supporters of Saddam Hussein .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

The federal government is composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions. .Aside from the federal government, there are regions (made of one or more governorates), governorates, and districts within Iraq with jurisdiction over various matters as defined by law.^ Despite the viewpoints one might have of how it should be done, that Tony Blair only highlighted one of the letters (the one that strengthened his argument) made for a propaganda speech, raising more concerns about dishonesty and trustworthiness of the Blair government.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For weeks, amongst various United Nations Security Council members, there was disagreement about how to deal with the Iraq issue.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A call by Puerto Rico’s governor for a U.S. withdrawal from Iraq earned a standing ovation from a conference of more than 4,000 National Guardsmen.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

Regions, governorates and districts

.Currently, Kurdistan is the only legally defined region within Iraq, with its own government and quasi-official militia, the Peshmerga.^ Tensions between Kurdistan and the central government of Iraq over the status of Kirkuk.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi Government Says 70 Released After Baghdad Kidnap Government officials in Iraq today said around 70 people kidnapped from a scientific research institute in Baghdad yesterday had been released.

^ Mercenaries in 'coup Plot' Guarded Uk Officials in Iraq Shocked MP demands a rethink of the way government awards its security contracts.

.Basra Governorate is preparing to hold a referendum to establish a Basrah Region.^ April 2003 Governor of Basra under Coalition Control "Walid Hamid Tawfiq al-Tikriti, the Governor of Basrah, is now under Coalition control.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraq itself is divided into eighteen governorates (or provinces) (Arabic: muhafadhat, singular – muhafadhah, Kurdish: پاریزگه Pârizgah).^ It was revealed that the U.S. Army was writing positive news stories about the Iraq war, and was then paying to have the articles translated into Arabic and published in Iraqi newspapers.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ As Sunnis and Shias emerged into the scurrying, burning, breaking madness of Baghdad yesterday, a city sacking itself, the Sunni-Shia divide was meaningless.

The governorates are subdivided into districts (or qadhas).
IraqNumberedRegions.png
The following governorates are within the region Iraqi Kurdistan:

Politics

Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
.Iraq was under Baath Party rule from 1968 to 2003; in 1979 Saddam Hussein took control and remained president until 2003 after which he was unseated by a US-led invasion.^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ President George W. Bush dismissed growing complaints that he exaggerated the threat posed by Iraq in the buildup to the invasion and invited Iraqis who remain loyal to Saddam Hussein to attack American troops: "There are some who feel like that if they attack us, that we may decide to leave prematurely," he said.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraqi citizens were preparing to vote “yes” in a referendum on Saddam Hussein's continued rule; the ballot, which voters must sign, will contain one question: “Do you agree that Saddam should remain president?” Baath Party leaders selected as their campaign theme song Whitney Houston's “I Will Always Love You.” .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.On October 15, 2005, more than 63% of eligible Iraqis came out across the country to vote on whether to accept or reject the new constitution.^ October 15, 2005 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ New Deadline on Iraq Constitution Iraqi leaders tonight put off a vote on a the country's new constitution in order to gain time to try to win over the Sunni Arab minority.

^ Love Across the Lines in Iraq It was never going to be easy for the American sergeant and the Iraqi doctor who fell in love in Baghdad - he was kicked out of the army and the country and she was threatened in the street.

.On October 25, the vote was certified and the constitution passed with a 78% overall majority, with the percentage of support varying widely between the country's territories.^ Various protestors and critics of such foreign policies, especially by the British and Americans, have opposed these countries supporting and arming Saddam Hussein in the first place.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OCTOBER 15, 2005: Iraqis vote to ratify draft constitution [AP, 10/25/05 ] OCTOBER 26, 2005: American military death toll reaches 2,000 [MSNBC.com, 10/26/05 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqis Say Yes to Constitution Iraq's constitution was today passed as the final results from the country's 18 provinces were announced.

[84] .The new constitution had overwhelming backing among the Shia and Ķurdish communities, but was overwhelmingly rejected by Arab Sunnis.^ New Deadline on Iraq Constitution Iraqi leaders tonight put off a vote on a the country's new constitution in order to gain time to try to win over the Sunni Arab minority.

^ Iraqis Divided on Constitution As Deadline Looms Sunni and Shia delegates were tonight divided over the Iraqi consitution as a second deadline for the completion of the text approached.

^ Sunni Leadership Pulls Back From Boycott of Iraq Poll Sunni leaders yesterday failed to agree on a boycott of this week's referendum on a new constitution, a move that would have exacerbated Iraq's political and security crisis.

.Three majority Arab Sunni provinces rejected it (Salah ad Din with 82% against, Ninawa with 55% against, and Al Anbar with 97% against).^ Just 10 days ago, Bush visited Risha in Iraq and hailed his efforts in “cooperating with the United States against al Qaeda in Iraq.” Today, he was killed in an explosion near his house in the Anbar province.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ April 2003 Three more 'Iraqi Top 55' in Coalition Control "Muzahim Sa'b Hassan al-Tikriti is under Coalition control.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A senior official of the Iraqi Interior Ministry, which has backed Shiite death squads in the Shiite-Sunni civil war, said “most” of the Russian guns were meant for its police in the Sunni-majority Anbar province; Iraqi officials also complained that U.S. gun deliveries are slow.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Under the terms the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on December 15 to elect a new government.^ New Iraqi Government 'within Days' The Iraqi prime minister-designate said today he expected to form the country's first full-term government since the end of Saddam Hussein's regime within the next two days.

^ Invites the Governing Council to provide to the Security Council, for its review, no later than 15 December 2003 ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DECEMBER 15, 2005: Iraqis vote to elect members of Iraqi Assembly.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The overwhelming majority of all three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, turning this vote into more of an ethnic census than a competitive election, and setting the stage for the division of the country along ethnic lines.^ Nowhere is this more true than in Iraq.

^ Provincial elections are seen as central to political progress in Iraq, but their timing was thrown into doubt when Kurdish lawmakers boycotted the parliamentary vote on the legislation, insisting that it be rewritten.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ It is the first such non-governmental group to be set up in Iraq after the war.

.Iraqi politicians have been under significant threat by the various factions that have promoted violence as a political weapon.^ UN Inspectors Welcome Iraqi Cooperation 'Polite and professional' reception for weapons teams who split up to make several surprise visits.

^ Saddam's weapons of mass destruction (WMD); to diminish the threat of international terrorism; to promote democracy in Iraq and surrounding areas .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American politicians hoped the "all faction" meeting - involving 250 prominent Iraqis from across the political...

.The ongoing violence in Iraq has been incited by an amalgam of religious extremists that believe an Islamic Caliphate should rule, old sectarian regime members that had ruled under Saddam that want back the power they had, and Iraqi nationalists that are fighting the U.S. military presence.^ They believe that they should dictate religion...

^ Exiled Generals Promise Civilian Rule in New Iraq Exiled Iraqi officers meeting in London backed US efforts to remove Saddam Hussein yesterday, but promised they would not seek to replace him with another military regime.

^ UK company backs Iraq at Baghdad fair A British company will open a stall today at the start of the Baghdad international trade fair in a rare show of support for Saddam Hussein's regime.

.Iraq has a number of ethnic minority groups: Kurds, Assyrians, Mandeans, Iraqi Turkmen, Shabaks and Roma.^ Turkmen Ethnic Cleansing in Iraq, Perpetrated by "Kurds" Connected with Al Qaeda The fully exposed and well-documented criminality of the Talabani and Barzani death squads only underscores the need for their immediate elimination.

^ Vice President Biden warned Iraqi officials Friday that the American commitment to Iraq could end if the country again descended into ethnic and sectarian violence.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ US Steps in to End Iraq Deadlock Ethnic and religious groups still haggling over constitution - and a new name.

.These groups have not enjoyed equal status with the majority Arab populations throughout Iraq's eighty-five year history.^ As the war in Iraq stretched beyond its fifth year the U.S. death toll rose to 4,000, and a national conference intended to reconcile sectarian groups was boycotted by Sunnis.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Officials from more than 50 countries gathered in Egypt and issued a five-year “International Compact” aimed at stabilizing Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ In Iraq an Islamic militant group claimed that it had kidnapped two U.S. soldiers , 23-year-old Kristian Menchaca and 25-year-old Thomas L. Tucker.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Since the establishment of the "no-fly zones" following the Gulf War of 1990–1991, the situation of the Kurds has changed as they have established their own autonomous region.^ One would also think that they would be no match for the U.S./U.K. air forces, especially with the no-fly zones enforced since the end of the Gulf War in 1991.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health - Gulf War 1990-1991 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gulf War 1990-1991 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This has been a source of particular tension with Turkey. .The remainder of these ethnic groups continue to suffer discrimination on religious or ethnic grounds.^ US Steps in to End Iraq Deadlock Ethnic and religious groups still haggling over constitution - and a new name.

.In 2008, according to the Failed States Index, Iraq was the world's fifth most politically unstable country.^ You just run.” The ray gun, Raytheon promised, will not be sold to countries with questionable human rights records, although it will be used by the United States in Iraq.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Why America risks failing in Iraq An anti-colonial country like America needs an anti-colonial perception of the historical developments in the Middle East.

^ Five years after the outbreak of the war in Iraq, the humanitarian situation in most of the country remains among the most critical in the world,” the ICRC said, describing Iraq’s health care system as “now in worse shape than ever.” [Reuters, 3/16/08 ] .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[85][86] .On November 17, 2008, the U.S. and Iraq agreed to a Status of Forces Agreement,[87] as part of the broader Strategic Framework Agreement.^ NOVEMBER 17, 2008.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Current Status of Iraqi 55 Most Wanted Multi National Force-Iraq http://www.mnf-iraq.com/irag-faqs/most-wanted.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Geneva Conventions which are in current force were agreed to on 12 August 1949 and replaced all prior agreements/Conventions for the "Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .This agreement notably states "the Government of Iraq requests" U.S. forces to remain in Iraq to "maintain security and stability in Iraq," and that Iraq has jurisdiction over military contractors, and US personnel when not on US bases or on-duty.^ How important is it for the United States that Iraq has a stable government that is not an enemy of the U.S.?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Blackwater security personnel shot and killed 17 Iraqi civilians have found that at least 14 of the shootings were unjustified and violated deadly-force rules in effect for security contractors in Iraq, according to civilian and military officials briefed on the case.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ June 2004 U.N. Security Council Endorses Formation of Sovereign Interim Government in Iraq U.S. Department of State http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/33317.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Economy

An old 50 dinar bill
.Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings.^ Cheney Oil Firm Accused of Overcharging $61m in Iraq A Pentagon audit has found that Halliburton overcharged the government by $61m (about 35m) for delivering petrol to Iraq.

^ Hans Blix, one of the chief inspectors, complained that Iraq had failed to provide important information about its weapons programs.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ It was revealed that prior to the U.S. invasion, Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri had, for a fee, provided the United States with detailed assessments of Iraq's military capabilities .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments.^ Iran and Us to Hold Iraq Talks Iran and the US are to hold ambassadorial level talks on Iraq, the Iranian foreign minister said today, in the first substantive contacts between the countries for years.

^ Estimated barrels of oil illegally exported by Iraq last year: 8,100,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq exported 69% of its oil to the US a year ago, but the figure has dropped to only 16% since the end of May, according to press...

.Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least US$100 billion.^ Menzies Campbell: There should be no war in Iraq without more jaw-jaw If British policy is to change, Blair owes us an explanation.

^ War is Only Feasible Because Iraq Isn't a Threat to the Us A diplomatic fix will only be acceptable if it humiliates Saddam.

^ Both US parties back away from Iraq war Top politicians say Bush must prove Saddam is real threat.

.After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.^ Iraq exported 69% of its oil to the US a year ago, but the figure has dropped to only 16% since the end of May, according to press...

^ Iranian Forces Cross Iraq Border, Seize Iraqi Oil Well Iranian forces have seized an oil well in Iraq, leading to fears of increased hostilities between the two countries and problems for Iraqs oil industry.

.A combination of low oil prices, repayment of war debts (estimated at around US$3 billion a year) and the costs of reconstruction resulted in a serious financial crisis which was the main short term motivation for the invasion of Kuwait.^ Three Years on From the Invasion of Iraq Three years on from the invasion of Iraq, how Blair and Bush got us into this mess matters as much as how we get out of it.

^ Iraq Sabotage Fear Deepens Oil Crisis Motorists and air travellers hit as crude prices reach new record.

^ The Bush Administration requested an additional $80 billion for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan this year, .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.On November 20, 2004, the Paris Club of creditor nations agreed to write off 80% ($33 billion) of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members.^ November 20, 2004 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Any reduction in Iraq's mountainous $120 billion external debt should be negotiated within the Paris Club of creditor nations, they insisted.

^ The Bush Administration requested an additional $80 billion for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan this year, .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Iraq's total external debt was around $120 billion at the time of the 2003 invasion, and had grown by $5 billion by 2004. The debt relief will be implemented in three stages: two of 30% each and one of 20%.^ Italian Aid Workers Freed in Iraq Two Italian aid workers held hostage in Iraq for three weeks returned home last night to an emotional welcome.

^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ The Bush administration never drew up a comprehensive plan for rebuilding Iraq after the March 2003 invasion.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[89]
At the end of 2005, and in the first half of 2006, Iraq implemented a restructuring of about $20 billion of commercial debt claims on terms comparable to that of its November 2004 Paris Club agreement (i.e. with an 80% writeoff). .Iraq offered to its larger claimants a U.S. dollar denominated bond maturing in 2028. Smaller commercial claimants received a cash settlement of comparable value.^ OCTOBER 2, 2007: Iraq offers cash ‘marriage bonus’ to bridge sectarian divide .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

Reconstruction

.There have been attempts by the international community to improve and repair the infrastructure of Iraq in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion, when much was destroyed.^ Three Years on From the Invasion of Iraq Three years on from the invasion of Iraq, how Blair and Bush got us into this mess matters as much as how we get out of it.

^ Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi claimed that in 2003 he repeatedly attempted to talk President Bush out of invading Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ JULY 11, 2003: Condoleezza Rice: Doubts about Iraq intel were not communicated to Bush .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Iraq was governed, after the 2003 invasion, by the Coalition Provisional Authority and, after June 28, 2004 by a series of Iraq-led governments (see Politics of Iraq).^ See also: Banks & Banking 7 June 2004 Banking Law of 2004 Coalition Provisional Authority Order No.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUNE 28, 2004: U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ See also: Coalition Provisional Authority See also: Democracy See also: Elections - Local See also: Elections - National (January 2005) See also: Elections - National (October 2005) See also: Interim Government See also: Iraqi Governing Council See also: Local Governance See also: Reconstruction See also: Transitional Government 22 October 2004 Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance Congressional Research Service http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/38004.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period efforts were made to repair and replace damaged Iraqi infrastructure, including: water supply systems, sewage treatment plants, electricity production, hospitals and health clinics, schools, housing, and transportation systems.^ Baghdad's water system is powered by electricity.

^ November 2003 Daily Power Production and Distribution Reports "The power and distribution report of the electricity generation plants in Iraq."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq's governing council announced that it was opening the entire Iraqi economy, including essential services such as electricity, telecommunications , and health, to foreign investors .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Reconstruction efforts have also encompassed the promotion of economic development and government institutions such as the criminal justice system.^ September 2003 USAID Education Reconstruction Efforts in Iraq - Update U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/vid_live091103_t.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2003 USAID Education Reconstruction Efforts in Iraq - Update U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/vid_live062403_t.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2004 Building the Iraqi Special Tribunal : Lessons from Experiences in International Criminal Justice U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report No.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While reconstruction efforts have produced some successes, problems have arisen with the implementation of internationally funded Iraq reconstruction efforts.^ September 2003 USAID Education Reconstruction Efforts in Iraq - Update U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/vid_live091103_t.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2003 USAID Education Reconstruction Efforts in Iraq - Update U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/vid_live062403_t.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2003 Port Of Umm Qasr Iraq Infrastructure Reconstruction Program Recommended Implementation Plan Bechtel National, Inc.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include inadequate security, pervasive corruption, insufficient funding and poor coordination among international agencies and local communities.^ May 2003 DART [Disaster Assistance Response Team] An Nasiriyah Assessment Report (Report includes assessment of local water and sewage conditions) U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/dartrep_050103.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 2003 DART [Disaster Assistance Response Team] Al Anbar Assessment Report (Report includes assessment of local schools) U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/dartrep_042903.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2003 DART [Disaster Assistance Response Team] An Nasiriyah Assessment Report (Report includes assessment of the local supply of propane gas) U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/dartrep_050103.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many suggest that the efforts were hampered by a poor understanding of Iraq on the part of the occupiers.^ In various parts of the world, many people have protested on the streets against possible war on Iraq.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vice President Dick Cheney attacked the “self-appointed strategists” in Congress who were hampering the Bush Administration's efforts to prolong the war in Iraq,.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

International assistance

.Much reconstruction work in Iraq has been carried out by the Iraqi people in their own communities using local resources.^ Three Years on From the Invasion of Iraq Three years on from the invasion of Iraq, how Blair and Bush got us into this mess matters as much as how we get out of it.

^ Just a couple of days after that, Jutta Burghardt, head of the World Food Programme in Iraq, resigned, saying privately that she too could not tolerate what was being done to the Iraqi people.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ricardo Sanchez said that some U.S.-trained Iraqi policemen had carried out attacks on occupation forces.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.A major benchmark for international assistance was the Madrid Conference on Reconstruction held in Spain October 23–24, 2003 and attended by representatives over 25 nations.^ October 25, 2003 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ October 2003 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 "Reaffirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq" ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2003 Minutes of the International Conference on Cultural Property stolen in Iraq held in Lyon, France Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization) http://www.interpol.int/Public/WorkOfArt/Iraq/Minutes.asp .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Funds assembled at this conference and from other sources have been administered by the United Nations and the World Bank.^ The World Health Organisation (WHO) has for the first time since 2003 redeployed expatriate staff to Iraq , the United Nations agency said on Thursday.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Colin Powell admitted that the Iraqi National Congress, the U.S.-funded Iraqi exile group, was the source of "the most dramatic " bits in his notorious United Nations presentation on Iraq's mythical weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Their purpose is to protect the national interest of the United States and, indeed, the interest of people throughout the Middle East and around the world.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This assistance has primarily funded large-scale projects.
.United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq focuses on implementing the International Compact with Iraq, to aid economic and political development in Iraq.^ October 2003 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 "Reaffirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq" ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq invites UN weapons inspector to talks In a move that took the international community by surprise, Iraq has invited the chief United Nations weapons inspector to Baghdad for technical talks, it emerged last night.

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Demographics

An April 2009 estimate of the total Iraqi population is 31,234,000.[1]
.Around 75%–80% of Iraq's population is Arab; the other major ethnic groups are the Kurds at 15%–20%,[90] the Assyrians, the Iraqi Turkmen and others (5%),[90] who mostly live in the north and northeast of the country.^ May 2003 "Iraqis representing the four main ethnic groups, Arabs, Kurds, Turkomans and Assyrians, applaud while a man spontaneously shouts his satisfaction with the democratic process, after they privately voted in committees for twenty-four members of an interim City Council in the city of Kirkuk, in northern Iraq."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Program will employ 100,000 Iraqis and clear 20,000km of Iraq's Waterways for Irrigation."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Iraq , three U.S. soldiers were killed by a bomb and at least 27 Iraqis were killed in other violence.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Around 20,000 indigenous Maʻdān people live in southern Iraq.^ Program will employ 100,000 Iraqis and clear 20,000km of Iraq's Waterways for Irrigation."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A female suicide bomber killed eight people and wounded more than 20 in Iraq, police have said.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Several thousand people around the world protested on the third anniversary of the Iraq war.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[91] .The Iraqi population includes a community of around 20,000 Armenians, a small community of Circassians,[92] and a community of 2500 Chechens.^ Program will employ 100,000 Iraqis and clear 20,000km of Iraq's Waterways for Irrigation."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates vary, but most suggest around 50,000 to 100,000 Iraqi troops .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Program will employ 100,000 Iraqis and clear 20,000km of Iraqs Waterways for Irrigation."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .In southern Iraq there is a community of Iraqis of African descent, a legacy of the slavery practiced in the Islamic Caliphate beginning before the Zanj Rebellion of the 9th century AD, and Basra's role as a key port.^ Base to Be Handed to Iraqi Force British troops are moving out of a base in southern Iraq where they faced some of the fiercest fighting encountered by UK forces.

^ The move, a key concession demanded by Hans Blix, the chief weapons inspector, in talks with Iraqi officials at the weekend, was agreed in a letter from Iraq's UN ambassador to the UN to the...

^ Two Soldiers Guilty of Iraqi Prisoner Abuse Two British soldiers were today found guilty of charges of abusing Iraqi prisoners at the Camp Breadbasket aid camp near Basra, in southern Iraq.

[94]
Arabic and Kurdish are official languages. Assyrian and South Azeri are official languages in areas where the Assyrians and Iraqi Turkmen are located respectively. Armenian and Persian are also spoken but to a lesser extent. English is the most commonly spoken European language.
No official figures exist, due to the politically sensitive nature of the subject, recent violence, and Ba'athist views on information and religion. Religious composition includes:
Two estimates of the Muslim proportions of the population are:
.Linguistically, the adherents of Shia Islam in Iraq predominantly speak Arabic and a bilingual minority speak Persian, while the Iraqi Turkmen speak South Azeri and the Feyli Kurds speak Feyli, a dialect of Kurdish, almost all belong to the Twelver school.^ And after the last two weeks of being a reservist, you could see Sunnis and Shia and Kurds taking a second look at Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ October 2003 USAID funds School Bags for all Iraqi Secondary Students Photos and descriptive text U.S. Agency for International Development http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/photogallery/gallery_28/photo01.html .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adherents of Sunni Islam include Arabic speakers, Iraqi Turkmen (who are mostly Hanafi school), and Kurds (who are Shafi school).^ Sunni or Shia, fault line runs between have and have nots The two distinct mainstream paths of Islam, Sunni and Shia, divide Iraqi society.

^ "Civil war," said Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, "has almost started among Shiites, Sunnis, Kurds, and those who are coming from Asia."
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ A New Zealand school apologized to an Iraqi student who was named “most likely to join the army as a bomb” in the school yearbook.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.It is estimated that around 60%–65% of Iraqis follow Shia Islam, and around 35%–40% follow Sunni Islam, however the question of religious demographics is controversial and some Iraqis who follow Sunni Islam dispute these figures, including an ex-Iraqi ambassador,[96] referring to American sources.^ Iraqis Divided on Constitution As Deadline Looms Sunni and Shia delegates were tonight divided over the Iraqi consitution as a second deadline for the completion of the text approached.

^ In October 1991 the Iraqi Government announced that it had stored some chemical weapons at Khamisiyah before the War and that these chemical weapons were among the munitions destroyed by the U.S. Army troops in March 1991.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. is apparently scaling back some of its demands, including backing off one that particularly incenses Iraqis, blanket immunity for private security contractors.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[97] claiming that many reports only include .Arab Sunnis as "Sunni", missing out the Kurdish and Turkmen Sunnis.^ Iraq Gamble As Sunnis Left Out of Constitution Deal Iraq took a historic gamble yesterday when the ruling Shia and Kurdish coalition bulldozed over the objections of Sunni Arabs to finish a new constitution.

Most Kurds are Sunnis, although the Feyli Kurds are largely Shi'a.
.Ethnic Assyrians (most of whom are adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church and the Assyrian Church of the East) account for most of Iraq's Christian population, along with Armenians.^ Sunnis Reject Calls for Federal Iraq Sunni Arab leaders today rejected Shia calls for a federal Iraq, saying the proposal would fracture the country along religious and ethnic lines.

^ Seven Christian churches were bombed in three days in Iraq,.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ American troops rehearsed their invasion with bulldozers along the Kuwait- Iraq border, and four B-2 Stealth bombers left Missouri for the Middle East.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Estimates for the numbers of Christians suggest a decline from 8–10% in the mid-20th century to 5% at the turn of the century, to 3% in 2008. About 600,000 Iraqi Christians have fled to Syria, Jordan or other countries or relocated to Kurdish-controlled areas.^ The blasts had ripple effects throughout the country, triggering questions about the state of Iraqi security and about national elections planned for January.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Number of Iraqi troops that have been “trained and equipped,” according to President Bush in April : 150,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Estimated number of soccer balls the U.S. government sent Iraq this summer to help "bring life back to normal": 60,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

There are also small populations of Bahá'ís, Mandaeans, Shabaks, and Yezidis. .The Iraqi Jewish community, numbering around 150,000 in 1941, almost entirely left the country.^ Although travel firms now tout adventure tours to a country that is a temporary home to 150,000 US troops, scores of American protesters have been...

^ About 140,000 American troops remained in the country, with no mechanism in place between the two countries to govern the troops, and 150 Americans stayed on in Iraqi ministries as advisers.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Estimates vary, but most suggest around 50,000 to 100,000 Iraqi troops .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98]
.In November 2006, the UNHCR estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month, while another 1.6 million were displaced internally.^ Program will employ 100,000 Iraqis and clear 20,000km of Iraq's Waterways for Irrigation."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimated barrels of oil illegally exported by Iraq last year: 8,100,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. State Department asked for $100 million for the reconstruction of Iraqi prisons .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[99] .A May 2007 article noted that in the previous seven months, only 69 people from Iraq had been granted refugee status in the United States.^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq ; Public relations ; United States.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ US to Welcome 7,000 Iraqi Refugees The Bush administration is to increase the official quota of Iraqi refugees who will be allowed to settle in the United States from 500 to 7,000 over the next year, in a response to the growing refugee crisis in Iraq.

[100]

Iraqi diaspora

Iraqi Chaldean refugees in Jordan.
.The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora.^ UN Sidelined in Choice of Iraqi Leader White House struggles to defend the selection of candidate who is hardly known in his own country.

.There have been many large-scale waves of emigration from Iraq, beginning early in the regime of Saddam Hussein and continuing through to 2007. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis have fled the country in recent years, mostly to Syria and Jordan.^ It was estimated that 90 percent of Iraq's artists had fled the country or been killed.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The war in Iraq has caused two million Iraqis to flee their country and become refugees.

^ Kuwait on Thursday named its first ambassador to Iraq since Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded the oil-rich country in 1990 and set off the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[101] Although some expatriates returned to Iraq after the 2003 invasion, the flow had virtually stopped by 2006.[102]
.In addition to the 2 million Iraqis who fled to neighboring countries, the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre estimates the number of people currently displaced within the country at 1.9 million.^ The Bush Administration said it was optimistic that many more refugees from the estimated 4.4 million people who had fled Iraq or had been “internally displaced” would be allowed into the United States.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Displaced Iraqis Double Despite Us Military Surge The number of Iraqis who have fled their homes but remained in the country has more than doubled to 1.14 million.

^ If there are one million, that is still less than the number of people who died in the wars he started."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.In 2007, the U.N. said that about 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled and that most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return.^ It's Not Only About Iraq The animating ideology of the caliphate helps explain al-Qaida actions that otherwise make no sense.

^ This is the future for the world we're in at the moment," a special assistant to Donald Rumsfeld said about the unrest in Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Mohamed ElBaradei, the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, said that his inspectors had found no evidence that Iraq has restarted its nuclear-weapons program.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[104] .Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries.^ Iraqi refugees were flooding Syria and Jordan , where they now account for 5 and 12 percent of those countries' total populations.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[105][106]
.In recent times the diaspora seems to be reversing with the increased security of the last few months, and the Iraqi government claims that so far 46,000 refugees have returned to their homes in October 2007 alone.^ US to Welcome 7,000 Iraqi Refugees The Bush administration is to increase the official quota of Iraqi refugees who will be allowed to settle in the United States from 500 to 7,000 over the next year, in a response to the growing refugee crisis in Iraq.

^ OCTOBER 30, 2007: New Iraqi law will bring tighter control over private security firms.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ JULY 27, 2007: Iraqi government in the midst of the worst crisis since the fall of Saddam Hussein , say several politicians and analysts.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[107] .More than half of Iraqi Christians have fled to neighboring countries since the start of the war, and few plan to return.^ If there are one million, that is still less than the number of people who died in the wars he started."
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi schoolchildren were still waiting to start school , which has remained closed because of the ongoing civil war .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq's military strength is now less than half the size of the time of the last Gulf War.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]

Culture

Music and dance

The Iraqi National Orchestra performing a concert in Iraq in July 2007.
Iraq is known primarily for an instrument called the oud (similar to a lute) and a rebab (similar to a fiddle); its stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and the Assyrian Munir Bashir. .Until the fall of Saddam Hussein, the most popular radio station was the Voice of Youth.^ JULY 27, 2007: Iraqi government in the midst of the worst crisis since the fall of Saddam Hussein , say several politicians and analysts.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ After the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime, Najah Ali has been able to travel the world while using his boxing talents.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.It played a mix of western rock, hip hop and pop music, all of which had to be imported via Jordan due to international economic sanctions.^ We all know that the regime, Saddam Hussein, is not paying the price for economic sanctions; on the contrary, he has been strengthened by them.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraq has also produced a major pan-Arab pop star-in-exile in Kathem Al Saher.^ A majority in Iraq's parliament backed a bill drafted by allies of anti-American cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, which would require a timetable for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Hans Blix told the London-based pan-Arab newspaper, Al-Hayat, that such a visit would...

.The folk songs of Iraqi Turkmens are also well known, and Abdurrahman Kızılay is a leading name.^ Iranian Forces Cross Iraq Border, Seize Iraqi Oil Well Iranian forces have seized an oil well in Iraq, leading to fears of increased hostilities between the two countries and problems for Iraqs oil industry.

Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish.[109] .In 1936, Iraq Radio was established with an ensemble made up entirely of Jews, with the exception of the percussion player.^ The question is of course being asked by those opposed to a war against Iraq, and those who have not made up their minds.

^ Now thinking about the past two years, do you think Iraq has made real progress toward establishing a democratic government, or don't you think Iraq has made any progress in this area?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

The nightclubs of Baghdad also featured almost entirely Jewish musicians. .At these nightclubs, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio.^ Iraqis left baffled as Don drops in for a chat After more than two decades of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqis are used to bizarre television and radio broadcasts.

[109]
.One of the reasons for the predominance of Jewish instrumentalists in early 20th century Iraqi music was a prominent school for blind Jewish children, which was founded in the late 1920s.^ A study found that the number of starving Iraqi children has nearly doubled in the last 21 months.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Many of the students became musicians, eventually forming the Arabic Music Ensemble Qol Yisraeli (Israel Radio).
Two ballet dancers of the Iraqi National Ballet performing in Iraq in 2007.
Singers, on the other hand, were Muslim, Jewish and Christian. The most famous singer of the 1930s–1940s was perhaps the Jew Salima Pasha (later Salima Murad).[109][110] The respect and adoration for Pasha were unusual at the time, since public performance by women was considered shameful and most female singers were recruited from brothels.[109]
Numerous instrumentalists and singers of the middle and late twentieth century were trained at the Baghdad Conservatory.
.For much of the 20th century, Egypt was the center for Arab popular music, with only a few stars from other countries finding international success.^ Officials from more than 50 countries gathered in Egypt and issued a five-year “International Compact” aimed at stabilizing Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Arab Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century and made it a center of Islamic culture.

^ In the Tribunal's judgment, 'To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole.'"
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon, an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti.^ Top diplomat to head British team in Iraq Sir Jeremy Greenstock, Britain's most famous diplomat, is to become the unofficial British ambassador to Iraq.

.Duwad and his brother Saleh formed the official ensemble for the Iraqi radio station and were responsible for introducing the cello and ney into the traditional ensemble.^ Vice President Biden warned Iraqi officials Friday that the American commitment to Iraq could end if the country again descended into ethnic and sectarian violence.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi officials said that, under the proposed formula, Iraq would get full responsibility for internal security and American troops would relocate to bases outside cities.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Three American soldiers were killed when a homemade bomb destroyed their Humvee, and nine Iraqis died when a suicide attacker drove a car into a police station.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[109]
.In recent years the Iraqi school of oud players has become very prominent, with players such as Salman Shukur and Munir Bashir developing a very refined and delicate style of playing combining older Arabic elements with more recent Anatolian influences.^ However, the more recent coverage describes it as Iraqi claims.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factor by which an Iraqi is more likely to die today than in the last year of the Hussein regime : 2.5 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Art and architecture

Tower of Babel, ancient city of Babylon, Mesopotamia.
.Some important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Orchestra – rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal, the National Theatre of Iraq – The theatre was looted during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre.^ See also: Governance Post Saddam See also: Iraqi Governing Council See also: Reconstruction "The CPA shall exercise powers of government temporarily in order to provide for the effective administration of Iraq during the period of transitional administration, to restrore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance and facilitating economic recovery and sustainable reconstruction and development."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 2003 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 "Reaffirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq" ...
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq Constitution Talks Delayed A special session of Iraq's national assembly to discuss whether it should adopt a draft of a new Iraqi constitution was today delayed by two hours.

The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.
.Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include the Academy of Music, Institute of Fine Arts and the Music and Ballet school Baghdad.^ May 2003 A Personal Account of the First UNESCO Cultural Heritage Mission to Baghdad Professor John M. Russell, Massachusetts College of Art Archaeological Institute of America http://www.archaeological.org/pdfs/papers/J_Russell_IraqA5S.pdf (PDF) .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq – which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artifacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilizations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq.^ One notable crime was the looting of the National Museum of Iraq , which held a massive collection of ancient artifacts from more than 7,000 years of Mesopotamian civilization.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq Constitution Talks Delayed A special session of Iraq's national assembly to discuss whether it should adopt a draft of a new Iraqi constitution was today delayed by two hours.

^ Current Status of Iraqi 55 Most Wanted Multi National Force-Iraq http://www.mnf-iraq.com/irag-faqs/most-wanted.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capital, Ninus or Nineveh, was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares, and some 200 years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth.^ A Slow Rebirth for Baghdad the Beautiful Two years after US tanks rolled in, Iraq's capital is part ruin, part building site.

It remained buried until 1845, when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. .The principal remains are those of Khorsabad, 10 miles N.E. of Mosul; of Nimroud, supposed to be the ancient Calah; and of Kouyunjik, in all probability the ancient Nineveh.^ They are the people of an ancient land, the cradle of civilization, and they remain proud despite it all.

In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples. .They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks, and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.^ They are the people of an ancient land, the cradle of civilization, and they remain proud despite it all.

^ However, some nations wanted to remain anonymous, while others did not wish to be on it at all, as highlighted by AFP ( March 29, 2003 ).
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sport

Football is the most popular sport in Iraq. .Football is a considerable uniting factor in Iraq following years of war and unrest.^ The Bush Administration requested an additional $80 billion for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan this year, .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ As the war in Iraq stretched beyond its fifth year the U.S. death toll rose to 4,000, and a national conference intended to reconcile sectarian groups was boycotted by Sunnis.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ If the United States is viewed as having lost the war in Iraq, how much would that bother you -- a great deal, a moderate amount, not much, or not at all?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

Basketball, swimming, weightlifting, bodybuilding, boxing, kick boxing and tennis are also popular sports.
.The Iraqi Football Association (Arabic: الاتحاد العراقي لكرة القدم‎) is the governing body of football in Iraq, controlling the Iraqi National Team and the Iraqi Premier League (also known as Dawri Al-Nokba).^ Iraq Constitution Talks Delayed A special session of Iraq's national assembly to discuss whether it should adopt a draft of a new Iraqi constitution was today delayed by two hours.

^ Current Status of Iraqi 55 Most Wanted Multi National Force-Iraq http://www.mnf-iraq.com/irag-faqs/most-wanted.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coach of the Iraqi national soccer team resigned and fled to Kurdistan.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.It was founded in 1948, and has been a member of FIFA since 1950 and the Asian Football Confederation since 1971. The Iraqi National Football Team are the 2007 AFC Asian Cup Champions after defeating Saudi Arabia in the final.^ Iraqis took to the streets after the national soccer team beat Saudi Arabia 1‒0 in the Asian Cup championship.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ JULY 27, 2007: Iraqi government in the midst of the worst crisis since the fall of Saddam Hussein , say several politicians and analysts.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ JUNE 20, 2006: Iraqi National Security Adviser writes that U.S. troops should be out of Iraq by the end of 2007 .
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

Cuisine

Tabbouleh, a popular Levantine salad.
.Iraqi cuisine has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Ancient Persians.^ The U.S. is apparently scaling back some of its demands, including backing off one that particularly incenses Iraqis, blanket immunity for private security contractors.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Value of the U.S. military equipment earmarked last year to aid Iraqi anti-Hussein groups: $97,000,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Estimated number of U.S. sorties flown in Iraqi no-fly zones last year: 10,000 .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[111] .Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world.^ Photographs of Iraq by Gertrude Bell Traveller, mountaineer and Arabic speaker, Gertrude Bell was recruited by British Intelligence during the First World War and later became Oriental Secretary to the High Commissioner in Baghdad.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The World Health Organisation (WHO) has for the first time since 2003 redeployed expatriate staff to Iraq , the United Nations agency said on Thursday.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Earplugs sell out in Iraq People in Baghdad prepare for war while members of the "coalition of the willing" show their colours, writes Brian Whitaker.

[111] .Ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia, was home to many sophisticated and highly advanced civilizations, in all fields of knowledge – including the culinary arts.^ Central Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia and was a cradle of ancient civilization.

^ They are the people of an ancient land, the cradle of civilization, and they remain proud despite it all.

^ FEBRUARY 13, 2007: 63 percent of Americans want all U.S. troops home from Iraq by the end of 2008.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

[111] .However, it was in the medieval era when Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate that the Iraqi kitchen reached its zenith.^ Towards Baghdad Both sides proclaim the coalition's increasing proximity to the Iraqi capital as good news, writes Brian Whitaker.

^ April 2003 "Workers at Baghdad's Archaeological Museum carry in recovered items that had been looted following the liberation of the Iraqi capital city."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calm Before the Storm in Baghdad Iraqi capital braces itself for mujahideen onslaught.

[111] .Today, the cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influences from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Turkey, Iran and the Greater Syria area.^ Iran and Us to Hold Iraq Talks Iran and the US are to hold ambassadorial level talks on Iraq, the Iranian foreign minister said today, in the first substantive contacts between the countries for years.

^ Leaving Iraq now is the West's Ultimate Suicide Instead of leaving Iraq, the US should cooperate with Turkey, Israel and India in invading Syria and Iran.

^ We spend our time well when we recall [former UN weapons inspector in Iraq, Scott] Ritter's version, and then reflect on the brazen mendacity of our 'elected' leaders.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111]
.Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include – vegetables such as aubergine, tomato, okra, onion, potato, courgette, garlic, peppers and chilli, cereals such as rice, bulghur wheat and barley, pulses and legumes such as lentils, chickpeas and cannellini, fruits such as dates, raisins, apricots, figs, grapes, melon, pomegranate and citrus fruits, especially lemon and lime.^ October 2004 "Iraqi Farmers ready for Fall Planting Season, as U.S. Soldiers deliver Wheat, Barley Seeds."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other Iraqi culinary essentials include butter, olive oil, olives, tamarind, vermicelli, tahini, pistachios, almonds, honey, date syrup, yogurt and rose water, cheeses such as baladi, feta and halloumi, and herbs and spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, fenugreek, cumin, oregano, saffron, baharat, sumac and za'atar.^ Iraq's governing council announced that it was opening the entire Iraqi economy, including essential services such as electricity, telecommunications , and health, to foreign investors .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Civilians in Basra, Zubayr, and many other Iraqi cities were without drinking water.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ International Human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and others, throughout the 1980s and 1990s have reported on gross human rights violations of the Iraqi regime.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly with other countries of Western Asia, chicken and especially lamb are the favourite meats.^ If a country could successfully develop, independent of western, or even Soviet influence, then others might catch on to the idea!
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would not be the first time the countries of central and eastern Europe - from the Balkan to the steppes of central Asia - bear the costs of Western policies against Iraq.

Most dishes are served with rice – usually Basmati, grown in the marshes of Southern Iraq.[111] .Bulghur wheat is used in many dishes – having been a staple in the country since the days of the Ancient Assyrians.^ Since 1991, Iraq has not used weapons of mass destruction nor engaged in war with any other country.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack was the country's worst since 2007 and killed an unspecified number of children at the Justice Ministry day-care center.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Sydney, Australia (another country that backs the U.S. for war on Iraq) saw some 250,000 people protest, described as the largest since the days of the Vietnam War.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111]
Meals begin with appetizers and salads – known as Mezze. Some popular dishes include Kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled), Shawarma (grilled meat sandwich wrap, similar to Döner kebab), Bamia (lamb, okra and tomato stew), Quzi (lamb with rice, almonds, raisins and spices), Falafel (fried chickpea patties served with amba and salad in pita), Kibbeh (minced meat ground with bulghur or rice and spices), Masgouf (grilled fish with pepper and tamarind), and Maqluba (a rice, lamb, tomato and aubergine dish). Stuffed vegetable dishes such as Dolma and Mahshi are also popular.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Iraq". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=433&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=83&pr.y=17. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  2. ^ "Kurdistan Regional Government". KRG. http://www.krg.org/articles/detail.asp?smap=01010100&lngnr=16&anr=25535&rnr=240. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  3. ^ "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America". http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/11/20071126-11.html. 
  4. ^ "Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq". Livescience.com. http://www.livescience.com/history/top10_iraq_battles.html. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  5. ^ "Iraq Guide". Business.maktoob.com. http://business.maktoob.com/countrydetails-93-True-Iraq.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  6. ^ Pentagon: Iraq Withdrawal Plans on Schedule
  7. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hwK_CSpBxsNuVUEaDuOwmSSCiqGwD9CKGL380
  8. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 1979-12-10. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=iraq. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  9. ^ John A. Halloran, Sumerian Lexicon, v.3.0 (2000)
  10. ^ W. Eilers (1983), "Iran and Mesopotamia" in E. Yarshater, The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  11. ^ Suha Rassam, Christianity in Iraq: its origins and development to the present day, Gracewing Publishing, 2005.
  12. ^ a b ʿERĀQ-EʿAJAM(Ī) "Persian Iraq", Encyclopedia Iranica Online.
  13. ^ Iraq – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  14. ^ The term [Iraq] did not encompass the regions north of the region of Tikrit on the Tigris and near Hit on the Euphrates. Bernhardsson, Magnus Thorkell (2005) Reclaiming a Plundered Past, Archaeology and Nation Building in Modern Iraq University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, ISBN 0292709471, 9780292709478, 327 pages, p. 97
  15. ^ Lane
  16. ^ Boesch, Hans H. (1939) "Al-'Iraq", Economic Geography 15(4):325–361, p. 329
  17. ^ "Seleucia on the Tigris, Iraq", University of Michigan.
  18. ^ Largest Cities Through History, Matt Rosenberg
  19. ^ Erica Fraser. The Islamic World to 1600, University of Calgary.
  20. ^ Battuta's Travels: Part Three – Persia and Iraq
  21. ^ Ian Frazier, Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad, The New Yorker 25 April 2005. p.4
  22. ^ Irrigation Systems, Ancient
  23. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death), The University of Calgary
  24. ^ "Q&A with John Kelly on The Great Mortality on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. 2005-09-14. http://www.nationalreview.com/interrogatory/kelly200509140843.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  25. ^ Tamerlane – Timur the Lame Biography
  26. ^ "The annihilation of Iraq". http://mertsahinoglu.com/research/14th-century-annihilation-of-iraq/. 
  27. ^ Iraq. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 15, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  28. ^ Population crises and cycles in history. A review of the book Population Crises and Population cycles by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell.
  29. ^ http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/limitsinSeas/IBSo94.pdf. p.8
  30. ^ Ibid, page 79
  31. ^ "Sunni control over the levels of power and the distribution of the spoils of office has had predictable consequences- a simmering resentment on the part of the Shi'a..." Anderson & Stansfield “The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy or Division?”, page 6.
  32. ^ Tripp, Charles:A History of Iraq,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2000
  33. ^ Black, George (1993) [1993]. Genocide in Iraq : the Anfal campaign against the Kurds / Western Asia Watch.. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-108-8. http://hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/. Retrieved 2007-02-10. 
  34. ^ Hiltermann, Joost R. (1994) [1994]. Bureaucracy of repression : the Iraqi government in its own words / Western Asia Watch.. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1564321274. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/Iraq/TEXT.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-10. 
  35. ^ "Charges against Saddam dropped as genocide trial resumes", AFP, 2007
  36. ^ David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds, 504 pp., I.B. Tauris, 2004, ISBN 1850434166, pp. 359, 391.
  37. ^ The Iran-Iraq war: 25 years on. BBC News. September 22, 2005.
  38. ^ Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War, Rick Atkinson, 1993, p. 284–285
  39. ^ Felicity Arbuthnot, The Ameriya Shelter – St. Valentine's Day Massacre, February 13, 2007.
  40. ^ Scott Peterson, "'Smarter' bombs still hit civilians, Christian Science Monitor, 22 October 2002.
  41. ^ "Human Rights Watch on Iraq". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/doc/?t=mideast&c=iraq&document_limit=340,20. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  42. ^ 'Chemical Ali' on trial for brutal crushing of Shia uprising. The Guardian. August 22, 2007.
  43. ^ "Middle East | US silence on new Iraq spying allegations". BBC News. 1999-01-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/250808.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  44. ^ "UN Says Sanctions Have Killed Some 500,000 Iraqi Children". Commondreams.org. 2000-07-21. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/072100-03.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  45. ^ "Denis Halliday – former United Nations employee resigned over Iraq sanctions – Interview". Findarticles.com. 1997-09-01. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1295/is_2_63/ai_53706052. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  46. ^ Plan of Attack, Bob Woodward, 2004.
  47. ^ Operation Hotel California, The Clandestine War inside Iraq, Mike Tucker and Charles Faddis, 2008.
  48. ^ http://www.factcheck.org/bushs_16_words_on_iraq_uranium.html
  49. ^ "The President's State of Union Address, January 29, 2002,Washington, D.C". Whitehouse.gov. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  50. ^ Borger, Julian (2004-10-07). "There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq". guardian.co.uk. Guardian Media Group. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/oct/07/usa.iraq1. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  51. ^ [1]
  52. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2004/07/mil-040702-rferl02.htm
  53. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-07-01-poland-iraq-sarin x.htm
  54. ^ http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/index.html?siteSect=143&sid=5055996
  55. ^ http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=1078&dept id=151021&newsid=12185667&PAG=461&rfi=9
  56. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3861197.stm
  57. ^ "CPA Website". http://www.iraqcoalition.org/. 
  58. ^ "Iraq bodycount webpage". http://www.iraqbodycount.org/#position. 
  59. ^ "Saddam death 'ends dark chapter'". BBC News. 2006-12-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6219861.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  60. ^ "Saddam Hussein's Two Co-Defendants Hanged in Iraq". Bloomberg L.P.. 2007-01-15. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=adlWxYxfI4bE. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  61. ^ "Ramadan hanging". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=2965027. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  62. ^ Second death sentence for Iraq's 'Chemical Ali, MSNBC.com, December 2, 2008. Retrieved on December 2, 2008.
  63. ^ Iraq's 'Chemical Ali' gets 3rd death sentence, Associated Press, March 2, 2009. Retrieved on January 17, 2010.
  64. ^ 'Chemical Ali' gets a new death sentence, MSNBC.com, January 17, 2010. Retrieved on January 17, 2010.
  65. ^ "Saddam Hussein's Henchman Chemical Ali Executed". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/7072155/Saddam-Husseins-henchman-Chemical-Ali-executed.html. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  66. ^ [2]
  67. ^ Ferguson, Barbara (11 September 2007). "Petraeus Says Iraq Troop Surge Working". Arab News. http://www.arabnews.com/?page=4&section=0&article=101078&d=11&m=9&y=2007. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  68. ^ "U.N. reports cholera outbreak in northern Iraq". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/08/29/iraq.cholera/index.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30. 
  69. ^ "Iraqi PM sees decline in Baghdad attacks". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21739712/. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  70. ^ "Iraq Marks Withdrawal of U.S. troops from cities". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/01/world/middleeast/01iraq.html. 
  71. ^ "Fireworks in Baghdad as U.S. troops leave". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31611805/ns/world_news-conflict_in_iraq/. 
  72. ^ "Iraqis rejoice as U.S. troops leave Baghdad". rawstory.com. http://rawstory.com/08/news/2009/06/29/iraqis-rejoice-as-us-troops-leave-baghdad/. 
  73. ^ "Iraq Faces Challenges after U.S. Withdrawal". CNSNews. http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/50244. 
  74. ^ a b c "After years of war, Iraqis hit by frenzy of crime". The Associated Press and Yahoo.com. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090921/ap_on_re_mi_ea/ml_iraq_crime_wave. 
  75. ^ "Five killed in Iraq violence". The Sunday Times. http://www.news.com.au/perthnow/story/0,21498,26090353-5005361,00.html?from=public_rss. 
  76. ^ "New wave of violence in Iraq". TheWorld.Org. http://www.theworld.org/2009/08/10/new-wave-of-violence-in-iraq/. 
  77. ^ "Violence Grows in Iraq as American troops withdraw". FOX. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/05/09/violence-grows-iraq-american-troops-withdraw/. 
  78. ^ a b "Terrorist attacks kill several in war-torn Iraq". Presstv.ir. http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=106649&sectionid=351020201. 
  79. ^ Gates Notes Change in Chemistry Between Iraqi, U.S. Forces
  80. ^ "US soldiers leave Iraq's cities". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8125547.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  81. ^ Christie, Michael (November 30, 2009). "Iraqi civilian deaths drop to lowest level of war". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/middleeastCrisis/idUSGEE5AT2AD. Retrieved November 30, 2009. 
  82. ^ "US Department of Energy Information Administration". http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.html. 
  83. ^ "US Department of Energy Information Administration". http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat6p3.html. 
  84. ^ Wagner, Thomas, (October 25, 2005), "Iraq's Constitution Adopted by Voters", ABC News. Retrieved September 17, 2006.
  85. ^ "The Fund for Peace: The Failed States Index 2008". http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=292&Itemid=452. 
  86. ^ "Foreign Policy Magazine: The Failed States Index 2008". http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4350&page=1. 
  87. ^ "US-Iraq SOFA". http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/iraq/SE_SOFA.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  88. ^ "Strategic Framework Agreement" (PDF). pp. 8. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/iraq/SE_SFA.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  89. ^ Bohsem, Guido & Somerville, Glen, (November 20, 2004), "G7, Paris Club Agree on Iraq Debt Relief", Reuters. Retrieved September 17, 2006.
  90. ^ a b "CIA World Factbook". April 15, 2007. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  91. ^ "BBC News – Iraq's 'devastated' Marsh Arabs". March 3, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2807821.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  92. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/118238/Circassian
  93. ^ http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/12785/chechens_in_the_middle_east.html
  94. ^ Theola Labb, A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight, Iraqis of African Descent Are a Largely Overlooked Link to Slavery, January 11, 2004; Page A01.
  95. ^ "Field Listing – Religions". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  96. ^ "Iraqis By the Numbers" by FARUQ ZIADA
  97. ^ Map on the distribution of religious groups, from the Baker-Hamilton Committee report, page 102.
  98. ^ "Embattled Jewish community down to last survivors". USATODAY.com. July 27, 2003.
  99. ^ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006.
  100. ^ Ann McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no refuge in America. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 25, 2007.
  101. ^ "Warnings of Iraq refugee crisis". BBC News. 2007-01-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6286129.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  102. ^ "Iraq Situation Map" (PDF). http://www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/456320748.pdf. 
  103. ^ "A displacement crisis". March 30, 2007. http://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/iraq. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  104. ^ "40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation". http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/01/16/MNG2MNJBIS1.DTL. 
  105. ^ "Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis". BBC News. 2007-01-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6293807.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  106. ^ "Plight of Iraqi refugees worsens as Syria, Jordan impose restrictions". http://www.yubanet.com/artman/publish/article_59311.shtml. 
  107. ^ "Iraqi refugees start to head home" (PDF). http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,2214918,00.html. 
  108. ^ "In Iraq, an Exodus of Christians". ABC News. 2009-05-14. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=7583686. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  109. ^ a b c d e Kojaman, http://www.dangoor.com/72page42.html, retrieved 2007-09-09 
  110. ^ Manasseh, Sara (February 2004), "An Iraqi samai of Salim Al-Nur" ( – Scholar search), Newsletter (London: Arts and Humanities Research Board Research Centre for Cross-Cultural Music and Dance Performance) (3): 7, http://www.soas.ac.uk/ahrbmusicanddance/newsletter/musicanddance3.pdf, retrieved 2007-09-09 .
  111. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.thingsasian.com/stories-photos/3592 Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History. Habeeb Salloum.

Bibliography

.
  • Interview with Refugees International's Sean Garcia on the plight of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees [3]
  • Shadid, Anthony 2005. Night Draws Near.^ It is the Moment for Democrats to Show Real Leadership If President Bush's veto is not challenged tomorrow, thousands of Iraqis and hundreds of US troops are certain to perish.

    ^ A few hundred thousand of these have requested asylum in the USA. America has accepted 466.Opinion among Americans as to whether America has any moral obligation towards the refugees is divided.

    ^ Hundreds of thousands of Iraqi Shiites traveled to Karbala to flagellate themselves in commemoration of the death of Hussein, Muhammad's grandson.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    Henry Holt and Co., NY, U.S. ISBN 0-8050-7602-6
  • Hanna Batatu, "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
  • Charles Glass, "The Northern Front: A Wartime Diary"' Saqi Books, London, 2004, ISBN 0863567703
  • A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921. (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
  • By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins) With illustrations and a map, 1908 (1909 ed). (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)

External links

Arabic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kurdish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aramaic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Government
General information
Bodies and public companies
Other
News media
.
  • Iraq News and Iraqi views from Electronic Iraq
  • IPS Inter Press Service Independent news about Iraq
  • Hometown Baghdad Documentary series shot by an all-Iraqi crew.^ May 2003 Army Officer has 'dirtiest' job in free Iraq News Story about Lieutenant Gary Martin (82nd Airborne Division) who is in charge of all the trash, refuse and sewage in Baghdad Army & Air Force Hometown News Service https://hn.afnews.af.mil/webpages/transcripts/sanitation%20officer.htm .
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Forces Press Service http://www.dod.mil/news/Jul2005/20050707_1991.html .
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ OneWorld.net Global Vision News Network Inter Press Service WorldNews.com These are just a small set of examples of course, but these have links to other web sites with more information.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tells the stories of three young people trying to survive in Baghdad.


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Iraq
.Iraq is a country on the continent of Asia and in the Middle East.^ Why America risks failing in Iraq An anti-colonial country like America needs an anti-colonial perception of the historical developments in the Middle East.

^ Stand in line for human rights when there is news that the Middle East or Iraq or Africa explode.

^ Iraq: the case for decisive action Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers.

Iraq is a chunk carved out of the the Ottoman Caliphate after the latter's defeat in World War I. It became fully independent in 1932.

Sourced

.
  • Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror.^ America's Obsession With Iraq Leaves Others Free to Kill Bali's victims are testament to Bush's flawed war on terror.

    ^ October 2002 U.S. Supports Democracy in Iraq Voice of America Editorial http://www.ibb.gov/editorials/10167.htm .
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade.^ Saddam Hussein must not be allowed to threaten his neighbors or the world with nuclear arms, poison gas, or biological weapons."
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Either could tap into the knowledge base of Iraqi scientists and resume work on chemical, biological or nuclear weapons.
    • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This is a regime that has already used poison gas to murder thousands of its own citizens -- leaving the bodies of mothers huddled over their dead children.^ It also provides the right of citizens to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Syriac, or Armenian, in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is a regime that agreed to international inspections -- then kicked out the inspectors.^ "This is a regime that agreed to international inspections - then kicked out the inspectors."
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Media watchdog Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR) highlights the difference in reporting by contrasting various reports from December 1998 and now, showing that it was fully reported then that inspectors were withdrawn, not kicked out.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The inspectors were not kicked out, but withdrawn by the U.S. in order for the bombing to commence.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world. .States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.^ Our exit would allow those terrorists to change their focus from internal mayhem to external attacks on the United States and its allies.
    • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Bush , in his first State of the Union address, identified Iran , Iraq , and North Korea as an “ axis of evil .” .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ There has been no Security Council authorization for any such threat, nor has there been any armed attack by Iraq against the United States, and hence these threats are patently illegal.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger.^ We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ We found the weapons of mass destruction.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Weapons of mass destruction.

    .They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred.^ People with disabilities receive MRE training so they can provide MRE in their communities in Baghdad; IHSCO also gives them MRE leaflets for distribution.
    • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Federal officials lowered the terrorist threat level to “yellow” so that they could raise it again to “orange” right before the invasion of Iraq .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ If these unique oil transactions proliferate, they could create more devaluation pressure on the dollar by removing it from its crucial `petro-recycling' role.
    • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States.^ Our exit would allow those terrorists to change their focus from internal mayhem to external attacks on the United States and its allies.
    • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Last Wednesday, for example, a Reuters report stated: "The United States threatened possible nuclear retaliation against Iraq if its forces or allies were attacked with doomsday weapons."
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "One of the dirty little secrets of today's international order is that the rest of the globe could topple the United States from its hegemonic status whenever they so choose with a concerted abandonment of the dollar standard.
    • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophic. .
  • I talked about my desire to promote institutional change in parts of the world, like Iraq where there's a free press and free religion, and I told him that a lot of people in our country would hope that Russia would do the same.^ Responses to Bush's 2003 "State of the Union" Address , Institute for Public Accuracy, January 30, 2003 .
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The state of the union, Bush said, is strong.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ President George W. Bush admitted that the Iraq war was “straining the psyche of our country.” .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    .
    • George Bush on his talks with Vladimir Putin (15 July 2006)
    • We certainly would not want to have the same kind of democracy that they have in Iraq, quite honestly.^ President George W. Bush said that Iraq's choice was between "chaos or unity."
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi claimed that in 2003 he repeatedly attempted to talk President Bush out of invading Iraq .
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Bush and Schröder Hold Key Iraq Talks The US president, George Bush, today held a key meeting with the German chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, as he continued his drive to garner international support for the US mission in Iraq.

      .
  • We have not witnessed the reduction in violence one would have hoped for in a perfect world.^ AUGUST 15, 2006: 3,438 Iraq civilians died in July, “the deadliest month of the war for Iraqi civilians.” [New York Times, 8/15/06 ] .
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ One of two soldiers killed when two land mines detonated near their Humvee in Samarra, Iraq, on October 15, 2006 .
    • Forces: U.S. & Coalition/Casualties - Special Reports from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

    ^ One of two Marines killed while conducting combat operations in Anbar province, Iraq, on July 29, 2006 .
    • Forces: U.S. & Coalition/Casualties - Special Reports from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

    .
  • If it is Syria’s shelter for the Iraqi resistance to the east that has made it the target for an American siege, it is with good reason.^ American forces killed eleven Iraqi militants near Iraq's border with Syria.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Four American soldiers and thirteen Iraqis were killed in Iraq.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This claim was highly disputed among intelligence experts; a group called Ansar al-Islam in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq and Jordanian Abu Musab Zarqawi, who could have been in Iraq, were both believed to have al Qaeda contacts but were not themselves part of al Qaeda.

    .For in Iraq itself, the war has gone from bad to worse for Washington.^ Washington's egging on the aggressive shah of Iran in the Shatt al-Arab waterway dispute, a primary cause of the Iran-Iraq War.

    ^ Senator Joseph Lieberman compared the Iraq and the Spanish civil wars, saying both were a “harbinger” of worse conflict.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Simply put, we cannot win this war from a strategic point, and we desperately need the U.N to involve itself in Iraq.
    • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Confronted with a dauntless insurgency, the Occupation is still—after three years and an outlay of over $200 billion—unable to assure regular supplies of water and electricity to the people it has subjugated.^ MARCH 16, 2008: Millions of people in Iraq are still deprived of clean water and medical care , according to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Angola is the sixth largest supplier of oil to the U.S. (ahead of Kuwait), selling some 5 billion dollars each year to the U.S. .
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even the Optimists Are Losing Heart As Iraq Goes From Bad to Worse Rory McCarthy returns to Baghdad after two months to find electricity and water still in short supply, aid workers leaving, and insecurity growing.

    Factories remain idle. Hospitals and schools barely function. .Oil revenues have been looted wholesale by America’s local minions, not to speak of a horde of US contractors on the take.^ UN Raps Us Over Iraqi Oil Revenues US-led authorities in Baghdad are to be sharply criticised over their use of Iraqi oil revenues in an upcoming UN audit, it was reported today.

    ^ US Boy's Answer to a School Essay on Iraq: Take a Trip to Baghdad Most teenagers would have settled for a visit to the local museum.

    .Wretched as living conditions were for the majority of the population under un sanctions, under the Americans they have deteriorated yet further, as sectarian killings multiply and minimal security disappears.^ The Baghdad regime should agree to relinquish power and place the country under the protection of the UN security council.

    ^ Bomb investigators turn suspicions on Iraqi guards Security staff at UN base were informers under Saddam.

    ^ American officials investigating the suicide attack on the UN headquarters in Baghdad said yesterday they suspected an inside job, and began questioning Iraqi security guards.

    .
  • The Israeli attacks and airstrikes are completely destroying Lebanon's infrastructure.^ Stand in line for human rights when there is news that the Middle East or Iraq or Africa explode.

    ^ A controversial new Middle East oil law could lead to the “disintegration” of Iraq as a nation state.
    • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Data released at a news conference in Baghdad showed that attacks had declined to the lowest level since January 2006.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    .I condemn these aggressions and call on the Arab League foreign ministers' meeting in Cairo to take quick action to stop these aggressions.^ Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki called on neighboring countries to play a positive role in helping to stabilize Iraq.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ United Nations and Arab League condemnation was swift and plans were laid to assemble a mulit-national force to isolate and ultimately remove Iraq from Kuwait.

    ^ Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa called the charter "a recipe for chaos."
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    We call on the world to take quick stands to stop the Israeli aggression. .
  • And I also emphasized the importance of an immediate cease-fire and called on the international community to support the Lebanese government and support the Lebanese people to overcome the damage and destruction that happened.^ We have to embrace,” said Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, “the culture of dialogue and reconciliation.” .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not be seeking a second term.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Iraqi government “non-functional” and recommended that Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and his cabinet be replaced.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    .
    • Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, White House news conference (25 July 2006)
    • I told him I support a sustainable cease-fire that will bring about an end to violence and I talked about the importance of strengthening the Lebanese government and supporting the Lebanese people.^ We have to embrace,” said Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, “the culture of dialogue and reconciliation.” .
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not be seeking a second term.
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ July 25, 2006 .
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      .
  • Do not imagine that this problem is solely an Iraqi problem because the terrorist front represents a threat to all free countries and free people of the world....Thousands of lives were tragically lost on Sept.^ July 25, 2006 .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Just a couple of days after that, Jutta Burghardt, head of the World Food Programme in Iraq, resigned, saying privately that she too could not tolerate what was being done to the Iraqi people.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not because I'm going to a country considered an enemy of Iraq, but because I'm afraid of retribution by Iraqi militants, by the terrorists back home."
    • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    11 when these impostors of Islam reared their ugly head. .Thousands more continue to die in Iraq today at the hands of the same terrorists who show complete disregard for human life.^ American soldiers continued to die in Iraq , .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ American soldiers continued to die in Iraq .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ US Releases More Abu Ghraib Prisoners As fresh claims of abuse by US guards in Iraq emerged today, the US military released more than 400 prisoners from Abu Ghraib, the prison at the centre of the scandal.

    .
  • Oh, I don't know.^ We have to embrace,” said Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, “the culture of dialogue and reconciliation.” .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not be seeking a second term.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ July 26, 2006 .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    .You know, I thought about that last night, and just musing over the words, the phrase, and what constitutes it.^ Discuss religion, unless you know what you are talking about.

    ^ What the Ominous ICG Report Did Not Say about the Fabrication of the so-called Nation of Kurds When a document focused on the Iraqi North that totals 19100 words mentions the Yazidis only once, then you can just call the document a "trash".

    ^ When it was just about time to leave, the protective gear was put on and the last of the cigarettes were put out.

    .If you think of our Civil War, this is really very different.^ Just your best guess, do you think it is likely or unlikely that there will be a major civil war involving ethnic or religious groups in Iraq in the next year?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Do you think the war with Iraq has made the U.S. safer -- or less safe -- from terrorism?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just your best guess, how do you think history will judge the war in Iraq -- [ROTATED: as a complete success, as more of a success than a failure, as more of a failure than a success, (or) as a complete failure]?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If you think of civil wars in other countries, this is really quite different.^ Just your best guess, do you think it is likely or unlikely that there will be a major civil war involving ethnic or religious groups in Iraq in the next year?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Do you think the war with Iraq has made the U.S. safer -- or less safe -- from terrorism?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just your best guess, how do you think history will judge the war in Iraq -- [ROTATED: as a complete success, as more of a success than a failure, as more of a failure than a success, (or) as a complete failure]?
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    .There is -- there is a good deal of violence in Baghdad and two or three other provinces, and yet in 14 other provinces there's very little violence or numbers of incidents.^ Number Of Iraqis Slaughtered Since The U.S. Invaded Iraq In Iraq, there have been two scientifically rigorous cluster surveys conducted since the U.S.-led invasion in March 2003.
    • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Two reports--one by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and the other by the Pentagon --concluded that despite the increased U.S. military presence in Iraq , and despite a drop in violence in Baghdad and Anbar province, the overall level of violence has not decreased but instead has become more evenly distributed throughout the country.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Iraq Curfew Imposed in Attempt to Halt Violence Iraqi police and soldiers today enforced a curfew in Baghdad and three provinces in an attempt to stem the sectarian violence that has killed around 120 people.

    So it's a -- it's a highly concentrated thing. .It clearly is being stimulated by people who would like to have what could be characterized as a civil war and win it, but I'm not going to be the one to decide if, when or at all.^ We would leave behind a civil war.
    • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AUGUST 30, 2006: Rumsfeld compares Iraq war critics to those who believed Hitler could be “appeased” [CNN, 8/30/2006 ] .
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Just a couple of days after that, Jutta Burghardt, head of the World Food Programme in Iraq, resigned, saying privately that she too could not tolerate what was being done to the Iraqi people.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Donald Rumsfeld in response to the question "Is the country closer to civll war?", Pentagon press conference (25 July 2006)]
  • The problem, again, was that there were too many reasons for the war.^ July 25, 2006 .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ DECEMBER 2, 2006: “Not working well.” Donald Rumsfeld, describing the Iraq strategy in a classified memo written two days before he resigned.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ No need to question if these missing artillery shells are being proposed in all seriousness as a reason for launching a massive war.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    What conferred a semblance of consistency on this multitude of reasons was, of course, ideology.
  • What then, was the real reason for going to war?^ As some have asked then, is this really worth going to war over?
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The truth is that, for reasons that have a lot to do with the U.S. government bureaucracy, we settled on the one issue that everyone could agree on which was weapons of mass destruction as the core reason [to go to war].
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Australian Senate censures PM Howard over Iraq war - Australia's Senate censured Prime Minister John Howard on Tuesday for misleading the country about the reasons for going to war against Iraq.

    .Strangely, there were, in effect, three: (1) a sincere ideological belief that the USA was bringing democracy and prosperity to another nation; (2) the urge brutally to assert and demonstrate unconditional US hegemony; (3) control of Iraq's oil reserves.^ We would assert that the President failed to present the real case for Iraq, which is: 1) prosperity for America based on controlling Middle East oil, and on maintaining the Dollar as the World Reserve Currency, and 2) peace and stability, which the guaranteed access to oil brings to the world.  [ 62 ] .
    • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Three Years on From the Invasion of Iraq Three years on from the invasion of Iraq, how Blair and Bush got us into this mess matters as much as how we get out of it.

    ^ US Renews French Feud Over Iraq Row over ceding control to Iraqis threatens UN agreement to share military burden.

    .Each of the three levels has a relative autonomy of its own, and should not be dismissed as a mere deceptive semblance.^ Iraq Shias Demand Autonomy Iraq's Shia Muslims should have their own autonomous region across the south of the country, a leading Shia spokesman said today.

  • In autumn 2003, when, after hundreds of investigators had searched high and low for WMDs, yet not a single one had been located, the public were posing the elementary question: 'If there are no WMDs, Why did we attack Iraq?^ Menzies Campbell: There should be no war in Iraq without more jaw-jaw If British policy is to change, Blair owes us an explanation.

    ^ Yet, the CIA highlights that not only will Iraq be unlikely to use chemical weapons but that if attacked, then it might use such weapons in retaliation.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One often-presented fact was that there were remarkably almost no casualties.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Did you lie to us?'^ TVNL comment: So tell us how the administration did not lie here.

    ^ Tell us how the media did not lie here.

  • I do not want to criticize while my soldiers are still bleeding and dying in Iraq.^ American soldiers were still dying in Iraq , .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Two Us Soldiers, Seven Iraqis Dead in Clashes Two more US soldiers have died in guerrilla attacks in Iraq, it was reported today.

    ^ Died as result of enemy action in Anbar province, Iraq, on December 12, 2004 .
    • Forces: U.S. & Coalition/Casualties - Special Reports from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

    .

Unsourced

.
  • The establishment of a free Iraq at the heart of the Middle East will be a watershed event in the global democratic revolution.^ Why America risks failing in Iraq An anti-colonial country like America needs an anti-colonial perception of the historical developments in the Middle East.

    ^ Stand in line for human rights when there is news that the Middle East or Iraq or Africa explode.

    ^ Iraq: the case for decisive action Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers.

    .
  • We have traded a dictator for a chaos that has left America less secure.^ September 2002 Bush [George W.] on Iraq [re Inspections and Disarmament] Voice of America Editorial http://www.ibb.gov/editorials/10115.htm .
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ September 2002 The National Security Strategy of the United States of America President George W. Bush The White House http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html (HTML) http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf (PDF) .
    • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bush Pleads for Unity Over Iraq George Bush hailed an end to the 'bitter differences' between Europe and America over Iraq yesterday after the European Union approved a key role for Nato in rebuilding the country's security.

    .
  • The motivation for war is simple.^ President Bush said that John Kerry's criticisms of his policies in Iraq are hurting the war effort.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    .The U.S. government started the war with Iraq in order to make it easy for U.S. corporations to do business in other countries.^ Other times, debate shows make it look like active debate, but rarely are their experts that are against war.
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NOVEMBER 8, 2007: Iraq war opposition at all-time high according to a CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Brent Scowcroft, the former national security adviser to President George W. Bush, wrote an article in the Wall Street Journal warning President George W. Bush not to start a war with Iraq .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    .They intend to use cheap labor in those countries, which will make Americans rich.^ U.S. intelligence sources told The LA Times in 1991, they "believe that the American-built helicopters were among those dropping the deadly bombs."
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In reality, they open the door much wider to contemplating American use of nuclear weapons .
    • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • For anyone who follows the news, the past few weeks has seen an increase in terrorist attacks against peace and civilization.^ Air strikes on Iraq rise sharply Increase seen as preparation for winter attack.

    ^ Bomb attacks by Sunni terrorist groups against the government and densely populated Shi'a areas were common and frequently prompted retaliatory attacks by Shi'a militias.
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There would be new terrorist attacks against the U.S., like the ones that occurred on 9/11 .
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    .From the bombing of the United Nations hotel in Baghdad to the continuing assaults against our troops in Iraq, we are coming to fully appreciate the sacrifice our men and women in uniform make on a daily basis.^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The United States continued its routine bombing of Iraq .
    • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ US Troops 'within Six Miles' of Baghdad Saddam's Guard head for US column Iraq: Kofi Annan 'assisted US' over war Jordan speaks out against war The power of our National Pastime On a day when bombs shook Baghdad, I feel happy to have found some hope amidst all of the strife in the world.

  • I wouldn't presume to present a plan different from that of the President. .But I believe he was right to take on the war on terror on an aggressive front rather than a defensive front.^ The last two weeks have been critically important and I believe may be seen as a turning point in the war in Iraq and the war on terrorism.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Many employees accused of serious human rights abuses were transferred rather than fired or arrested.
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This war has nothing to do with national security or freedom or democracy or human rights or protecting our allies or weapons of mass destruction or defeating terrorism or disarming Iraq.

    We toppled the government ... walking away would mean a humanitarian disaster. We're there and we have a responsibility to finish the job. .
  • Frankly, Dick, you don't have the warplan, and that makes me very glad.^ Don't make promises you can't keep.

    ^ SEPTEMBER 11, 2007: Petraeus: ‘I don’t know’ if Iraq war makes America safer.
    • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    ^ As you may know, the Iraqi government has agreed to take responsibility for making the country secure as of November.
    • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Donald Rumsfeld in response to the question of why the US is not following the warplan at the start of the Iraq War.^ Donald Rumsfeld visited Iraq .
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Donald Rumsfeld denied that Iraq was in a civil war .
      • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

      ^ AUGUST 30, 2006: Rumsfeld compares Iraq war critics to those who believed Hitler could be “appeased” [CNN, 8/30/2006 ] .
      • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

      .Taken during second press conference aired within the first hours of the US officially entering Iraqi territory.
  • As we act, let us not become the evil we deplore.^ He was the first senior Iraqi official to do so.

    ^ A pregnant Iraqi woman stepped out of the car as it approached the checkpoint and began "screaming in fear", US military officials at central command in...

    ^ Iraqi Weapons Scientist Captured US forces have captured one of Iraq's top biological weapons scientists, officials said this afternoon.

    • Congresswoman Barbara Lee in a speech to the House of Representatives 14 September 2001.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Middle East : Iraq
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:iz-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Baghdad
Government Transitional (U.S Military Support)
Currency Iraqi dinar (IQD)
Area 437,072 km2
Population 26,783,383 (July 2006 est.)
Language Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Religion Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Electricity 230V/50Hz
Calling Code +964
Internet TLD .iq
Time Zone UTC +3
Travel Warning
.WARNING: Iraq is presently a war zone.^ This metanode presents links to writeups about the threatened war on Iraq, and related topics, posted during the year 2003 .
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Children of War: the Generation Traumatised By Violence in Iraq Growing up in a war zone takes its toll as young play games of murder and mayhem.

^ This highlights that as well as opposing a U.S.-led and non U.N.-authorized war, many nations are also warning Iraq to make sure it cooperates and doesn't give an excuse for war to happen.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Traveling there is EXTREMELY dangerous and strongly discouraged. .All foreigners are in extreme danger of kidnapping, murder, and general armed violence.^ Kidnappings Continue in Iraq But Fewer Are Murdered Thousands of Iraqis, and more than 200 foreigners, have been kidnapped in Iraq since March 2003.

^ Children of War: the Generation Traumatised By Violence in Iraq Growing up in a war zone takes its toll as young play games of murder and mayhem.

^ Bassam Qubba, the foreign ministry's director-general, was murdered on his way to work from his home in Baghdad's mainly Sunni Muslim...

Tourism visas for Iraq are not granted at the moment. However, the autonomous Kurdish controlled far north IS safe and has a separate visa regime. .If it is necessary to visit, then remain cautious at all times, and consult your embassy before you leave.^ An internal NBC report surfaces ( All Your TV ) that describes him as "a difficult public face for NBC in a time of war."
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

^ If you are using fresh grape leaves, at this time submerge them in the hot onion water (heat off) for 1 minute on each side, remove, discard water.

^ I can tell you for sure that if you had not done that thing, you would never have had that problem of hostages being taken in your embassy in Tehran.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For further information, see War zone safety.^ US global over-reach in the `war on terrorism' already leading to deficits as far as the eye can see -- combined with historically-high US trade deficits -- lead to a further run on the dollar.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraq [1] is a country in the Middle East.^ The invasion of Iraq significantly changed the political climate of the Middle East.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why America risks failing in Iraq An anti-colonial country like America needs an anti-colonial perception of the historical developments in the Middle East.

^ Stand in line for human rights when there is news that the Middle East or Iraq or Africa explode.

.It lies at the north end of the Persian Gulf and has a small (58 km) coastline in the southeast of the country.^ Land and People Iraq's only outlet to the sea is a short stretch of coast on the northwestern end of the Persian Gulf, including the Shatt al Arab waterway.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEOPLE Almost 75% of Iraq's population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast from Baghdad and Basrah to the Persian Gulf.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WWII involved the entire world not just the US and in a small way Britain who are occupying a powerless persian country.
  • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is surrounded by Iran to the east, Kuwait to the south, Saudi Arabia to the southwest, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, and Turkey to the north.^ Iraq A West Asian country bordering on Turkey on the north, Iran on the east, Syria and Jordan on the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait on the south.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq is bordered on the south by Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, and Saudi Arabia; on the west by Jordan and Syria; on the north by Turkey; and on the east by Iran.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Understand

.Iraq is the birthplace of many of the Earth's oldest civilizations, including the Babylonians and the Assyrians.^ AD, Iraq had been the site of a number of flourishing civilizations, including the Sumer , which developed one of the earliest known writing systems, Akkad , Babylonia , and Assyria .
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORY Once known as Mesopotamia, Iraq was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations, including the Sumerian, Babylonian, and Parthian cultures.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Known for centuries as Messopotamia, Iraq was the home of the Sumerians, who were followed by the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Arabs.

.A part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534, the Treaty of Sèvres brought the area under British control in 1918. Iraq gained independence in 1932. On 14 July 1958, the long-time Hachemite monarchy was overthrown in a coup led by Abdul Kassem that paved way to radical political reforms, including the legalisation of political parties such as the Ba'ath and the Communist Party, both key players in the coup (also called the 14 July Revolution).^ In a swift coup on July 14, 1958, the army led by Gen.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communist party in Iraq was also legalized.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Baath Party was the only legal political party in Iraq.

.Following the Revolution, the Soviet Union gradually became its main arms and commercial supplier.^ Its major suppliers were the Soviet Union and China, with whom Iraq spent billions.

.In February 1963, Kassem was overthrown and killed in a second coup that brought the Ba'ath Party into power.^ He immediately purged the Ba'ath party after an unsuccessful coup, killing leftist members.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968 the Ba'ath Party emerged as the dominant power.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Qasim was assassinated in February 1963, when the Arab Socialist Renaissance Party (Ba'ath Party) took power under the leadership of Gen.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Internal divisions would follow for the next five years, until another coup on 17 July 1968 led by Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (with Communist support) stabilised the party.^ Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (b.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ July 17 - Baath Party stages coup, returns to power (1968).

^ Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (2nd time) (s.a.
  • Countries I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

.Relations between the Communists and the Ba'athists ranged from mutual cooperation to violent mistrust, culminating in the purge of Communists from the army and the government by 1978, causing a temporary rift with the Soviet Union.^ They infiltrated the Soviet Army and through dint of their persuasiveness, convinced the foot soldier that it was absurd to risk his life defending a dictatorial government.

^ Relations with Syria soured in 1970 when a younger generation of Ba'ath party members took control there, creating a rivalry between Syrian and Iraqi Ba'athists.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relations between the U.S. and Middle East governments .
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 16 July 1979, Bakr resigns and is succeded by right-hand man Saddam Hussein, who carefully purged his enemies and became a dictator almost overnight.^ In July 1979, Bakr resigned, and Saddam Hussein assumed both offices.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fox News Channel 's John Gibson on Saddam Hussein: He's going to use that stuff on U.S. troops, on his neighbors who’ve been quietly helping the U.S. on Israel.
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

^ JULY 27, 2007: Iraqi government in the midst of the worst crisis since the fall of Saddam Hussein , say several politicians and analysts.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The next twenty-five years took a grinding toll on the country.^ The attacks highlighted the fragility of Iraq’s security situation as the country prepares for provincial elections early next year.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Officials from more than 50 countries gathered in Egypt and issued a five-year “International Compact” aimed at stabilizing Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ It took more than twenty years after Robert McNamara's departure from the Pentagon for him to begin talking seriously about Vietnam.

.A long war with neighboring Iran in the 1980s cost hundreds of thousands of lives and billions of dollars.^ The cost of war to Iraq and Iran was staggering.

^ Oil exports, which had suffered during the Iran-Iraq War , improved during the late 1980s, only to be severely decreased by embargoes related to the Persian Gulf War .
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After toppling Saddam, this administration may decide that Iran's disloyalty to the dollar qualifies them as the next target in the `war on terror.'
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and subsequent Gulf War caused further casualties, followed by civil war inside the country and a decade of international sanctions.^ Subsequent U.N. Sanctions have caused a further million deaths, half of which were children.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health - Gulf War 1990-1991 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1990 the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait caused an international crisis, leading to the GULF WAR of 1991.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraq was invaded in 2003 by a U.S/U.K.-led coalition of forces, who removed Saddam Hussein from power.^ Who's Who - Iraq War 2003 .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 19, 2003 —U.S. and coalition forces begin bombing Iraq.
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

^ U.S.-led coalition forces began air attacks on Iraq on Jan.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although some transfer of power to an Iraqi interim government has occurred, the country remains occupied by 140,000 US and UK soldiers.^ The US and UK governments persistently ignore the...
  • ZNet - Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ US poised to attack Ramadi, city of 400,000, larger than Fallujah where thousands were murdered: Fear of Big Battle Panics Iraqi City .

^ Right now in Iraq, the formerly US-backed al-Sahwa (Sons of Iraq) Sunni militia, ripe with broken promises from both the occupiers of their country and the Iraqi government that they would be given respect and jobs, have gone into attack mode .
  • large collection of articles on the Invasion Of iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: News]

.Rebuilding on a massive scale inside larger cites has occurred.^ He added, "It inflicted massive damage in the well, and firefighters are having a hard time extinguishing it because the explosion occurred inside the well and not in the pipelines."
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

.Al Jazira
The land north and northwest of Baghdad, between and around the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers.^ While violence is dropping in Baghdad and in the south of the country, Arabs and Kurds in the north are beginning to battle over territories in an arc of land stretching from Syria to Iranian border .
  • large collection of articles on the Invasion Of iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: News]

^ The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers carry about 70 million cubic meters of silt annually to the delta.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They’re in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Baghdad Belts
The belts sets of "suburbs," towns, and cities radiating out from the center of Baghdad.^ Troops Search Sadr City for Kidnapped Britons Hundreds of Iraqi and US troops carry out raids in Shia neighborhood of Baghdad.

^ They are located away from city centers, wrapped in perimeter walls, set back from the streets, and guarded by Marines.
  • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN Sets Out Rules for Iraq Talks Mohammed el-Baradei, the head of the UN's nuclear watchdog, today set out his conditions for returning to Baghdad for talks with Iraqi officials.

.Iraqi Desert
The vast, empty wasteland in the west and southwest of the country.^ Journalists and politicians from the west in countries such as the U.S. and U.K. have shown appropriate cynicism and critique when reporting claims and announcements from the Iraqi regime.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi Kurdistan
Home to the Kurdish people, and largely under the administration of a separate national government, this is the safest region of Iraq for travel.^ One region --the Kurdistan Regional Government.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Compact with Iraq was established in May 2007 to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy, and the Iraqi government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen its economy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iraq 20 September 2009 19:33 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report on the conflict between the federal government and the Kurdistan regional government (territorial disputes, military manoeuvres, strategies, unilateral decisions) [ID 122427] .
  • Iraq | ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ecoi.net [Source type: Reference]

.Lower Mesopotamia
The Cradle of Civilization itself, home to major Shia cities and holy sites, such as Basra, Karbala, and Nasiriya, as well as legendary ruins of ancient civilizations, including Babylon and Sumerian Ur.^ Central Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia and was a cradle of ancient civilization.

^ The ruins of Ur, Babylon, and other ancient cities are in Iraq.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORY Once known as Mesopotamia, Iraq was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations, including the Sumerian, Babylonian, and Parthian cultures.
  • Iraq (02/08) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Map of Iraq
Map of Iraq
  • Ashur — former capital of the Assyrian Empire and UNESCO World Heritage site, this is one of the country's few great archaeological sites that has benefited from the latest invasion—the Hussein government planned to create a dam nearby that would have flooded and utterly destroyed the site.
  • Babylon (بابل) — damaged by inept reconstruction, looting, and military negligence, the ruins of ancient Babylon are still some of the most impressive in the Cradle of Civilization.
  • Ctesiphon — the ancient capital of the Parthian and Sassanid Empires left us with magnificent, towering ruins, most notably of the magnificent Arch of Ctesiphon; just across the Tigris is the archaeological site of the ancient Hellenistic city of Seleucia.
  • Hatra — a UNESCO World Heritage site, these incredibly well preserved Parthian city off in the desert are quite possibly Iraq's most magnificent ruins
  • Nineveh (نينوى) — a 3,000 year old city and one time capital of Assyria, whose partially reconstructed ruins and archaeological site lies across the Tigris from Mosul.
  • Ur (أور) — the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city, best known for its giant step pyramid, the Great Ziggurat of Ur.

Get in

.All visitors to Iraq, require a visa for entry.^ These provisions required that all assistance, exports, loans, credits, insurance, or other guarantees be denied to Iraq, with exceptions for limited humanitarian relief.
  • 370 F.3d 41 20 September 2009 19:33 UTC bulk.resource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite an all-night debate, Democratic senators failed to invoke cloture and bring to vote a measure requiring the majority of U.S. troops to be withdrawn from Iraq.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ OCTOBER 20, 2007: Syria has closed its borders to all but a small group of Iraqis and imposed new visa rules that will legally require the 1.5 million Iraqis currently in Syria to return to Iraq.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Currently, contract and military personnel working for the U.S. Department of Defense are exempt from this visa policy, as long as they present a valid Common Access Card (CAC card) issued by the Department of Defense.^ The announcement of the contract is buried in "a Defense Department statement on preparations for Saddam Hussein's possible destruction of Iraq's oil fields in the event of a U.S.-led invasion."
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

^ December 2003 "The U.S. Defense Department December 30 named retired generals and current and retired attorneys general to fill positions in its new Office of Military Commissions.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They further highlighted the need for continued inspection process (implying not military action), and also suggested that these processes were working.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For those entering the country without a visa, one can be purchased at most border crossings for US$80. The border crossing from Turkey to Iraq (Silopi/Zakho) did not charge for a visa as of March 2007. Total crossing time is around 1 hour for individuals.^ It is also one of the most corrupt countries.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six countries share borders with Iraq.
  • The Fifty-FirstState? - The Atlantic(November 2002) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Bush is religiously aligned with the plight of Israel, his government is politically allied and in the past year Sharon and Bush have conversed and met in private a total of nine times – making him the most seen political leader by the US president.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you intend to acquire a visa at your port of entry, be prepared for long waits, and bring plenty of documentation about who you are and what your business in Iraq is.^ Wet your hand with water, take a handful of the prepared dough (a sphere about 2 inches in diameter).

^ Just your best guess, how do you think history will judge the war in Iraq -- [ROTATED: as a complete success, as more of a success than a failure, as more of a failure than a success, (or) as a complete failure]?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next, we'd like to learn your views about what would happen both if the U.S. were to keep its troops in Iraq and if the U.S. were to remove its troops from Iraq.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

Letters on company or government letterhead are preferred.
.Obtaining a travel visa to Iraq is complicated and time consuming.^ David Aaronovitch thought so at the time; this week he travelled to Iraq to see if he was right.

You can obtain an application at the Embassy of Iraq in Washington, D.C.. However, all applications are vetted in Baghdad. .Even if you do obtain a visa, you may still be refused entry into Iraq once you arrive.^ The International Compact with Iraq was established in May 2007 to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy, and the Iraqi government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen its economy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iraq 20 September 2009 19:33 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq Will Preoccupy and Pin Down the Us for Years Victory in Iraq is at once a blow for freedom and a step into an unknown world in which the extent of American power and the wisdom with which it is used become even more critical.

^ Nonetheless, unless in early 2004 other nations suddenly begin sending thousands of troops into Iraq, conscription may become necessary -- even under a Democratic President in 2005.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visas can be acquired in advance at the Iraqi embassies in London, Paris, and Washington, D.C..^ For its temporary embassy in Washington, D.C., the Iraqi government purchased a $5.8-million Tudor-style mansion across the street from the home of Dick Cheney on Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Baghdad International Airport, October 2003
Baghdad International Airport, October 2003
.Baghdad International Airport (BIAP) (formerly known as Saddam International Airport) (IATA: BGW; ICAO: ORBS, now ORBI) is about 16 km from the center of Baghdad.^ In January 2007 IHSCO resumed MRE activities using its vocational training and resource center in Baghdad in partnership with Handicap International.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A C-130 transport plane touched down at Saddam International Airport carrying six nuclear experts from the International Atomic...

^ June 22 explosion in natural gas line near Hit, a city about 95 miles (152 km) northwest of Baghdad 4.
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

.The civilian side of BIAP continues to grow rapidly every week.^ Following last week's explosion at the UN's headquarters in Baghdad and continuing attacks on Iraqi civilians, the country's...

.Currently, Royal Jordanian Airlines (RJ) operates two roundtrip flights daily from their base at the Queen Alia International Airport (IATA: AMM) in Amman.^ Died when a Royal Air Force C-130K Hercules transport aircraft crashed during a flight from Baghdad International Airport to Balad Air Base, on January 30, 2005 .
  • Forces: U.S. & Coalition/Casualties - Special Reports from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ There are international airports at Baghdad and Basra, and a state-owned airline operates within Iraq and abroad.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S and Iraqi forces launched Operation Muthana Strike near the Baghdad International Airport, detaining at least 100 suspected militants.

.Internet booking [2] has recently become possible for RJA flights to Baghdad, and Iraq has now been effectively opened to the public.^ Seumas Milne: Iraq has now become the crucible of global politics The resistance to occupation has already changed the balance of power.

^ George Casey, says that civil war in Iraq is “certainly possible,” calling it “the most significant threat right now” in the country.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ A string of attacks against US forces in Baghdad and elsewhere in Iraq in recent days has highlighted the fragile security in the country seven weeks after the...

.After the 2003 invasion, some of Iraqi Airways Aircraft were retrieved from storage in Syria and Jordan and are now flying again under the Iraqi Airways name.^ Some 1.2 million Iraqis were estimated to have fled the country by mid-2006, seeking refuge in Jordan, Syria, and other nations.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Syria and Iraq, which had long traded accusations of interference, were ruled by rival branches of the Baath Party until the American invasion of 2003 toppled Saddam Hussein.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ April 2003 Three more 'Iraqi Top 55' in Coalition Control "Muzahim Sa'b Hassan al-Tikriti is under Coalition control.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi has recently begun computerised operations, and tickets for future European routes are now theoretically available for reservation online [3] via the IA website.^ This is our operation for creating and distributing video dvds which are available in the online store.
  • ZNet - Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bush administration recently announced a stepped-up commitment to giving refuge to Iraqis who have worked for the United States and are now in danger.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.Although IA does not yet hold an FAA airworthiness certificate, they operate from London to Arbil/(Erbil) using various charter flight providers, tickets for this slightly disorganised system are available from Iraqi's appointed agent "You Should Travel" [4] - Royal Jordanian (RJA) is advisable over Iraqi for the time being, as its schedule is much more comprehensive.^ More lies are being used in the aftermath.

^ Yet, the United States seeks to employ it to supersede the much more precise language of § 1605(a)(7), which already provides in quite specific terms for the prospective restoration of sovereign immunity once a country is decertified as a sponsor of terrorism.
  • 370 F.3d 41 20 September 2009 19:33 UTC bulk.resource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The CIA establishes “a direct, top-secret Washington-Baghdad link to provide the Iraqis with better and more timely satellite information.” As a result, “The Iraqis receive the information from satellite photos ‘several hours’ after… bombing raid[s]….

.In addition to Iraqi Airways, Turkish Airways has begun operating flights between Istanbul (IATA: IST) and BIAP several times per week.^ And, in addition, if at the same time Bush and Blair are talking in terms of weeks for action, how would this information be used by the inspection teams?
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LA Times also reported that, the week prior, five Iraqi agents were arrested in London attempting to smuggle nuclear triggering devices to Baghdad.

Flights from Dubai to Arbil are now in operation twice weekly, via Kurdistan Airlines.
.Diplomats, private military contractors, and intelligence agents can use Gryphon Airlines.^ Scahill: CIA & Blackwater We begin today's show with an explosive new report about the private military contractor...
  • ZNet - Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ ZNet Article We begin today's show with an explosive new report about the private military contractor Blackwater.
  • ZNet - Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.Gryphon offers flights between the military side of BIAP and Kuwait City.^ The market reacted to a report by Fox News, based on information from military personnel in Kuwait, that fires south-west of the city of Basra...

[5]
Additional Services to the city of Van, Turkey are offered by Turkish airlines from most western cities via Istanbul, from here a taxi will take you to the border for the equivelant of $35 - $200 depending on your bargaining skills (note that Turkish drivers will only usually accept Lira, Euros or Pounds Sterling)
.For those working for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Iraq, there are two charter airlines operating into BIAP. Skylink and AirServ operate frequent flights.^ There must have been two wars in Iraq.

^ Army Chiefs Resist Call for More Iraq Troops British commanders fear getting sucked into US operations as Falluja battle rages.

^ The Security Firms Active in Iraq There are about 2,000 contractors working in Iraq for British security firms.

.Travel on either of these services requires sponsorship by your NGO to get you onto an approved traveller list maintained by each.^ "Either you will destroy a great deal of infrastructure by trying to isolate the battlefield—or they will destroy it, trying to delay your advance."
  • The Fifty-FirstState? - The Atlantic(November 2002) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don't even believe me, look up all these facts for yourself, find out as much as you can before making your mind up.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And you may well have totally obliterated the social and political structure that had been providing these services."
  • The Fifty-FirstState? - The Atlantic(November 2002) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

Schedules and services can be irregular, and change frequently.
.The civilian side of the airport is under control of the Iraqi government.^ April 2003 Three more 'Iraqi Top 55' in Coalition Control "Muzahim Sa'b Hassan al-Tikriti is under Coalition control.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reorganization phase the Iraqi Governing Council appointed by the US Administrator will control Iraq.

^ The operation in Baghdad in particular was to be conducted in conjunction with Iraqi government forces and was aimed at controlling sectarian forces and their attacks.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The military side is still controlled by the U.S. military, as well as all Iraqi airspace above FL100. Take-offs and landings at BIAP are controlled by the Iraqi Ministry of Transportation, under the advisement of the U.S. military.^ US Renews French Feud Over Iraq Row over ceding control to Iraqis threatens UN agreement to share military burden.

^ The fractious Iraqi opposition and the two main Kurdish factions set up an Iraqi Interim Authority, a government-in-waiting with 14 ministries and a military command.

^ White House spokesman Tony Snow confirmed that the Iraqi government may take the month of August off, because August is very hot in Iraq.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Several critical pieces of Air Traffic Control gear have not been turned on, and the result of this is that BIAP can only accommodate Visual Flight Rule (VFR) landings, not instrument landings.^ There was so much air traffic involved in the 'frenzy' that the 'killing box' had to be divided up by air traffic controllers to prevent aircraft colliding.

^ The very severe threat that could result from that treatment is a profound cynicism from a group of men and women who we do NOT want to turn into cynics.
  • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

Because of this, the frequent sandstorms that hit the area can obscure visibility and cause flights to be turned away. .It is not unusual for commercial flights to make it all the way to BIAP, and then turn around and return to their origin due to limited visibility on the runway.^ He has got a whistle in his mouth and is blowing on it for all he's worth, but the yellow and green truck making its way towards him clearly has no intention of stopping.

^ "State simply issues a new task order to DynCorp or Triple Canopy, who turn around and hire some or all of Blackwater's employees," he says.

.To protect against the extreme danger of ground-based attacks, incoming civilian flights descend from cruising altitudes in a tight spiral within protected BIAP airspace.^ The real damage done by chem or bio attacks would be to the nearby civilian population, which does not have such protection.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution provides protection against arbitrary arrest and detention, except in extreme exigent circumstances as provided for in a state of emergency.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to Mondays search, Madain (also known as Salman Pak) had for months been known as a terrorist staging ground for improvised explosive device attacks against Iraqi and U.S. forces."
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When departing at BIAP, be prepared for long, disorderly, and excessively slow lines wherever you go. .If you are not working in Iraq on a government contract, your entrance to the airport grounds about three or four miles from the airport terminal will require you and your vehicle to wait in line to be searched.^ "Regardless of how you intend to vote, what would you prefer the next president do about the war in Iraq?

^ The Security Firms Active in Iraq There are about 2,000 contractors working in Iraq for British security firms.

^ Halliburton was thinking about selling its KBR subsidiary, which handles the company's contracts in Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.These security checkpoints can take from two to three hours to process through.^ The workers have to wake up early to make the lengthy walk from their homes in the nearby villages of Basrah and get through all three checkpoints to start work around 9 a.m.

^ July 26 - two Iraqi security personnel were killed and three wounded by mortar fire near Bayji while guarding an oil pipeline.
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

^ These two countries actual do present grave and serious threats to America's security and are awash in our petro dollars.
  • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

.The best strategy is to find accommodations somewhere within the BIAP area of control on the day prior to your flight so that you aren't subjected to the long wait and end up missing your flight.^ Experiment, and find the best combination for you and your family.

^ We need to find some common ground and arrive at the best options and solutions for realizing the inevitable end.
  • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sad fourth birthday hateful spiteful occupation, Sad fourth birthday dear beloved Iraq, i miss you, and i promise you that there will be an end, soon.

All airlines operating services at BIAP have a 100% bag matching policy. .All bags, whether carry-ons or checked luggage, are lined up on the tarmac next to the aircraft.^ When Caldicott brings up the effect of sanctions on Iraq, Blitzer again offers the official line, saying that "the Iraqi regime itself is to blame for all of these problems."
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

.Each individual passenger must physically touch and claim their bags before a baggage handler and security personnel will match it and then load it into the hold.^ Consider that Iraq admitted loading many of those agents into missile warheads before the war.

Any bags left on the tarmac after the boarding process is complete are not loaded and are taken away from the terminal area to a secure facility for disposal.
.Flights into the Kurdish region in northern Iraq arrive at Erbil International Airport (IATA: EBL, ICAO: ORER).^ The International Compact with Iraq was established in May 2007 to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy, and the Iraqi government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen its economy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iraq 20 September 2009 19:33 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighting between rival Kurdish groups also broke out in northern Iraq and continued in 1995–96.
  • Iraq Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In northern Iraq the healthcare situation is generally better than in other regions, due to a better security situation and better regional government capacity.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several carriers provide regular flights to Erbil from Amman, Athens, Beirut, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Stockholm/Copenhagen, and Vienna.

By train

.There is currently no connection by train into Iraq from other countries.^ There is no hope in this country anymore for Sunnis and Shiites to fall in love,” said Husham al-Gizzy, holding his face in his hands.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Menzies Campbell: There should be no war in Iraq without more jaw-jaw If British policy is to change, Blair owes us an explanation.

^ Now, let's get to the truth - Bush led this country into war with Iraq not because Saddam Hussein threatened, tortured, and killed hundreds of thousands of Iraqis.

By car

Cars can be the most dangerous method of travel into the country. .On reaching the border it is advisable to leave your taxi/rental car, for an armored 4x4, these are available for hire, with an armed guard if required, from the British security company GENRIC [6] for £300 ($600) approx.^ The companies, mainly oil and banking, are being invited by the US and British governments to move in as soon as security is restored....

^ BEYOND IRAQ Afghanistan: A private security guard from Irmo was seriously injured when a suicide bomber exploded his car next to a U.S. embassy convoy in Afghanistan.

^ The companies, mainly oil and banking, are being invited by the US and British governments to move in as soon as security is restored.

From Turkey

Driving in from Turkey is the best method of entry into the Northern part of the country. .This area of the country is relatively safe, at least compared to the rest of the country.^ But, in general, we believe it is safe to say -- and Lexis searches confirm -- that there has been, relatively, very little reporting and analysis in these areas.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Border police and locals will advise you which cities are safe to travel in (Zakho, Dohuk, Erbil, As-Sulaymaniyah etc.^ Gunmen killed the head of the local passport office on Sunday in the city of Diwaniya , 180 km (110 miles) south of Baghdad, police said.

^ MAG was active in the governorates of Erbil, Dohuk, Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk, Mosul and Diyala.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Security measures included sealing the country's borders, banning travel between provinces, prohibiting private vehicle traffic, and imposing curfews in cities.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

), and will warn you away from specific cities (such as Mosul or Baghdad).
.From Diyarbakir, Turkey you will drive south east to Zakho, Iraq.^ Do you think a broader war involving several Middle East nations would be more likely to occur -- [ROTATED: if the U.S. keeps its troops in Iraq (or) if the U.S. withdraws its troops from Iraq]?
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraq is bordered to the north by Turkey (331 km), to the east by Iran (1,458 km), to the south by Kuwait (240 km) and the Persian Gulf (58 km), and to the east by Saudi Arabia (686 km), Jordan (134 km), and Syria (605 km).

^ October 2001 U.S. Policy toward Iraq Hearing before the U.S. House Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia of the Committee on International Relations Serial No.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to take a previously arranged taxi, the average cost of this taxi ride is $150 American dollars and most of the drivers only speak Kurdish or Arabic.^ The draft text for the future constitution of Iraq bears witness to a complete American failure that risks taking the form of the most comprehensive defeat of the Modern West.

^ Speaking hardly a word of Arabic or Kurdish, a middle-aged American arrives in Kirkuk or Basra, or at the doors of a ministry in Baghdad, with a skeleton US staff, a couple of Iraqi advisers and a mission to govern.

^ A taxi driver killed four American soldiers when he blew up his car at a checkpoint near the holy city of Najaf, in southern Iraq .
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.You will often switch taxis in Silopi about five minutes from the Iraqi border, or you will change cars about 70km from the border and continue on from there.^ A roadside bomb struck the area about five minutes later but caused no casualties.

^ All that I can tell you is that if there were doubts about the underlying intelligence in the NIE, those doubts were not communicated to the President.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ A Kurdish revolt against the Iraqi government failed, and about 1.5 million refugees fled to the mountains along the border with Turkey and Iran.
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The taxi driver will then take care of all your paperwork at the border. This involves your driver running from building to building getting paperwork stamped and approved. .You must have a photocopy of your passport for the Turkish section of the border, which they require that you leave with them (the photocopy, not your passport).^ If you must wade in fresh water, avoid direct contact between your skin and the water, if possible.

^ If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
  • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MoI's Passport Office reinstated a policy to require women to obtain the approval of a close male relative before being issued a passport (see section 5, Women).
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A much less expensive option is to take a bus from Diyarbakir directly to Silopi. .This won't cost more than about 20 YTL. From the Silopi otogar (bus station), it's easy to get a taxi to Zakho.^ Just about everyone in Iraq is a loser as a result of the occupation, but none more than women.
  • large collection of articles on the Invasion Of iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: News]

^ Suicide attacks continued; in Basra dozens of people were killed, including more than 20 children who were on their way to school.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The proposals foresee a long-term presence of about 50,000 US troops, down from the current figure of more than 160,000.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

A good taxi driver can handle all of the photocopying and paperwork for the Turkish side.
.At this point you will finish driving across the border crossing into Iraq.^ Iraq accused Kuwait of slant-drilling into their Rumaila oil field across Kuwait's border, destabilising Iraq's currency and moving Kuwaiti settlements well into Iraqi territory.

^ Iraq Promises Hard Line Against Rebel Attacks on Turkey Iraq has confirmed it will take a hard line against Kurdish rebels attacking Turkey from the north, as Turkey prepares to launch cross-border raids.

^ Turkish troops enter northern Iraq Turkey began sending troops across the border into Iraqi Kurdistan last night, a move which threatens to open a "war within the war" and hugely complicate the American military strategy in Iraq.

.Your taxi driver will then take you to the Iraqi immigration and customs section.^ You may have your doubts about what will happen next, but so far it looks like the Iraqis in general have no such qualms.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 2004 Iraqi Heritage: ICE Operations in Iraq U.S. Customs & Immigration Enforcement http://www.ice.gov/graphics/investigations/iraqi_heritage.htm .
  • CCNY Reference Resources: Government Views of Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ccny.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learning to Love the War In the wake of the Iraqi elections, the antiwar movement was once again asked: What will it take to convert you?

.All persons and vehicles entering Iraq must be searched for contraband by the customs officers, and their vehicles are registered and pay some sort of stamp tax, however, occasionally, searches are not conducted.^ US Pays Up for Fatal Iraq Blunders Over 10,000 claims but families must waive rights.

^ RECOMMENDATION 35: The United States must make active efforts to engage all parties in Iraq, with the exception of al Qaeda.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ One of the arguments put forward by proponents of war is that something must be done, for if not, then Iraq will do something and we will all regret it.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without this stamp tax, it is illegal for a non-Iraqi vehicle to purchase gas at any of the state-run gas stations all over the country.^ All efforts by Democrats and the 57% of the US public to shift energy policy toward renewables, efficiency, standards, higher gas taxes, etc.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States was able to do all this, some believe, because of the influence it was able to exert on the country that currently serves as the chair of the UN Security Council at this time, Colombia: .
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TV Station Attack Could Be Illegal Questions are being raised about the legality of the bombing of Iraqi television's main station in Baghdad.

.After paying any import duties to customs and receiving the vehicle stamp, the immigration officers will check your passport and stamp it if you have a visa.^ A foreign nation bombs your country, and then you have to pay that very same nation to rebuild your country.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once you've confirmed your email address, you'll be able to start adding feeds and sharing your custom url.
  • Alltop - Top Iraq News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC iraq.alltop.com [Source type: News]

Additionally, at some land border crossings, your fingerprint and/or photo will be taken. .As of July 2008, there was no visa fee at this border crossing.^ Iraq’s initial transparency report required under Article 7 is due no later than 30 July 2008.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were also clashes on the Iraq-Iran border between those rebels and Iranian forces but no casualties, he said.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.At this point, you will be at the border taxi stand, a few kilometers outside of the city of Zakho, and may need to hire another taxi to get to Zakho's city center (5,000-10,000 Dinars).^ If you need to make a phone call to someone in another country and you are not quite sure how to dial the number, then this service should hopefully help you.
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ How many need to die before we complete this “honor position” 3,000 10,000 50,000?
  • Nieman Watchdog > Ask This > What’s wrong with cutting and running? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.niemanwatchdog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As you may know, about 3,000 U.S. troops died during the first four years of the war in Iraq.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the taxi ride from the Turkish city where you changed cars to Zakho, it's about $40 US dollars.^ "The dollar remained on the ropes on Thursday, buffeted by some hawkish remarks from the US administration about the standoff with Iraq.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Compensation Payments to Iraqi Civilians Made Public The US army memo about the killing of an Iraqi woman in a taxi at a checkpoint in Iraq is terse and matter-of-fact.

^ You know which ones I am talking about; the ones who have not been to Iraq in 40 years!

.This is a safe place to meet your friends or to charter a taxi into another part of the country.^ If your place is not listed, find a nearby city, in the same country Afghanistan - Kabul .
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ Placing the palm of the right hand on your chest after shaking hands with another man.

^ However, because of continuing violence in Diyala, another brigade that is already in the country will take the place of the Third Brigade Combat Team.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

Enjoy some tea while waiting.

From Jordan

For land crossings from Jordan, be prepared for a long ride. The trip through the eastern Jordanian desert is much like a moonscape. .The journey from Amman to Baghdad can take anywhere from 10-15 hours.^ Another Bloody Day in Iraq As Bombs Kill 15 Rory Carroll in Baghdad on twin explosions which brought death to rush hour.

^ At the end of a chaotic 10 hours of rambling discussions in a Baghdad conference hall, delegates pledged...

^ Officers received an additional 10 to 15 hours of human rights training during the six-week basic course.
  • Iraq 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will depart Amman between 5AM and 10AM, and arrive at the border crossing about four hours later.^ I was in Khartoum for about a month, talking to Islamist revolutionaries and theoreticians, and between appointments walking for hours through the streets.
  • IRAK 29 September 2009 18:47 UTC www.uni-graz.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iranian Forces Cross Iraq Border, Seize Iraqi Oil Well Iranian forces have seized an oil well in Iraq, leading to fears of increased hostilities between the two countries and problems for Iraqs oil industry.

^ Reduce heat to medium and let cook until beans are tender (about 2 hours depending on the kind of beans you use).

.The border crossing can take anywhere from an hour and a half (on a very good day) to more than five or six hours.^ By the late 90s, more than four-fifths of all foreign exchange transactions, and half of all world exports, were denominated in dollars.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraq Promises Hard Line Against Rebel Attacks on Turkey Iraq has confirmed it will take a hard line against Kurdish rebels attacking Turkey from the north, as Turkey prepares to launch cross-border raids.

^ More than half of Russia's oil trade is with Europe.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Entering Iraq usually takes about half as much time as leaving Iraq.^ Iraq's military strength is now less than half the size of the time of the last Gulf War.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prime minister's question time had reached 12.26pm yesterday, and the full half-hour was almost finished before somebody mentioned Iraq.

^ There is essentially no chance that the Baker-Hamilton/Iraq Study Group report will be remembered for what it spends most time discussing: the next steps to take in Iraq.

.The Jordanian immigration and customs officers are very finicky about whom they will let in, and they will often shut their side of the border and not allow anyone to enter for unspecified reasons.^ "And they have very strong ideas about how it might be done."
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ They talked all the time about the need for American security after 9-11, but very little about the global context.
  • Media, Propaganda and Iraq — Global Issues 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the guise of the perpetual `war on terror' the Bush administration is manipulating the American people about the unspoken but very real macroeconomic reasons for this upcoming war with Iraq.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trip from the border to Baghdad is VERY dangerous.^ But Farris Hassan had greater plans for his latest school trip - running away to Baghdad for a first-hand look at one of the world's most dangerous cities.

The route is full of highway bandits and gangs of thieves that prey upon unprotected travellers. Travelling this route without adequate communications gear or weapons of any kind is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED. .Do not make any stops along this route, if traffic becomes stalled for any reason on the highway (other than a possible IED), then it is best to make circles until traffic flows again.^ Along with other, smaller incidents – which often fail to make international headlines – a total of 157 people were killed in Iraq in the first 10 days of August – more than half of all those killed in July.
  • Think Progress » A TIMELINE OF THE IRAQ WAR 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ From a coldly logical point of view, news of this death is no worse than the steady flow of news of other deaths, American and otherwise, coming out of Iraq.

^ Think about that for a minute: the government isn't there because we think they know best, because they're cleverer than us, because they make the decisions we can't.
  • War on Iraq 2003@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vehicles, especially those that may be occupied by westerners, are subject to attack at any time.^ May 27 - attack on pipeline in the western outskirts of Baghdad.
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

^ May 31 - a three vehicle convoy was escorting a pipeline repair team from the Ministry of Oil when it was ambushed with an IED in the Rasheed District in south-western Baghdad.
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

.Carry extra fuel and plenty of food, and utilize U.S. military checkpoints to rest or stretch your legs.^ April 1 - Insurgents attacked a road tanker contracted to carry fuel to the US military.
  • Iraq Pipeline Watch 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iags.org [Source type: News]

From Kuwait

Travelling from the Kuwaiti border is just as difficult as crossing from Jordan. .The Kuwaiti crossing is complicated even more by the fact that Kuwaiti immigration and customs officers are even more strict than the Jordanians and anything at all can cause them to arbitrarily block your entry or exit.^ Abstinence from all injustice to other powers is a greater tower of strength than anything that can be gained by the sacrifice of permanent tranquility for an apparent temporary advantage.
  • Americans Against World Empire, Americans Against Bombing 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC againstbombing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the late 90s, more than four-fifths of all foreign exchange transactions, and half of all world exports, were denominated in dollars.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans love having a guy as president, a guy who has a little swagger, who's physical, who's not a complicated guy like Clinton or even like Dukakis or Mondale, all those guys, McGovern.
  • Iraq and the Media 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: News]

.Sneaking into a military convoy can be the safest route in southern Iraq but is very dangerous to do north of about Hillah.^ In Iraq ten people were shot dead north of Baghdad, a family of five was killed by gunmen in Samarra, and the U.S. military denied bombing a wedding party in Hit.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iraq: the case for decisive action Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers.

^ He recently wrote a (very polite and respectful) reference to comments I'd made about the need to stick it out in Iraq.

Cars can be purchased relativity cheaply at the Kuwaiti border. Reliable but inconspicuous transportation is a must in Iraq. .It is probably best to buy a vehicle that blends in with the other cars on the road.^ The other two vehicles in convoy also were damaged, close to the burning wreckage of the car where the bomb was apparently planted.

^ A total of 1,398 bodies were found throughout the city, alongside roads, in garbage dumps, and in abandoned cars, though many others have been abducted, never to be seen again.
  • Iraq (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Renaults and Kias along with less familiar Eastern European and Asian brands are common. .The majority of Iraqi cars are actually privately owned taxis that are painted orange on the fenders and white everywhere else.^ Well, actually, the White House issued that statement for him, along with its own vague denial that Suskind's report was "absurd."

.BMWs and Mercedes are also seen in Iraq but are less common, especially nice ones, which usually have the steering wheel on the right side.^ Time is not on our side, the longer we are seen as unilateral occupiers who have come to Iraq to `seize the oil,' the more highly radicalized Iraqi society will become.
  • Revisited - The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has also been one of the reasons for increasing anti-Americanism, and in that context, this is seen more as another power trying to dictate who should lead th