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Irish
Gaeilge
Pronunciation [ˈɡeːlʲɟə]
Spoken in Ireland (Republic of) (538,283)
Canada (Newfoundland) (unknown)
United Kingdom (95,000)
USA (18,000)
EU (Official EU language)
Region Gaeltachtaí, but also spoken throughout Ireland
Total speakers 355,000 fluent or native speakers (1983)[1]
538,283 everyday speakers (2006)[citation needed]
1,860,000 with some knowledge (2006)[citation needed]
Ranking 200
Language family Indo-European
Writing system Latin (Irish variant)
Official status
Official language in Republic of IrelandIreland
Northern Ireland (UK)
European UnionEuropean Union
Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
Permanent North American Gaeltacht
Regulated by Foras na Gaeilge
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ga
ISO 639-2 gle
ISO 639-3 gle
.Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.^ Irish people should love the Irish language.
  • How American Des Bishop may yet save the Irish language from certain death | Irish News | IrishCentral 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Jump to: navigation , search Irish Gaelic ( Gaeilge ) is a Goidelic language spoken in Ireland .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish is spoken mainly in Ireland.
  • Learn Irish | Irish language learning software from Rosetta Stone 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.rosettastone.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Irish is now spoken as a first language only by a small minority of the Irish population but is also used as a second language by a larger and expanding minority.^ A second semester of instruction in the Irish Language.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish now a working European language.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0825484.html 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: General]

.It also plays an important symbolic role in the life of the Irish state and is used across the country in a variety of media, personal contexts and social situations.^ Irish is now only spoken natively by a small minority of the Irish population but also plays an important symbolic role in the life of the Irish state, and is used across the country in a variety of media, personal contexts and social situations.

^ Irish is now spoken natively by a small minority of the Irish population mostly in Gaeltacht areas but also plays an important symbolic role in the life of the Irish state, and is used across the country in a variety of media, personal contexts and social situations.

^ The Irish language is important to the Irish state and the Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.It enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland, and it is an official language of the European Union.^ The language is also formally recognized by the Irish government as Ireland's first official language, and it has the same national constitutional status as English.
  • Gaelic - An Overview of Irish Gaelic or Gaeilge 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC gaelic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish is the first official language and is the national language of Ireland.
  • WikiAnswers - Which languages are spoken in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ It enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and it is an official language of the European Union.

.Irish is also an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.^ The English language is recognised as a second official language.
  • Ireland Now The Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irelandnow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Erin's Web > Learn How to Speak Irish Gaelic! 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.erinsweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Northern Irelands official statistics organization.
  • Information Resource Center for the New York Irish Community 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.newyorkirishcenter.org [Source type: News]

^ Most place-names in Northern Ireland have Irish language roots.

.Irish is the main community and household language of 3% of the Republic's population[2] (which was estimated at 4,422,100 in 2008).^ Irish is the main community and household language of 3% of the Republic's population Estimates of fully native speakers range from 40,000 up to 80,000 people.

^ Irish is the national language of the Republic of Ireland.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Table of Contents: Irish language Main .
  • Irish language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] .Estimates of fully native speakers range from 40,000 up to 80,000 people.^ Irish is the main community and household language of 3% of the Republic's population Estimates of fully native speakers range from 40,000 up to 80,000 people.

^ Irish Gaelic is spoken in Ireland, by approximately 500,000 people, as a second language for most of them (there is only a small minority of native speakers).
  • Irish Gaelic English dictionary and English Irish Gaelic dictionary - FREELANG 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.freelang.net [Source type: General]

^ Today it's estimated that there are roughly a hundred or so fluent speakers, including several young children who are considered as new native speakers.
  • Gaelic - English To Irish & Scottish Language Translation Dictionary 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC gaelic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5][6][7] .Areas in which the language remains a vernacular are referred to as Gaeltacht areas.^ Areas in which the language remains the vernacular are referred to as Gaeltacht areas.

^ Gaeltacht is the name given to those areas where Irish is the vernacular language.
  • Facts On The Irish Language - Gaelic Irish Language In Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.yourirish.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish remains the community language of many Gaeltacht areas.

.Irish speakers may, in general, be divided into two groups: traditional native speakers in the Gaeltacht and urban speakers of varying fluency.^ Follow professional recordings from two native Irish speakers.
  • Learn to Speak Irish Gaelic - Irish Language Learning Program 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.learnirishgaelic.com [Source type: General]

^ The Irish language is constitutionally established as the national language of the Republic of Ireland , despite the varying distribution and fluency among the population of the country.

^ Quite apart from being a region of great beauty, Connemara is a major Gaeltacht (Irish speaking district) and is endowed with a rich folk tradition.
  • NUI Galway, International Summer School, Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.nuigalway.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second group includes many second-language speakers, but also a certain number of urban native speakers — people raised and educated through Irish and using it outside the home.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ More and more people are using Irish.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent research suggests that urban Irish is developing in a direction of its own, the result being that Irish speakers from urban and Gaeltacht areas may understand each other only with difficulty.^ Irish Sport   Develop an understanding for the Irish passion for Sport.

^ The language went into long-term decline, with Gaeltacht areas (exclusively Irish speaking areas) shrinking as the results of each national census returns were analysed.
  • History of the Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishlanguage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History of the Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.stpatricksdayparade.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a last ditch effort to stop the complete collapse of Irish-speaking in Connemara in Galway, new planning controls have been introduced to ensure that only Irish speakers will be given permission to build homes in Irish speaking areas.
  • History of the Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishlanguage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History of the Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.stpatricksdayparade.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .This is related to an urban tendency to simplify the phonetic and grammatical structure of the language.^ Here he gives a useful but very demanding method for how to learn (but not master) any language in one hour by deconstructing sounds and grammatical structures.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Basic Irish: A Grammar and Workbook provides a jargon-free introduction to the most commonly used grammatical structures within the Irish language.
  • Facts On The Irish Language - Gaelic Irish Language In Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.yourirish.com [Source type: General]

^ My plan to learn a new language is to start with the foreign grammatical structure *in English*, then fill in the actual words later.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[8] .The written standard remains the same for both groups, and urban Irish speakers have played a large part in the production of an extensive modern literature.^ Ossianesque in medieval Irish literature and modern Irish...
  • Medieval Irish Language and Literature: An Orientation for Arthurians - Arthuriana | Encyclopedia.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The tunes the Orange bands play are Irish traditional tunes Rosc Catha na Mumhan and the Boyne Water have the same traditional air.
  • 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.rsf.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Even as the number of Irish Gaelic speakers in each Gaeltacht diminished, a group of Irish poets in Cork in the 1970s was beginning to write modern Irish language poetry.
  • Contemporary Irish Language Poetry: The Innti Poets 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC world-poetry.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.The Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs estimated in 2007 that, outside the cities, about 17,000 people lived in strongly Irish-speaking communities, about 10,000 people lived in areas where there was substantial use of the language, and 17,000 people lived in "weak" Gaeltacht communities; Irish was no longer the main community language in the remaining parts of the official Gaeltacht.^ Irish people should love the Irish language.
  • How American Des Bishop may yet save the Irish language from certain death | Irish News | IrishCentral 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ After the 17th century, Early Modern Irish was no longer used.

^ Ulster Irish is spoken as a community language in the Gaeltacht of west Donegal.

[10] .Complete or functional monolingualism of Irish is now restricted to a handful of elderly within more isolated Gaeltacht regions as well as among many mother-tongue speakers of Irish under school age.^ More interesting are percentages of Irish speakers in the Gaeltacht regions.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complete or functional monolingualism of Irish is now restricted to a handful of elderly within more isolated Gaeltacht regions as well as among many mother-tongue speakers of Irish under school age.

^ Outside the Gaeltacht there are bilingual families in many areas throughout the country who use Irish in their homes as much as they can and their number is increasing as the spread of Irish medium schools shows.
  • Irish language tuition with Eo Feasa. About Irish. Decline. Revival. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gaeltacht families with school-age children may if they wish apply for a scheme which involves the payment of grants if the children demonstrate native-level competency in Irish.^ There are 3,700 children attending Gaelscoileanna in 25 schools in the Six Counties and 28,000 in 170 Gaelscoil in the 26 Counties outside Gaeltacht areas.
  • CoisLife: A New View of the Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.coislife.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report also discovered the following: 46% of school-going children in the Gaeltacht start school with little or no Irish; only 9% of young Irish speakers in the Gaeltacht use the language with their peers (the figure is 24% for the stronger Gaeltacht areas); Irish-speaking children are not evidencing the full range of linguistic competencies expected of native speakers; and that in weaker Gaeltacht areas the only remaining Irish-speaking networks are associated with primary school education.

^ This course should suit those who wish to use Irish socially, to help their children or to succeed in interviews where Irish is a requirement.

.In the 2006-07 school year, 2,216 families received the full grant of €260 p.a., 937 families received a reduced grant and 225 families did not meet the criteria.^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally Posted by me_right_one If all the primary schools did everything exclusively in Irish, then after 8 years, the secondary schools could follow suit.
  • Irish language - Revamp in Education. - boards.ie 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.boards.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If all the primary schools did everything exclusively in Irish, then after 8 years, the secondary schools could follow suit.
  • Irish language - Revamp in Education. - boards.ie 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.boards.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This payment scheme is called Scéim Labhairt na Gaeilge, the first example in Europe where citizens are paid to speak their first official language.^ Irish Gaelic is called Gaeilge when speaking the language, but in English it is usually called Irish.
  • The Development of the Irish language 1 | Culture Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.culturenorthernireland.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First, when speaking in the language, the language is referred to as “ An Ghaeilge “.
  • The Irish Language: 5 things you need to know | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Virtually nobody speaks the language outside a few pockets in remote areas where it never fully died out in the first place.
  • How American Des Bishop may yet save the Irish language from certain death | IrishCentral 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishcentral.com [Source type: General]

[11]
.Since Irish is an obligatory subject in English-medium schools, it would be reasonable to expect that many people are reasonably fluent second-language speakers.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Do Irish-medium schools damage childrens education in an English-language world?

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is, however, no objective evidence for this, though many regard themselves as competent in the language to some degree: 1,656,790 (41.9% of the total population aged three years and over) regard themselves as competent Irish speakers.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ For the population of the whole of Ireland this indicates that 1 in 3 of the population have some degree of fluency in Irish.
  • Facts On The Irish Language - Gaelic Irish Language In Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.yourirish.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there any Irish speakers on-line?
  • Irish FAQ: The Irish Language [3/10] 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]
  • Irish FAQ: The Irish Language [3/10] 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC faqs.cs.uu.nl [Source type: General]

[12] .Of these, 538,283 (32.5%) speak Irish on a daily basis (taking into account both native speakers and those inside the education system), 97,089 (5.9%) weekly, 581,574 (35.1%) less often, and 412,846 (24.9%) never.^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Irish-speaking networks among the young become more marginalised and disrupted in their own community, their ability to complete the acquisition process becomes increasingly compromised by the introduction of English into these networks..."
  • CoisLife: A New View of the Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.coislife.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, after a lifetime of never hearing anybody speaking Irish you can't stand Irish speakers anymore.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.26,998 (1.6%) respondents did not state how often they spoke Irish.^ For example, neuter nouns still trigger eclipsis of a following complement, as they did in Middle Irish, but less consistently.

^ Rather, they often express a syncretic cultural identity which draws upon elements of Britishness and Irishness: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle-class Protestants often believe themselves to be liberal and non-sectarian; therefore they will not oppose other Protestants who learn Irish.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Any increase in the number of fluent speakers is likely to be due to the extraordinary growth in the number of Irish-medium schools at both primary and secondary level, chiefly in urban areas.^ There is also an increasing demand for Irish speakers in the areas of translation and broadcasting.

^ Irish-medium schools and the mainstream schools.

^ Number of Irish speakers in Ireland.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of inhabitants of the official-designated Gaeltacht regions of Ireland is 91,862, as of the 2006 census.^ Irish Language Dialects, Differences and History This site contains a discussion of the official status of the Irish language, with statistics, the Gaeltacht regions of Ireland, the different dialects of Irish, including Munster, Connacht and Ulster Irish, linguistic structure and a section on history and politics.
  • Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.stthom.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Irish was once spoken across Ireland , it exists today as a minority language in Ireland , spoken in specific communities and in officially-recognized Gaeltachtaí, Irish-speaking regions.

^ Gaeltalk is designed to make a direct connection between the Gaeltachts (Irish-speaking areas in Ireland) as well as the Irish diaspora around the world.

.Of these, 70.8% aged three and over speak Irish and approximately 60% speak Irish on a daily basis.^ By that time few people spoke Irish in their daily lives except in isolated pockets on the west coast still known as "Gaeltacht" or "Irish- speaking" districts.
  • An Irish renaissance / Interest growing in the difficult but intriguing language - SFGate 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, between 5 and 10% of the 4.2 million people living in Ireland speak Irish on a daily basis, and many of those are students who speak it in school.
  • The SeventyMillion Irish Project | The Irish language, back for good 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seventymillion.org [Source type: General]

^ According to the 2006 census in the Republic, 1,656,790 people (41.9%) can speak Irish, but most of these admit they never or rarely speak the language.

[12] .But even as the number of Irish speakers outside the Gaeltacht rises, the use of Irish within the Gaeltacht has decreased.^ Irish in the Community: outside Gaeltacht .
  • Irish language policy / Policies / Home - Green Party / Comhaontas Glas 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.greenparty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Irish influence rises, the foreign influence decreases.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Number of Irish speakers in Ireland.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A comprehensive 2007 study found that, despite their largely positive views of the language, Irish is less used among young people than among older generations: even in areas where the language was strongest only 60% of young people used Irish as the main language of communication with family and neigbbours, and many preferred English when dealing with the wider world.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish people should love the Irish language.
  • How American Des Bishop may yet save the Irish language from certain death | Irish News | IrishCentral 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish wold be this generations' mainstream language.
  • Irish language - Revamp in Education. - boards.ie 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.boards.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .It concluded that, on current trends, the long-term survival of Irish as the main community language in those areas cannot be guaranteed[13] This suggests that future of the language lies in an urban environment.^ Controversial views on the future of Irish as a community language.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IRISH LUCK: Will the Irish language survive?
  • www.naBASQUE.org 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.nabasque.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But O Ciardha believes the Irish language will survive.
  • USATODAY.com - Irish language enjoys a renaissance at Notre Dame 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.Another study has suggested that urban Irish speakers tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers and may enjoy the benefits of language-based networking, leading to better employment and higher social status.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish studies, including 155 in Irish language .
  • Article: Irish language enjoying renaissance. - Chicago Tribune (Chicago, IL) | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Article: Irish language enjoying renaissance.
  • Article: Irish language enjoying renaissance. - Chicago Tribune (Chicago, IL) | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Though this study has been criticised for certain unsupported assumptions,[15] the statistical evidence supports the view that urban Irish speakers may, in general, enjoy certain educational advantages.^ Windsor-based Glasgow Celtic Supporters Club games every week, as well as international games.$15 to view.
  • DetroitIrish.org...Irish Organizations, News&Events in the Greater-DetroitArea 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.detroitirish.org [Source type: General]

^ Speakers can already tune into Belfast-based Radio Fáilte, read their own newspaper, Lá Nua and get an education in Irish.
  • Northern Ireland: Irish Speakers Push for Language Rights | Inside Europe | Deutsche Welle | 27.09.2007 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: News]

^ According to Aideen, they are generally written rather than spoken; apparently Irish speakers are not this formal in everyday conversation.

.The Irish government has adopted a twenty year strategy designed to strengthen the language in all areas and greatly increase the number of habitual speakers.^ Irish can be heard all over the Bay Area.
  • An Irish renaissance / Interest growing in the difficult but intriguing language - SFGate 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some, the Irish language is part of all this.

^ Irish is child's play Twenty years ago, the Irish language was not cool.
  • Ulster Heritage Magazine: Irish language Playschools Increase 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC uhblog.ulsterheritage.com [Source type: General]

.This includes the encouragement of urban Irish-speaking districts.^ By that time few people spoke Irish in their daily lives except in isolated pockets on the west coast still known as "Gaeltacht" or "Irish- speaking" districts.
  • An Irish renaissance / Interest growing in the difficult but intriguing language - SFGate 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Irish-speaking districts, a person who could read and write - in those days when analphabetism was still common - could also be called a scoláire .
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program cost includes local transportation, tuition, social programs, full board, homestay with Irish-speaking family, and health & accident insurance.
  • Study Abroad Opportunities in Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.studyabroad.com [Source type: News]

[16]
.The 2001 census in Northern Ireland showed that 167,487 (10.4%) people "had some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland).^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Irish language in Northern Ireland .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2001 census in Northern Ireland showed that 167,487 (10.4%) people "had some knowledge of Irish" .

.Combined, this means that at least one in three people (~1.8 million) on the island of Ireland can understand Irish to some extent.^ Combined, this means that at least one in three people (~1.8 million) on the island of Ireland can understand Irish to some extent.

^ As one of the national languages of the Republic of Ireland , Irish is taught in the public schools and is required for certain civil-service posts.
  • Irish language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ According to the 1996 census, 1.43 million people in Ireland claim to have some knowledge of Irish, 353,000 of whom speak it regularly.
  • Irish language, alphabet and pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 13 June 2005, EU foreign ministers unanimously decided to make Irish an official language of the European Union.^ It is however, an official language of the European Union.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ So this makes Irish my 'native' language?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish now becomes the 21st official and working language of the Union.

The new arrangements came into effect on 1 January 2007, and Irish was first used at a meeting of the EU Council of Ministers, by Minister Noel Treacy, T.D., on 22 January 2007.

Contents

Names

Irish

.In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡeːlʲɟə]).^ Gaeilge the Irish language official EU language in 2007 .
  • Irish Language Forums - Irish Community Site Map 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sceala.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (IPA: ), which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spelling in the text is that of official Standard Irish.
  • Irish Language, Irish Language Course, Audio CD, Learn Irish, Speak Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.maps2anywhere.com [Source type: General]

.Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in classical Modern Irish.^ Before the 1948 spelling reform, this was spelled Gaedhilge .
  • Irish language, alphabet and pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in classical Modern Irish.

^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge ; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg , the form used in classical Modern Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Middle Irish [ge:ʝəlg] and Goídelc [goiðelg] in Old Irish.^ Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Middle Irish and Goídelc in Old Irish.

^ Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Middle Irish and Goídelc in Old Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes much old and middle, & modern Irish poetry, annals, and legal texts, as well as documents in English, Latin, and Norman French.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

.The modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of Gaedhilge.^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in classical Modern Irish.

^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge ; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg , the form used in classical Modern Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silent letters in certain words were replaced, eg, the DH in the word suidhe 'sitting' was replaced by Í in suí , as in modern Irish.
  • Spelling Society : Irish spelling. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spellingsociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig ([ˈɡeːlʲɪc]) or Gaedhlag ([ˈɡeːl̪ˠəɡ]) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn ([ˈɡˠeːl̪ˠɪŋ/ˈɡˠeːl̪ˠɪn])[18][19] in Munster Irish.^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 3 main dialects - Ulster, Munster and Connacht.

^ The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands.

English

.The language is usually referred to in English as Irish.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When referring to the language when speaking in English, the Irish simply call it “Irish”.
  • The Irish Language: 5 things you need to know | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: General]

.The term Irish Gaelic is often used when English speakers discuss the relationship between the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx) or when discussion of Irish is confused to mean Hiberno-English, the form of English as spoken in Ireland.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials .
  • Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: General]

^ Jump to: navigation , search Irish Gaelic ( Gaeilge ) is a Goidelic language spoken in Ireland .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scottish Gaelic is often referred to in English as simply Gaelic.^ Scottish Gaelic is often referred to in English as simply Gaelic (IPA: or ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English the term Gaelic applies to both Scottish and Irish Gaelic, and this can very often lead to confusion when the context is not clear.

^ The language is sometimes referred to in English as Gaelic ( IPA : /ˈgeɪlɪk/ ), or Irish Gaelic , but is more generally referred to in Ireland as the Irish language or simply Irish .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Outside Ireland and often among native-speakers themselves, the term Gaelic is still frequently used for the language.^ The term craic has been popularised outside Ireland in its Gaelic spelling: "How's the craic?
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The language is also growing outside of Ireland.

^ Also the native language of Ireland .
  • Irish@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The archaic term Erse (from Erische), originally a Scots form of the word Irish applied in Scotland (by Lowlanders) to all of the Goidelic languages, is no longer used for any Goidelic language, and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.^ Sometimes the original Irish is in question form.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The archaic term Erse, originally a Scots form of the word Iris h , is no longer used and in most contexts is considered derogatory.

[21][22]

History

.Written Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the fourth century AD; this stage of the language is known as Primitive Irish.^ Stages of the Irish language .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christian inscriptions in the Irish language.

^ The earliest form of the language, Primitive Irish , is found in ogham inscriptions up to about the 4th century .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain.^ Foras na Gaeilge Foras na Gaeilge are the body responsible for promotion of the Irish language throughout the whole island of Ireland, was founded on the second day of December 1999.

^ The Idea of the Union: Statements and Critiques in Support of the Union of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century.^ The history of Irish as a literary language falls into three periods: Old Irish (7th–9th century A.D.), Middle Irish (10th–16th century), and Modern Irish (since the 16th century).
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only when Christianity was well established in the 5th Century did true literacy in Irish begin.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the conversion to Christianity , Old Irish begins to appear as glosses in the margins of Latin manuscripts , beginning in the 6th century , until it gives way in the 10th century to Middle Irish.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Old Irish, dating from the sixth century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts.^ Irish uses nowadays the following alphabet: .
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish literature dates from the 8th century.
  • Irish language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Includes much old and middle, & modern Irish poetry, annals, and legal texts, as well as documents in English, Latin, and Norman French.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

.By the 10th century Old Irish evolved into Middle Irish, which was spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man.^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), and Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man, though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.

^ This is because the literary standard language was common to the entire Gaelic-speaking area, which for over a thousand years consisted of all of Ireland, most of Scotland, and the Isle of Man.
  • Department of Foreign Affairs 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.dfa.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes much old and middle, & modern Irish poetry, annals, and legal texts, as well as documents in English, Latin, and Norman French.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

.It is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the famous Ulster Cycle.^ The Ulster Scots Language and Dialects of Ulster Collection in the Linen Hall Library The Library has significant holdings of historic materials in Ulster Scots, including the works of the Ulster Weaver poets, and modern publications.
  • LINEN HALL | IRISH & REFERENCE 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.linenhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Ulster place-names have Irish language roots, including the term Ulster itself.

.From the 12th century Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, and into the Manx language in the Isle of Man.^ Irish and its offshoots, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, constitute the Gaelic or Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages.
  • Department of Foreign Affairs 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.dfa.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Department of Foreign Affairs 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishembassy.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish scholars had codified the grammar of the language by the 12th Century.
  • 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.rsf.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilge-A is for discussions in Irish; Gaeilge-B for learners, in Irish & English; Gaelic-L for discussions in all three Gaelic languages, in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

.Early Modern Irish, dating from the thirteenth century, was the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland, and is attested by such writers as Geoffrey Keating.^ Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials .
  • Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: General]

^ Early Modern Irish, also called Classical Irish, was used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland (where it is known as Classical Gaelic) from the 13th to the 18th century.

^ Modern Irish dates from about the 16th century .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern Irish emerged from the literary language known as Early Modern Irish in Ireland and as Classical Gaelic in Scotland; this was used through the 18th century.^ Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials .
  • Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1200 Early Modern Irish, or Classical Modern Irish, had begun to emerge.
  • About the Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeilge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the eighteenth century the language went into a decline, rapidly losing ground to English due in part to restrictions dictated by British rule - a conspicuous example of the process known by linguists as language shift.^ Under and in furtherance of Article 2 of the British-Irish Agreement 1999, an implementation body for language was established to be known as the North/South Language Body.
  • Club Sult: Directory 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.clubsult.com [Source type: News]

^ The history of Irish as a literary language falls into three periods: Old Irish (7th–9th century A.D.), Middle Irish (10th–16th century), and Modern Irish (since the 16th century).
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So in the part of Ireland ruled by the Irish, students rage against the burden of having to learn the language spoken on the island before the centuries of British domination, while on the part of the island that is still part of the United Kingdom, students the same age sign up to study entirely in that tongue.
  • Ireland’s Language Remains on Life Support - The Lede Blog - NYTimes.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC thelede.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

[23] .In the mid-nineteenth century it lost a large portion of its speakers to death and emigration resulting from poverty, particularly in the wake of the Great Famine (1845–1849).^ Of most note is the Great Famine of 1845-1848.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ok they lost the votes but because of the large support for it in the community the issue of the death penalty made it onto the national stage.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is estimated that the Famine of 1845-48 reduced the number of Irish speakers by one million ( Ó Cuiv 1967:19 ).
  • Spelling Society : Irish spelling. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spellingsociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of the nineteenth century, members of the Gaelic Revival movement made efforts to encourage the learning and use of Irish in Ireland.^ Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials .
  • Irish (Gaelic) language learning materials 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: General]

^ I once interviewed a young Melbourne woman who became so fascinated by traditional Gaelic singing while on holiday that she learned Irish and now works in the Aran Islands.

^ The government of Ireland is trying, thus far unsuccessfully, to revive Irish as the primary language of the country.

.Particular emphasis was placed at that point on the folk tradition, which in Irish is particularly rich, but efforts were also made to develop journalism and a modern literature.^ If you've had trouble finding Irish folks on days other than March 17th, then you've come to the right place!
  • Expat Irish Meetup Groups - Expat Irish Meetups 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC expatirish.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ The emphasis in teaching Irish must be placed primarily on communicative linguistic competence.
  • The Reform Movement - The Death Throes of the Irish Language? 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC reform.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was only the authors of devotional literature, however, who followed Stapleton's lead and the spelling system retained its classical complexity until official efforts at standardization took place after 1922 and in particular after 1931.
  • Spelling Society : Irish spelling. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spellingsociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Official status

Ireland

Percentage of Irish speakers[citation needed] by county of the Republic; the six counties of Northern Ireland are not portrayed distinctly here.
.Irish is given recognition by the Constitution of Ireland as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland (with English being a second official language).^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ It enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and it is an official language of the European Union.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922 (see also History of the Republic of Ireland), the Irish Government required a degree of proficiency in Irish for all those who became newly appointed to civil service positions (including postal workers, tax officials, agricultural inspectors, etc.^ The independent Irish state was established in 1922 (The Irish Free State 1922-37; Ireland (Éire) from 1937, also known since 1949 as the Republic of Ireland).

^ Directory for Irish Government services.
  • Catalóg nascanna 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.beo.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

^ Today, Irish is the first official language in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).[24] .Proficiency in just one official language for entrance to the public service was introduced in 1974, in part through the actions of protest organizations like the Language Freedom Movement.^ Proficiency in Irish for entrance to the public service ceased to be a compulsory requirement in 1974, in part through the actions of protest organizations like the Language Freedom Movement.

^ More than 600 public sector bodies are covered by the Official Languages Act (2003), including third level educational institutions, local authorities and other semi-state bodies, all of whom are obliged to provide certain services through the medium of Irish.
  • Home - Irish Language Office : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.tcd.ie [Source type: General]

^ Although Study Abroad students are treated like Irish students they have one special advantage, namely a greater freedom of choice in selecting their program of study.
  • Study Abroad Opportunities in Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.studyabroad.com [Source type: News]

.While the First Official Language requirement was also dropped for wider public service jobs, Irish remains a required subject of study in all schools within the Republic which receive public money (see also Education in the Republic of Ireland).^ The reformed Church of Ireland undertook the first publication of Scripture in Irish.

^ Today, Irish is the first official language in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Statistics on the Gaeltacht and the Irish Language | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the requirement was also dropped for wider public service jobs, such as teaching, Irish remains a required subject of study in all schools within the Republic which receive public money (see also Education in the Republic of Ireland ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those wishing to teach in primary schools in the State must also pass a compulsory examination called "Scrúdú Cáilíochta sa Ghaeilge". The need for a pass in Leaving Certificate Irish or English for entry to the Gardaí (police) was introduced in September 2005, although applicants are given lessons in the language during the two years of training.^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When referring to the language when speaking in English, the Irish simply call it “Irish”.
  • The Irish Language: 5 things you need to know | Gaeltacht Travel in Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.gaeltachttravel.com [Source type: General]

.All official documents of the Irish Government must be published in both Irish and English or Irish alone (this is according to the official languages act 2003, which is enforced by "an comisinéir teanga", the language ombudsman).^ Irish is not the easiest of languages for an English speaker.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most official documents of the Irish Government are published in both Irish and English.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The National University of Ireland requires all students wishing to embark on a degree course in the NUI federal system to pass the subject of Irish in the Leaving Certificate or GCE/GCSE Examinations.^ There have been suggestions that Irish be made an optional subject for the Leaving Certificate, e.g.

^ This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3) and recently was subject of a High Court case on the matter[1] - it is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course[2].

^ The need for a pass in Leaving Certificate Irish for entry to the Gardaí (police) was dropped in September 2005, although applicants are given lessons in the language during the two years of training.

[25] .Exemptions are made from this requirement for students born outside of the Republic of Ireland, those who were born in the Republic but completed primary education outside it, and students diagnosed with dyslexia.^ The Irish language is a compulsory subject in government funded schools in the Republic of Ireland and has been so since the early days of the state The exemption from Irish on the grounds of time spent abroad or learning disability is subject to Circular 12/96 (primary education) and Circular M10/94 (secondary education) issued by the Department of Education and Science .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are require d by law to learn this in school in Ireland, but it is not spoken much outside the Gaeltacht , the name given to certain areas where it is still in everyday use.
  • Irish@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It worked perfectly alright and the difference between students who went to regular danish schools and those who attended KISS was striking.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.In 1938, the founder of Conradh na Gaeilge (The Gaelic League), Douglas Hyde, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland.^ In 1938, the founder of the Conradh na Gaeilge, Douglas Hyde (an Anglican ), was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Douglas Hyde: a maker of modern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conradh na Gaeilge, Gaillimh .
  • Study Abroad Opportunities in Irish 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.studyabroad.com [Source type: News]

.The record of his delivering his auguration Declaration of Office in Roscommon Irish remains almost the only surviving remnant of anyone speaking in that dialect.^ Irish survives only in ever shrinking enclaves.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The record of his delivering his auguration 'Declaration of Office' in his native Roscommon Irish remains almost the only surviving remnant of anyone speaking in that dialect, which in effect died out with him.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The record of his delivering his inauguration 'Declaration of Office' in his native Roscommon Irish remains almost the only surviving remnant of anyone speaking in that dialect, which in effect died out with him.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The National University of Ireland, Galway is required to appoint people who are competent in the Irish language, as long as they meet all other respects of the vacancy they are appointed to.^ People who learn Irish have a leaning towards nationalism.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The National University of Ireland, Galway is required to appoint a person who is competent in the Irish language, as long as they meet all other respects of the vacancy they are appointed to.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A lot of Irish people who speak Irish speak it as a second language and so we are all on the same footing.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

.This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3).^ This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3) and recently was subject of a High Court case on the matter[ 1 ] - it is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course[ 2 ].
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3) and recently was subject of a High Court case on the matter[1] - it is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course[2].

^ The National University of Ireland, Galway is required to appoint a person who is competent in the Irish language, as long as they meet all other respects of the vacancy they are appointed to.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .It is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course.^ This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3) and recently was subject of a High Court case on the matter[ 1 ] - it is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course[ 2 ].
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This requirement is laid down by the University College Galway Act, 1929 (Section 3) and recently was subject of a High Court case on the matter[1] - it is expected that the requirement may be repealed in due course[2].

[27]
.Even though modern parliamentary legislation is supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, in practice it is frequently only available in English.^ Even modern parliamentary legislation, though supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, is frequently only available in English.

^ Even modern parliamentary legislation, through supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, is frequently only available in English.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even modern parliamentary legislation, though supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, is frequently only available in English Article 25.4 of the Constitution of Ireland requires that an "official translation" be provided of any law in both official languages"if not already passed in both official languages.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is notwithstanding that Article 25.4 of the Constitution of Ireland requires that an "official translation" of any law in one official language be provided immediately in the other official language—if not already passed in both official languages.^ Even modern parliamentary legislation, though supposed to be issued in both Irish and English, is frequently only available in English Article 25.4 of the Constitution of Ireland requires that an "official translation" be provided of any law in both official languages"if not already passed in both official languages.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afrikaans , a Germanic language derived from the same 16 th -century Dutch dialect that led to modern Dutch, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Although Irish was once spoken across Ireland, it exists today as a minority language in Ireland, spoken in specific communities and in officially-recognized Gaeltachtaí, Irish-speaking regions.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[28]

Northern Ireland

A sign for the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish, and Ulster Scots.
.Prior to the establishment of the Northern Ireland state in 1921, Irish was recognised as a school subject and as "Celtic" in some third level institutions.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 600 public sector bodies are covered by the Official Languages Act (2003), including third level educational institutions, local authorities and other semi-state bodies, all of whom are obliged to provide certain services through the medium of Irish.
  • Home - Irish Language Office : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.tcd.ie [Source type: General]

.Between 1921 and 1972, Northern Ireland had devolved government.^ The UK government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect to Irish in Northern Ireland.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CAJ document uses European and United Nations charters to argue the case for a greater effort by the British government to promote the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a diference in philosophy towards Irish between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.During those years the political party holding power in the Stormont Parliament, the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), was hostile to the language.^ Among Protestant learners there was an almost universal regret that the language had not been introduced to them during their school years.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Green Party welcomes the government's commitment to developing a 20 Year National Strategy for Irish based on international best practice in language planning and policy.
  • Irish language policy / Policies / Home - Green Party / Comhaontas Glas 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.greenparty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This learner wishes to divest the Irish language of its unnecessary nationalist image, and views the language through unionist cultural lenses (for example, in his reference to Ulster Irish).
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In broadcasting, there was an exclusion on the reporting of minority cultural issues, and Irish was excluded from radio and television for almost the first fifty years of the previous devolved government.^ Minority language, radio, television and identity.
  • LINGUIST List 16.3392: Socioling/Celtic Lang: Mac Giolla Chríost (2005) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been lerning Irish for almost a year now.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

^ As a bonus tip, I suggest watching Irish language television (TG4) and listening to Irish language radio (Raidió na Gaeltachta) to get a real taste of the beautiful rhythm of the language.

[29] .The language received a degree of formal recognition in Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom, under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement,[30] and then, in 2001, by the Government's ratification in respect of the language of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.^ Irish received official recognition in Northern Ireland for the first time in 1998 under the Good Friday Agreement .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2000 the UK government ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

^ As a treaty language of the European Union , the highest-level documents of the EU are translated into Irish; in addition, the language has also recently received a degree of formal recognition in Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom , under the Good Friday Agreement .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British government promised to create legislation encouraging the language as part of the 2006 St Andrews Agreement.^ Speaking today British Culture Minister, Maria Eagle MP, said: "There has been a longstanding call from the Irish speaking community in Northern Ireland for legislation on the Irish language and government made a commitment in the St Andrews Agreement to introduce Irish Language legislation.

^ "Whether Mr Poots likes it or not, the two governments have made binding promises with regard to the Irish language."

^ It would give a legislative basis to the promises made in the European Council’s Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.” .

[31]

European Union

.Irish became an official language of the EU on 1 January 2007 meaning that MEP's with Irish fluency can now speak the language in the EU Parliament in Europe and at committees although in the case of the latter they have to give prior notice to a simultaneous interpreter in order to ensure that what they say can be interpreted into other languages.^ For me it is a source of shame that I now speak other languages much better than Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish now becomes the 21st official and working language of the Union.

^ Gaeilge the Irish language official EU language in 2007 .
  • Irish Language Forums 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sceala.com [Source type: General]

.While an official language of the European Union, only co-decision regulations must be available in Irish for the moment, due to a renewable five-year derogation on what has to be translated, requested by the Irish Government when negotiating the language's new official status.^ It is however, an official language of the European Union.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish language bookshop in Bray, Co.
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  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

^ Irish now becomes the 21st official and working language of the Union.

.Any expansion in the range of documents to be translated will depend on the results of the first five-year review and on whether the Irish authorities decide to seek an extension.^ Oireachtas na Gaeilge organizes a wide range of events throughout the year to celebrate the traditional arts through the Irish language.
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  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

^ Applications are now being accepted for the Dartry Irish language student residency scheme from students coming to Trinity College as first year students in the academic year 2009-2010.
  • Home - Irish Language Office : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.tcd.ie [Source type: General]

^ Mr Poots said the Northern Ireland Civil Service had already spent just over £20m delivering Irish language projects and translations in the past year.

.The Irish government has committed itself to train the necessary number of translators and interpreters and to bear the related costs.^ While their arguments in relation to the additional costs of Irish language services and schemes have been asserted in isolation in order to elevate the potential costs.

^ Ms Ruane said: "Sinn Féin has consistently raised this issue with the British government and at St. Andrews the British government committed itself to introduce an Irish Language Act.

^ Despite this, Sinn Féin has successfully held the British Government to account on a range of commitments made in relation to Irish.

[32]
.Before Irish became an official language it was afforded the status of treaty language and only the highest-level documents of the EU had been made available in Irish.^ Irish Language Dialects, Differences and History This site contains a discussion of the official status of the Irish language, with statistics, the Gaeltacht regions of Ireland, the different dialects of Irish, including Munster, Connacht and Ulster Irish, linguistic structure and a section on history and politics.
  • Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.stthom.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish recently was accepted as an official language of the European Union and in 2004 new road signs in certain regions in the West were hung displaying only Irish names of towns.
  • Tech helps boost Irish language use - CIO 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.cio.com.au [Source type: General]

^ It has been claimed that Belfast now represents the fastest growing centre of Irish language usage on the island - and the Good Friday Agreement 's provisions on 'parity of esteem' have been used to give the language an official status there.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gaeltacht

Official Gaeltacht areas
.There are parts of Ireland where Irish is still spoken as a traditional, native language used daily.^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So this makes Irish my 'native' language?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are pockets of Ireland where Irish is spoken as a traditional, native language .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These regions are known collectively as Gaeltachts, or in the plural Irish Gaeltachtaí.^ These regions are known as Gaeltachta (sing.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These regions are known as the Gaeltacht.

^ For example, we indulge in a huge collective delusion that Gaeltachts are Irish-speaking enclaves, when the reality is that not a word of Irish is spoken in many of such designated Gaeltacht areas.
  • The Reform Movement - The Death Throes of the Irish Language? 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC reform.org [Source type: Original source]

.While the Gaeltacht's fluent Irish speakers, whose numbers have been estimated by scholar Donncha Ó hÉallaithe at twenty or thirty thousand,[33] are a minority of the total number of fluent Irish speakers, they represent a higher concentration of Irish speakers than other parts of the country and it is only in Gaeltacht areas (in especial the more strongly Irish-speaking ones) that Irish continues to be a natural vernacular of the general population.^ Your only real goal in taking any Irish course is to speak Irish naturally with others.

^ I speak English and Irish fluently.
  • Learn Gaelic (Irish) Online - Write or Speak in Gaelic (Irish) Language Exchange 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.mylanguageexchange.com [Source type: General]

^ When considering the numbers of Irish-speakers, one must also consider the education system.

There are Gaeltacht regions in:
Smaller ones also exist in:
English Irish
Mayo Contae Mhaigh Eo
Meath Contae na Mí
Waterford Contae Phort Láirge
Cork Contae Chorcaí
.To summarise the extent of the survival: (See Hindley, 'The Death of the Irish Language', Map 7: Irish speakers by towns and distinct electoral divisions, census 1926.) Irish remains as a natural vernacular in the following areas: south Connemara, from a point west of Spiddal, covering Inverin, Carraroe, Rosmuck, and the islands; the Aran Islands; northwest Donegal in the area around Gweedore, including Rannafast, Gortahork, the surrounding townlands and Tory Island; in the townland of Rathcarn, Co.^ Ulster Irish is spoken as a community language in the Gaeltacht of west Donegal.

^ Irish language bookshop in Bray, Co.
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  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

^ The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands.

Meath.
.Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair),County Donegal is the largest Gaeltacht parish in Ireland.^ Gweedore , County Donegal is the largest Gaeltacht parish in Ireland .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gweedore, County Donegal is the largest Gaeltacht parish in Ireland.

^ The largest number of Irish speakers is in County Galway (49.8%), part of which is in the Gaeltacht, and the lowest number is in Dublin (37.2%).

.The numerically and socially strongest Gaeltacht areas are those of South Connemara, the west of the Dingle Peninsula and northwest Donegal, in which the majority of residents use Irish as their primary language.^ Ulster Irish is spoken as a community language in the Gaeltacht of west Donegal.

^ Irish Words used in the English Language .
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The numerically strongest Gaeltachta are those of Connemara and Aran.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These areas are often referred to as the Fíor-Ghaeltacht ("true Gaeltacht") and collectively have a population just under 20,000.
"Caution Children"
.Irish summer colleges are attended by tens of thousands of Irish teenagers annually.^ Gaeltacht summer schools are attended by tens of thousands of Irish teenagers annually.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2006, 23, 328 teenagers attended courses in 42 summer colleges, staying with over 600 families.

.Students live with Gaeltacht families, attend classes, participate in sports, go to céilithe and are obliged to speak Irish.^ Students live with Gaeltacht families, attend classes, participate in sports and go to céilis and are obliged to speak Irish.

^ Many schoolchildren improve their Irish by attending Gaeltacht courses and staying with Irish-speaking families.

^ The language went into long-term decline, with Gaeltacht areas (exclusively Irish speaking areas) shrinking as the results of each national census returns were analysed.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All aspects of Irish culture and tradition are encouraged.^ Certain aspects of some Irish language discourses have already been incorporated into the dominant discourses, particularly those linked to the discourses of community relations and cultural diversity.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group feels that Irish culture has not been imported from other parts of Ireland, but represents part of the tradition of their local community.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And, importantly, the promotion of Irish is put above all other political and cultural considerations.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to data compiled by the Irish Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, only one quarter of households in officially Gaeltacht areas possess a fluency in Irish.^ According to data compiled the Irish Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, only one quarter of households in Gaeltacht areas possess a fluency in gaelic.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to data compiled by the Irish Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, only one quarter of households in Gaeltacht areas possess a fluency in Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish remains the community language of many Gaeltacht areas.

The author of a detailed analysis of the survey, Donncha Ó hÉallaithe of the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, described the Irish language policy followed by Irish governments a "complete and absolute disaster". The Irish Times, referring to his analysis published in the Irish language newspaper Foinse, quoted him as follows: "It is an absolute indictment of successive Irish Governments that at the foundation of the Irish State there were 250,000 fluent Irish speakers living in Irish-speaking or semi Irish-speaking areas, but the number now is between 20,000 and 30,000."[34]

Dialects

.There are a number of distinct dialects of Irish.^ There are a number of distinct dialects of Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there different dialects of the Irish language?

^ There are fewer problems regarding written Irish as there is a standardised spelling and grammar which reflects a compromise between various dialect forms.

.Roughly speaking, the three major dialect areas coincide with the provinces of Munster (Cúige Mumhan), Connacht (Cúige Chonnacht) and Ulster (Cúige Uladh).^ Roughly speaking, the three major dialect areas coincide with the provinces of Munster ( Cúige Mumhan ), Connacht ( Cúige Chonnacht ) and Ulster ( Cúige Uladh ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly speaking, the three major dialect areas coincide with the provinces of Munster), Connacht and Ulster.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 3 main dialects - Ulster, Munster and Connacht.

.Records of some dialects of Leinster were made by the Irish Folklore Commission among other bodies prior to their extinction.^ The dialects of Irish native to Leinster , the fourth province of Ireland, became extinct during the 20th century, but records of some of these were made by the Irish Folklore Commission among other bodies prior to this.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dialects of Irish native to Leinster, the fourth province of Ireland, became extinct during the 20th century, but records of some of these were made by the Irish Folklore Commission among other bodies prior to this.

^ The extant dialects of Irish native to Leinster , the fourth province of Ireland, became extinct during the 20th century , but records of some of these were made by the Irish Folklore Commission among other bodies prior to this.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newfoundland, in eastern Canada, is also seen to have a minor dialect of Irish, closely resembling the Munster Irish spoken during the 16th to 17th centuries (see Newfoundland Irish).^ Although Irish was once spoken across Ireland, it exists today as a minority language in Ireland, spoken in specific communities and in officially-recognized Gaeltachtaí, Irish-speaking regions.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Spoken Irish has three main dialects, Munster (Cork and Kerry), Connemara and Ulster (Donegal).
  • Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic Pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.standingstones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

Munster

.Munster Irish is mainly spoken in the Gaeltacht areas of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Ring (An Rinn) near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge) and Muskerry (Múscraí) and Cape Clear Island (Oileán Chléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí).^ Munster Irish is spoken in the Gaeltachtaí of Kerry ( Contae Chiarraí ), Muskerry ( Múscraí ), Cape Clear ( Oileán Cléire ) in the western part of County Cork ( Contae Chorcaí ), and the tiny pocket of Irish-speakers in An Rinn near Dungarvan ( Dún Garbháin ) in County Waterford ( Contae Phort Láirge ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Munster Irish is spoken in the Gaeltachtaí of Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), Muskerry (Múscraí), Cape Clear (Oileán Cléire) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí), and the tiny pocket of Irish-speakers in An Rinn near Dungarvan (Dún Garbháin) in County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge).

^ Adult Irish courses in the Munster Gaeltacht.
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  • Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann - Cooley-Keegan Branch, San Francisco - Irish Language 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC sf.ccewest.org [Source type: General]

.The most important subdivision in Munster is that between Decies Irish (Na Déise) (spoken in Waterford) and the rest of Munster Irish.^ The most important subdivision in Munster is that between Decies Irish (spoken in Waterford) and the rest of Munster Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the most important subdivision is that between Northern Mayo Irish and the rest of Connacht.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spoken Irish has three main dialects, Munster (Cork and Kerry), Connemara and Ulster (Donegal).
  • Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic Pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.standingstones.com [Source type: Original source]

Some typical features of Munster Irish are:
.
  1. The use of endings to show person on verbs in parallel with a pronominal subject system, thus "I must" is in Munster caithfead as well as caithfidh mé, while other dialects prefer caithfidh mé ( means "I").^ The one typical feature of Munster Irish is the use of personal endings instead of pronouns with verbs, thus "I must" is in Munster "caithfead", while other dialects prefer "caithfidh m" ("m" means "I").
    • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some typical features of Munster Irish are:# The use of personal endings instead of pronouns with verbs, thus "I must" is in Munster caithfead , while other dialects prefer caithfidh mé ( mé means "I").
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The use of personal endings instead of pronouns with verbs, thus "I must" is in Munster caithfead , while other dialects prefer caithfidh mé ( mé means "I").

    ."I was and you were" is Bhíos agus bhís as well as Bhí mé agus bhí tú in Munster, but more commonly Bhí mé agus bhí tú in other dialects.^ "I was and you were" is Bhos agus bhs in Munster but Bh m agus bh t in other dialects.
    • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "I was and you were" is Bhíos agus bhís in Munster but Bhí mé agus bhí tú in other dialects.# In front of nasals and "ll" some short vowels are lengthened while other are diphthongised.# A copula -construction involving is ea is frequently used.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Connacht Irish tends to be more widespread than any other dialect, as most Irish teachers tend to come from there, although, obviously, there are many exceptions.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Note that these are strong tendencies, and the personal forms Bhíos etc.^ Note that the use of these personal forms is mandatory.
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    are used in the .West and North, particularly when the words are last in the clause.
  2. Use of independent/dependent forms of verbs that are not included in the Standard.^ The archaic term Erse (from Erisch) , originally a Scots form of the word Irish , is no longer used and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The most unfamiliar features of the language are the orthography , the initial consonant mutations , the Verb Subject Object word order, and the use of two different forms for "to be".
    • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The archaic term Erse, originally a Scots form of the word Iris h , is no longer used and in most contexts is considered derogatory.

    .For example, "I see" in Munster is chím, which is the independent form – Northern Irish also uses a similar form, tchím), whereas "I do not see" is ní fheicim, feicim being the dependent form, which is used after particles such as "not").^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, in Munster Irish the latter ends in an audible -g sound, because final -idh, -igh regularly becomes -ig in Munster pronunciation.
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    ^ The archaic term Erse (from Erisch) , originally a Scots form of the word Irish , is no longer used and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Chím is replaced by feicim in the Standard. .Similarly, the traditional form preserved in Munster bheirim I give/ní thugaim is tugaim/ní thugaim in the Standard; gheibhim I get/ní bhfaighim is faighim/ní bhfaighim.
  3. When before -nn, -m, -rr, -rd, -ll and so on, in monosyllabic words and in the stressed syllable of multisyllabic words where the syllable is followed by a consonant, some short vowels are lengthened while others are diphthongised, thus ceann [kʲaun] "head", cam [kɑum] "crooked", gearr [gʲa:r] "short", ord [o:rd] "sledgehammer", gall [gɑul] "foreigner, non-Gael", iontas [u:ntəs] "a wonder, a marvel", compánach [kəum'pɑ:nəx] "companion, mate", etc.
  4. A copular construction involving ea "it" is frequently used.^ There is an alternative sort of classification sentence, which uses the word ea and is especially common in southern dialects: .
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A copula-construction involving is ea is frequently used.
    • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In unstressed syllables, short vowels - i.e.
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Thus "I am an Irish person" can be said is Éireannach mé and Éireannach is ea mé in Munster; there is a subtle difference in meaning, however, the first choice being a simple statement of fact, while the second brings emphasis onto the word Éireannach.^ In Munster Irish, things are different, but we are not dealing with that.
    • Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic Pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.standingstones.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Are there different dialects of the Irish language?

    ^ There is an alternative sort of classification sentence, which uses the word ea and is especially common in southern dialects: .
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In effect the construction is a type of "fronting".
  5. Both masculine and feminine words are subject to lenition after insan (sa/san) 'in the', den 'of the' and don 'to/for the' : sa tsiopa, "in the shop", compared to the Standard sa siopa (the Standard lenites only feminine nouns in the dative in these cases).
  6. Eclipsis of f after sa: sa bhfeirm, "in the farm", instead of san fheirm.
  7. Eclipsis of t and d after the preposition+singular article with all prepositions except after insan, den and don: ar an dtigh "on the house", ag an ndoras "at the door".
  8. Stress falls in general found on the second syllable of a word when the first syllable contains a short vowel, and the second syllable contains a long vowel, diphthong, or is -(e)ach, e.g.^ We see this instead of lenition after the definite article in the nominative singular of feminine nouns : .
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ First of all — wonderful article!

    ^ The disc includes nine topics: first words, food, colours, phrases, parts of the body, numbers, time, shopping and countries.

    bioRÁN ("pin"), as opposed to BIOrán in Connacht and Ulster.

Connacht

.The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands.^ The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands.

^ The strongest dialect of Connacht Irish is to be found in Connemara and the Aran Islands .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spoken Irish has three main dialects, Munster (Cork and Kerry), Connemara and Ulster (Donegal).
  • Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic Pronunciation 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.standingstones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Much closer to the larger Connacht Gaeltacht is the dialect spoken in the smaller region on the border between Galway (Gaillimh) and Mayo (Maigh Eo).^ Much closer to the traditional Connacht Irish is the very threatened dialect spoken in the region on the border between Galway (Gaillimh) and Mayo (Maigh Eo).

^ Much closer to the traditional Connacht Irish is the very threatened dialect spoken in the region on the border between Galway ( Gaillimh ) and Mayo ( Maigh Eo ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mayo and Connemara, and canúint na Muamhan 'Munster dialect' in the southwest region.
  • Spelling Society : Irish spelling. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spellingsociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The northern Mayo dialect of Erris (Iorras) and Achill (Acaill) is in grammar and morphology essentially a Connacht dialect, but shows some similarities to Ulster Irish due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster.^ Northern Mayo dialect is in grammar and word-building essentially a Connacht dialect, but shows an affinity in vocabulary with Ulster Irish.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the northern Mayo dialect of Erris ( Iorras ) and Achill ( Acaill ) is in grammar and word-building essentially a Connacht dialect; but shows an affinity in vocabulary with Ulster Irish, due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the northern Mayo dialect of Erris ( Iorras ) and Achill ( Acaill ) is in grammar and word-building essentially a Connacht dialect; but shows an affinity in vocabulary with Ulster Irish, due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Ulster Plantation .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, e.g.^ However, there are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, such as lagachan instead of lag , "weakening".
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, such as lagachan instead of lagú, "weakening".

^ However, there are features in Connacht Irish which are not accepted standard, notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, such as "lagachan" instead of "lag" = "weakening".
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.lagachan instead of lagú, "weakening". The non-standard pronunciation of the Cois Fharraige area with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings gives it a distinct sound.^ The non-standard pronunciation with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings give Connemara Irish its distinct sound.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, such as lagachan instead of lag , "weakening".
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there are features in Connemara Irish outside the official standard—notably the preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan, such as lagachan instead of lagú, "weakening".

.Distinguishing features of Connacht and Ulster dialect include the pronunciation of word final broad bh and mh as [w], rather than as [vˠ] in Munster.^ There are 3 main dialects - Ulster, Munster and Connacht.

^ Also, the northern Mayo dialect of Erris (Iorras) and Achill (Acaill) is in grammar and word-building essentially a Connacht dialect; but shows an affinity in vocabulary with Ulster Irish, due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster.

^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example sliabh ("mountain") is pronounced [ʃlʲiəw] in Connacht and Ulster as opposed to [ʃlʲiəβ] in the south.^ The distinguishing features of this dialect include the prounouncing of 'bh' as 'w', rather than as 'v' in other parts of the country: for example 'Ní raibh' is pronounced "Ni raow" in Connacht as opposed to "Ni rev" elsewhere.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition Connacht and Ulster speakers tend to include the "we" pronoun rather than use the standard compound form used in Munster e.g.^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly speaking, the three major dialect areas coincide with the provinces of Munster), Connacht and Ulster.
  • Irish Language: Basic Facts and Resources 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition Connacht speakers tend to put the "we" pronoun at the end of the verb rather than with the verb itself: for example "Bhí muid" is used for 'we were' instead of "Bhíomar" elsewhere.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.bhí muid is used for "we were" instead of bhíomar.^ In addition Connacht speakers tend to put the "we" pronoun at the end of the verb rather than with the verb itself: for example "Bhí muid" is used for 'we were' instead of "Bhíomar" elsewhere.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like in Munster Irish, when before -nn, -m, -rr, -rd, -ll and so on, in monosyllabic words and in the stressed syllable of multisyllabic words where the syllable is followed by a consonant, some short vowels are lengthened while others are diphthongised, thus ceann [kʲaun] "head", cam [kɑum] "crooked", gearr [gʲɑ:r] "short", ord [ourd] "sledgehammer", gall [gɑul] "foreigner, non-Gael", iontas [i:ntəs] "a wonder, a marvel", etc.^ One may be a Scottish Gaelic surname Cam-beul meaning crooked mouth or the Irish Gaelic name Mac Cathmhaoil meaning son of the battle chieftain.

^ Indeed, Scots Gaelic does have lots of non-Ulster features in common with Munster Irish, too.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In written Irish, like French, an accent ( ) may sometimes appear over vowels.

.The present-day Irish of Meath (in Leinster) is a special case.^ The Irish of Meath is a special case.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The present-day Irish of Meath (in Leinster) is a special case.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With her death came the extinction of the East Ulster dialect of Irish which had been spoken in what is present-day Northern Ireland.

It belongs mainly to the Connemara dialect. .The Irish-speaking community in Meath is mostly a group of Connemara speakers who moved there in the 1930s after a land reform campaign spearheaded by Máirtín Ó Cadhain (who subsequently became one of the greatest modernist writers in the language).^ It belongs to the Connemara dialect, as the Irish-speaking community in Meath is simply a group of mostly Connemara speakers who moved there in the 1930s , after a land reform campaign spearheaded by Mirtn Cadhain (subsequently one of the greatest modernist writers in the language).
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to me to be able to speak the language that the Irish were stripped of.
  • Ireland’s Language Remains on Life Support - The Lede Blog - NYTimes.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC thelede.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ It belongs to the Connemara dialect, as the Irish-speaking community in Meath is simply a group of mostly Connemara speakers who moved there in the 1930s, after a land reform campaign spearheaded by Máirtín " Cadhain (subsequently one of the greatest modernist writers in the language).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Irish President Douglas Hyde was one of the last of speakers of the Roscommon dialect of Irish.^ One of the guest speakers was Brid ni Chianain, Irish language and cultural activist.

^ The positive impact of this decision will be hugely influential for the one million plus Irish speakers and learners in this country, as well as opening up further employment opportunities for Irish speakers.

^ One of the last speakers of Antrim Irish, Jimmy Stewart of Murlough, died in 1950, and the last speaker of Tyrone Irish, Johnny McAleer, died in 1970.

Ulster

.Linguistically the most important of the Ulster dialects today is that of the Rosses (na Rossa), which has been used extensively in literature by such authors as the brothers Séamus Ó Grianna and Seosamh Mac Grianna, locally known as Jimí Fheilimí and Joe Fheilimí.^ The most important of the Ulster dialects today is that of the Rosses (na Rosa), which has been used extensively in literature by such authors as the brothers Séamus Ó Grianna and Seosamh Mac Grianna, locally known as Jimí Fheilimí and Joe Fheilimí.

^ The most important of the Ulster dialects today is that of the Rosses ( na Rosa ), which has been used extensively in literature by such authors as the brothers Samus and Seosamh Mac Grianna, locally known as Jim Fheilim and Joe Fheilim.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important of the Ulster dialects today is that of the Rosses (na Rosa), which has been used extensively in literature by such authors as the brothers Samus and Seosamh Mac Grianna, locally known as Jim Fheilim and Joe Fheilim.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This dialect is essentially the same as that in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair = Inlet of Streaming Water), and used by native singers Enya (Eithne) and Máire Brennan and their siblings in Clannad (Clann as Dobhar = Family from the Dobhar[a section of Gweedore]) Na Casaidigh, and Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh from another local band Altan.^ This dialect is essentially the same as that in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair= Inlet of Streaming Water), the same dialect used by native speaker Enya (Eithne) and her siblings in Clannad (Clann as Dobhar = Family from the Water).

^ This dialect is essentially the same as that in Gweedore ( Gaoth Dobhair = Inlet of Streaming Water), the same dialect used by native speaker Enya ( Eithne ) and her siblings in Clannad ( Clann as Dobhar = Family from the Water).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, native speakers of Mandarin retain an accent from their own dialect, actually making it harder for the person who is using your tips to comprehend.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Ulster Irish sounds very different and shares several features with Scottish Gaelic, as well as having lots of characteristic words and shades of meanings.^ Ulster Irish sounds very different and shares several in Ireland unusual features with Scots Gaelic, as well as having lots of peculiar words and shades of meanings.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between Irish and Gaelic?

^ Words have several meanings.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.^ However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With her death came the extinction of the East Ulster dialect of Irish which had been spoken in what is present-day Northern Ireland.

.For instance, Northern Scottish Gaelic has many non-Ulster features in common with Munster Irish.^ Indeed, Scots Gaelic does have lots of non-Ulster features in common with Munster Irish, too.
  • Irish language - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some typical features of Munster Irish are: .
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, Scottish Gaelic does have lots of non-Ulster features in common with Munster Irish, too.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One noticeable trait of Ulster Irish and Scots Gaelic is the use of the negative particle cha(n) in place of the Munster and Connacht .^ One noticeable trait of Ulster Irish is the use of the negative participle cha(n) , in place of the Munster and Connaught version ní .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One noticeable trait of Ulster Irish is the use of the negative participle cha(n) , in place of the Munster and Connaught version n .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Southern Ulster irish retains most strongly, while cha(n) has ousted in northernmost dialects (e.g.^ However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

^ However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland , it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Connacht Irish tends to be more widespread than any other dialect, as most Irish teachers tend to come from there, although, obviously, there are many exceptions.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Rosguill and Tory Island), though even in these areas níl "is not" is more common than chan fhuil or cha bhfuil.^ Even if atheism is on the rise more heavily in Northern Europe than nearly anywhere else, the atheism concentration map is akin to one depicting cell phone coverage.
  • Irish atheists challenge new law - soc.culture.irish | Google Groups 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protestant learners are more concerned with finding appropriate evening-classes than battling with the Department of Education to secure funding for Irish-medium schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Even in Ulster, cha(n) , most typical of Scottish Gaelic, has ousted the more common n only in easternmost dialects (including the now defunct ones once spoken in what is now Northern Ireland).
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35][36]

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil

.An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is the standard language, which is taught in most schools in Ireland, though with strong influences from local dialects.^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (IPA: ), which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge, which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.

^ They are most usual in southern dialects; northern dialects prefer taobh "side", with the relevant local adverb added .
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its development had two purposes. .One was to simplify Irish spelling, which had retained its Classical spelling, by removing many silent letters, and to give a standard written form that was "dialect free". Though many aspects of the Caighdeán are essentially those of Connacht Irish, this was simply because this is the central dialect which forms a "bridge", as it were, between the North and South.^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic / Gaeilic / Gaeilig (IPA: ) or Gaedhlag (IPA: ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing / Gaoluinn / Gaelainn (IPA: ) in Munster Irish .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the end of the nineteen forties, Irish was printed in a special typeface called Gaelic type, essentially a printed representation of medieval manuscript letters.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects, in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge mentioned above, include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig or Gaedhlag in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn / in Munster Iris .

.In reality, dialect speakers pronounce words as in their own dialect, as the spelling simply reflects the pronunciation of Classical Irish.^ Thus an Irish speaker might say i mBoston (in Boston) which is pronounced [i moston] the b sound is lost in pronunciation, but retained in the spelling to enable the reader to recognise the word before the sound was changed.

^ There are fewer problems regarding written Irish as there is a standardised spelling and grammar which reflects a compromise between various dialect forms.

^ Students in the Eastern part of Ireland tend to pronounce the Irish words in an English way rather than in a Gaelic way.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, ceann "head" in early modern Irish was pronounced [cenˠː].^ Irish (early and modern) Irish Literature English Literature American Literature Irish Literature Modernism .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Irish (early and modern) English Literature British Literature Scottish Literature .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ British History Irish Theatre Irish (early and modern) Irish Music Northern Irish Politics .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The spelling has been retained, but the word is variously pronounced [caun] in the South, [cɑːn] in Connacht, and [cænː] in the North.^ They automatically induced real-word errors by replacing words by any spelling variation found in the lexicon of the ispell spelling checker.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Mistakes related to words that are pronounced similarly but are spelled differently are very hard to detect, however.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

.Beag "small" was [bʲɛɡ] in early modern Irish, and is now [bʲɛɡ] in Waterford Irish, [bʲɔɡ] in Cork-Kerry Irish, varies between [bʲɔɡ] and [bʲæɡ] in the West, and is [bʲœɡ] in the North.^ Composition and Rhetoric Postcolonial Studies Humanities Irish (early and modern) Literacy English Literature Marxism Creative Writing Cultural Studies .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Irish (early and modern) Irish Literature English Literature American Literature Irish Literature Modernism .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Irish (early and modern) Irish Literature Irish linguistics Music Ethnomusicology Music Education Music History Musicology Ethnomusicology Popular Music Political Science Propaganda & Indoctrination Studies ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Irish (early and modern) as a research interest (64) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The simplification, however, in some cases probably went too far in simplifying the standard with only reference to the West.^ However, some Ulster Irish speakers find that Ulster forms are generally not favoured by the standard.

^ I’ve had some success using Linkword Languages off-the-peg mnemonics product in Russian, the only problem with it, however, is the limited vocabulary size.

^ My note on learning only past will have some of you saying “But the past imperfect is the correct tense in many cases.” And you’re right.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the early modern Irish leabaidh [lʲebʷɨʝ] "bed" is pronounced [lʲabʷə] as well as [lʲabʷɨɟ] in Waterford Irish, [lʲabʷɨɟ] in Cork-Kerry Irish, [lʲæbʷə] in Connacht Irish ([lʲæːbʷə] in Cois Fharraige Irish), and [lʲæbʷi] in the North.^ For example, the two traditions idea meshes well with the concept of parity of esteem and the assertion made by many nationalists that Irish is our own language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in Munster Irish (Kerry), a is /ʌ/ or /ɑ/ and is /ɔ/ in "law" but in Ulster Irish (Donegal), tends to be /ɑː/ .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This north Down learner attributes her interest in Irish to her family history, her childhood experiences, as well her fascination with language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Native speakers from the North and South consider that leabaidh should be the representation in the Caighdeán rather than actual leaba.^ In this case, the speaker is using military to refer to the republican armed struggle rather than the Irish or British army.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, native speakers of Mandarin retain an accent from their own dialect, actually making it harder for the person who is using your tips to comprehend.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you’re a native Japanese speaker, respectively handicapped with a bit more than 20 phonemes in your language, some languages will seem near impossible.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.On the other hand, the Caighdeán arguably did not go far enough in many cases.^ In the Irish language movement, as with many other community groups, this would mean shunning a number of important activists and in some cases, personal friends and colleagues.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand many of those who would resent the language would hardly put themselves down as Irish speakers though, would they?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, the common heritage idea meshes with the widespread assertion made by many nationalists that the language belongs to both Protestants and Catholics.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, it has retained the Classical Irish spelling of ar "on, for, etc."^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in classical Modern Irish.

^ Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge ; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg , the form used in classical Modern Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and .ag "at, by, of, etc.". The first is pronounced [ɛɾʲ] throughout the Goidelic-speaking world (and is written er in Manx, and air in Scottish Gaelic), and should be written either eir or oir or air in Irish.^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), and Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man, though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.

^ The Diarmuid O Sé and Joseph Shiels' book proposes a few pages, at the beginning of the book, telling you what the "code" to pronounce Irish is, as in bh in Irish = v in English, mh in Irish=v or w, etc.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (), and Manx Gaelic (), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man , though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second is pronounced [ɪɟ] in the South, and [ɛɟ] in the North and West. .Again, Manx and Scottish Gaelic reflect this pronunciation much more clearly than Irish does (Manx ec, Scottish aig).^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), and Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man, though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.

^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (), and Manx Gaelic (), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man , though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One may be a Scottish Gaelic surname Cam-beul meaning crooked mouth or the Irish Gaelic name Mac Cathmhaoil meaning son of the battle chieftain.

.In many cases, however, the Caighdeán can only refer to the Classical language, in that every dialect is different, as happens in the personal forms of ag "at, by, of, etc."^ Are there different dialects of the Irish language?

^ My note on learning only past will have some of you saying “But the past imperfect is the correct tense in many cases.” And you’re right.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ However, many working-class learners do not have access to the information that would enable them to challenge the dominant republican / Catholic image of the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

  • Munster : agùm, agùt, igè, icì, agùing/aguìng (West Cork/Kerry agùin/aguìn), agùibh/aguìbh, acù
  • Connacht : am (agam), ad (agad), aige [egɨ], aici [ekɨ], ainn, aguí, acab
  • Ulster : aigheam, aighead, aige [egɨ], aicí [eki], aighinn, aighif, acú
  • Caighdeán : agam, agat, aige, aici, againn, agaibh, acu
.Another purpose was to create a grammatically "simplified" standard which would make the language easier to learn for the majority English speaking school population.^ Learning another language?
  • Irish | Welcome to languageadvantage.com. Learn to speak a language! 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC languageadvantage.com [Source type: General]

^ Make language learning a RATIONAL process!

^ Learn to speak a language!
  • Irish | Welcome to languageadvantage.com. Learn to speak a language! 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC languageadvantage.com [Source type: General]

.In part this is why the Caighdeán is not universally respected by native speakers, in that it makes simplified language an ideal, rather than the ideal that native speakers traditionally had of their dialects (or of the Classical dialect if they had knowledge of that).^ So this makes Irish my 'native' language?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Courses in 36 different languages Over 160 hours of lessons for each Helpful tips from native speakers Focus on conversation skills .
  • Language Learning with Livemocha | Learn a Language Online - Free! 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.livemocha.com [Source type: General]

^ In this case, the speaker is using military to refer to the republican armed struggle rather than the Irish or British army.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of course, this was not the original aim of the developers, who rather saw the "school-version" Caighdeán as a means of easing second-language learners into the task of learning "full" Irish.^ Re: Irish language learning advice.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

^ Irish language learning advice.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

^ This all very cool, but a ran into a guy who has a method for learning languages in 1 day – and I mean really to learn.

.The Caighdeán verb system is a prime example, with the reduction in irregular verb forms and personal forms of the verb – except for the first persons.^ The verb tá is in its forms and syntax similar enough to other Irish verbs, but it is irregular, as the verb "to be" in English, and indeed its equivalents in most other languages.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the word for "at" is ag , which in the first person singular becomes agam "at me".
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, once the word "standard" becomes used, the forms represented as "standard" take on a power of their own, and therefore the ultimate goal has become forgotten in many circles.^ The archaic term Erse (from Erisch) , originally a Scots form of the word Irish , is no longer used and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Irish people however, consider the use of the word Irish to push the point of view that being Irish is synonymous with being Gaelic.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find in Dickens however (in his own words) that the wind 'was obviously determined to make a night of it .'
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Caighdeán is in general spoken by non-native speakers, frequently from the capital, and is sometimes also called "Dublin Irish". As it is taught in many Irish-Language schools (where Irish is the main, or sometimes only, medium of instruction), it is also sometimes called "Gaelscoil Irish". The so-called "Belfast Irish", spoken in that city's Gaeltacht Quarter is the Caighdeán heavily influenced by Ulster Irish.^ Ulster Irish is spoken as a community language in the Gaeltacht of west Donegal.

^ The Gaeltacht is meant as a place when Irish can survive as a spoken language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What has been called "Dublin Irish" or "Gaelscoil Irish" has also arisen, that is Irish heavily influenced by English.

Comparisons

.The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.^ What is the difference between Irish and Gaelic?

^ Are there different dialects of the Irish language?

^ The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A good example is the greeting "How are you?". Just as this greeting varies from region to region, and between social classes, among English speakers, this greeting varies among Irish speakers:
.
  • Ulster: Cad é mar atá tú? ("What is it as you are?"^ Even everyday phrases can show startling dialectal variation: the standard example is "How are you?": * Ulster: Cad é mar atá tú?
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ulster: Cad é mar atá tú?

    ^ My father had Irish - the only thing that I remember him saying was Cad é mar atá tú (How are you?
    • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Note: caidé or goidé and sometimes are alternative renderings of cad é)
  • Connacht: Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? ("What way [is it] that you are?"^ Note: caidé or goidé and sometimes dé are alternative renderings of cad é ) Connacht: Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú?

    ^ Note: caid or goid are alternative renderings of cad ) Connacht: cn chaoi a bhfuil t?
    • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note: caidé or goidé and sometimes dé are alternative renderings of cad é ) * Connacht: Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú?
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • .
  • Munster: Conas taoi? or Conas tánn tú? ("How are you?"^ My father had Irish - the only thing that I remember him saying was Cad é mar atá tú (How are you?
    • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Conas tánn tú?
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even everyday phrases can show startling dialectal variation: the standard example is "How are you?": * Ulster: Cad é mar atá tú?
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    - .conas was originally cia nós "what custom/way")
  • "Standard" Irish: Conas atá tú? ("How are you?"^ In Irish, though, you must always use tú and related forms when talking to one person, sibh and related forms when talking to several persons.
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a more standard Irish, this would be tá muid mar a fheiceann tú sinn .
    • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Irish nonsense and all I can remember is how to say “thank you,” “My name is XYZ,” and, fittingly, “Goodbye.” I forgot it as soon as I possibly could.
    • Ireland’s Language Remains on Life Support - The Lede Blog - NYTimes.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC thelede.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    )
.In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more frequent and the differences between the dialects are less noticeable.^ In recent times, however, contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more common, and mixed dialects have originated.
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protestant learners feel a sense of difference between themselves and Catholic Irish speakers, but the potential to form lifelong friendships with Catholics exists.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Linguistic structure

.The features most unfamiliar to English speakers of the language are the orthography, the initial consonant mutations, the Verb Subject Object word order, and the use of two different forms for "to be". None of these features are peculiar to Irish, however.^ However, further placenames orders have been passed to enable both the English and the Irish placenames to be used.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These meanings are mapped differently by different languages.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The most unfamiliar features of the language are the orthography , the initial consonant mutations , the Verb Subject Object word order, and the use of two different forms for "to be".
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All of them occur in other Celtic languages as well as in non-Celtic languages: morphosyntactically triggered initial consonant mutations are found in Fula, VSO word order is found in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew, and Portuguese and Spanish have two different forms for "to be".

Syntax

.Word order in Irish is of the form VSO (Verb-Subject-Object) so that, for example, "He hit me" is Bhuail [hit-past tense] [he] [me].^ Second, I’m looking at the fundamental sentence structure: is it subject-verb-object (SOV)” .
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The verb tá is in its forms and syntax similar enough to other Irish verbs, but it is irregular, as the verb "to be" in English, and indeed its equivalents in most other languages.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You suppose that all languages have structures including subjects, verbs and objects which is wrong (but mostly right for 80% of languages).
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.One aspect of Irish syntax that is unfamiliar to speakers of other languages is the use of the copula (known in Irish as an chopail).^ Aspects of the Irish language movement.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One aspect of Irish syntax that is unfamiliar to speakers of other languages is the use of the copula (known in Irish as an chopail ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (), and Manx Gaelic (), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man , though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The copula is used to describe the permanent identity or characteristic of a person or thing (e.g.^ The copula is used to describe what or who someone is, as opposed to how and where.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."who" or "what"), as opposed to temporary aspects such as "how", "where", "why" and so on.^ The copula is used to describe what or who someone is, as opposed to how and where.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If that’s the goal, why not just ask a native speaker of your language who learned the target language how difficult it was to learn?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.This has been likened to the difference between the verbs ser and estar in Spanish and Portuguese (see Romance copula), although this is not an exact match.^ This has been likened to the difference between the verbs ser and estar in Spanish and Portuguese , although this is only a rough approximation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has been likened to the difference between the verbs ser and estar in Spanish and Portuguese, although this is only a rough approximation.

^ Think Portuguese is just slower Spanish with a few different words?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
Examples are:
  • Is fear é. "He is a man." (Spanish Es un hombre, Portuguese É um homem)
  • Is fuar é. "He is a cold(hearted) person." (Spanish Es frío, Portuguese É frio)
  • Tá sé/Tomás fuar. "He/Thomas is cold" (= feels cold). .(Spanish Tiene frío – in this case Spanish says "has", Portuguese Está com frio)
  • Tá sé/Tomás ina chodladh. "He/Thomas is asleep."^ If you know a very similar language, with very similar vocabulary, as is the case with attempting Portuguese when you know Spanish, you can essentially skip the introductory stage.
    • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

    (Spanish Está durmiendo, Portuguese Está dormido)
  • Is maith é. "He is good (a good person)." (Spanish Es bueno, Portuguese É bom)
  • Tá sé go maith. "He is well." (Spanish Está bien, Portuguese Está bem)

Morphology

.Another feature of Irish grammar that is shared with other Celtic languages is the use of prepositional pronouns (forainmneacha réamhfhoclacha), which are essentially conjugated prepositions.^ Another feature of Irish grammar that is shared with other Celtic languages is the use of prepositional pronouns.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another feature of Irish grammar that is shared with other Celtic languages is the use of prepositional pronouns ( forainmneacha réamhfhoclacha ), which are essentially conjugated prepositions.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the term Irish also avoids confusion with Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), and Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), the closely related languages spoken in Scotland and the Isle of Man, though the term Irish Gaelic is often used when the three languages and their relationship to one another are being discussed.

For example, the word for "at" is ag, which in the first person singular becomes agam "at me". When used with the verb ("to be") ag indicates possession; this is the equivalent of the English verb "to have".
.
  • Tá leabhar agam. "I have a book."^ Tá leabhar agam .
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Literally, "there is a book at me.")
  • Tá leabhar agat. "You have a book."
  • Tá leabhar aige. "He has a book."
  • Tá leabhar aici. "She has a book."
  • Tá leabhar againn. "We have a book."
  • Tá leabhar agaibh. "You (plural) have a book."
  • Tá leabhar acu. "They have a book."

Orthography and pronunciation

"Gaelach" in the Gaelic script.
.The alphabet which modern Irish typically uses is similar to English without the letters j,k,q,v,w,x,y,z, however some anglicised words with no unique Irish meaning like 'Jeep' are written as 'Jíp'. Some words take a letter(s) not traditionally used and replace it with the closest phonetic sound, e.g.^ Some typical features of Munster Irish are: .
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish uses nowadays the following alphabet: .
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, he did not mean to take it seriously.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.'phone'>'Fón'. The written language looks rather daunting to those unfamiliar with it.^ The written language looks rather daunting to those unfamiliar with it.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish and tend to resort to a traditional and formal approach concentrating on written, rather than spoken, language.

.Once understood, the orthography is relatively straightforward.^ Once understood, the orthography is relatively straightforward.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The acute accent, or síneadh fada (´), serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality.^ The acute accent, or síneadh fada (´), serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality.

^ The acute accent , or síneadh fada (´), serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The acute accent, or sneadh fada (), serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in Munster Irish (Kerry), a is /a/ or /ɑ/ and á is /ɑː/ in "law" but in Ulster Irish (Donegal), á tends to be /æː/.^ Ulster Irish is spoken as a community language in the Gaeltacht of west Donegal.

^ This learner wishes to divest the Irish language of its unnecessary nationalist image, and views the language through unionist cultural lenses (for example, in his reference to Ulster Irish).
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One noticeable trait of Ulster Irish is the use of the negative participle cha(n) , in place of the Munster and Connaught version ní .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around the time of World War II, Séamas Daltún, in charge of Rannóg an Aistriúcháin (the official translations department of the Irish government), issued his own guidelines about how to standardise Irish spelling and grammar.^ Around the time of World War II , Séamas Daltún, in charge of Rannóg an Aistriúcháin (the official translations department of the Irish government), issued his own guidelines about how to standardise Irish spelling and grammar.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the time of World War II, Séamas Daltún, in charge of Rannóg an Aistriúcháin (the official translations department of the Irish government), issued his own guidelines about how to standardise Irish spelling and grammar.

^ The Irish language is a compulsory subject in government funded schools in the Republic of Ireland and has been so since the early days of the state The exemption from Irish on the grounds of time spent abroad or learning disability is subject to Circular 12/96 (primary education) and Circular M10/94 (secondary education) issued by the Department of Education and Science .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This de facto standard was subsequently approved of by the State and called the Official Standard or Caighdeán Oifigiúil.^ This de facto standard was subsequently approved of by the State and called the Official Standard or Caighdeán Oifigiúil .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (IPA: ), which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unification was de-facto abandoned as a policy of state in 1949, and economic self-sufficiency was abandoned ten years later when the state was faced with total economic and demographic collapse.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.It simplified and standardised the orthography.^ It simplified and standardised the orthography.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language.^ Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone has to use context to understand the spoken language, much more so than many other languages.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Tim, do the top 500 most common spoken words in a language hold across languages as the top100 do?

.Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected.^ Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afrikaans , a Germanic language derived from the same 16 th -century Dutch dialect that led to modern Dutch, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Their friends were raised in three languages at the same time and the oldest one is actually on his 6th’s one (spanish) wheras the second struggle more.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

Examples:
  • Gaedhealg / Gaedhilg(e) / Gaedhealaing / Gaeilic / Gaelainn / Gaoidhealg / GaolainnGaeilge, "Irish language" (Gaoluinn or Gaolainn is still used in books written in dialect by Munster authors, or as a facetious name for the Munster dialect)
  • Lughbhaidh, "Louth"
  • biadhbia, "food"
.The standard spelling does not always reflect every dialect's pronunciation.^ There are fewer problems regarding written Irish as there is a standardised spelling and grammar which reflects a compromise between various dialect forms.

^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (IPA: ), which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge, which reflects the southern Connacht pronunciation.

For example, in standard Irish, bia, "food", has the genitive bia. But in Munster Irish, the genitive is pronounced /bʲiːɟ/.[37] .For this reason, the spelling biadh is still used by the speakers of some dialects, in particular those that show a meaningful and audible difference between biadh (nominative case) and bídh (genitive case) "of food, food's". In Munster, the latter spelling regularly produces the pronunciation /bʲiːɟ/ because final -idh, -igh regularly delenites to -ig in Munster pronunciation.^ In some dialect texts from Munster, nach might be spelled nách .
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gaedhealg / Gaedhilg(e) / Gaedhealaing / Gaeilic / Gaelainn / Gaoidhealg / Gaolainn => Gaeilge , " Irish language " ( Gaoluinn or Gaolainn is still used in books written in dialect by Munster authors, or as a facetious name for the Munster dialect) Lughbhaidh => Lú , "Louth" biadh => bia , "food" (The orthography biadh is still used by the speakers of those dialects that show a meaningful and audible difference between biadh - nominative case - and bídh - genitive case: "of food, food's".

^ For example, in Munster Irish the latter ends in an audible -g sound, because final -idh, -igh regularly delenites to -ig in Munster pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another example would be the word crua, meaning "hard". This pronounced /kruəɟ/[38] in Munster, in line with the pre-Caighdeán spelling, cruaidh.^ If the more English spelling [mo wak] was used, it would be more difficult to recognise the unchanged word, as [mo wak] can also refer to mo bhac my obstruction.

^ This means that, in a search scenario, a user would not consider a document containing the words chef and oeuvre used separately as relevant if that user typed the keyword chef - d’œuvre .
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ An example of this process would be the change in the sound of the Irish word mac son in the phrase mo mhac [mo wak] my son.

.In Munster, ao is pronounced /eː/ and aoi pronounced /iː/,[39] but the new spellings of saoghal, "life, world", genitive: saoghail, have become saol, genitive saoil.^ The /ao/ of writing is basically a long [i:] preceded and followed by a broad consonant: saol "life, world" [si:l].
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This produces irregularities in the matchup between the spelling and pronunciation in Munster, because the word is pronounced /sˠeːl̪ˠ/, genitive /sˠeːlʲ/.^ Thus an Irish speaker might say i mBoston (in Boston) which is pronounced [i moston] the b sound is lost in pronunciation, but retained in the spelling to enable the reader to recognise the word before the sound was changed.

^ For example, in Munster Irish the latter ends in an audible -g sound, because final -idh, -igh regularly becomes -ig in Munster pronunciation.
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in Munster Irish the latter ends in an audible -g sound, because final -idh, -igh regularly delenites to -ig in Munster pronunciation.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.Modern Irish has only one diacritic sign, the acute (á é í ó ú), known in Irish as the síneadh fada "long mark", plural sínte fada.^ Modern Irish has only one diacritic sign, the acute (á é í ó ú), known in Irish as the síneadh fada 'long mark', plural sínte fada .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern Irish has only one diacritic sign, the acute ( ), known in Irish as the sneadh fada or simply fada .
  • Irish language - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, the acute accent ´ is the only diacritic sign used in Irish.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In English, this is frequently referred to as simply the fada, where the adjective is used as a noun.^ In English, this is frequently referred to as simply the fada , where the adjective is used as a noun.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English, this is frequently referred to as simply the fada, where the adjective is used as a noun.

^ If the more English spelling [mo wak] was used, it would be more difficult to recognise the unchanged word, as [mo wak] can also refer to mo bhac my obstruction.

.The dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte), derives from the punctum delens used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today.^ The dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte), derives from the punctum delens, which was used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today.

^ The dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte ), derives from the punctum delens , which was used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this usage it was used to indicate the lenition of s (from /s/ to /h/) and f (from /f/ to zero) in Old Irish texts.^ From this usage it was used to indicate the lenition of s (from /s/ to /h/) and f (from /f/ to zero) in Old Irish texts.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The punctum delens was used in order to indicate a modification of pronunciation called séimhiú or lenition (in older textbooks, it was mistakenly called aspiration, which is in proper linguistic usage something entirely different).
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lenition of c, p, and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked.^ Lenition of c , p , and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, lenition is indicated by adding a h after the lenited consonant.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An h after a consonant essentially softens the sound of the letter.

.Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n, and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h.^ Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The star ratings might be used heuristically to indicate both the quality of a discussant’s postings and the level of experience in that forum.

^ Let’s look at few of the methods I recently used to deconstructed Russian and Arabic to determine if I could reach fluency within a 3-month target time period.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were writing using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.^ Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were writing using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today Gaelic letters and the buailte are rarely used except where a 'traditional' style is required, e.g.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ K k - only used in proper names of foreign or English derivation; as the C is always a hard K sound in Irish, the letter K is not necessary for writing Irish.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today the Gaelic script and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e.g.^ Today Gaelic letters and the buailte are rarely used except where a 'traditional' style is required, e.g.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were writing using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the motto on the .University College Dublin coat of arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, The Irish Defence Forces cap badge (Óglaiġ na h-Éireann).^ University College Dublin coat-of-arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, The Irish Defence Forces cap badge ("glaiġ na h-Éireann) .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University College Dublin coat-of-arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, The Irish Defence Forces cap badge (Óglaiġ na h-Éireann).

^ As in the Republic, the Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart na hÉireann / Tuaisceart Éireann or na sé chontae (the six counties ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets (see Latin Extended Additional chart).^ Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets (see Latin Extended Additional chart (see [PDF]).

^ Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character set s (see Latin Extended Additional chart (see PDF ).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]

Mutations

In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations:
.
  • Lenition (in Irish, séimhiú "softening") describes the change of stops into fricatives.^ In Irish, there are two classes of initial mutations: * Lenition (in Irish, séimhiú "softening") describes the change of stops into fricatives.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lenition (in Irish, séimhiú "softening") describes the change of stops into fricatives.

    ^ In the second and third texts the speakers articulate the belief that unionist learners will change their outlook when they are drawn into Irish language circles.
    • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Indicated in old orthography by a buailte written above the changed consonant, this is now shown in writing by adding an -h:
    • caith! "throw!"^ Indicated in old orthography by a dot (called a sí buailte) written above the changed consonant, this is now shown by adding an extra -h-: caith!

      ^ Indicated in old orthography by a dot (called a sí buailte) written above the changed consonant, this is now shown by adding an extra -h-: ** caith!
      • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .chaith mé "I threw" (this is an example of the lenition as a past-tense marker, which is caused by the use of do, although it is now usually omitted)
    • margadh "market", "market-place", "bargain" — Tadhg an mhargaidh "the man of the street" (word for word "Tadhg of the market-place"; here we see the lenition marking the genitive case of a masculine noun)
    • Seán "Seán, John" — a Sheáin! "O John!"^ "I threw" (this is an example of the lenition as a past-tense marker, which is caused by the use of do , although this is now usually omitted) margadh "market", "market-place", "bargain" - Tadhg an mhargaidh "the man of the street" (word for word "Timothy of the market-place" (here we see the lenition marking the genitive case of a masculine noun) Seán "Seán, John" - a Sheáin!

      ^ Now that I see Tim’s comments about using Google translator I have a another question.

      ^ Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: lenition could be marked by a buailte or by a postposed h .
      • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .(here we see lenition as part of what is called the vocative case — in fact, the vocative lenition is triggered by the a or vocative marker before Sheáin)
  • Eclipsis (in Irish, urú) covers the voicing of voiceless stops, as well as the nasalisation of voiced stops.^ Sheáin ) * Nasalisation (in Irish, urú "eclipsis") covers the voicing of voiceless stops, as well as the true nasalisation of voiced stops.
    • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sheáin ) Nasalisation (in Irish, urú "eclipsis") covers the voicing of voiceless stops, as well as the true nasalisation of voiced stops.

    ^ "I threw" (this is an example of the lenition as a past-tense marker, which is caused by the use of do , although this is now usually omitted) margadh "market", "market-place", "bargain" - Tadhg an mhargaidh "the man of the street" (word for word "Timothy of the market-place" (here we see the lenition marking the genitive case of a masculine noun) Seán "Seán, John" - a Sheáin!

    • athair "father" — ár nAthair "our Father"
    • tús "start", ar dtús "at the start"
    • Gaillimh "Galway" — i nGaillimh "in Galway"

Current status

Republic of Ireland

Bilingual sign in English and Irish at Dublin Airport
.The number of native Irish-speakers in the Republic of Ireland today is a smaller fraction of the population than it was at independence.^ Irish is the national language of the Republic of Ireland.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ The number of native Irish-speakers in the Republic of Ireland today is a smaller fraction of what it was at independence.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.

.Many Irish speaking families encouraged their children to speak English as it was the language of education and employment; the Irish-speaking areas today were always relatively poor and remote, and this remoteness caused the survival of the language as a vernacular.^ Irish language today .
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children speak Irish in the classroom, but English is the language during recess.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish Jobs, Irish speaking jobs - Top Language Jobs   .

.The Official Languages Act of 2003 gave people the right to interact with state bodies in Irish.^ The Official Languages Act of 2003 gave people the right to interact with state bodies in Irish.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Irish language is important to the Irish state and the Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Nothing O Cuirreain does will change that, and neither will anything in the Official Languages Act.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is too early to assess how well this is working in practice.^ It is too early to assess how well this is working in practice.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other factors were outward migration of Irish speakers from the Gaeltacht (see related issues at Irish diaspora) and inward migration of English-speakers.^ Other factors were outward migration of Irish speakers from the Gaeltacht and inward migration of English-speakers.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An interest in the Irish language is maintained throughout the English speaking world among the Irish diaspora and there are active Irish language groups in North American, British and Australian cities.

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Planning and Development Act (2000) attempted to address the latter issue, with varied levels of success.^ The Planning and Development Act (2000) attempted to address the latter issue, but the response is almost certainly inadequate.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Planning controls now require new housing in Gaeltacht areas to be allocated to English-speakers and Irish-speakers in the same ratio as the existing population of the area.^ Planning controls now require new housing in Gaeltacht areas to be allocated to English-speakers and Irish-speakers in the same ratio as the existing population of the area.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will not prevent houses allocated to Irish-speakers subsequently being sold on to English-speakers.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centuries of colonization left Ireland with a severely depleted population of Irish speakers by the time it gained independence from Britain in 1922.
  • The Druid Grove • View topic - Irish language learning advice. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.druidry.org [Source type: General]

.This is intended to prevent new houses allocated to Irish-speakers being immediately sold on to English-speakers.^ This will not prevent houses allocated to Irish-speakers subsequently being sold on to English-speakers.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Irish Language History 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.axistranslations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new emphasis on funding Irish medium schools was due in part to the development of a capital fund, which gave the Trust greater freedom in the allocation of grants.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All things being equal, for English-speakers, Irish is more difficult than, for example, Spanish or German.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, the restriction only lasts for a few years.^ Read only the truly independent sources from those who have made money over decades (and not someone was up 150% last year due to probability).

^ In the last 6 years that I’ve been travelling I’ve learned a few things and can give some general travel tips and language learning tips.
  • Around the world in 80 Mays 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishpolyglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 17, 2009 6:18 pm Link We did hear Irish spoken in places around the Dingle Peninsula when we were visiting a few years ago.
  • Ireland’s Language Remains on Life Support - The Lede Blog - NYTimes.com 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC thelede.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Also, people are not required to reach native speaker standards of fluency to qualify as Irish-speakers.^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it came with an Irish-language stipulation, which ruled him out as a potential purchaser because he is a non-native speaker.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And of course the one person I knew who actually grew up a native Irish speaker in a Gaeltach did not have any of the attitudinizing about the language that the gaelgeoires did.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 19 December 2006 the government announced a 20-year strategy to help Ireland become a fully bilingual country.^ I have a bilingual 4 year old (Irish is unfortunatly not one of those), and there's 20+ kids in his daycare, they are all amazing.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In June 2006, it was announced that TG4 had dubbed The Simpsons (Seasons 1-4) into Irish, and that they would be shown in August of the same year.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When back in Ireland I decided to use the time, after years in other countries, to finally get to know my own country.
  • Around the world in 80 Mays 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishpolyglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This involved a 13 point plan and encouraging the use of language in all aspects of life.^ AC Johnson November 8th, 2007 7:08 pm Good article-I have used many of the same points in my teaching and language learning.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I notice you have learnt Norwegian (and have a Scandinavian heritage) and was hoping you might point me in some useful directions in learning this fascinating language.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Contemporary reports spoke of Irish-speaking parents actively discouraging their children from speaking the language, and encouraging the use of English instead.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42][43]

Percentage of Irish-Speakers by County

.This is a List of Irish counties by the percentage of those professing some ability in the Irish language in Ireland in the 2006 Irish census.^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish is the national language of the Republic of Ireland.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The census did not record Irish speakers living outside of the Republic of Ireland.^ Irish is the national language of the Republic of Ireland.
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ The independent Irish state was established in 1922 (The Irish Free State 1922-37; Ireland (Éire) from 1937, also known since 1949 as the Republic of Ireland).

^ Irish (), a Goidelic language spoken in the Republic of Ireland , Northern Ireland , Australia , Canada , and the United States , is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The census produced [3] a detailed breakdown of abilities as:
  • Irish spoken inside or outside the education
  • Native speakers in the Gaeltacht areas.
County Irish %
County Carlow 39.5
County Dublin 37.2
County Kildare 42.4
County Kilkenny 43.5
County Laois 42.6
County Longford 41.2
County Louth 36.7
County Meath 40.1
County Offaly 39
County Westmeath 41.5
County Wexford 37.4
County Wicklow 38
County Clare 48.8
County Cork 46.6
County Kerry 47.2
County Limerick 46.2
County Tipperary 45
County Waterford 44.2
County Galway 49.8
County Leitrim 43.1
County Mayo 47.2
County Roscommon 45
County Sligo 43.9
County Cavan 38
County Donegal 39.6
County Monaghan 39.6

Placenames

Information sign in Irish and English.
.The Placenames Order (Gaeltacht Districts)/An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Ceanntair Gaeltachta) (2004) requires the original Irish placenames to be used in the Gaeltacht on all official documents, maps and roadsigns.^ More controversially the Placenames Order (Gaeltacht Districts) / An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Ceanntair Gaeltachta) (2004) requires the original Irish placenames to be used in the Gaeltacht on all official documents, maps and roadsigns.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The archaic term Erse (from Erisch) , originally a Scots form of the word Irish , is no longer used and in most current contexts is considered derogatory.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.This has removed the legal status of those placenames in the Gaeltacht in English.^ This has removed the legal status of those placenames (in the Gaeltacht) in English.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previously Ordnance Survey (government) maps showed placenames bilingualy in the Gaeltacht (and generally in English only elsewhere).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private map companies are expected to follow suit.Beyond the Gaeltacht only English placenames were officially recognised (pre 2004).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Opposition to these measures comes from several quarters, including some people within popular tourist destinations located within the Gaeltacht (namely in Dingle) who claim that tourists may not recognise the Irish forms of the placenames.^ Opposition to these measures comes from several quarters including some people within popular tourist destinations located within the Gaeltacht (such as Dingle/An Daingean ) who claim that tourists may not recognise the Gaelic forms of the placenames.However following a campaign in the 1960's and early 1970's, all roadsigns in Gaeltacht regions have been in Irish only.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people who can speak some Irish are often embarassed to speak it.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Onward to County Kerry and the westernmost point in Europe; I started in Dingle, a supposedly Gaeltacht (Irish speaking) town, but found it so overrun by tourists that I went to the end of the road, stuck out my thumb and hitchhiked until I got to Ballyferriter; and really heard some Gaeilge.
  • Around the world in 80 Mays 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.irishpolyglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following a campaign in the 1960s and early 1970s, most road-signs in Gaeltacht regions have been in Irish only.^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nowadays, the acute accent ´ is the only diacritic sign used in Irish.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most maps and government documents did not change, though Ordnance Survey (government) maps showed placenames bilingually in the Gaeltacht (and generally in English only elsewhere).^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It only takes a change of government to one apathetic to or hostile to the language and then its adios to irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A lot of documents, websites, … only come in English, … the reasons are endless.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Unfortunately, most other map companies wrote only the English placenames, leading to significant confusion in the Gaeltacht.^ I remember how surprised I was when I could only find one or two unknown words in the first 5000 most frequent English words :) .

.The Act therefore updates government documents and maps in line with what has been reality in the Gaeltacht for the past 30 years.^ English no longer has official standing on signposts, legal documents or government maps.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Private map companies are expected to follow suit.
.Beyond the Gaeltacht only English placenames were officially recognised (pre 2004).^ Private map companies are expected to follow suit.Beyond the Gaeltacht only English placenames were officially recognised (pre 2004).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More controversially the Placenames Order (Gaeltacht Districts) / An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Ceanntair Gaeltachta) (2004) requires the original Irish placenames to be used in the Gaeltacht on all official documents, maps and roadsigns.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previously Ordnance Survey (government) maps showed placenames bilingualy in the Gaeltacht (and generally in English only elsewhere).
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, further placenames orders have been passed to enable both the English and Irish placenames to be used.^ However, further placenames orders have been passed to enable both the English and the Irish placenames to be used.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More controversially the Placenames Order (Gaeltacht Districts) / An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Ceanntair Gaeltachta) (2004) requires the original Irish placenames to be used in the Gaeltacht on all official documents, maps and roadsigns.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many working-class learners do not have access to the information that would enable them to challenge the dominant republican / Catholic image of the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The village of Straffan is still marked variously as An Srafáin, An Cluainíní and Teach Strafáin, even though Irish has not been the spoken widely there for two centuries.^ The Irish language has the word annso for here, but it has no corresponding word derived from annso, to signify hither, though there are words for this too, but not from annso.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though its number of speakers has been in decline since the 19th century, it is an important part of Irish nationalist identity.
  • Irish language at AllExperts 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I discovered that in my own school that Neilson (a nineteenth-century Presbyterian minister and scholar of the Irish language) had taught there and everything.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

In the 1830s John O'Donovan listed it as "Srufáin"[44] The nearby village of Kilteel was "Cill tSile" for centuries, meaning "The church of Saint Síle", but since 2000 it is shown as "Cill Cheile", which does not carry the same meaning. There are numerous[citation needed] other examples.
.Irish vehicle registration plates are bilingual: the county of registration is shown in Irish above the plate number as a kind of surtitle, and is encoded from English within the plate number.^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any number of examples of this usage might be culled from both English and Irish writings.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you not realise that there is no more difference between the Irish of Kerry and Donegal than there is between the English of those two counties?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, a Dublin plate is surtitled Baile Átha Cliath and the plate number includes D.^ These are based on Foclóir Scoile (An Gúm, Baile Átha Cliath, copyright: Rialtas na hÉireann 1994, see respective entries).
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conradh na Gaeilge has expressed concern over the proposed introduction of postcodes, which, similarly, may use abbreviations based on English language place names, although people sending mail would still be able to use addresses in Irish.^ Irish ones have English names?"
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has advocated that postcodes should either consist solely of numbers, as in many other bilingual countries, or be based on Irish language names instead.^ Many are favourable to Irish language programmes on radio and television, as well as Irish-medium education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone has to use context to understand the spoken language, much more so than many other languages.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The phenomenon of Protestant learners confronts many preconceived notions of what the Irish language represents; it also forces us to examine our attitudes to nationalism and unionism in Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[45]

Companies using Irish

Tesco Ireland and Superquinn have in-store Irish signage. .Several companies (mostly current and ex-semistate bodies) publish their yearly reports in both Irish and English.^ Any number of examples of this usage might be culled from both English and Irish writings.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This practice is met with also in English poetry, both classical and popular; but of course this is quite independent of the Irish custom.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "But if I'm in a pub in the company of Irish-speaking people and an non-Irish speaker joins us, the group will inevitably start speaking English not to be rude.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

These include Eircom, An Post and the ESB. .Other companies have Irish language options on their websites.^ For me it is a source of shame that I now speak other languages much better than Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The biggest feature I could see then was the Irish language, and it was something that neednt necessarily belong to one group or the other.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Dear Sir/Madam It is with complete disgust that I and many others have read of you running Irish language classes.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Examples of these include Bord Gáis, Meteor, and An Post. .Meteor has also begun to offer an Irish language voicemail option to its customers.^ We only succeeded after we had begun to get back our Irish ways; after we had made a serious effort to speak our own language; after we had striven again to govern ourselves.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People corresponding with bodies like the Revenue and the ESB can also send and receive correspondence in Irish or English.^ The English are the same people as we are, so it seems to me that Irish language is something which holds the British Isles together.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In Irish phrases like this the Irish uait ('from you') is not used; if it were the people would say 'I'll take it from you,' not of you.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In like manner with the pronouns s, s (he, she), of which the accusatives and are in certain Irish constructions (correctly) used for the nominative forms, which accusative forms are (incorrectly) imported into English.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some Irish banks provide cheque books and ATM cards in both languages, and others - notably Bank of Ireland - have introduced an Irish language interface option on their ATM machines.^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think it brings you closer to them in a certain way and it encourages you to think in a more sort of Irish way and a more sort of all-island - it gives you an all-Ireland perspective on things and if you start to think, Well, this is my language, this is the language of the other people on this island.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Daily life

.Several computer software products have the option of an Irish-language interface.^ The learners struggled with the republican image of the Irish language, particularly since their estate was situated in an interface zone close to Catholic districts of west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Prominent examples include KDE,[46] Mozilla Firefox,[47] Mozilla Thunderbird,[47] OpenOffice.org,[48] and Microsoft Windows XP.[49]
.Many English-speaking Irish people use small and simple phrases (known as cúpla focal, "a few words") in their everyday speech, e.g.^ They are also nicer as many of the English names are simple bastardisations of the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many people who can speak some Irish are often embarassed to speak it.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Slán ("goodbye"), Slán abhaile ("get home safely"), Sláinte ("good health"; used when drinking like "bottoms up" or "cheers"), Go raibh maith agat ("thank you"), Céad míle fáilte ("a hundred thousand welcomes", a tourist board saying, also used by President Hillery to welcome Pope John Paul II to Ireland in 1979) and Conas atá tú? ("How are you?"). There are many more small sayings that have crept into Hiberno-English. The term craic has been popularised outside Ireland in this Gaelicized spelling: "How's the craic?" or "What's the craic'?" ("how's the fun?"/"how is it going?"), though the word is not Irish in origin, and the expression "How's the crack?" was widely used in .Ireland since at least the 1960s before the Irish-language spelling "craic" became the common journalistic style.^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though the remaining population of native Irish speakers in the six counties of Ulster which became Northern Ireland had largely disappeared by the time of partition, the Irish language movement survived and occasionally thrived.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phenomenon of Protestant learners confronts many preconceived notions of what the Irish language represents; it also forces us to examine our attitudes to nationalism and unionism in Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Bilingual sign in English and Irish in Tesco store, Ballyfermot, Dublin.
.Many public bodies have Irish language or bilingual names, but some have downgraded the language.^ Upon finishing the course, he continued his involvement in the Irish language scene, but noticed that some members of the Irish language movement fell silent when he was near them.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Protestant learners of Irish are not well acquainted with the achievements and goals of the Irish language revival; they are particularly unaware of revivalist activities in west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.An Post, the Republic's postal service, displays Irish place names in both Irish and English with equal prominence outside its offices and continues to have place names in Irish on its postmarks as well as recognising addresses.^ Irish ones have English names?"
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My problem is not with the existence of Irish in these areas, its with giving it prominence to the point of excluding English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Royal Mail also recognises Irish language place names in Northern Ireland.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Traditionally, the private sector has been less supportive, although support for the language has come from some private companies.^ That's not to say continued support is that way to advance the language, the future of the language lies with the people who will speak it, but some *focussed* support will always be necessary IMO. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conciliatory feel good language of cultural discourse has become increasingly favoured, although even this does not guarantee support.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Protestant learners have difficulty in identifying with the Irish language because their interest receives little support in their own community: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.For example, Irish supermarket chain Superquinn introduced bilingual signs in its stores in the 1980s, a move which was followed more recently by the British chain Tesco for its stores in the Republic.^ In the following texts, the learners express their opinions on the erection of bilingual street-signs: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ While discussing the Irish language with the north Down learners, I formed the impression that their local community identity was as relevant to them as wider and more abstract concepts of British and Irish identity.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially the focus was on rights for Irish speakers, and the group was prominent in the bilingual street signs campaign of the 1980s as well as campaigns to increase the status of Irish in English medium schools, and for funding for Irish medium schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Woodies DIY now also have bilingual signs in their chain of stores. .In contrast, the "100% Irish" SuperValu has few if any Irish signs, and the German retailers Aldi and Lidl have none at all.^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No-one has a problem with people speaking French, German, Chinese or whatever but there are a few who seem to have a problem with people speaking Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.In an effort to increase the use of the Irish language by the State, the Official Languages Act was passed in 2003. This act ensures that most publications made by a governmental body must be published in both official languages, Irish and English.^ Both Irish and English expressions are very common in the respective languages.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This dilemma has led Mac Póilin to seek an alternative to the political / apolitical dichotomy, which he attempts to do through the creative use of discourse and efforts to multipoliticize the language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Irish language is a political weapon of the first importance against English encroachment ...
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, the office of Language Commissioner has been set up to act as an ombudsman with regard to equal treatment for both languages.^ Regarding Japanese, you left out the bit about the syllables being sliced up into equally-timed pieces called morae.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve witnessed families where both parents speak a different language, yet their young children can speak both fluently without mixing them up.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ He is a government official who acts as an ombudsman for Irish-speaking citizens and monitors government departments' implementation of Irish-language policy from his office in An Spideal.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.A major factor in the decline of natively-spoken Irish has been the movement of English speakers into the Gaeltacht (predominantly Irish speaking areas) and the return of native Irish-speakers who have returned with English-speaking partners.^ Background: Native speaker of (Canadian) English.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ English spoken in the workplace weakens the Gaeltacht.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.This has been stimulated by government grants and infrastructure projects:[51] "only about half Gaeltacht children learn Irish in the home...^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The group had some reservations about going to folk nights in Catholic bars after explosions in Newtownards and Bangor, but none of them were deterred in their efforts to learn Irish.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Another learner who had attended the class said that she rarely associated Irish with the troubles, and the Shankill bomb only temporarily deterred her from learning Irish: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

this is related to the high level of in-migration and return migration which has accompanied the economic restructuring of the .Gaeltacht in recent decades".[52] In a last-ditch effort to stop the demise of Irish-speaking in Connemara in Galway, planning controls have been introduced on the building of new homes in Irish speaking areas.^ As mentioned above, equality with English in these areas would seem sensible, but am I not right in saying that English speaking towns etc also have Irish names, so why can't the Irish ones have English names?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this week in the country's best-known Irish-speaking village, the landmark plan has been met with a mixture of disbelief, derision and disgust.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thanks in large part to Gael-Taca and Gaillimh le Gaeilge and two local groups a significant number of new residential developments are named in Irish today in most of the Republic of Ireland.^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain probably spends more money on spare parts for its Challenger tanks than the Irish Republic spends on the Irish language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An atheist group in the Irish Republic has defied a new blasphemy law by > publishing a series of anti-religious quotations on its website.
  • Irish atheists challenge new law - soc.culture.irish | Google Groups 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In several counties there are a large number being named in Irish.^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a sizable gap between actual levels of usage and positive attitudes to the language as a focus of Irish identity, with a large number of people placing considerable value on the symbolic role of Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Equally, Irish is important to a large number of your citizens so either you work to protect what's important to them or you alienate them by arbitrarily deeming what they cherish as being useless.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
.In 2007 Irish television channel TG4 aired No Béarla, a series of programmes in which the writer Manchán Magan travels around Ireland trying to speak only Irish, and encountering mostly complete incomprehension as he does so.^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can't be long before TG4 will be freely available as a digital channel anywhere in the world so I will be able to watch Irish television when I want.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many are favourable to Irish language programmes on radio and television, as well as Irish-medium education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Modern Literature in Irish

.Though Irish is the language of a small minority, it has a distinguished modern literature.^ The Irish language has the word annso for here, but it has no corresponding word derived from annso, to signify hither, though there are words for this too, but not from annso.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish language is related to the world-wide upsurge of interest in minority ethnicity and the dislike of bland, homogenous Anglo-American culture.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Step 1: Ban Sinn Fein from ever mentioning the Irish language or using it in campaign literature .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The foremost prose writer is considered to be Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906–1970), whose dense and complex work has been compared to that of James Joyce.^ Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1905-1970) is indeed a celebrated writer of novels in Irish, although he wrote even more short stories.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Two outstanding poets are Seán Ó Ríordáin (1907–1977) and the lyricist and scholar Máire Mhac an tSaoi (b.1922). .There are many less notable figures who have produced interesting work.^ Many people say the governments support did serious damage to Irish, but there are also many who believe that without that support no-one would be speaking Irish today.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When it comes to any sort of knowledge work, I’ve seen the right techniques produce ridiculous results many orders of magnitude greater over lesser techniques.

^ Protestant learners living in working-class districts are afraid that their interest in Irish will be discovered by hoods or paramilitaries who may intimidate them.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In the first half of the 20th century the best writers were from the Gaeltacht or closely associated with it.^ In the first half of the 1980s, decolonizing discourse was associated with quite an extreme ideology.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Remarkable autobiographies from this source include An tOileánach (“The Islandman”) by Tomás Ó Criomhthain (1856–1937) and Fiche Bliain ag Fás (“Twenty Years A’Growing”) by Muiris Ó Súilleabháin (1904–1950).
.Irish has also proved to be an excellent vehicle for scholarly work, though chiefly in such areas as historical studies and literary criticism.^ Protestants whose unionism is beyond doubt, such as loyalist paramilitaries, have no problem with telling working-class Protestants that they are learning Irish; their loyalty to their community is beyond doubt.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.There are several publishing houses which specialise in Irish-language material and which together produce scores of titles every year.^ His views on the Irish language have been published in The Irish Language and the Unionist Tradition (1994).
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If you are a studying a less commonly taught language, I recommend you look for language exchange partners— just google “free language exchange” or similar, there are several great sites.

^ Poor material never produces good language.

Media

Advertisement for Guinness in Kilkenny. The text reads, "Failte [sic] go dtí Ceol agus Comhrá" (Welcome to music and conversation). The first word is correctly spelt Fáilte with a síneadh fada (acute accent) on the a.
Radio
.Irish has a significant presence in radio and television, as evidenced by RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (Gaeltacht radio)[54] and Teilifís na Gaeilge (Irish language television, initially abbreviated to 'TnaG', now renamed TG4).^ Middle-class learners can diversify their learning experiences on account of their income; they drive to different classes and attend Irish language courses in the Gaeltacht.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Protestant learners lessen their alienation from Irish by drawing upon historical evidence of previous Protestant involvement in the language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ You can define struggle in different ways, and the importance of the Irish language came to the fore through Bobby Sands and the Gaeltachts in the jail.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also the community stations Raidió na Life in Dublin and Raidió Fáilte in Belfast, the former being an important training station for those wishing to work in radio professionally.^ Equally, Irish is important to a large number of your citizens so either you work to protect what's important to them or you alienate them by arbitrarily deeming what they cherish as being useless.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plus there are other benefits to languages, not just being able to communicate with the maximum nunber of people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

There is also one youth radio station Raidió Rí-Rá.
.Community radio stations in Ireland try to have at least one Irish language programme per week depending on the number of employees or volunteers who speak it.^ I will one day be fluent in at least 4 languages too.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish language programming should be provided by all radio stations."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestants and the Irish language in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The community radio station for North-East Dublin Near90fm's "Ar Muin na Muice" programme is broadcast five days a week, and one of their current affairs programmes "Between The Lines" is also broadcast in Irish on occasion.^ Five percent of Irish children are in such classrooms, he said, while an Irish-language TV station gets 100,000 viewers a day, and people listen to pop music on a 24-hour Irish-language radio station.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While discussing the Irish language with the north Down learners, I formed the impression that their local community identity was as relevant to them as wider and more abstract concepts of British and Irish identity.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish language programming should be provided by all radio stations."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The BBC offers an Irish-language service called called Blas ("a taste").^ Rights discourse is particularly strong in calls for parity of esteem, and in the process of elevating the Irish language to the position of litmus test for equality in recent political negotiations.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .14% of the population of the Republic of Ireland listen to Irish radio programming daily, 16% listen 2-5 times a week, while 24% listen to Irish programming once a week.^ Five percent of Irish children are in such classrooms, he said, while an Irish-language TV station gets 100,000 viewers a day, and people listen to pop music on a 24-hour Irish-language radio station.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the remaining population of native Irish speakers in the six counties of Ulster which became Northern Ireland had largely disappeared by the time of partition, the Irish language movement survived and occasionally thrived.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish language programming should be provided by all radio stations."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Television
.TG4 has offered Irish-speaking young people a forum for youth culture as Gaeilge (in Irish) through rock and pop shows, travel shows, dating games, and even a controversial award-winning soap opera in Irish called Ros na Rún(with 160,000 viewers per week) and comedy-drama Rásaí na Gaillimhe, with 223,000 viewers tuning in on its opening night.^ They learn through cartoons and there is even a voice recognition function that records the children saying the words in their new language and plays it back in a show!
  • Irish | Welcome to languageadvantage.com. Learn to speak a language! 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC languageadvantage.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Five percent of Irish children are in such classrooms, he said, while an Irish-language TV station gets 100,000 viewers a day, and people listen to pop music on a 24-hour Irish-language radio station.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2007 TG4 reported that overall it "has a share of 3%(800,000 daily viewers) of the national television market".[56] This market share is up from about 1.5% in the late 1990s.^ And if that's the attitude you have, why are you surprised at my assertion of a widely accepted fact: that the nation as a whole shares the legacy of an inferiority complex about the language?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.TG4 delivers 16 hours a day of television from an annual budget of €35 million, which is widely judged to be relatively efficient.^ I am not dense just working up to 16 hours a day so I could use some assistance with the deconstruction of the above languages including English and/or American English.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.The budget has the full support of all political parties in parliament.^ None of the main Political parties in GB support the return of capital punishment yet poll after poll show a majority in favour of it's return.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Davros, There is no political party in the Irish Republic which wants to diminish the status of Irish in the constitution because there is simply no support among the Irish people for such an idea.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FF, FG, Labour, SF, Green Party all supported it.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[56] .TG4 is the most successful and high-profile government initiative for the Irish language for the past fifty years.^ And still studiously ignoring the real substantive arguments to be made about the monumental failure of the Irish language policy over the last eighty years.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A series of high profile campaigns about the status of the Irish language in schools and funding for the burgeoning Irish medium education movement were embarrassing for the government, which was trying to promote a new image of equal respect for the two traditions in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final sentence appears to be a veiled reference to the ULTACH Trust and the new government policy on the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cúla 4 is a children's channel. .As of 1 September 2009, a children's channel available on Chorus NTL digital (Channel 602) television with the majority of programmes in Irish, with a range of home-produced and foreign dubbed programmes.^ It can't be long before TG4 will be freely available as a digital channel anywhere in the world so I will be able to watch Irish television when I want.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many are favourable to Irish language programmes on radio and television, as well as Irish-medium education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Taco Witte » Blog Archive » How to effectively learn foreign languages September 23rd, 2009 1:39 pm [...

Programmes are broadcast Mondays-Sundays from 7am - 10am, then from 2.30pm-7pm.
RTÉ News Now is a 24 hour live news service available on the RTÉ website featuring national and international news. .It offers a mix of Irish language, English language and Irish sign language TV news bulletins and political programmes.^ Plus V a change: the Irish language and politics.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish language is a political weapon of the first importance against English encroachment ...
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It broadcasts the following programmes: Cinnlínte Nuachta, Nuacht RTÉ, Nuacht an Lae, Nuacht TG4, Pobal,Timpeall na Tíre and 7 Lá.
Print
.Until December 2008 there was an Irish-language daily newspaper Lá Nua, which came out five days a week and had a circulation of several thousand.^ Five percent of Irish children are in such classrooms, he said, while an Irish-language TV station gets 100,000 viewers a day, and people listen to pop music on a 24-hour Irish-language radio station.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And are there really a lot of people who invest hundreds to thousands of waisted hours until they find out that Chinese is harder to learn than Spanish ?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Irish language has the word annso for here, but it has no corresponding word derived from annso, to signify hither, though there are words for this too, but not from annso.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

[57] There is presently a weekly paper, Foinse, formerly published independently and now available as a supplement with the Irish Independent. .This gave it a potential readership of 152,000 as of 18 November 2009, though it is likely that only a small percentage would be able to read it with ease.^ I would like to read that article.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Patick November 7th, 2007 11:56 am This article was fascinating and I would love to see more like it.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Bman January 20th, 2009 2:44 pm Hi Tim, Great article – but I especially like the reading time at the top.

From 2010 on, another weekly newspaper called Gaelscéal will begin publication in cooperation with the Connacht Tribune and EO Teilifís, and will be available on-line..November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] These The Irish News has two pages in Irish every day.^ One Protestant, who learned Irish in west Belfast, bought a copy of the Andersonstown News every week in order to be able to pose as a local in class.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Best Article Every day November 8th, 2007 9:08 pm [...
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ "Two days ago, there was no question over whether these quotes were legal.
  • Irish atheists challenge new law - soc.culture.irish | Google Groups 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Irish Times had up until recently one article in Irish every week.^ One Protestant, who learned Irish in west Belfast, bought a copy of the Andersonstown News every week in order to be able to pose as a local in class.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Eva November 9th, 2007 6:10 pm So…is this article mainly to pick up a language quickly and for future use or just for a short period of time?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ "If this was a colour restriction rather than a language one, every court in the world would be up in arms.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now it has several articles with short lists giving the meaning in English of some of the words used.^ Words have several meanings.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Some other word lists (movie and TV scripts, the British National Corpus, Project Gutenberg, etc) for English and other languages can be found in or reached from Wictionary’s “Frequency lists” article (linked to my name.

^ I mean the very word British speaks to me of a Celtic language, you know, and not of English.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Another paper, Saol, and several magazines are also published in the language: the latter include the internet-based publications Beo[58] and the very contemporary Nós.^ But a suggestion, if I may: What would be awesome is to see you use this specific method and explain several languages in a very verbose fashion(i.e.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ BTW, Leeds University has produced large frequency lists, running to many thousands of words, of several major languages based on a variety of corpora.

.The immigrants’ magazine Metro Éireann also has articles in Irish every issue, as do local papers throughout the country.^ One Protestant, who learned Irish in west Belfast, bought a copy of the Andersonstown News every week in order to be able to pose as a local in class.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There is huge doubt not only about whether Irish can be revived as a common means of communication throughout the country but also about its chances of survival over the next generation or two.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Entertainment

Top 40 Oifigiúil na hÉireann
.A company called Digital Audio Productions specialising in all aspects of radio programming has created two very successful Top 40 Oifigiúil na hÉireann and Giotaí brands of Irish-language radio programmes.^ Irish language programming should be provided by all radio stations."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aspects of the Irish language movement.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Many are favourable to Irish language programmes on radio and television, as well as Irish-medium education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Since 2007, Top 40 Oifigiúil na hÉireann (Ireland's Official Top 40) is a new phenomenon, and it has become increasingly popular to hear the Irish Top 40 hits being presented entirely in Irish on what are regarded as English-language radio stations such as:East Coast FM, Flirt FM, Galway Bay FM, LM FM, Midwest Radio, NEAR FM 101.6FM, Newstalk, Red FM, Spin 1038, Spin South West and Wired FM.
Seachtain na Gaeilge & Ceol albums
.For decades, too much focus was placed on the importance of Irish traditional music to the detriment of the younger generation, who became disillusioned and felt disenfranchised from the Irish language movement until recently.^ Aspects of the Irish language movement.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I asked him if Protestants who learned the Irish language were betraying their community, by becoming nationalist in their outlook, for example.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Has it ever occurred to you that the money is spent because the Irish language is seen as being something of national importance and significance?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.But young people have taken back their language and have begun to start singing some songs in Irish as part of the Seachtain na Gaeilge campaign which collaborates with up and coming modern Irish musicians to produce songs in Irish.^ The Irish language is important to the Irish state and the Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think it brings you closer to them in a certain way and it encourages you to think in a more sort of Irish way and a more sort of all-island - it gives you an all-Ireland perspective on things and if you start to think, Well, this is my language, this is the language of the other people on this island.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

These have become the infamous Ceol '08 albums and the following artists have taken part: Mundy, The Frames, The Coronas, The Corrs, The Walls, Paddy Casey, Kíla, Luan Parle, Gemma Hayes, Bell X1 and comedian/rapper Des Bishop.
Comedy
.Dara O'Briain and Des Bishop are well-known Irish-speaking comedians.^ But this week in the country's best-known Irish-speaking village, the landmark plan has been met with a mixture of disbelief, derision and disgust.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "I have conversational Irish and my children speak it very well.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Concerts
.Electric Picnic, one of Ireland's most renowned music festivals with 35-40,000 concert goers has an Irish language tent called Puball na Gaeilge which is hosted by DJs from the Dublin-based Irish language radio station Raidió na Life, as well as having well known celebrities from Irish language media, such as Hector Ó hEochagáin, doing sketches and comedy all in Irish and many well known Irish singers.^ Many are favourable to Irish language programmes on radio and television, as well as Irish-medium education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If a language is to survive, all well and good.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish language programming should be provided by all radio stations."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Religious texts

The Bible has been available in Irish since the 17th century. .In 1964 the first Roman Catholic version was produced at Maynooth under the supervision of Professor Pádraig Ó Fiannachta and was finally published in 1981.[59] The Church of Ireland Book of Common Prayer of 2004 is published in both Irish and English.^ Both Irish and English expressions are very common in the respective languages.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish language is a political weapon of the first importance against English encroachment ...
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any number of examples of this usage might be culled from both English and Irish writings.
  • Idions derived from the Irish Language. 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

Irish in English-medium Schools

.The Irish language is a compulsory subject in government-funded schools in the Republic of Ireland and has been so since the early days of the state.^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Much remains to be covered: Comhaltas Uladh, Irish-medium education and Irish in English-medium schools, the residual Gaeltachts within Northern Ireland in the early days of the state, the relationship of the Catholic church with the language movement, the gaelicising of west Belfast, the 1991 Census, Irish in the arts, economic activity, broadcasting, prisons.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The learners struggled with the republican image of the Irish language, particularly since their estate was situated in an interface zone close to Catholic districts of west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.It is taught as a second language (L2) at second level, to native (L1) speakers and learners (L2) alike.^ In practice it tends to mirror the sentence structure of the speaker’s native language.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you’re a native Japanese speaker, respectively handicapped with a bit more than 20 phonemes in your language, some languages will seem near impossible.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ But it came with an Irish-language stipulation, which ruled him out as a potential purchaser because he is a non-native speaker.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] .English is offered as a first (L1) language only, even to those who speak it as a second language.^ English is my first language.

^ I’ve met many people here who do speak Chinese well, and the only thing that they have in common is that they have spent years and years studying it.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I had French forced down my throat for 7 years but don't have any problems with those who wish to speak the lingo .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The curriculum was reorganised in the 1930s by Father Timothy Corcoran SJ of UCD, who could not speak the language himself.^ That's not to say continued support is that way to advance the language, the future of the language lies with the people who will speak it, but some *focussed* support will always be necessary IMO. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lillis Ó Laoire talking about traditional songs) Really, he could have been speaking any language, but it was beautiful you know, it really sounded beautiful, though I didnt understand it.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hire a viritual assistant who speaks the language you want to learn.

[61] .The Irish Government has endeavoured to address the unpopularity of the language by revamping the curriculum at primary school level to focus on spoken Irish.^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And the only relative I know of who is fluent in Irish was a Primary School Headmistress ( a job requirement).
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final sentence appears to be a veiled reference to the ULTACH Trust and the new government policy on the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, at secondary school level, students must analyse literature and poetry, and write lengthy essays, debates and stories in Irish for the (L2) Leaving Certificate examination.^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have just slipped further and further from the level that I had leaving school.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pinyin, however, is learned and mastered by Chinese students in elementary school.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.The exemption from learning Irish on the grounds of time spent abroad, or learning disability, is subject to Circular 12/96 (primary education) and Circular M10/94 (secondary education) issued by the Department of Education and Science.^ I’ve spent along time learning what to do and what not to do, and this site is a real help as far as giving free resources.

^ Protestant learners are more concerned with finding appropriate evening-classes than battling with the Department of Education to secure funding for Irish-medium schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I had Irish forced down my throat for 12 years at primary school and secondary school.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Irish Equality Authority recently questioned the official State practice of awarding 5-10% extra marks to students who take some of their examinations through Irish.^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some commentators have questioned whether it is a losing battle to keep the language alive through government policy.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Im not sure if the people who live on the streets that have Irish street signs speak Irish themselves, or whether its a fuck you statement to the authorities.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[62] .The Royal Irish Academy's 2006 conference on "Language Policy and Language Planning in Ireland" found that the study of Irish and other languages is declining in Ireland.^ I think it brings you closer to them in a certain way and it encourages you to think in a more sort of Irish way and a more sort of all-island - it gives you an all-Ireland perspective on things and if you start to think, Well, this is my language, this is the language of the other people on this island.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is nothing other than political, theyre using the Irish language, theyre abusing it.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, western concepts of ethnicity and culture that transcend national boundaries have had their influence on Irish language enthusiasts.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The number of schoolchildren studying "higher level" Irish for the Leaving Certificate dropped from 15,719 in 2001 to 14,358 in 2005. To reverse this decline, it was recommended that training and living for a time in a Gaeltacht area should be "compulsory" for teachers of Irish, though this failed to take account of the decline of the language in Gaeltacht areas.^ Its time to abandon the policy compulsory Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ J McConnell, do me favour, why don't you start a campaign among the Irish people to have our national language removed as a compulsory subject from our schools (why not maths and English, the other two compulsory subjects, while you're at it) and if you fail, promise us all you'll live with it in silence or as we used to be told in the Gaeltacht if you constantly talked out of turn - cinas.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many thanks for taking the time to breakdown the structure of any language and post it up in such a simple way.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[63]
.In March 2007, the Minister for Education, Mary Hanafin, announced that more focus would be devoted to the spoken language, and that from 2012, the percentage of marks available in the Leaving Certificate Irish exam would increase from 25% to 40% for the oral component.^ I would love more language articles.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish language books are available for purchase on the net.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Irish language movement, as with many other community groups, this would mean shunning a number of important activists and in some cases, personal friends and colleagues.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .This increased emphasis on the oral component of the Irish examinations is likely to change the way Irish is examined.^ Potential purchasers will be given an oral examination to prove their credentials as Gaeilge and must give an undertaking that they will continue to use Irish in family and community life.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless the (Irish) class, the likes of the class forces a mix and a broadening, and a changing over, its forced a change in that sense.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One powerful tool for interpreting peoples beliefs about Irish, and the implications of those beliefs, is to examine their discourses, or ways of talking about the language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65][66]
Recently the abolition of compulsory Irish has been discussed. .In 2005 Enda Kenny, leader of Ireland's main opposition party, Fine Gael, called for the language to be made an optional subject in the last two years of secondary school.^ "As most Irish people cannot speak Irish after twelve years of school hence the strong touch of neurosis about the whole subject.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among Protestant learners there was an almost universal regret that the language had not been introduced to them during their school years.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And still studiously ignoring the real substantive arguments to be made about the monumental failure of the Irish language policy over the last eighty years.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mr Kenny, despite being a fluent speaker himself (and a teacher), stated that he believed that compulsory Irish has done the language more harm than good.^ Im an Irish Speaker, im not a teacher.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish language is important to the Irish state and the Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why does being Irish Mean that one has a responsibility to maintain the language George ?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Irish-medium education (Outside Gaeltacht regions)

.The extent of their growth is evidenced by the fact that in 1972, outside the Irish-speaking areas, there were only 11 such schools at primary level and five at secondary level, and now there are 170 at primary level[67] and 39 at secondary level.^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ As mentioned above, equality with English in these areas would seem sensible, but am I not right in saying that English speaking towns etc also have Irish names, so why can't the Irish ones have English names?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[68] .These schools cover approximately 37,800 students (2009), and there is now at least one in each of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland, without counting those in Northern Ireland.^ Certainly any of the other teachers that Ive come across there havent been any with real interest in the politics of Northern Ireland anyway.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The sea has always bound Kintyre and County Antrim, and for these absurd people to draw a line down there and say, This is Ireland and that is Scotland - thats rubbish.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't be surprised if it was not political anymore in the RoI, but in Northern Ireland the Irish language is (unfortunately) up there with the Ulster GAA. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

There are also 4,000 attending preschools outside the Gaeltacht regions.
.A remarkable feature of modern Irish education is the rapid growth of a alternative school system in which Irish is the language of instruction.^ Others saw it as a personal vendetta on the part of the former Minister for Education, Brian Mawhinney, who was attacked by Glór na nGael for his education proposals which would have reduced the status of the Irish language in secondary schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Glór na nGael used confrontational tactics in its campaigns to increase the profile of Irish and defend the status of the language in education.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although this is marked by strong support from the urban professional class, such schools (known as gaelscoileanna at primary level) are also found in disadvantaged areas.^ A clear majority of the population supports the policy of teaching Irish effectively in primary and post-primary schools so as to ensure a good level of competence in the young adult population."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Glór also provides support and teachers for the Irish medium nursery schools movement, the organizations primary focus at the time funding was withdrawn.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: O'Reilly, C. (1997) Nationalists and the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: Competing Perspectives 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their success is due to limited but very active community support, and they enjoy the advantage of a highly professional administrative infrastructure.^ Ok they lost the votes but because of the large support for it in the community the issue of the death penalty made it onto the national stage.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[69] .
.These schools have a high academic reputation, and attract committed teachers and parents; this in turn has attracted other parents who seek good examination performance at a moderate cost.^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I find that most people are turned off to the idea of language learning based on past experiences during high school or college language classes.

.The result has been termed a system of “positive social selection,” with such schools giving ready access to the tertiary level and commensurate employment.^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.An analysis of “feeder” schools (which supply students to tertiary level institutions) has shown that 22% of the Irish-medium schools sent all their students on to tertiary level, compared to 7% of English-medium schools.^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[70]

Irish-medium education (Inside Gaeltacht regions)

.There are 127 Irish-language primary and 29 secondary schools in the Gaeltacht regions.^ Across Belfast, there is one Irish Medium secondary school, 11 IM Primary schools and 13 IM nursery schools not too mention the many enterprises, businesses and cultural societies using the language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And the only relative I know of who is fluent in Irish was a Primary School Headmistress ( a job requirement).
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are approximately 9,000 pupils at primary level and 3,030 second level students attending these schools.^ It worked perfectly alright and the difference between students who went to regular danish schools and those who attended KISS was striking.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.There are also 1,000 attending Irish-language preschools within these areas.^ My problem is not with the existence of Irish in these areas, its with giving it prominence to the point of excluding English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't be surprised if it was not political anymore in the RoI, but in Northern Ireland the Irish language is (unfortunately) up there with the Ulster GAA. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there any books that describe these structures for specific languages?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.In Gaeltacht areas, the education has been through Irish since the foundation of the State.^ With the influx of English speakers into Gaeltacht areas, Irish speakers are being forced to give up their language and use English in everyday life instead."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My entire education, from age 4 to this, my final year in college, has been through the medium of Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proportion of the population speaking Irish in any Gaeltacht area, as indicated in the Census, will now determine the percentage of new housing units to be occupied exclusively by native Irish speakers.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.A certain number of Gaeltacht students are L1 Irish speakers, but even in the Gaeltacht areas the language is taught as an L2 language while English is taught as an L1 language.^ With the influx of English speakers into Gaeltacht areas, Irish speakers are being forced to give up their language and use English in everyday life instead."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I doubt the conversion of unionists to nationalism or even liberal unionism by means of the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Professor David Little has commented:
"..the needs of Irish as L1 at post-primary level have been totally ignored, as at present there is no recognition in terms of curriculum and syllabus of any linguistic difference between learners of Irish as L1 and L2."[60]
.With the continued decline of the Gaeltacht, it is expected that urban Irish-medium schools will continue to be vital for the future of the language, though there is no evidence that all graduates of those schools continue to use the language in later life.^ You know there are still tonns of “unofficial” languages, so interesting at all.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Across Belfast, there is one Irish Medium secondary school, 11 IM Primary schools and 13 IM nursery schools not too mention the many enterprises, businesses and cultural societies using the language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Irish colleges

.There are 46 summer colleges[citation needed] in the country with approximately 26,000 students attending them each year.^ That sounds like a project for my daughter, who wants to attend a local (expensive) art college next year.
  • Irish atheists challenge new law - soc.culture.irish | Google Groups 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Supplementing the formal curriculum, and after the end of the primary (usually from 4th class onwards) and secondary school years, some pupils attend an "Irish college". These programmes are residential Irish language summer courses, and give students the opportunity to be immersed in the language, usually for periods of three weeks over the summer months.^ I had Irish forced down my throat for 12 years at primary school and secondary school.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That's one of the biggest let downs for Irish IMO, any threatened language needs to have it's own space 'free' from outside influences.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Some courses are college based while others are based with host families in Gaeltacht areas under the guidance of a bean an tí.^ But the board said such requirements could be made of developers in the future, both in the An Spideal area and other parts of the Gaeltacht.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Students attend classes, participate in sports, art, drama, music, go to céilithe and other summer camp activities through the medium of Irish.^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestant learners are more concerned with finding appropriate evening-classes than battling with the Department of Education to secure funding for Irish-medium schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Another learner who had attended the class said that she rarely associated Irish with the troubles, and the Shankill bomb only temporarily deterred her from learning Irish: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.As with the conventional school set-up The Department of Education establishes the boundaries for class size and qualifications required by teachers.^ Protestant learners are more concerned with finding appropriate evening-classes than battling with the Department of Education to secure funding for Irish-medium schools.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ His main hypothesis is that simply listening to a new language sets up the structures in the brain required to learn the words.

Northern Ireland

Sign at Irish-medium primary school in Newry
.As in the Republic, the Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the minority gradually changes to speak the language of the majority I have no problem with that because I have no overly sentimental attachment to language - it's primary purpose is as a form of communication and in Northern Ireland (and largely in the Republic I'd guess) this is more efficiently done in English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Attitudes towards the language in Northern Ireland have traditionally reflected the political differences between its two divided communities.^ Social Attitudes in Northern Ireland, 1990-1.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the minority gradually changes to speak the language of the majority I have no problem with that because I have no overly sentimental attachment to language - it's primary purpose is as a form of communication and in Northern Ireland (and largely in the Republic I'd guess) this is more efficiently done in English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The language has been regarded with suspicion by Unionists, who have associated it with the Roman Catholic-majority Republic, and more recently, with the Republican movement in Northern Ireland itself.^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the minority gradually changes to speak the language of the majority I have no problem with that because I have no overly sentimental attachment to language - it's primary purpose is as a form of communication and in Northern Ireland (and largely in the Republic I'd guess) this is more efficiently done in English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Working-class unionists who learn Irish may associate the language with this identity, expressing a preference for the Ulster dialect of the language: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Erection of public street signs in Irish were effectively banned under laws by the Parliament of Northern Ireland, which stated that only English could be used.^ That was the only time -cos he had used the Irish.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of Irish in street-signs is described as a form of boundary-maintenance.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Many republicans in Northern Ireland, including Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams, learned Irish while in prison, a development known as the jailtacht.[71] Although the language was taught in Catholic secondary schools (especially by the Christian Brothers), it was not taught at all in the controlled sector, which is mostly attended by Protestant pupils.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish language, as well as stereotypes of Northern Protestants as the champions of British culture in Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In many ways it is comparable to Irish in Ireland.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Irish-medium schools, however, known as gaelscoileanna, were founded in Belfast and Derry, and an Irish-language newspaper called Lá Nua ("New Day") was established in Belfast.^ Making Irish compulsory in the home is a return to the bad old days, they say, when the language was forced on people and they came to resent it.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the Irish people as a whole who want to retain the language in our schools and institutions, you seem to forget that.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Across Belfast, there is one Irish Medium secondary school, 11 IM Primary schools and 13 IM nursery schools not too mention the many enterprises, businesses and cultural societies using the language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.BBC Radio Ulster began broadcasting a nightly half-hour programme in Irish in the early 1980s called Blas ("taste, accent"), and BBC Northern Ireland also showed its first TV programme in the language in the early 1990s.^ Five percent of Irish children are in such classrooms, he said, while an Irish-language TV station gets 100,000 viewers a day, and people listen to pop music on a 24-hour Irish-language radio station.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't be surprised if it was not political anymore in the RoI, but in Northern Ireland the Irish language is (unfortunately) up there with the Ulster GAA. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a diference in philosophy towards Irish between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ultach Trust was established with a view to broadening the appeal of the language among Protestants, although DUP politicians like Sammy Wilson ridiculed it as a "leprechaun language".[72] Ulster-Scots, promoted by many loyalists, was, in turn, ridiculed by nationalists (and even some Unionists) as "a DIY language for Orangemen".[73] According to recent statistics, there is no significant difference between the number of Catholic and Protestant speakers of Ulster-Scots in Ulster, although those involved in promoting Ulster-Scots as a language are almost always unionist.^ This language was here before any of this conflict between Protestant and Catholic.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Languages are no different.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus there are unionist and nationalist histories of the Irish language: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] Ulster-Scots is defined in legislation (The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999) as: the variety of the Scots language which has traditionally been used in parts of Northern Ireland and in Donegal in Ireland.[74]
.Irish received official recognition in Northern Ireland for the first time in 1998 under the Good Friday Agreement's provisions on "parity of esteem". A cross-border body known as Foras na Gaeilge was established to promote the language in both Northern Ireland and the Republic, taking over the functions of the previous Republic-only Bord na Gaeilge.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Dublin: Bord na Gaeilge.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 2001, the British government ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect to Irish in Northern Ireland.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Irish language, as well as stereotypes of Northern Protestants as the champions of British culture in Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ GMc.: What is the British governments attitude to the Irish language?
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In March 2005, the Irish-language TV service TG4 began broadcasting from the Divis transmitter near Belfast, as a result of an agreement between the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Northern Ireland Office, although so far this is the only transmitter to carry it.^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Much remains to be covered: Comhaltas Uladh, Irish-medium education and Irish in English-medium schools, the residual Gaeltachts within Northern Ireland in the early days of the state, the relationship of the Catholic church with the language movement, the gaelicising of west Belfast, the 1991 Census, Irish in the arts, economic activity, broadcasting, prisons.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Bilingual (Irish/English) street sign in Newry, Co. Down.
.Belfast City Council has designated the Falls Road area (from Milltown Cemetery to Divis Street) as the Gaeltacht Quarter of Belfast, one of the four cultural quarters of the city.^ Except in a sort of a disruptive way, you know, its fun to be able to stand up in Belfast City Council to be able to speak more Irish than them, and score a point that way.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ "Two things are pressing on it: One is English culture through the media and World Wide Web, and the other is the housing developments stretching out right up into the Gaeltacht area," O Muraile said.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is a growing number of Irish-medium schools throughout Northern Ireland (see picture above).^ Protestant learners of Irish in Northern Ireland .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following text, a learner from the Shankill Womens Centre describes a visit to an Irish-medium primary school on the Falls Road: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly any of the other teachers that Ive come across there havent been any with real interest in the politics of Northern Ireland anyway.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Under the St Andrews Agreement, the UK Government committed to introduce an Irish Language Act.^ It only takes a change of government to one apathetic to or hostile to the language and then its adios to irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The very dogs in Belfast will bark in Irish The Unionist Government and the Irish language 1921-43.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The opposite is true so we have had, for example, our public representatives bringing in the Official Languages Act and the push to have Irish made an official EU language.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although a consultation document on the matter was published in 2007, the restoration of devolved government by the Northern Ireland Assembly later that year meant that responsibility for language transferred from London to Belfast.^ The conception of the Irish language as a leisure pursuit partly explains Protestant disbelief of the objectives of the Irish language community to create a bilingual community in west Belfast and / or Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't be surprised if it was not political anymore in the RoI, but in Northern Ireland the Irish language is (unfortunately) up there with the Ulster GAA. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The very dogs in Belfast will bark in Irish The Unionist Government and the Irish language 1921-43.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In October 2007, the then Minister of Culture, Arts and Leisure, Edwin Poots MLA announced to the Assembly that he did not intend to bring forward an Irish language Bill.^ This learner wishes to divest the Irish language of its unnecessary nationalist image, and views the language through unionist cultural lenses (for example, in his reference to Ulster Irish).
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The conception of the Irish language as a leisure pursuit partly explains Protestant disbelief of the objectives of the Irish language community to create a bilingual community in west Belfast and / or Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish language is related to the world-wide upsurge of interest in minority ethnicity and the dislike of bland, homogenous Anglo-American culture.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Outside Ireland

The language spread of Irish in the United States according to U. S. Census 2000 and other resources interpreted by research of U.S. English Foundation, percentage of home speakers.
.A limited interest in the Irish language is maintained throughout the English-speaking world among the Irish diaspora and there are active Irish language groups in North American, British, and Australian cities.^ Children speak Irish in the classroom, but English is the language during recess.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, some Protestant nationalists are suspicious about unionists interested in the Irish language, and suspect the latter of having political motives: .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

North America

.The Irish language emigrated to North America along with the Irish people.^ The Irish language is important to the Irish state and the Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I got an A in the Leaving Cert (albeit in 1989) and still I can rarely bring myself to speak the language to other Irish people.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While discussing the Irish language with the north Down learners, I formed the impression that their local community identity was as relevant to them as wider and more abstract concepts of British and Irish identity.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Irish language is first mentioned there in the 17th century, and in the 18th century it was particularly strong in Pennsylvania.^ Step 1: Ban Sinn Fein from ever mentioning the Irish language or using it in campaign literature .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Protestant learners of Irish are not well acquainted with the achievements and goals of the Irish language revival; they are particularly unaware of revivalist activities in west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ With an increasing use of Irish on popular radio and TV, there is evidence of a wearing in the belief that Irish is a 'dead language' associated with all things old fashioned.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Immigration from Irish-speaking counties to America was strong throughout the 19th century, particularly after the Famine, and many manuscripts in Irish came with the immigrants.^ Many Protestant learners of Irish are not well acquainted with the achievements and goals of the Irish language revival; they are particularly unaware of revivalist activities in west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ "As most Irish people cannot speak Irish after twelve years of school hence the strong touch of neurosis about the whole subject.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As most Irish people cannot speak Irish after twelve years of school hence the strong touch of neurosis about the whole subject.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[75] 1881 saw the founding of “An Gaodhal,” the first newspaper largely in Irish. It continued to be published into the 20th century.[76]
.Although Irish is one of the lesser spoken European languages of North America, it still has some cultural importance in the northeast United States and in Newfoundland, though in the latter locality no native speakers remain.^ That's one of the biggest let downs for Irish IMO, any threatened language needs to have it's own space 'free' from outside influences.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaeilgeoir = Irish speakers, we're talking about native speakers here not English speakers speaking bad school Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why does being Irish Mean that one has a responsibility to maintain the language George ?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 2000 Census, 25,661 people in the U.S. speak Irish at home.^ Irish is thriving in places where people want to speak it, but if you tell them they have no choice but to speak it, you end up turning them off."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "As [certain] Irish people cannot speak Irish after twelve years of school hence the ..."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In all, 1.57 million or nearly 40% of the nation's 4 million people say they speak Irish, and 337,000 (counting schoolchildren) say they use it daily, according to the latest census figures.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] The equivalent 2005 Census reports 18,815.[78]
.The Irish language came to Newfoundland in the late 1600s and was commonly spoken among the Newfoundland Irish until the middle of the 20th century.^ I discovered that in my own school that Neilson (a nineteenth-century Presbyterian minister and scholar of the Irish language) had taught there and everything.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite their difficulties, some working-class learners display an ability to make the Irish language theirs as easily as their middle-class counterparts.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This middle-class unionist balances his positive opinion of the Irish language with a negative evaluation of Protestant working-class Orange culture.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Today it remains the only place outside of Europe that can claim a unique Irish name (Talamh an Éisc, meaning Land of the Fish).^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in Irish, An Spideal means "the hospital," a name that derives from the village's having once been the site of a leper colony.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But a new government policy means that the settlement, which boasts spectacular views of Galway Bay and the Aran Islands in the distance, will be known only by its Gaelic name, An Spideal.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2007 a number of Canadian speakers founded the first officially designated "Gaeltacht" outside of Ireland in an area near Kingston, Ontario (see main article Permanent North American Gaeltacht).^ TS November 8th, 2007 2:26 am Excellent article, I would love to see you write more (much more detailed) about this.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patick November 7th, 2007 11:56 am This article was fascinating and I would love to see more like it.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Despite being called a Gaeltacht, the area has no permanent inhabitants.^ The signpost issue is just official recognition of what the inhabitants of the Gaeltacht call our townlands and villages- i live in Dn Chaoin- Caoin's Fort.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite being a writer I have always had an issue with languages yet, can pick up swear words in many languages no problem.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ With the influx of English speakers into Gaeltacht areas, Irish speakers are being forced to give up their language and use English in everyday life instead."
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The site (named Gaeltacht Bhaile na hÉireann) is located in Tamworth, Ontario, and is to be a retreat centre for Irish-speaking Canadians and Americans.^ Tourist maps, however, will continue to carry English place names in the Gaeltacht which includes parts of seven counties alongside the Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in Irish, An Spideal means "the hospital," a name that derives from the village's having once been the site of a leper colony.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[79][80]

Australia

.The Irish language reached Australia in 1788, along with English.^ The English are the same people as we are, so it seems to me that Irish language is something which holds the British Isles together.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not against Irish as a language, I'm against blatant discrimination against English in an effort to promote it.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Viewed together, these proposals represent some of the most far-reaching goals of the Irish language movement.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In the early colonial period Irish was seen as a language of covert opposition used by convicts, and as such was repressed by the colonial authorities.^ Has it ever occurred to you that the money is spent because the Irish language is seen as being something of national importance and significance?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is nothing other than political, theyre using the Irish language, theyre abusing it.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Such forms of knowledge are used to bypass the Catholic and / or republican image of Irish, and they help Protestant learners to identify with the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[81] .The Irish were a greater proportion of the European population than in any other British colony, and there has been debate about the extent to which Irish was used in Australia.^ For me it is a source of shame that I now speak other languages much better than Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone has to use context to understand the spoken language, much more so than many other languages.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I have plenty of time for disagreement and spirited debate, but there is a right tone and a wrong tone to use.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[82] .In the light of recent research it seems likely that for much of the 19th century Irish was the second most widely used European language in the country after English, especially since most Irish immigrants came from counties in the west and south-west where Irish was strong (e.g.^ Most people are not fluent in a second language (YES, I’m including Europeans).
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Seems like internet would be place to find topical articles/material in other languages.

^ It seems like without even realizing it, I have memorized enough song lyrics to fill several phone books worth of pages, and I’m sure most of the readers have too.

County Clare and County Galway).[83]
.As legal barriers to the integration of the Irish and their descendants into Australian life were progressively removed, English became the language of social advancement.^ I would think, Whats the ulterior motive to putting it into Irish, when I know that its in English?
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The verb tá is in its forms and syntax similar enough to other Irish verbs, but it is irregular, as the verb "to be" in English, and indeed its equivalents in most other languages.
  • Irish Language Lessons - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irish is only Ireland's first language by law, the de facto first language is English and this sort of nonsense stinks of Anglophobia.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 2001 census indicated that there were 828 households in the country which used Irish.^ George/Dav I don't want to get involved there but I would put forward the 2001 census results (indicator of support IMO), the outstanding growth in Irish medium education as well as the support for Irish tv & radio as just a few indicators of the populations support.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is huge doubt not only about whether Irish can be revived as a common means of communication throughout the country but also about its chances of survival over the next generation or two.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With an increasing use of Irish on popular radio and TV, there is evidence of a wearing in the belief that Irish is a 'dead language' associated with all things old fashioned.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[84] .Individual users are not counted, though one may assume the existence of a minority with some competence in the language, including an increasing number of fluent speakers.^ Everyone knows some languages are similar than others – and naturally it takes more time for an English speaker to learn Chinese than to learn French.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ One may be conversationally fluent, but is one sure of what they are saying?
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I am not dense just working up to 16 hours a day so I could use some assistance with the deconstruction of the above languages including English and/or American English.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.The Department of Celtic Studies at the University of Sydney offers courses in both Modern Irish linguistics, Old Irish and Modern Irish language.^ Upon finishing the course, he continued his involvement in the Irish language scene, but noticed that some members of the Irish language movement fell silent when he was near them.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Linguistic determinism is an important element of German Romantic nationalism, the Irish version of which linked the separatist movement to the revival of the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And it may not be the ‘prescribed ways’ that you have been exposed to, whether you’re earning a degree at an Ivy League university or studying a language on your own or… the list is endless.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[85] .The University of Melbourne houses a valuable collection of late 19th and early 20th century books and manuscripts in Irish, increasingly used by specialists in the field.^ Your method sounds similar to that used by the 19th century explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton (no relation to the actor).
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[86]
In Australia the language has enjoyed a recent period of modest cultivation, beginning in the seventies and with some public attention being attracted in the interval.[87] .There is presently a loose network of Irish learners and users dominated by the Irish Language Association of Australia (Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile), through which Irish-language classes are run.^ This middle-class unionist balances his positive opinion of the Irish language with a negative evaluation of Protestant working-class Orange culture.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, Protestant learners are often unaware of the number of Irish classes in safe areas that are available to them.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Protestant learners of Irish are not well acquainted with the achievements and goals of the Irish language revival; they are particularly unaware of revivalist activities in west Belfast.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Week-long courses are available twice a year in the states of Victoria and New South Wales. .The Association has won several prestigious prizes (the last in 2009) in a global competition run by Glór na nGael and sponsored by the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs.^ The teacher handed out a photocopied song that is very popular among Irish speakers; the song includes a line which refers to driving the na Gaill (the foreigners) out of Ireland 3 .
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[88][89]
.Irish-speaking Australians contribute fiction and journalism to Irish-language magazines, both in print and on-line.^ I’ve witnessed families where both parents speak a different language, yet their young children can speak both fluently without mixing them up.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ For me it is a source of shame that I now speak other languages much better than Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you listen to kids who have been brought up speaking Irish in Belfast it often sounds like a different language from what you hear in the Gaeltacht.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] .There is also a widely distributed electronic newsletter for Australian Irish speakers (and some overseas readers) called An Lúibín.^ No doubt that there are some great Mandarin speakers who learned on pinyin, but %-wise, I find the GR learners to have more accurate tones.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ I may have also but have you ever heard me call myself an Irish speaker?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native English speaker and book-fluent in German, I have been able to pick up some French, Spanish, and Italian vocabulary here and there.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[91]

Third-level in Ireland

.There are also many third level courses offered in Irish at all universities (UCC, TCD, UCD, DCU, UL, NUIM, NUIG, UU, QUB) throughout Ireland.^ The good news is that there's loads of Irish speakers all over Ireland.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have a bilingual 4 year old (Irish is unfortunatly not one of those), and there's 20+ kids in his daycare, they are all amazing.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many people say the governments support did serious damage to Irish, but there are also many who believe that without that support no-one would be speaking Irish today.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of these universities also have thriving Irish language departments such as the NUI constituent universities, UL, TCD, UCC, DCU and UCD. The national Union of Students in Ireland also has its own full-time Irish language officer and campaign.^ That's one of the biggest let downs for Irish IMO, any threatened language needs to have it's own space 'free' from outside influences.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I doubt the conversion of unionists to nationalism or even liberal unionism by means of the Irish language.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Has it ever occurred to you that the money is spent because the Irish language is seen as being something of national importance and significance?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most universities in the Republic also have their own Irish language officers elected by the students.^ And it may not be the ‘prescribed ways’ that you have been exposed to, whether you’re earning a degree at an Ivy League university or studying a language on your own or… the list is endless.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ That's one of the biggest let downs for Irish IMO, any threatened language needs to have it's own space 'free' from outside influences.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The image of the Irish language in the Republic differs from that in Northern Ireland.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Third-level Abroad

.In December 2009, the Irish government announced funding of 1 million euro for third-level institutions abroad who offer or wish to offer Irish language courses to their students.^ I asked him if Protestants who learned the Irish language were betraying their community, by becoming nationalist in their outlook, for example.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I did interviews with people who learned 25 languages and included them in my course.
  • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ This learner wishes to divest the Irish language of its unnecessary nationalist image, and views the language through unionist cultural lenses (for example, in his reference to Ulster Irish).
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.There are thirty such universities where the Irish language is taught to students.^ Among Protestant learners there was an almost universal regret that the language had not been introduced to them during their school years.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't be surprised if it was not political anymore in the RoI, but in Northern Ireland the Irish language is (unfortunately) up there with the Ulster GAA. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I discovered that in my own school that Neilson (a nineteenth-century Presbyterian minister and scholar of the Irish language) had taught there and everything.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

There are also similar courses offered at the following universities in Britain:
At the following universities in continental Europe:
At the following universities in North America and Australia:
In May 2007, the University of Cambridge in Great Britain started offering courses in Modern Irish in addition to Medieval Irish.[92] In the United States, Harvard University offers courses in modern spoken Irish.[93] .Through the Harvard Extension School, members of the general public may take Irish courses at Harvard.^ Students must study Irish for 13 years, from kindergarten through high school, receiving more than 1,500 hours of instruction in all.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon finishing the course, he continued his involvement in the Irish language scene, but noticed that some members of the Irish language movement fell silent when he was near them.
  • CAIN: Issues: Language: McCoy (1997) Protestant Learners of Irish in Northern Ireland 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC cain.ulst.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[94] Additionally in the Boston area, noncredit courses in Irish are offered by the Irish Cultural Center.[95]

See also

.

Notes

  1. ^ Ethnologue, Gaelic, Irish: a language of Ireland
  2. ^ Government of Ireland, Statement on the Irish Language 2006PDF (919 KB). Retrieved on 21 January 2008
  3. ^ CSO Ireland - April 2008 Population Estimates
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Christina Bratt Paulston. Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings: Implications for Language Policies. J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 81. 
  6. ^ Pierce, David (2000). Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century. Cork University Press. p. 1140. 
  7. ^ Ó hÉallaithe, Donncha (1999). Cuisle. 
  8. ^ a b Brian Ó Broin, ‘Schism fears for Gaeilgeoirí,’ http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/weekend/2010/0116/1224262447899.html
  9. ^ A comprehensive catalogue of books published in Irish can be found at http://www.litriocht.com/.
  10. ^ Welcome to Ocean fm
  11. ^ Irish Independent, 20 November 2007, page 11
  12. ^ a b "Census 2006 – Principal Demographic Results" (PDF). Central Statistics Office. http://www.cso.ie/census/documents/Final%20Principal%20Demographic%20Results%202006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  13. ^ a b .Staidéar Cuimsitheach Teangalaíoch ar Úsáid na Gaeilge sa Ghaeltacht: Piomhthátal agus Moltaí, 2007. http://www.pobail.ie/ie/AnGhaeltacht/AnStaidearTeangeolaioch/file,8677,ie.pdf
  14. ^ ‘Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market,’ The Economic and Social Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter, 2009, pp. 435–460: http://ideas.repec.org/a/eso/journl/v40y2009i4p435-460.html
  15. ^ Breandán Delap, ‘Mar Ná Beidh Ár Élite Arís Ann,’ Beo, Eagrán 206, Feabhra 2010: http://www.beo.ie/
  16. ^ 20 Year Strategy for the Irish Language http://www.plean2028.ie/en/node/14
  17. ^ Dinneen, Patrick S. (1927). Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (2d ed. ed.). Dublin: Irish Texts Society. pp.  507 s.v. Gaedhealg. ISBN 1870166000. 
  18. ^ Doyle, Aidan; Edmund Gussmann (2005). An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. pp.  423. ISBN 8373632751. 
  19. ^ Dillon, Myles; Donncha Ó Cróinín (1961). Teach Yourself Irish. pp.  227. ISBN 0340278412. 
  20. ^ Ireland speaks up loudly for Gaelic, New York Times, 2005-03-29 An example of the use of the word "Gaelic" to describe the language, seen throughout the text of the article.
  21. ^ Door Raymond Hickey, 2002, A Source Book for Irish English, John Benjamins Publishing Company: Netherlands
  22. ^ Door Christopher Whyte, 2004, Modern Scottish Poetry, Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh
  23. ^ De Fréine, Seán (1978). The great silence. Mercier Press. ISBN 0853425167, 9780853425168. 
  24. ^ Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1993). "Aspects of the societal status of Modern Irish". in Martin J. Ball and James Fife (eds.). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 471–90. ISBN 0-415-01035-7. 
  25. ^ NUI Entry Requirements - Ollscoil na hÉireann - National University of Ireland
  26. ^ Irish Statue Book, University College Galway Act, 1929. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  27. ^ "Minister Hanafin publishes University College Galway (Amendment) Bill 2005". Department of education and Science. 12 December 2005. http://www.education.ie/home/home.jsp?maincat=10861&pcategory=10861&ecategory=10876&sectionpage=13637&language=EN&link=link001&page=1&doc=29800. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  28. ^ "Constitution of Ireland". Government of Ireland. 1 July 1937. http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/attached_files/html%20files/Constitution%20of%20Ireland%20(Eng).htm. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  29. ^ http://www.gppac.net/documents/pbp_f/part1/7_changi.htm Changing History - Peace Building in Northern Ireland By Mari Fitzduff
  30. ^ Belfast Agreement - Full text - Section 6 (Equality) - "Economic, Social and Cultural issues"
  31. ^ "Irish language future is raised". BBC News. 13 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/6177321.stm. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  32. ^ EU Directorate-General for Translation, Irish becomes the 21st official language of the EU. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
  33. ^ Siggins, Lorna (6 January 2003). "Only 25% of Gaeltachnt households fluent in Irish - survey". The Irish Times: pp. 5. 
  34. ^ Siggins, Lorna (6 January 2003). "Only 25% of Gaeltacht households fluent in Irish - survey". The Irish Times: pp. 5. 
  35. ^ Hamilton, John Noel (1974). A Phonetic Study of the Irish of Tory Island, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast. 
  36. ^ Lucas, Leslie W. (1979). Grammar of Ros Goill Irish, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast. 
  37. ^ An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. 2005. pp. 412. ISBN 8373632751. 
  38. ^ An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. 2005. pp. 417. ISBN 8373632751. 
  39. ^ Teach Yourself Irish. 1961. pp. 6. ISBN 0340278412. 
  40. ^ An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. 2005. pp. 432. ISBN 8373632751. 
  41. ^ Unicode 5.0, Latin Extended AdditionalPDF (163 KB). Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  42. ^ RTÉ News, 19 December 2006, Govt announces 20-year bilingual strategy. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  43. ^ Government of Ireland, Statement on the Irish Language 2006PDF (919 KB). Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  44. ^ Ordnance Survey Letters of County Kildare, co-authored by John O'Donovan.
  45. ^ IRISH POSTCODES SHOULD BE IRISH-BASED, SAYS CONRADH NA GAEILGE, Conradh na Gaeilge, 11 November 2008
  46. ^ "KDE Irish Gaelic translation". kde.ie. http://www.kde.ie/ga.php. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  47. ^ a b "Firefox in Irish". mozdev.org. http://gaeilge.mozdev.org/. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  48. ^ "Bogearra den scoth, chomh maith agus a bhí sé ariamh, anois as Gaeilge" (in Irish). openoffice.org. http://ga.openoffice.org/. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  49. ^ "Windows XP Pacáiste Comhéadan Gaeilge" (in Irish). Microsoft. http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=0db2e8f9-79c4-4625-a07a-0cc1b341be7c&displaylang=ga. Retrieved 2007-06-19. .
  50. ^ Royal Mail reversal in Irish names row, Irish News, December 12, 1997
  51. ^ The state has anglicised the Gaeltacht by encouraging the immigration of English-speakers, http://homepage.ntlworld.com/r.a.mccartney/baile_nua/migration.html
  52. ^ The Irish Language in a Changing Society: Shaping The Future, p. xxvi.
  53. ^ Sunday Times article on Gael-Taca
  54. ^ http://www.rnag.ie/
  55. ^ Blas website URL
  56. ^ a b TG4 official website
  57. ^ [2]
  58. ^ http://ww.beo.ie/
  59. ^ An Bíobla Naofa (Maynooth 1981)
  60. ^ a b http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Publications/Languagesdiscussionpaper.pdf Language in the Post-Primary Curriculum, November 2003.
  61. ^ Professor R. Comerford, Ireland (Hodder Books, London 2003) p145.
  62. ^ The Equality Authority (22 November 2006). "Landmark Decision for Leaving Certificate Students with Dyslexia". Press release. http://www.equality.ie/index.asp?locID=135&docID=598. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  63. ^ 2006 RIA language conference report
  64. ^ Department of Education & Science, 11 March 2007, Minister Hanafin announces increase in marks for Oral Irish to 40% in exams. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  65. ^ Independent, 12 July 2007. Pupils lap up hi-tech learning of Irish. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  66. ^ Learnosity, National Council for Curriculum and Assessment: Ireland. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  67. ^ http://www.schooldays.ie/primary-schools-in-ireland/primary-gaelscoil/
  68. ^ http://www.schooldays.ie/secondary-schools-in-ireland/Gaelscoil/
  69. ^ Information regarding these schools is continually updated on http://www.gaelscoileanna.ie/.
  70. ^ ‘Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market,’ The Economic and Social Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter, 2009, p. 446: http://ideas.repec.org/a/eso/journl/v40y2009i4p435-460.html
  71. ^ Allen Feldman. Formations of Violence: The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland.U of Chicago P, 1991. Chapter 3.
  72. ^ "Unionist fear of Irish must be overcome". newshound.com, quoting Irish News. 6 February 2003. http://www.nuzhound.com/articles/irish_news/arts2003/feb6_fear_of_irish__JCollins.php. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  73. ^ "The rich heritage of Ulster Scots culture". newshound.com, quoting Irish News. 16 November 2002. http://www.nuzhound.com/articles/irish_news/arts2002/nov15_ulster_scots_rich_heritage.php. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  74. ^ "Initial Periodical Report by the United Kingdom presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in accordance with Article 15 of the Charter". Council of Europe, Legal Affairs Office. 1 July 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20050514210600/http://www.coe.int/T/E/Legal_Affairs/Local_and_regional_Democracy/Regional_or_Minority_languages/Documentation/1_Periodical_reports/2002_5e_MIN-LANG_PR_UK.asp. Retrieved 2007-06-19. (internet archive copy as of 14 May 2005)
  75. ^ The cultural and linguistic context are discussed in: Ó hAnnracháin, Stiofán (ed.), 1979. Go Meiriceá Siar. An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath; Ihde, Thomas W. (ed.), 1994. The Irish Language in the United States: a historical, sociolinguistic and applied linguistic survey. Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 089789331 X
  76. ^ The paper and its context are discussed by Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin in: Uí Fhlannagáin, Fionnuala, 1990. Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus An Gaodhal. An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath.
  77. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center, Irish Gaelic. Retrieved on 07 January 2010
  78. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center, Irish Gaelic. Retrieved on 07 January 2010
  79. ^ Gaelport, Irish at home in Canada, 17 February 2007
  80. ^ Gaelport, First Gaeltacht abroad planned for Canada, 23 January 2007
  81. ^ Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile. The Irish Language in Australia. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  82. ^ O’Farrell, Patrick, 1986. The Irish in Australia: 1788 to the present. New South Wales University Press. ISBN 0868402346 / 0868401463; Lonergan, Dymphna, 2004. Sounds Irish: The Irish Language in Australia. Lythrum Press, South Australia. ISBN 1921013001. O’Farrell has argued that the language was soon discarded; Lonergan and other researchers have found that its use was widespread among the first generation, with some transmission to the second, and with occasional evidence of literacy.
  83. ^ A detailed view of the linguistic geography is given by Garret Fitzgerald: Fitzgerald, Garret, ‘Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117-1781 to 1861-1871,’ Volume 84, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.
  84. ^ "Languages Spoken At Home" from Australian Government Office of Multicultural Interests website. Retrieved 27 December 2007
  85. ^ http://www.arts.usyd.edu.au/departs/celticstudies/index.php?page=undergraduate_uos
  86. ^ This is known as the O’Donnell Collection, after Dr Nicholas O’Donnell, the Gaelic scholar who amassed it: http://www.academiccentre.stmarys.newman.unimelb.edu.au/
  87. ^ Transcript of Lingua Franca of 26 September 1998, Why Learn Irish?. Retrieved on 13 October 2007.
  88. ^ http://www.glornangael.ie
  89. ^ http://www.gaeilgesanastrail.com
  90. ^ Examples can be found in the magazine Feasta (a journal printed in Ireland and also published in archival form on-line at http://www.feasta.ie/), and in the on-line magazines Beo (http://www.beo.ie/) and nós* (http://www.nosmag.com/ - the latter also available in a printed format).
  91. ^ This can be downloaded from the Irish Language Association website.
  92. ^ "Irish becomes subject at Cambridge University". BreakingNews.ie. 5 January 2007. http://www.breakingnews.ie/ireland/?jp=308690&rss=rss2. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  93. ^ http://webdocs.registrar.fas.harvard.edu/courses/CelticLanguagesandLiteratures.html
  94. ^ http://www.extension.harvard.edu/2009-10/courses/celt.jsp
  95. ^ http://www.irishculture.org/IrishCulturalCentre/Language.aspx

External links

Irish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General links

Grammar and pronunciation

.
  • A dialect of Donegal (a phonological description of the dialect of Glenties by E. C. Quiggin, from 1906)
  • An Gael Magazine - Irish Gaelic Arts, Culture, And History Alive Worldwide Today
  • A short Irish and Breton phrase list with Japanese translation(Renewal) incl sound file
  • Braesicke's Gramadach na Gaeilge (Engl.^ So far, I’ve deconstructed Japanese, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Italian, Brazilian Portuguese, German, Norwegian, Irish Gaelic, Korean, and perhaps a dozen others.
    • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How long does it take to learn Chinese or Japanese vs. Spanish or Irish Gaelic?
    • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To choose a rather coarse example, don’t ever do a word for word translation of the innocent sounding English phrase “I am hot”, without prior verification of the possible meanings.
    • How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour (Plus: A Favor) 15 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

    translation)
  • Die araner mundart (a phonological description of the dialect of the Aran Islands by F. N. Finck, from 1899)

Dictionaries


Simple English

This language has its own Wikipedia Project.


Irish or Gaeilge is a language spoken in Ireland. Irish is a Celtic language. This means that Irish is similar to Scottish Gaelic, Breton, Cornish, Manx and Welsh. Many people who speak Irish can understand some Scottish Gaelic. They usually do not understand Welsh. This is because the Celtic languages are divided into two groups. One group is called the p-Celtic languages and the other is called the q-Celtic languages. Irish and Scottish Gaelic are q-Celtic languages and Welsh is a p-Celtic language.

Until the nineteenth century, most people in Ireland spoke Irish. There were great poets who wrote in Irish. Their poems became the songs of the people. People told stories about the heroes of old times. Many of the poems were about them.

Today, Irish is the first official language of the Republic of Ireland. It is not spoken by most Irish people outside the Gaeltacht for day to day life, but a lot of people speak it daily also or when among friends or family. It has to be taught in all schools in Ireland.

The newest Gaeltacht in Ireland is on the Falls Road in Belfast City where the whole community has been making Irish their first language for several years. This area is called the Gaeltacht Quarter [1].

Figures

There are around 1.5 million speakers. The places where Irish is spoken a lot are called Gaeltachts or, in Irish, Gaeltachtaí. Around 70% of the people in these areas can speak Irish. [[File:|250px|thumb|These are Gaeltacht areas]]

Common words and phrase

  • haon = one (hay-on)
  • dó = two (doe)
  • trí = three (tree)
  • ceathair = four (cah-her)
  • cúig = five (coo-igg)
  • sé = six (shay)
  • seacht = seven (shocked)
  • ocht = eight (huk-ted)
  • naoi = nine (nay-ee)
  • deich = ten (de)
  • céad = one hundred
  • dhá chéad = two hundred
  • Dia Dhuit = Hello (literal translation is "God be with you")
  • Céad Mile Fáilte = One hundred thousand welcomes
  • Ceist ag éinne? = Anyone have a question?
  • Éire = Ireland
  • go maith = good
  • Slán = goodbye

References



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Irish language, which are similar to those in the above article.








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