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Iroquois
Haudenosaunee
Flag of the Iroquois Confederacy.svg
Total population
approx. 125,000
(80,000 in the U.S.
45,000 in Canada)
[citation needed]
Regions with significant populations
 Canada
(southern Quebec, southern Ontario)
 United States
(New YorkWisconsinOklahoma)
Languages
Religion
.The Iroquois (pronounced /ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/), also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse",[1] are an indigenous people of North America.^ The Iroquois tribes originally called their confederacy Kanonsionni , which means "people of the longhouse."
  • Facts for Kids: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Indians 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See more Encyclopedia articles on: North American indigenous peoples Premium Partner Content Related content from HighBeam Research on: Iroquois Confederacy .
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0825512.html 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: General]

^ Iroquois refers to Six Nations mainly in New York State who formed the League of the Iroquois, known to themselves as Haudenosaunne (People of the Longhouse).
  • Iroquois Iroquoian Village Crawford Lake Conservation Area ~ Travel Ontario Canada 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.snapshotjourneys.com [Source type: General]

.In the 16th century or earlier, the Iroquois came together in an association known as the Iroquois League, or the "League of Peace and Power". The original Iroquois League was often known as the Five Nations, and comprised the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations.^ Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]
  • NativeWeb Home 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativeweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The confederation of Iroquoian tribes known in history, among other names, by that of the Five Nations, comprising the Cayuga , Mohawk , Oneida , Onondaga , and Seneca .

^ In the figurative speech of the Iroquois, the Oneida is the son, and the Onondaga is the brother, of the Mohawk.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Tuscarora nation joined the League in the 18th century, the Iroquois have often been known as the Six Nations.^ The Tuscaroras were added as the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 18th century.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iroquois joined by part of the Tuscarora .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A sixth nation, the Tuscarora, joined in 1722.

.The League is embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of 50 hereditary sachems.^ The hereditary chiefs of the first class, fifty in all for the five tribes, acting together, constituted the league council.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the Six Nations Reserve at Grand River, Brant rekindled the League's council fire which had been extinguished in 1777.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The league was governed by a council of 50 sachems, with each of the 5 founding members of the confederacy represented by a delegation of 8-14 members.

.When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Iroquois were based in what is now the northeastern United States, primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York.^ Refer a new guest to the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois New York Mailing List 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.iroquoisny.com [Source type: General]

^ At the time Europeans first arrived in North America, the the Iroquois Confederacy was located in what is now the northeastern United States and southern Canada, including New England, upstate New York, Pennsylvania, Ontario, and Quebec.

^ The Iroquois lived mostly in what is today north and central New York State.
  • Wikijunior:Ancient Civilizations/Iroquois - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Today, Iroquois live primarily in the United States and Canada.^ In the United States of America, the Iroquois lived in the northeastern portion of the coutnry.
  • Questions about Iroquois - Ask.com 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a major, vital force today in the Iroquois world -- in both the United States and Canada.

^ In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United States claimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Iroquois League has often also been known as the Iroquois Confederacy, but some modern scholars now make a distinction between the League and the Confederacy.^ Iroquois refers to Six Nations mainly in New York State who formed the League of the Iroquois, known to themselves as Haudenosaunne (People of the Longhouse).
  • Iroquois Iroquoian Village Crawford Lake Conservation Area ~ Travel Ontario Canada 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.snapshotjourneys.com [Source type: General]

^ Iroquois, the confederation of Iroquoian tribes known to history as the Five Nations (the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida , Onondaga, and Seneca) or (after 1722, when the Tuscarora joined the league) as the Six Nations.

^ Iroquois Confederacy ˈirəˌkwoi kənˈfedərəsē an alliance of the five most powerful Iroquois-speaking Indian tribes (the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, known as the Five Nations) formed before 1600 in what is now upstate New York.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4][5] .According to this interpretation, the Iroquois League refers to the ceremonial and cultural institution embodied in the Grand Council, while the Iroquois Confederacy was the decentralized political and diplomatic entity that emerged in response to European colonization.^ The Iroquois League had a great council.
  • The Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC nanunet.lhric.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Iroquois refers to Six Nations mainly in New York State who formed the League of the Iroquois, known to themselves as Haudenosaunne (People of the Longhouse).
  • Iroquois Iroquoian Village Crawford Lake Conservation Area ~ Travel Ontario Canada 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.snapshotjourneys.com [Source type: General]

^ Each Iroquois nation sent between eight and fourteen leaders to the Great Council, where they agreed on political decisions through discussion and voting.
  • Facts for Kids: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Indians 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The League still exists, but the Confederacy was shattered by the defeat of the British and allied Iroquois nations in the American Revolutionary War.^ Their decision to side with the British during the Revolutionary War was a disaster for the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oneida sided with the Americans against the British in the Revolutionary War.
  • Bear Clan - The Iroquois Nation 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois then took two steps that would change American history: they began to train their young men for war in a Spartan manner, and they formed their League of Five Nations.
  • The Iroquois Wars 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC rfester.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Name

The Iroquois also refer to themselves as the Haudenosaunee, which means "People of the Longhouse," or more accurately, "They Are Building a Long House." The term is said to have been introduced by The Great Peacemaker at the time of the formation of the League. .It implies that the nations of the League should live together as families in the same longhouse.^ It implies that the Nations of the confederacy should live together as families in the same longhouse.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It implies that the Nations of the the Iroquois Confederacy should live together as families in the same longhouse.

^ Iroquois refers to Six Nations mainly in New York State who formed the League of the Iroquois, known to themselves as Haudenosaunne (People of the Longhouse).
  • Iroquois Iroquoian Village Crawford Lake Conservation Area ~ Travel Ontario Canada 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.snapshotjourneys.com [Source type: General]

.Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the "tribal longhouse" and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door.^ Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the "tribal long house," and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door.

^ They used the metaphor of the LONGHOUSE to describe their political alliance; hence the Seneca, as the most westerly, were known as "keepers of the western door," and the Mohawk have been called the "keepers of the eastern door." A very rough estimate of the Iroquois population at the time of European contact would be approximately 10 000-15 000 people.

^ Each tribe also had one or more figurative names used commonly in the confederate council, the term "Long house" itself being a figurative designation for the confederacy, of which the Mohawk were considered to guard the eastern door, as the Seneca did the western, while the Onondaga watched the sacred council fire in the centre.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Onondagas, whose homeland was in the center of Haudenosaunee territory, were keepers of the League's (both literal and figurative) central flame.^ The center of Iroquois territory extended throughout Western, Central, and Northern New York state, northern Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, eastern Michigan, and southern Ontario and Quebec.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The League's principal sachem (Tadodaho) was always an Onondaga, and as "keepers of the council fire" with 14 sachems (well out of proportion to their population), they represented compromise.
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Onondaga were the Keepers of the Council Fire because they presided over the League council meetings.
  • IMA Hero: Reading Program Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: Original source]

.The name "Iroquois" was bestowed upon the Haudensosaunee by the French[6] and has several potential origins.^ The word "Iroquois" has two potential origins.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An alternate possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of a Huron (Wyandot) name—considered an insult—meaning "Black Snakes."
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, the powerful Iroquois were called upon by the British, French, or Americans to help them in war.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • A possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of irinakhoiw, a Huron (Wyandot) name—considered an insult—meaning "Black Snakes" or "real adders". The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, because of their rivalry in the fur trade.
  • The Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) often end their oratory with the phrase hiro kone;[7] hiro translates as "I have spoken", and kone can be translated several ways, the most common being "in joy", "in sorrow", or "in truth". Hiro kone to the French encountering the Haudenosaunee would sound like "Iroquois", pronounced [iʁokwe] in the French language of the time.
  • Another version is however supported by French linguists such as Henriette Walter and anthropologists such as Dean Snow[8].^ It's an English corruption of a French corruption of an Algonkian word meaning "real snakes."
    • Facts for Kids: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Indians 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The word Iroquois is thought to be a French derivation of the Algonkian word ireohkwa meaning "real adders," or real snakes.
    • www.mrnussbaum.com - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Haudenosaunee means "People of the Long House."

    .According to this account, "Iroquois" would derive from a Basque expression, Hilokoa, meaning the "killer people". This expression would have been applied to the Iroquois because they were the enemy of the local Algonquians, with whom the Basque fishermen were trading.^ They called themselves Iroquois which means "Killer People".

    ^ The Iroquois were the enemy of the Algonkin people.

    ^ This was because they were big rivals with the Algonquians.

    .However, because there is no "L" in the Algonquian languages of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence region, the name became "Hirokoa", which is the name the French understood when Algonquians referred to the same pidgin language as the one they used with the Basque.^ Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth and eighteenth century northeastern North America .
    • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Staunch Confederacy supporter Norman Jacobs...how they could bring the Confederacy back together as one because...
    • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.

    The French then transliterated the word according to their own phonetic rules, thus providing "Iroquois".

History

Formation of the League

.The members of the League speak differently than the other speakers of the languages of the same Iroquoian family.^ Other speakers of the same language: .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally, more than a dozen Iroquoian-speaking tribes of southern Ontario referred to themselves as Wendat meaning "island people" or "dwellers on a peninsula."
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also a "pecking order" among members reflected by the eloquent ritual language of League debate.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

.This suggests that while they had a common historical and cultural origin, they diverged over a long enough time that the languages have become different.^ They are united by a common cultural heritage and a common language.
  • Summary of Native American Tribes - Page 3 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The members of this Confederency speak different languages of the same Iroquoian family, suggesting a common historical and cultural origin, but diverging enough so that the languages have become different.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What they really were was a collection of a dozen, or so, small tribes which spoke Algonquin, shared a common culture, and occupied a defined geographic area.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Archaeological evidence shows that the Iroquois lived in the Finger Lakes region from at least 1000.[9]
A traditional Iroquois longhouse.
.The Iroquois moved to the south in long wars of invasion in present-day Kentucky.^ The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location favorable for landing canoes.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mohawk fought for the British, but after one of their raids struck just south of Montreal, the Caughnawaga and other Canadian Iroquois formally declared war on the British colonies in 1747.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Timeline of the Iroquois Wars (1533-1650) Evolution Publishing is happy to provide the following chronology of the long sequence of conflicts commonly known as the Beaver Wars.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to one pre-contact theory, it was Iroquois who, by about 1200, had pushed tribes of the Ohio River valley, such as the Quapaw (Akansea) and Ofo (Mosopelea) out of the region in a migration west of the Mississippi River.^ Who were the Iroquois tribes?
  • Facts for Kids: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Indians 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Continental Congress sent out a punitive expedition under John Sullivan , who in 1779 defeated Butler and his Iroquois allies.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois were a large tribe of Native Americans that lived in the Eastern Woodlands, on land south of Lake Ontario, along the Mohawk River, and west to the Finger Lakes and Genessee River in what is now New York State.
  • The Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC nanunet.lhric.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the mid-17th century, these Siouan groups had settled in their historically known territories of the Midwest, with some displacing other tribes to the west in their turn.^ Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 80,000 individuals of Iroquois-proper descent; when including the many Iroquois-speaking tribes, these estimates indicated more than 900,000 individuals.
  • Iroquois (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade , even though other reasons are often given for these wars.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the Hurons sought adoption into the Iroquois tribes while others became absorbed into the tribes of the Neutrals and Tobaccos.

[10]
.The Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact.^ Since the Iroquois League was formed prior to any contact, it owed nothing to European influence.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One major contribution cited is the harvesting of numerous types of corn, a skill which the Iroquois passed along to the European settlers along with other agricultural knowledge.
  • Indians of North America The Iroquois [published] 95.1.7 RV 1993 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC siris-archives.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to European colonization the Iroquois exercised active dominion over most of what is now New York State.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between about 1450 and 1600.[11][12] A few claims have been made for an earlier date; one recent study has argued that the League was formed in 1142, based on a solar eclipse in that year that seems to fit one oral tradition.^ The date of the formation of this confederation (probably not the first, but the last of a series of attempts to unite the several tribes in a federal union) was not earlier than about the year 1570, which is some 30 years anterior to that of the Huron tribes.

^ They confederated sometime after being visited by Cartier, possibly about 1570 (some believe confederation took place as much as 500 years earlier).
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Through oral tradition and wampum, the Haudenosaunee date the origins of the Great Law of Peace to be between 1000 and 1400 AD. However, Anglo-American scholars set the date to be, based on written accounts, at about 1450 AD. It is unfortunate that many Anglo-scholars, do not accept wampum belts as a legitimate form of writing, for these symbols when read by the elders, speak volumes.

[13] Anthropologist Dean Snow argues that the archaeological evidence does not support a date earlier than 1450, and that recent claims for a much earlier date "may be for contemporary political purposes".[14]
.According to tradition, the League was formed through the efforts of two men, Deganawida, sometimes known as the Great Peacemaker, and Hiawatha.^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.

^ According to Iroquois tradition, as interpreted by Hewitt, our best living authority, the league was established through the effort of Hiawatha (River Maker), probably of the Mohawk tribe, about the year 1570, or about forty years before the appearance of the French and Dutch in their country.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois then took two steps that would change American history: they began to train their young men for war in a Spartan manner, and they formed their League of Five Nations.
  • The Iroquois Wars 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC rfester.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.They brought a message, known as the Great Law of Peace, to the squabbling nations.^ These nations have agreed to follow the Peacemaker's message of the Great Law of Peace.

^ Though the Iroquois were fierce warrior s, they never went to war with fellow Iroquois nations and maintaned a strong domestic peace.
  • Iroquois@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were converted to the Christian faith and lived peaceably in the vicinity of Lancaster County until the Paxton Riots brought about their end.

.The nations who joined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Mohawk.^ The greatest similarities existed between the Mohawk and Oneida and the Cayuga and Seneca.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each tribe's representation was set: Onondaga 14; Cayuga 10; Oneida 9; Mohawk 9; and Seneca 8.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These were called respectively, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.

.Once they ceased most of their infighting, the Iroquois rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.^ Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth and eighteenth century northeastern North America .
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois League was a great military and political power in North America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

^ Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.

.According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadodaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha.^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.

^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah, and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The name of these roots is The Great White Roots and their nature is Peace and Strength.

.He became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.

^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah, and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] .This event is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near Syracuse, New York.^ This event is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near Syracuse, New York .
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This event is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near Syracuse, New York.

^ After the treaty, 250 New York Oneida purchased land near London, Ontario in 1839.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The title Tadodaho is still used for the league's spiritual leader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council.^ The title Tadadaho is still used for the league's spiritual leader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council, but is the only one of the fifty chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people.

^ According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadadaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Ayonwentah and became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.

^ The successor of the Onondaga chief Todadaho served as a chairman who oversaw the discussion, which continued until a unanimous decision was reached.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He is the only one of the fifty to have been chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people.^ The title Tadadaho is still used for the league's spiritual leader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council, but is the only one of the fifty chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people.

^ Since you are determined to resist and to withhold justice from your people there is only one course for us to adopt."

.The current Tadodaho is Sid Hill of the Onondaga Nation.^ The current Tadadaho of the the Iroquois Confederacy is Sid Hill of the Onondaga Nation.

Expansion

.In Reflections in Bullough's Pond, historian Diana Muir argues that the pre-contact Iroquois were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose use of the corn/beans/squash agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population that made war against other to conquer other Algonquian peoples.^ Many of the present Iroquois population are descendants of conquered peoples.
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Groups of women produced crops of corn (maize), beans, and squash, gathered wild foods, and prepared all clothing and most other residential goods.
  • Iroquois (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So much did the Iroquois reverence the inalienable rights of man," that they never made slaves of their fellowmen, not even of captives taken in war.

.Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption of agriculture.^ On the positive side, the adoptions gave the Iroquois a claim to the lands of their former enemies beyond mere "right of conquest."
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first white explorers arrived in the early seventeenth century, they found the settled, agricultural society of the Iroquois a contrast to the nomadic culture of the neighboring Algonquians.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This enabled them to support their own populations large enough to include a body of warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois conquest.^ Payne even goes on to claim that the contact that was had with the Iroquois by the nascent American nation was simply diplomatic – to win favor and support against Britain in the war.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Iroquois depleted the beaver population in their own country, they looked beyond their traditional range for pelts.
  • The Iroquois Wars 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC rfester.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois, while losing only one hundred of their own, killed all but twenty of the defending warriors and Frenchmen and then retreated back toward the east.

[16]
.The Iroquois may be the Kwedech described in the oral legends of the Mi'kmaq nation of Eastern Canada.^ Canada imposed an election system on the Six Nations in 1924, but many Iroquois tribes have retained their traditional system of hereditary leadership.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iroquois."Wild Horse".Native American Art & History.Native people tribe. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.american-native-art.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Champlain shot and killed two Iroquois chieftains, and earned for the French and their allied native nations the enmity of these fiercest of eastern warriors.
  • The Iroquois Wars 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC rfester.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legends, traditions and laws, of the Iroquois, or Six nations, and history of the Tuscarora Indians / by Elias Johnson, a native Tuscarora chief.

These legends relate that the Mi'kmaq in the late pre-contact period had gradually driven their enemies, the Kwedech, westward across New Brunswick, and finally out of the Lower St. Lawrence River region. .They named the last-conquered land "Gespedeg" (whence Gaspé), Mi'kmaq for "last land". The "Kwedech" are generally considered to have been Iroquois, specifically the Mohawk; their expulsion from Gaspé by the Mi'kmaq has been estimated as occurring ca.^ However, some feel the number to be actually eight children, who by Haudenosaunee law, being a matrilineal society, were considered to be Mohawk, for they had clans.

^ The massacred Conestoga tribe is generally considered to have been the last of the Susquehannock nation.

^ However, during the winter of 1665-66, they invaded the Iroquois homeland with devastating effect and burned the Mohawk villages of Tionnontoguen and Kanagaro.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

1535-1600.[17] Around 1535, Jacques Cartier reported Iroquoian groups on Gaspé and along the St. Lawrence River, and Samuel de Champlain found Algonquian groups in the same locations in 1608 — but the exact tribal identity of any of these groups has been debated.
.Iroquoian tribes were also well-known in the south by this time.^ The confederation of Iroquoian tribes known in history, among other names, by that of the Five Nations, comprising the Cayuga , Mohawk , Oneida , Onondaga , and Seneca .

^ Killin time in South Buffalo, might as well do something proactive and positive!
  • East Aurora, EMW - MyBuffalo Group - Where Buffalo Roams...Online 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mybuffalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East Aurora, EMW - MyBuffalo Group - Where Buffalo Roams...Online 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mybuffalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the time of the first English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia (1607), numerous 17th century accounts describe a powerful people known to the Powhatan Confederacy as the Massawomeck, and to the French as the Antouhonoron, who came from the north, beyond the Susquehannocks.^ English found the Jamestown colony in Virginia.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois also came into conflict with the French in the later 17th century.
  • Iroquois Confederacy (American Indian confederation) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a century and a quarter before the American Revolution , the Iroquois stood athwart the path from Albany to the Great Lakes, keeping the route from permanent settlement by the French and containing the Dutch and the English.
  • Iroquois Confederacy (American Indian confederation) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These "Massawomeck" / "Antouhonoron" have often been identified with the Iroquois proper, but other Iroquoian candidates include the Erie tribe, who were finally destroyed by the Iroquois in 1654[18] It is certain that the Five Nations acquired political control of most of Virginia west of the fall line over the years 1670-1710, which they continued to claim until they began selling this area to their British allies in 1722.

Beaver Wars

Haudenosaunee flag created in the 1980s. It is based on the "Hiawatha Wampum Belt ... created from purple and white wampum beads centuries ago to symbolize the union forged when the former enemies buried their weapons under the .Great Tree of Peace."^ The Peacemaker had them bury their weapons beneath the Great Tree of Peace and admonished all who lived beneath the tree to always look ahead for the sake of the League.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am Dekanawidah and with the Five Nations' Confederate Lords I plant the Tree of Great Peace.

^ Great Tree of Peace."
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

[19] .It represents the original five nations that were united by the Peacemaker and Hiawatha.^ Despite the animosity between the Haudenosaunee and the Huron ( variously , Wendat), the creation of the so-called Five Nations is attributed to Deganawida, an Huron mystic and his Mohawk disciple, Ayonhwathah variously , Hiawatha.

^ Indeed, the flight of Hiawatha from Onondaga to the country of the Mohawks is to the Five Nations what the flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina is to the votaries of Islam.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original confederacy consisted of five tribes-the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, and Seneca-and was known as the Five Nations, or the League of Five Nations.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tree symbol in the center represents an Eastern White Pine, the needles of which are clustered in groups of five.^ The tree symbol in the center represents an Eastern White Pine , the needles of which are clustered in groups of five.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One group of spirits was depicted by masks carved from living trees, while another group was represented by masks made from braided corn husks.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five Civilized Tribes - A group of southeastern tribes noted by whites for their advanced culture.
  • Summary of Native American Tribes - Page 3 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Beginning in 1609, the League engaged in the Beaver Wars with the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Huron allies.^ The League engaged in a series of wars against the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot ("Huron") allies.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Relationship with the French and the British Many historians argue that the hostility of the Iroquois toward the French was caused by Samuel Champlain when in 1609 he accompanied a Huron war party armed with French guns into Iroquois territory.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Hurons were allied to the French, the Five Nations engaged in raiding and other guerilla activites against them.

.They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now the boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well.^ They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though the Iroquois League fragmented during the American Revolution and its people are now scattered, its history after the Revolution became inextricably part of the history of the Great Lakes region and of the vast intersocietal trade that moved westward across the continent.

^ The Mohawk fought for the British, but after one of their raids struck just south of Montreal, the Caughnawaga and other Canadian Iroquois formally declared war on the British colonies in 1747.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the seventeenth century, they were said to have exterminated the Neutral Nation.^ Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth and eighteenth century northeastern North America .
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade , even though other reasons are often given for these wars.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About the middle of the 17th century the Five Nations were supposed to have reached their highest point, and in 1677 and 1685 they were estimated at about 16,000.

[21][22] and Erie Tribe to the west. .The wars were a way to control the lucrative fur trade,[citation needed] although additional reasons are often given for these wars.^ During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade , even though other reasons are often given for these wars.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were not involved in grand plots to disrupt the French fur trade through constant Indian wars, which affected Dutch fur trade as badly as the French.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Iroquois launched attacks upon these more northern tribes they could not prevent them from trading down the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1628, the Mohawks defeated the Mahicans to gain a monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch at Fort Orange, New Netherland.^ The Dutch establish Fort Orange on the Hudson River and begin trading with the Mahicans.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows the Mohawks free and easy access to the Dutch trading post at Fort Orange.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1624 the Dutch built a new post at Fort Orange which was actually closer to the the Mohawk.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Mohawks would not allow Canadian Indians to trade with the Dutch.^ Rather, the Mohawks wanted control of the profitable Dutch trade.

^ They were not involved in grand plots to disrupt the French fur trade through constant Indian wars, which affected Dutch fur trade as badly as the French.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (JR, 2:207) The Dutch found Fort Nassau near present-day Albany and initiate trade with the neighboring Mahicans and Mohawks.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1645, a tentative peace was forged between the Iroquois and the Hurons, Algonquins and French.^ That year the Hurons and the French once again made peace with the Iroquois.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iroquois overtures for peace with French ignored .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French/Iroquois peace treaty: .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1646, Jesuit missionaries at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons went as envoys to the Mohawk lands to protect the precarious peace of the time.^ Isaac Jogues , a notable Jesuit missionary, was killed by the Iroquois as a sorcerer in 1646, but the missionaries were somewhat successful, and a considerable number of the Mohawk withdrew from the confederacy and founded (c.1670) a Catholic settlement.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the summer of 1648 the Mohawks attempted to block a Huron trading fleet from passing through the Mohawk lands.

^ As these peace efforts seem inconsistent with Mohawk military activities at the same time, it indicates a split of opinion within the Mohawk nation.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Mohawk attitudes toward the peace soured during the men's journey.^ The Mohawk, however, helped the Dutch during the Esopus War and, in crushing the Munsee Delaware, deprived the Susquehannock of one of their allies in 1664.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, during the winter of 1665-66, they invaded the Iroquois homeland with devastating effect and burned the Mohawk villages of Tionnontoguen and Kanagaro.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Peacemaker journeyed to all five nations of the Haudenosaunee – Mohawk, Onieda, Onandaga, Cayuga, and Seneca – asking each to stop warring and live in peace with each other.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were attacked by a Mohawk party en route.^ Trade with their enemies was too much for the Mohawk, and in 1624 they attacked the Mahican in a war the Dutch could not stop.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They attacked and burned numerous Iroquois villages along the Mohawk River, thus giving the Illini some slight measure of revenge for the Iroquois attacks against them.
  • The Iroquois Wars 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC rfester.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are betrayed by a Huron’s intrigue and routed by an Iroquois war party.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taken to the village of Ossernenon (Auriesville, N.Y.), the moderate Turtle and Wolf clans decreed setting the priests free.^ The Iroquois tribes were organized into eight clans, which were grouped in two moieties: Wolf, Bear, Beaver, and Turtle; and Deer, Snipe, Heron, and Hawk.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That he was not of pure Mohawk blood is shown by the fact, which is remembered, that his father had had successively three wives, one belonging to each of the three clans, Bear, Wolf, and Turtle, which compose the Mohawk nation.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The individual Iroquois tribes were divided into three clans, turtle, bear, and wolf - each headed by the clan mother.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Angered by this, the more hawkish Bear clan killed Jean de Lalande and Isaac Jogues on October 18, 1646. The two French priests were later commemorated as among the eight North American Martyrs.^ Isaac Jogues , a notable Jesuit missionary, was killed by the Iroquois as a sorcerer in 1646, but the missionaries were somewhat successful, and a considerable number of the Mohawk withdrew from the confederacy and founded (c.1670) a Catholic settlement.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Little Turtle's War (1790-94) began with two horrendous American defeats: Harmar (October, 1790); and St. Clair (November, 1791).
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1649 during the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois used recently purchased Dutch guns to attack the Hurons.^ Relationship with the French and the British Many historians argue that the hostility of the Iroquois toward the French was caused by Samuel Champlain when in 1609 he accompanied a Huron war party armed with French guns into Iroquois territory.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally published in Iroquois Wars I, this timeline gives a summary of events from the earliest accounts of wars involving the Iroquois and related tribes through to the destruction of the Huron confederacy by the Iroquois in 1649.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stymied by Huron military power, the Iroquois wanted their permission to hunt in the prime beaver territory to the north and west of their homeland so they could maintain their trade with the Dutch.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.From 1651 to 1652, the Iroquois attacked the Susquehannocks without success.^ Even when, late in the seventeenth century, the Seneca were struggling against encroachment by the Susquehannocks they had to fight their battles without the support of their Iroquois brethren.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Susquehannock concentrated in a single impregnable fort for defense, so the Iroquois went after their allies and attacked the Delaware living along the Delaware River during the 1660s.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Susquehannock, though generally victorious over the Iroquois Confederacy, were being attacked by another enemy: smallpox.

.In the early seventeenth century, the Iroquois were at the height of their power, with a population of about twelve thousand people.^ Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 80,000 individuals of Iroquois-proper descent; when including the many Iroquois-speaking tribes, these estimates indicated more than 900,000 individuals.
  • Iroquois (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois Confederacy, an association of six linguistically related tribes in the northeastern woodlands, was a sophisticated society of some 5,500 people when the first white explorers encountered it at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the modern Iroquois people, the Longhouse remains a powerful symbol of the ancient union and is important to many traditions.
  • Mohawk Iroquois Longhouse - Construction 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nysm.nysed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .In 1654, they invited the French to establish a trading and missionary settlement at Onondaga (present-day New York state).^ About 1390, today's State of New York became the stronghold of five powerful Indian tribes.
  • Creation Myths (Morgana's Observatory) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.dreamscape.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From his headquarters in Middlebrook, N.J., Washington authorized the "total destruction and devastation" of the Iroquois settlements across upstate New York so "that country may not merely be overrun but destroyed.
  • ‘Town Destroyer’ Versus the Iroquois Indians - US News and World Report 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The earliest European glass beads to reach Iroquoia in what is now central New York State were probably traded up the Susquehanna River from Spanish trading posts further south.
  • The Magic of Iroquois Beadwork | WorthPoint 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.worthpoint.com [Source type: General]

.The following year, the Mohawk attacked and expelled the French from this trading post, possibly because of the sudden death of 500 Indians from an epidemic of smallpox, a European infectious disease to which they had no immunity.^ The following year the French and and their allies attacked Schenectady.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mohawk smallpox epidemic .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were not involved in grand plots to disrupt the French fur trade through constant Indian wars, which affected Dutch fur trade as badly as the French.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1658 to 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Susquehannock and their Delaware and Province of Maryland allies.^ The Susquehannocks are at war with the English colonists in Maryland.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason for the declaration of war is believed to have been aimed at halting incursions into Maryland territory by the Susquehannocks.

^ The allied war party returns from a successful raid, killing 28 Iroquois and taking five prisoners.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1663, a large Iroquois invasion force was defeated at the Susquehannock main fort.^ The Atontrataronnon (Algonkin) were driven from the Ottawa River and forced to seek refuge with the Huron, and three large Huron canoe flotillas transporting fur to Montreal were captured by the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois made their move against the Susquehannocks in the year 1663.

^ The Iroquois siege failed to capture the fort, and they were forced to retreat - the turning point of the Beaver Wars.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Sokoki tribe of the upper Connecticut River.^ Approximate date of the confederation of the Iroquois League with the arrival of "Peacemaker" Deganawida with concurrence of Mohawk war chief Hiawatha (some say as early as A. D. 900); Iroquois drove the Algonquian tribes from the Adirondack Mountains and the upper St. Lawrence River .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally published in Iroquois Wars I, this timeline gives a summary of events from the earliest accounts of wars involving the Iroquois and related tribes through to the destruction of the Huron confederacy by the Iroquois in 1649.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meetings were held at the Shawnee villages on the Sciota River in Ohio in 1770 and 1771, but Johnson was able to prevent the formation of an actual alliance by threats of war with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Smallpox struck again; through the effects of disease, famine, and war, the Iroquois were threatened by extermination.^ Originally published in Iroquois Wars I, this timeline gives a summary of events from the earliest accounts of wars involving the Iroquois and related tribes through to the destruction of the Huron confederacy by the Iroquois in 1649.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest blow, however, was not military defeat but epidemic when smallpox struck their single, crowded village with devastating effect in 1661.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continued through 1675 in Iroquois Wars II. .
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1664, an Oneida party struck at allies of the Susquehannock on Chesapeake Bay.^ In 1660 a war party of Oneida Indians killed five Piscataways simply for being friends with the Susquehannocks and the colonists of Maryland.

^ The pursuit of these Susquehannock allies south into South Carolina and Tennessee soon had Iroquois war parties fighting with Cherokee and Catawba.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mohawk, however, helped the Dutch during the Esopus War and, in crushing the Munsee Delaware, deprived the Susquehannock of one of their allies in 1664.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1664, the French sent the Carignan regiment to New France under Marquis de Tracy with the orders "to carry war even to their firesides in order totally to exterminate them". Out of fear, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with the French.^ French/Iroquois peace treaty: .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The peace signed between the French and Iroquois in 1667 was significant.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1645 the French and their Huron allies negotiated a peace treaty with the Iroquois.

In 1666, the French invaded Iroquois territory. .The Iroquois avoided battle; the French burned their villages.^ However, during the winter of 1665-66, they invaded the Iroquois homeland with devastating effect and burned the Mohawk villages of Tionnontoguen and Kanagaro.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While their diplomats took great care to reassure the French and keep them neutral, the Iroquois destroyed the Arendaronon Huron villages in 1647 and cut the trade route to Montreal.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This meant warfare was not confined just to the Great Lakes, and in 1687 the French had struck the Seneca and Onondaga villages in the Iroquois homeland.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Around 1670, the Iroquois drove the Siouan Mannahoac tribe out of the northern Virginia Piedmont region.^ Although the Iroquois launched attacks upon these more northern tribes they could not prevent them from trading down the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Susquehannocks, Nanticokes and a few other allied tribes residing throughout Maryland and Virginia began to raid the surrounding region.

^ By 1677 the Iroquois had extended this form of limited membership to the Mahican and Delaware and later would offer it to other Algonquin and Siouan tribes.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.They began to claim ownership of it by right of conquest.^ On the positive side, the adoptions gave the Iroquois a claim to the lands of their former enemies beyond mere "right of conquest."
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois, of course, already claimed it by right of conquest.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1672, the Iroquois were defeated by a war party of Susquehannock.^ A Huron war party of 500 is ambushed by an Iroquois party of 1,500 and defeated.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iroquois war parties went south to punish the Catawba for helping the British against the Tuscarora .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The allied war party returns from a successful raid, killing 28 Iroquois and taking five prisoners.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Iroquois appealed to the French for support.^ While they weakened the French with economic warfare, the Iroquois used British fear of French influence among Native Americans in the British colonies to gain support for the Covenant Chain.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

They asked Governor Frontenac to assist them against the Susquehannock because
."it would be a shame for him to allow his children to be crushed, as they saw themselves to be...^ The 'Iroquois realized that they would never be allowed to participate in the St. Lawrence River fur trade.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They called themselves the Haudenosaunee , which would translate into English as people of the longhouse .

^ They made considerable profits, but also saw the first influx of English speaking settlers, who would ultimately take over.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

they not having the means of going to attack their fort, which was very strong, nor even of defending themselves if the others came to attack them in their villages."
.[24] Some old histories state that the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannock during this time period.^ This period, known in the Iroquois oral tradition as the "darktimes," reached a nadir during the reign of a psychotic Onondaga chief named Todadaho.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cherokee people, whose historic homeland was in the southeastern United States, belong to the same linguistic group and share some other links with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the Iroquois political system, however, that made them unique, and because of it, they dominated the first 200-years of colonial history in both Canada and the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

As no record of a defeat has been found, historians have concluded that no defeat occurred.[24] .In 1677, the Iroquois adopted the majority of the Susquehannock into their nation.^ By 1677 the Iroquois had signed their first treaties as the "Five Nations," and members afterwards rarely negotiated separate treaties or conducted their own wars.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1715, the Tuscaroras were accepted into the Iroquois Nation.
  • Creation Myths (Morgana's Observatory) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.dreamscape.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pursuit of these Susquehannock allies south into South Carolina and Tennessee soon had Iroquois war parties fighting with Cherokee and Catawba.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.By 1677, the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement known as the Covenant Chain.^ Beyond the covenant chain : the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North America, 1600-1800 / edited by Daniel K. Richter and James H. Merrell ; foreword by Wilcomb E. Washburn.

^ Iroquois Confederacy ˈirəˌkwoi kənˈfedərəsē an alliance of the five most powerful Iroquois-speaking Indian tribes (the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, known as the Five Nations) formed before 1600 in what is now upstate New York.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1677 the Mahican became the first member of the Covenant Chain.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Together, they battled the French to a standstill who were allied with the Huron.^ Together, they battled the French , who were allied with the Huron , another Iroquoian people but a historic foe of the Confederacy.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the first year of the war, the Neutrals had the support of the Susquehannock who had been Huron allies before 1648.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What little fur reached them came from the Ottawa who, after the destruction of the Huron, had assumed the middleman's role in trade with the French.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.These Iroquoian people had been a traditional historic foe of the Confederacy.^ Firsthand descriptions of longhouses made by European explorers, missionaries, and travelers provide information that adds to the archeological record and the languages and oral traditions of the Iroquoian peoples.
  • Mohawk Iroquois Longhouse - Construction 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nysm.nysed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book offers fascinating perspectives on the life, traditions, and current affairs of the peoples of the Iroquois Confederacy.

.The Iroquois colonized the northern shore of Lake Ontario and sent raiding parties westward all the way to Illinois Country.^ After suffering for nearly two years from Iroquois raids on the Colonies' northern frontier, Washington and Congress decided to strike back.
  • ‘Town Destroyer’ Versus the Iroquois Indians - US News and World Report 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The allied war party returns from a successful raid, killing 28 Iroquois and taking five prisoners.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The powerful Missisauga expanded south along the shores of Lake Huron into southern Ontario and seized territory from the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

The tribes of Illinois were eventually defeated, not by the Iroquois, but rather by the Potawatomis. In 1684, the Iroquois invaded Virginian and Illinois territory again, and unsuccessfully attacked the French fort at St. Louis. .Later that year, the Virginia Colony agreed at Albany to recognise the Iroquois' right to use the North-South path running east of the Blue Ridge (later the Old Carolina Road), provided they did not intrude on the English settlements east of the fall line.^ English found the Jamestown colony in Virginia.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are masked messengers who visit the longhouse (a bark covered structure where the Iroquois used to live) now used as a public activity space.
  • Iroquois Midwinter Ceremony History & Cartoon Fun by Brownielocks. 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.brownielocks.com [Source type: General]

^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1679, the Susquehannock, with Iroquois help, attacked Maryland's Piscataway and Mattawoman allies.^ The Mohawk, however, helped the Dutch during the Esopus War and, in crushing the Munsee Delaware, deprived the Susquehannock of one of their allies in 1664.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William Johnson kept the Miami and other possible allies at bay with threats of Iroquois intervention if they helped the Shawnee.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The recurring raids prompted the French to help their Indian allies attack the Iroquois in 1609, opening a new technological era for the people of the Confederacy.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Peace was not reached until 1685.
.With support from the French, the Algonquian nations drove the Iroquois out of the territories north of Lake Erie and west of present-day Cleveland, which had been conquered during the Beaver Wars.^ During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade , even though other reasons are often given for these wars.
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Relationship with the French and the British Many historians argue that the hostility of the Iroquois toward the French was caused by Samuel Champlain when in 1609 he accompanied a Huron war party armed with French guns into Iroquois territory.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tribes, mostly members of the Iroquois nation, lived in the Northeastern territories of what is now the U.S. and Canada , from the St. Lawrence River down to the Delaware Bay and inland to the Great Lakes .
  • Iroquois - NativeWiki 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: Original source]

[26]
.Jacques-Rene de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville, Governor of New France from 1685 to 1689, set out with a well-organized force to Fort Frontenac.^ Champlain returns as governor of New France.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Montmagny is replaced as governor of New France by d’Ailleboust.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1653 the Seneca had attacked a Wyandot and Potawatomi fort near Green Bay, but the Iroquois were forced to withdraw after they ran out of food.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.There they met with the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederation from the Onondaga council fire, who came under a flag of truce.^ Shawnee protests to the Iroquois council went unanswered except for a threat of annihilation if they opposed the agreement.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To you Adodarhoh, the Onondaga cousin Lords, I and the other Confederate Lords have entrusted the caretaking and the watching of the Five Nations Council Fire.

^ The French had established a presence in Canada for over 50 years before they met the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Denonville recaptured the fort for New France and seized, chained, and shipped the 50 Iroquois Chiefs to Marseilles, France to be used as galley slaves.^ While they weakened the French with economic warfare, the Iroquois used British fear of French influence among Native Americans in the British colonies to gain support for the Covenant Chain.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French responded in 1701 to this challenge from the "neutral" Iroquois with a new post at Detroit, Fort Pontchartrain.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Ohio tribes learned of the second Treaty of Fort Stanwix signed by the New York Iroquois in 1784, American intentions became quite clear.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

He then ravaged the land of the Seneca. .The destruction of the Seneca land infuriated the Iroquois Confederation.^ Iroquois Confederacy or Iroquois League , North American confederation of indigenous peoples, initially comprising the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca.
  • Iroquois Confederacy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iroquois Confederacy 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 4, 1689 they burned Lachine, a small town adjacent to Montreal, to the ground.^ More than 1,200 Iroquois warriors retaliated in August, 1689 with a massive raid against Lachine just outside Montreal which killed more than two hundred French settlers.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors had been harassing Montreal defenses for many months prior to that.^ More than 1,200 Iroquois warriors retaliated in August, 1689 with a massive raid against Lachine just outside Montreal which killed more than two hundred French settlers.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations between the Iroquois and Erie apparently had never been friendly, and reinforced with hundreds of new warriors, the Erie flatly refused.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.They finally exhausted and defeated Denonville and his forces.^ Still, they continued to fight for another seven years, and it was not until 1675 that the Iroquois were finally able to force their surrender.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.His tenure was followed by the return of Frontenac, who succeeded Denonville as Governor for the next nine years (1689–1698).^ After the war the Mingo who followed Tecumseh into Canada signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1815) allowing them to return to the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dutch recaptured it in 1673, but it was returned to the British by the Treaty of Westminster the following year.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year an alliance of New England Algonquin (including Sokoki and Mahican) retaliated, but the attack on a Mohawk village was ambushed on their return home.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Frontenac had been arranging a new plan of attack to mollify the effects of the Iroquois in North America and realized the danger of the imprisonment of the Sachems.^ Beyond the covenant chain : the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North America, 1600-1800 / edited by Daniel K. Richter and James H. Merrell ; foreword by Wilcomb E. Washburn.

^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here in the wilderness of what has become the Empire State the Iroquois built up the strongest confederacy that existed in America north of the Aztec monarchy in Mexico.

He located the 13 surviving leaders and returned with them to New France that October 1698.
.During King William's War (North American part of the War of the Grand Alliance), the Iroquois were allied with the English.^ France had emerged from the King William's War as the winner in North America.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, the Iroquois had been a British ally during the King William's War, but only to the extent they were engaged in a separate war with the French.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meetings were held at the Shawnee villages on the Sciota River in Ohio in 1770 and 1771, but Johnson was able to prevent the formation of an actual alliance by threats of war with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.In July 1701, they concluded the "Nanfan Treaty", deeding the English a large tract north of the Ohio River.^ Not an original member of the Iroquois League, the Tuscarora joined as a non-voting member in 1722 after they had been forced to leave North Carolina in 1714 after a war with the English colonists.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A month later, they signed a treaty relinquishing all their claims south of the Ohio River which opened Kentucky for settlement.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The English are our Brethren, but we never promised to become what they are" (James Axtell, The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Iroquois claimed to have conquered this territory 80 years earlier. France did not recognize the validity of this treaty, as it had the strongest presence within the area in question. .Meanwhile, the Iroquois were negotiating peace with the French; together they signed the Great Peace of Montreal that same year.^ French/Iroquois peace treaty: .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That year the Hurons and the French once again made peace with the Iroquois.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peace signed between the French and Iroquois in 1667 was significant.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

French and Indian Wars

.After the 1701 peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral even though during Queen Anne's War (North American part of the War of the Spanish Succession) they were involved in some planned attacks against the French.^ French/Iroquois peace treaty: .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the confederacy sided with the British against the French and Americans in the French and Indian War and the Revolution though some sided with the Americans.
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1653, some of the Iroquois at least were again ready for peace with the French.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, the "Indian kings", traveled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British.^ Queene Anne was influenced to aid the Indian cause thro the visit (1710) to the court by Gen.

^ Most of the confederacy sided with the British against the French and Americans in the French and Indian War and the Revolution though some sided with the Americans.
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ End of Beaver Wars, peace signed with French and their Indian allies; Iroquois remained neutral in Queen Anne's War between British and French .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst.^ Queene Anne was influenced to aid the Indian cause thro the visit (1710) to the court by Gen.

The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.[27]
.Sometime during the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the Tuscarora fled north from the British colonization of North Carolina and petitioned to become the sixth nation.^ The sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated into Iroquois country in the early eighteenth century.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]
  • NativeWeb Home 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativeweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in the eighteenth century the Tuscarora, another Iroquoian-speaking tribe living in North Carolina, moved into the territory occupied by the Confederacy.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not an original member of the Iroquois League, the Tuscarora joined as a non-voting member in 1722 after they had been forced to leave North Carolina in 1714 after a war with the English colonists.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was a non-voting position but placed them under the protection of the Confederacy.^ Whenever a foreign nation is conquered and the survivors are brought into the territory of the Five Nations' Confederacy and placed under the Great Peace the two shall be known as the Conqueror and the Conquered.

^ Treaty of Ryswick ended the war between Britain and France; Iroquois League placed under the protection of the British against Iroquois wishes .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Ryswick, which ended the war between Britain and France in 1697, placed the League under British protection (not something the Iroquois had requested).
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1721 and 1722, Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia concluded a new Treaty at Albany with the Iroquois, renewing the Covenant Chain and agreeing to recognize the Blue Ridge as the demarcation between Virginia Colony and the Iroquois. .However, as white settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the 1730s, the Iroquois objected and were told that the agreed demarcation merely prevented them from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it did not prevent English from expanding west of them.^ This did not, however, prevent sexual relationships.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois easily compensated during 1642 and 1643 by moving large war parties into the Ottawa Valley to attack the French and Huron trying to move furs to Montreal.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Huron and their allies outnumbered them more than two to one, Iroquois war parties moved into southern Ontario trying to cut the Huron link through the Ottawa Valley to French traders at Quebec.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Iroquois were on the verge of going to war with the Virginia Colony, when in 1743, Governor Gooch paid them the sum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by the Iroquois.^ The Mohawk fought for the British, but after one of their raids struck just south of Montreal, the Caughnawaga and other Canadian Iroquois formally declared war on the British colonies in 1747.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Easton paid for Delaware lands taken by New Jersey, and Pennsylvania unilaterally renounced all claim to land west of the Appalachians that had been ceded by the Iroquois at the Albany in 1754.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final relationship between the Dutch and Mohawks would come during the Revolutionary War when the Iroquois under Joseph Brant returned to their ancestral lands from Canada to ravage the Mohawk valley in 1780.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold Virginia all their remaining claims on the Shenandoah Valley for 200 pounds in gold.^ Close Decreasing values (%) The percentage of all homes in Iroquois whose value has fallen in the last year.
  • Iroquois Home Prices and Home Values - Zillow Local Info 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

^ Four years later, the Iroquois began to secretly organize a massive uprising by all tribes east of the Mississippi against the French and British.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Easton paid for Delaware lands taken by New Jersey, and Pennsylvania unilaterally renounced all claim to land west of the Appalachians that had been ceded by the Iroquois at the Albany in 1754.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.During the French and Indian War (North American part of the Seven Years' War), the Iroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquian allies, both traditional enemies of the Iroquois.^ The alliance of the British and Iroquois served to protect both from the French.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the outbreak of war, both the British and Americans tried to win the support of the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a war between the Iroquois and the other Indian tribes and between the Iroquois and the French.
  • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war.^ In their hurry to insure Iroquois neutrality before the outbreak of hostilities, the French neglected to extinguish Iroquois claims to the Ohio Valley in favor of their own, and the British would soon claim this area since the Iroquois were supposedly under their protection.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French worried their continuing war with the Iroquois might bring another confrontation with the British and began to consider the Iroquois peace offers with greater interest.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the outbreak of war, both the British and Americans tried to win the support of the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Practically, few Iroquois joined the campaign, and in the Battle of Lake George, a group of Mohawk and French ambushed a Mohawk-led British column.^ The Mohawk fought for the British, but after one of their raids struck just south of Montreal, the Caughnawaga and other Canadian Iroquois formally declared war on the British colonies in 1747.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two words, joined and made subject to French pronunciation, became Iroquois.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lake of the Two Mountains mission was built for the Iroquois of the Mountain who would become the modern Mohawk community of Oka .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.The British government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the war, which forbade white settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains, but this was largely ignored by the settlers, and the Iroquois agreed to adjust this line again at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768), whereby they sold the British Crown all their remaining claim to the lands between the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers.^ Treaty of Fort Stanwix ceded large tracts of Iroquois land .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under pressure from the Americans to open more land for settlement, the British decided in 1768 to rescind the Proclamation and negotiate a new treaty with the Iroquois for Ohio.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A month later, they signed a treaty relinquishing all their claims south of the Ohio River which opened Kentucky for settlement.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

American Revolution

.During the American Revolution, many Tuscarora and the Oneida sided with the Americans, while the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to Great Britain.^ The greatest similarities existed between the Mohawk and Oneida and the Cayuga and Seneca.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each tribe's representation was set: Onondaga 14; Cayuga 10; Oneida 9; Mohawk 9; and Seneca 8.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mohawk and Oneida are quite similar, as are the Cayuga and Seneca; the Onondaga and Tuscarora are each different from the five others.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This marked the first major split among the Six Nations.^ To which is prefix'd, an account of the first confederacy of the Six Nations, their present tributaries, dependents, and allies, and of their reli .

^ The Six Nations of the Iroquois were very much in the minds of the colonial politicians, several of whom had their first lessons in diplomacy at the fire of the Indian Councils.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To which is prefix'd, an account of the first confederacy of the Six Nations, their present tributaries, dependents, and allies, and of .

.Joseph Louis Cook offered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as a Lieutenant Colonel- the highest rank held by any Native American during the war.^ After the war the Mingo who followed Tecumseh into Canada signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1815) allowing them to return to the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert L. Bennett (Oneida) and Louis R. Bruce Jr. (Mohawk) served in the 1960s and early 1970s as commissioners of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois opposed American citizenship when it was finally extended by the Congress in 1924 to all Native Americans in the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .However, after a series of successful operations against frontier settlements, led by the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant, other war chiefs, and British allies; the United States reacted with vengeance.^ The the British and Iroquois launched a series of raids against the frontier that put the Americans on the defensive in New York and Pennsylvania; Joseph Brant led the Cherry Valley massacre; he followed this with a raid on the settlement at Minisink Island on the Delaware River between Pennsylvania and New Jersey which left several farms in flames and ambushed the American militia upon his retreat; later the Americans destroyed Brant's villages at Unadilla and Oquaga on the Susquehanna .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war the Mingo who followed Tecumseh into Canada signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1815) allowing them to return to the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Raids and counter-raids continued until 1783 with the Mingo and other British allies moving their villages into northwest Ohio to distance them from the Americans along the Ohio River.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1779, George Washington ordered the Sullivan Campaign led by Col. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan against the Iroquois nations to "not merely overrun, but destroy," the British-Indian alliance.

Post-war

.After the war, the ancient central fireplace of the League was reestablished at Buffalo Creek.^ In Canada their first proceeding was to reestablish, as far as possible, their ancient league, with all its laws and ceremonies.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

.Captain Joseph Brant and a group of Iroquois left New York to settle in Canada.^ Prior to European colonization the Iroquois exercised active dominion over most of what is now New York State.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sensing trouble, the New York Iroquois called for a meeting with the Ohio tribes at Buffalo Creek in the spring of 1786.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Mingo, as well as the Iroquois League in New York, remained neutral.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River.^ They remember a mysterious tin box given them by British traders shortly after the war, which they were told not to open until they got back to their villages.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Late in the war, the Seneca declared war on the British after they had occupied Grand Island in the Niagara River which was claimed by the Seneca.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brant settled along the Grand River in southern Ontario on 675,000 acres given by Governor Frederick Haldimand of Canada as compensation for the lands the Iroquois had lost in New York.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brant's ford. By 1847, European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford, Ontario. .The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location still favorable for launching and landing canoes.^ Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (JR, 2:207) The Dutch found Fort Nassau near present-day Albany and initiate trade with the neighboring Mahicans and Mohawks.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the raids against Kentucky during this period originated from Pluggy's Town, a Mingo village located near present-day Delaware, Ohio.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Culture

Melting pot

The Iroquois are a melting pot. .League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the "Mourning War", raids intended to seize captives to replace lost compatriots and take vengeance on non-members.^ The allied war party returns from a successful raid, killing 28 Iroquois and taking five prisoners.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not an original member of the Iroquois League, the Tuscarora joined as a non-voting member in 1722 after they had been forced to leave North Carolina in 1714 after a war with the English colonists.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A war party of 200 Iroquois raids deep into Algonquin territory and surprises several bands engaged in hunting, killing many and taking many prisoners.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.^ The result was that among the interminable stories with which the common people beguile their winter nights, the traditions of Atotarho and Hiawatha became intermingled with the legends of their mythology.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois people with their Iroquois Confederation were among the most powerful native groups on the American continent at the time of European contact.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the Native people can probably lay claim to a tradition which reaches back to at least the end of the Pleistocene, and which, in all probability, goes back much further than that.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Iroquois aimed to create an empire by incorporating conquered peoples and remolding them into Iroquois and thus naturalizing them as full citizens of the tribe.^ The survivors were incorporated into the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, we created great ceremonies of Thanksgiving for the life-giving forces of the Natural World, as long as we carried out our ceremonies, life would continue.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That the Iroquois tribes were originally one people, and that their separation into five communities, speaking distinct dialects, dates many centuries back, are both conclusions as certain as any facts in physical science.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

Cadwallader Colden wrote "It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war." By 1668, two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. .At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.^ Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
  • NativeWeb Home 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativeweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Mohawk (Seneca) teaches Native American law and history at SUNY in Buffalo.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seneca and Onondaga who fought the Americans in the Revolution stayed in New York, but the Oneida had a more difficult time.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[30]

Food

.The Iroquois were a mix of farmers, fishers, gatherers, and hunters, though their main diet came from farming.^ The Mingo were groups of independent Iroquois - mixed Seneca and Cayuga hunters with a heavy percentage of descendents of Neutrals, Huron, and Erie who had been adopted by the Iroquois during the 1650s.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois were a bellicose hunter/ farmer confederacy comprised of five tribes; the Seneca, Cayuga, Mohawk, Onondaga, and Oneida termed the League of Five Nations.
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The main body of the Iroquois army returns to the scene and defeats the Hurons, though not without the loss of some 100 of their best men.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main crops they farmed were corn, beans and squash, which were called the three sisters and were considered special gifts from the Creator.^ The primary crops, revered as gifts from the Creator, were called the "Three Sisters": Corn provided stalks for climbing bean vines, while squash plants controlled weeds by covering the soil.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides corn, and the beans and squash they raised with it, the Iroquois people ate a wide variety of other plant foods.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corn, beans, and squash were known as "deohako" or "life supporters."
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

These crops are grown strategically. .The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade of their broad leaves.^ The primary crops, revered as gifts from the Creator, were called the "Three Sisters": Corn provided stalks for climbing bean vines, while squash plants controlled weeds by covering the soil.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides corn, and the beans and squash they raised with it, the Iroquois people ate a wide variety of other plant foods.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. .The food was stored during the winter, and it lasts for two to three years.^ Three years later he was murdered by a Peoria (Illinois) during a visit to Cahokia.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It lasted five days, followed by another two or three days of game playing.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the next ten years, the Iroquois finished off the last of their Nanticoke and Conoy allies and incorporated them into the Covenant Chain.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

When the soil eventually lost its fertility, the Iroquois migrated.
Gathering was the job of the women and children. .Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered in the summer.^ Wild fruits, nuts, and roots were gathered to supplement the cultivated crops.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During spring, maple syrup was tapped from the trees, and herbs were gathered for medicine.
The Iroquois mostly hunted deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter. .Fishing was also a significant source of food because the Iroquois were located near a large river.^ The Atontrataronnon (Algonkin) were driven from the Ottawa River and forced to seek refuge with the Huron, and three large Huron canoe flotillas transporting fur to Montreal were captured by the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois capture 14 Algonquins near Three Rivers.
  • Annals of Colonial North America 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.evolpub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois used the region's waterways extensively for transportation, but fish was relatively unimportant as food.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They fished salmon, trout, bass, perch and whitefish. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice.[31]

Wampum

.Since they had no writing system, the Iroquois depended upon the spoken word to pass down their history, traditions, and rituals.^ Canada imposed an election system on the Six Nations in 1924, but many Iroquois tribes have retained their traditional system of hereditary leadership.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Legends, traditions, and laws of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, and history of the Tuscarora Indians / by Elias Johnson.

^ Iroquois studies since a commoner had dared to write in a field already dominated by self-appointed experts.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

As an aid to memory, the Iroquois used shells and shell beads. .The Europeans called the beads wampum, from wampumpeag, a word used by Indians in the area who spoke Algonquin languages.^ Like other New England Algonquin, the Pocumtuc were an agriculture people who lived in one of the most fertile farming areas in New England.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What they really were was a collection of a dozen, or so, small tribes which spoke Algonquin, shared a common culture, and occupied a defined geographic area.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, there is no word for `I' in any American Indian language, which was a profound concept to the framers who closely studied the tribes' customs, government and culture."
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.The type of wampum most commonly used in historic times was bead wampum, cut from various seashells, ground and polished, and then bored through the center with a small hand drill.^ Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And so, we use this two row wampum belt even now, as the basis for all of the other treaties that we made after this time.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was at this time among the Onondagas a chief of high rank whose name, variously writtenHiawatha, Hayonwatha, Ayongwhata, Taoungwathais rendered, he who seeks the wampum belt.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

.The purple and white beads, made from the shell of the quahog clam, were arranged on belts in designs representing events of significance.^ White and purple beads were made from the different sections of the shells.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beads were made of quahog, or large, hardshell clam shells and could only be obtained through trading or as tribute payments from coastal tribes.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.
  • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

Certain elders were designated to memorize the various events and treaty articles represented on the belts. These men could "read" the belts and reproduce their contents with great accuracy. .The belts were stored at Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, in the care of a designated wampum keeper.^ There was at this time among the Onondagas a chief of high rank whose name, variously writtenHiawatha, Hayonwatha, Ayongwhata, Taoungwathais rendered, he who seeks the wampum belt.
  • Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation (Horatio Hale, Deganawidah, Iroquois League, Confederacy) 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.markshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any Lord of the Five Nations Confederacy may construct shell strings (or wampum belts) of any size or length as pledges or records of matters of national or international importance.

^ There is still division as to whether the council fire belongs with the Six Nations in Canada or the Onondaga in New York (New York finally returned the wampum belts of the Confederacy to the Onondaga in 1989).
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Famous wampum belts of the Iroquois include the Hiawatha Wampum, which represents the (original) Five Nations, the spatial arrangement of their individual territories, and the nature of their roles in the Confederacy.^ So then go your way and depart from the territory of the Five Nations and from the Confederacy."

^ When any person or any of the people of the Five Nations emigrate and reside in a region distant from the territory of the Five Nations Confederacy, the Lords of the Five Nations at will may send a messenger carrying a broad belt of black shells and when the messenger arrives he shall call the people together or address them personally displaying the belt of shells and they shall know that this is an order for them to return to their original homes and to their council fires.

^ All Lords of the Five Nations Confederacy must be honest in all things.

.The modern Iroquois flag is a rendition of the pattern of the original Hiawatha Wampum belt.^ Wampum were beaded belts that told the history of the Iroquois and were very important features of Council meetings.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patterns or figures woven into wampum belts recorded the terms of treaties; duplicate belts were given to each of the contracting parties.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located on the Allegany Reservation, this museum houses 300,000 articles portraying the life and culture of the Seneca and other Iroquois Indians, including wampum belts, costumes, games, and modern art.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Two Row Wampum, also known as Guswhenta, depicts the agreement made between the Iroquois league and representatives of the Dutch government in 1613, an agreement upon which all subsequent Iroquois treaties with Europeans and Americans have been based.^ This self-serving agreement was between two parties who could no longer control the people they represented - the British for the Americans and the Iroquois for the Ohio tribes - and condemned both to a fifty-years of war which claimed more than 30,000 lives.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterwards, the Iroquois handled all Mahican relations with Europeans.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois homeland occupied a very strategic position - sitting between the Dutch in the Hudson Valley and furs of the Great Lakes.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Today, replicas of the Two Row Wampum are often displayed for ceremonial or educational purposes.^ Today, longhouses are used only for religious and ceremonial purposes.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other historical wampum belts representing specific agreements or historical occurrences are known to exist, although many have been lost or stolen.^ Photographs of wampum belts are also included as representing Indian records of negotiations.

^ The Treaty of Fort Stanwix Treaty not only destroyed their credibility as a representative of the Ohio tribes, but many Iroquois lost faith in the League's decisions.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Women in society

.When Americans and Canadians of European descent began to study Iroquois customs in the 18th and 19th centuries, they observed that women assumed a position in Iroquois society roughly equal in power to that of the men.^ The Canadian and American branches gradually grew farther apart, until by 1803 the Canadian Iroquois were no longer included in meetings of the American portion of the League.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During that period, the Iroquois began to acquire European trade goods through raids on other Indian tribes.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the nineteenth century, burials were conducted according to European customs.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individual women could hold property including dwellings, horses and farmed land, and their property before marriage stayed in their possession without being mixed with that of their husband's.^ Families were encouraged to leave the longhouses and live separately on small farms so the men could work in their fields without being embarrassed by being seen doing women's work.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1990s, struggles over land rights and protection of the land have also included the extension of leases on property and towns in western New York, as well as ongoing conflicts over pollution and the environment.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The work of a woman's hands was hers to do with as she saw fit. .A husband lived in the longhouse of his wife's family.^ Families were encouraged to leave the longhouses and live separately on small farms so the men could work in their fields without being embarrassed by being seen doing women's work.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband was able to ask him to leave the dwelling, taking any of his possessions with him. .Women had responsibility for the children of the marriage, and children were educated by members of the mother's family.^ Mothers had primary responsibility for raising their children and teaching them good behavior.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After marriage, a man moved into his wife's longhouse, and their children became members of her clan.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The clans were matrilineal, that is, clan ties were traced through the mother's line.^ Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) totemic (named for an animal) clans.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

If a couple separated, the woman kept the children. .Violence against women by men was virtually unknown.^ If a War Chief acts contrary to instructions or against the provisions of the Laws of the Great Peace, doing so in the capacity of his office, he shall be deposed by his women relatives and by his men relatives.

[32]
.The chief of a clan could be removed at any time by a council of the mothers of that clan, and the chief's sister was responsible for nominating his successor.^ At the third council the War Chief of the Five nations shall address the Chief of the foreign nation and request him three times to accept the Great Peace.

^ In consultation with the other women, the clan mother chose one or more men to serve as clan chiefs.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The War Chief shall then hand the title to a sister family and he shall address it and say: "Our mothers, ____________, listen attentively while I address you on a solemn and important subject.

[32]

Spiritual beliefs

.In the Iroquois belief system was a formless Great Spirit or Creator, from whom other spirits were derived.^ The Tuscarora later joined the confederacy (creating League of Six Nations), and several other tribes were ultimately absorbed as well, particularly those vanquished by the Iroquois.
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois created a system of half-kings - special Iroquois emissaries (usually Mingo), one for the Shawnee and one for the Delaware - to represent the Ohio tribes in the Iroquois council.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Spirits animated all of nature and controlled the changing of the seasons.^ Population, change, April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 .
  • Iroquois County MapStats from FedStats 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fedstats.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population, percent change, April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 .
  • Iroquois County MapStats from FedStats 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fedstats.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar, including a harvest festival of thanksgiving.^ Their importance to the Iroquois was clearly demonstrated by the six annual agricultural festivals held with prayers of gratitude for their harvests.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first day included general thanksgiving, a Feather Dance honoring those who worked to put on the festival, and the naming of children.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the arrival of the Europeans, many Iroquois became Christians, among them Kateri Tekakwitha, a young woman of mixed birth.^ Kateri Tekakwitha, who was baptized in 1635, became the first Native American nun.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absorption of this many outsiders was not without major problems - not the least of which was the Iroquois became a minority within their own confederacy.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Traditional religion was revived to some extent in the second half of the 18th century by the teachings of the Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake.^ Seneca Handsome Lake (Ganiodayo) had a spiritual vision which not only changed his life but the Iroquois history preaching the "Kaiwicyoch" (Good Message) and founded the Longhouse religion - a blend of the traditional Iroquois values and Christianity .
  • FDI - Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterwards, he preached the "Kaiwicyoch" (Good Message) and founded the Longhouse religion - a blend of the traditional Iroquois values and Christianity.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With renewed hostilities, the Iroquois began to question the loyalty of Christian tribesmen pressuring them to renounce their new religion and return to traditional Iroquois ways.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]

People

Nations

The first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west to north); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720.
English name Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location
Seneca Onondowahgah "People of the Great Hill" Seneca Lake and Genesee River
Cayuga Guyohkohnyoh "People of the Great Swamp" Cayuga Lake
Onondaga Onöñda'gega' "People of the Hills" Onondaga Lake
Oneida Onayotekaono "People of Standing Stone" Oneida Lake
Mohawk Kanien'kehá:ka "People of the Great Flint" Mohawk River
Tuscarora1 Ska-Ruh-Reh ""Hemp Gatherers"[34] From North Carolina²
1 Not one of the original Five Nations; joined 1720.
2 Settled between Oneidas and Onondagas.
Iroquois Five Nations c. 1650 Iroquois Six Nations c. 1720

Clans

.Within each of the six nations, people are divided into a number of matrilineal clans.^ Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) totemic (named for an animal) clans.
  • Compact Histories 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People of the Five Nations members of a certain clan shall recognize every other member of that clan, irrespective of the Nation, as relatives.

^ All the Clan council fires of a nation or of the Five Nations may unite into one general council fire, or delegates from all the council fires may be appointeed to unite in a general council for discussing the interests of the people.

.The number of clans varies by nation, currently from three to eight, with a total of nine different clan names.^ Should any person, a member of the Five Nations' Confederacy, specially esteem a man or woman of another clan or of a foreign nation, he may choose a name and bestow it upon that person so esteemed.

Current clans
Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk
Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf (Θkwarì•nę) Wolf (Thayú:ni) Wolf (Okwáho)
Bear Bear Bear Bear (Uhčíhręˀ) Bear (Ohkwá:li) Bear (Ohkwá:ri)
Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle (Ráˀkwihs) Turtle (A'no:wál) Turtle (A'nó:wara)
Snipe Snipe Snipe Snipe (Tawístawis)
Deer Deer Deer
Beaver Beaver Beaver (Rakinęhá•ha•ˀ)
Heron Heron
Hawk Hawk
Eel Eel (Akunęhukwatíha•ˀ)

Population history

The total number of Iroquois today is difficult to establish. .About 45,000 Iroquois lived in Canada in 1995.[citation needed] In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United States claimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background.^ Approximately 30,000 of these live in the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war the Mingo who followed Tecumseh into Canada signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1815) allowing them to return to the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the incorporation of 1,500 Tuscarora in 1722 as a sixth member of the League, the Iroquois numbered only 12,000 in 1768.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, tribal registrations in the United States in 1995 numbered about 30,000 in total.^ Approximately 30,000 of these live in the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Iroquois, however, still consider themselves a distinct nation from either Canada or the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the Iroquois political system, however, that made them unique, and because of it, they dominated the first 200-years of colonial history in both Canada and the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Populations of the Haudenosaunee Members (Six Nations)
Location Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk Combined
Ontario         &0000000000003970.0000003,970 &0000000000014051.00000014,051 &0000000000017603.00000017,6031
Quebec           &0000000000009631.0000009,631  
New York &0000000000007581.0000007,581 448 1596 &0000000000001200.0000001,200 &0000000000001109.0000001,109 &0000000000005632.0000005,632  
Wisconsin         &0000000000010309.00000010,309    
Oklahoma             &0000000000002200.0000002,2002
Source: Iroquois Population in 1995 by Doug George-Kanentiio [1].
.1 Six Nations of the Grand River Territory.^ Of 3,500 Cayuga, 3,000 are in Canada as part of the Six Nations of the Grand River Reserve near Brantford, Ontario.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Six Nations Reserve at Grand River, Brant rekindled the League's council fire which had been extinguished in 1777.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another 600 are at the Grand River Reserve in Ontario which has members from all six Iroquois tribes.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]


2 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma.

Prominent individuals

Government

Mohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.

Grand Council

.The Grand Council of the Iroquois League is an assembly of 50 sachems (chiefs), a number that has never changed.^ Despite the incorporation of 1,500 Tuscarora in 1722 as a sixth member of the League, the Iroquois numbered only 12,000 in 1768.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the Iroquois, the events of 1664-67 changed the manner in which the League functioned.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reaction to this ended their traditional system of hereditary chiefs, and they separated from the rest of Iroquois League in 1848.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

The seats on the Council are distributed among the Six Nations as follows:
  • 14 Onondaga
  • 10 Cayuga
  •   9 Oneida
  •   9 Mohawk
  •   8 Seneca
  •   0 Tuscarora
.When anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan studied the Grand Council in the 19th century, he interpreted it as a central government.^ Morgan, Lewis Henry .
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.This interpretation became influential, but some scholars have since argued that while the Grand Council served an important ceremonial role, it was not a government in the sense that Morgan thought.^ This role was crucial since all decisions of the council had to be unanimous, one of the League's weaknesses.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leger's role in the campaign which provoked a crisis on the League council since he would need their permission to move through the Iroquois homeland.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[3][4][5] .According to this view, Iroquois political and diplomatic decisions were made on the local level, and were based on assessments of community consensus; a central government that dictates policy to the people at large is not the Iroquois model of government.^ It was the Iroquois political system, however, that made them unique, and because of it, they dominated the first 200-years of colonial history in both Canada and the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois form of government was based on democracy and personal freedom, and included elements equivalent to the modern political tools of initiative, referendum, and recall.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although much has been made of their Dutch firearms, the Iroquois prevailed because of their unity, sense of purpose, and superior political organization.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Unanimity in public acts was essential to the Council. .In 1855, Minnie Myrtle observed that no Iroquois treaty was binding unless it was ratified by 75% of the male voters and 75% of the mothers of the nation.^ By 1677 the Iroquois had signed their first treaties as the "Five Nations," and members afterwards rarely negotiated separate treaties or conducted their own wars.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[35] .In revising Council laws and customs, a consent of two-thirds of the mothers was required.^ If the Five Nations fail to obtain the consent of the nation at the first council a second council shall be held and upon a second failure a third council shall be held and this third council shall end the peaceful methods of persuasion.

[35]
The women held real power, particularly the power to veto treaties or declarations of war.[35] .The members of the Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the mothers of each clan, and if any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women his tribe and the Great Law of Peace, he could be demoted by the mothers of his clan, a process called "knocking off the horns" which removed the deer antlers emblem of leadership from his headgear and returned him to private life.^ The clan mothers of the five different tribes appoint Council members to serve.
  • Iroquois Influence Thesis - a knol by Brian Cook 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the Great Peace their councils were held.

^ Then shall the chosen one repeat the laws of the Great Peace.

[35] .Councils of the mothers of each tribe were held separately from the men's councils.^ When it seems necessary for a council to be held to discuss the welfare of the clans, then the men may gather about the fire.

.Men were employed by the women as runners to send word of their decisions to concerned parties, or a woman could appear at the men's council as an orator, presenting the view of the women.^ Families were encouraged to leave the longhouses and live separately on small farms so the men could work in their fields without being embarrassed by being seen doing women's work.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Adodarhoh or any of his cousin Lords are absent from a Confederate Council, any other Firekeeper may open and close the Council, but the Firekeepers present may not give any decisions, unless the matter is of small importance.

^ Every Onondaga Lord (or his deputy) must be present at every Confederate Council and must agree with the majority without unwarrantable dissent, so that a unanimous decision may be rendered.

Women often took the initiative in suggesting legislation.[35]

Influence on the United States

.According to a controversial argument sometimes known as the Iroquois Influence Thesis, the Iroquois League was an important influence on the development of the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.^ Rather than learning political sophistication from Europeans, Europeans learned from the Iroquois, and the League, with its elaborate system of checks, balances,, and supreme law, almost certainly influenced the American Articles of Confederation and Constitution.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cherokee people, whose historic homeland was in the southeastern United States, belong to the same linguistic group and share some other links with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois opposed American citizenship when it was finally extended by the Congress in 1924 to all Native Americans in the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[36][37] The Influence Thesis became popular in the 1980s, particularly through publications by Donald Grinde and Bruce Johansen. .According to these historians, the democratic ideals of the Great Law of Peace provided a significant inspiration to Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and other framers of the United States Constitution.^ The name of these roots is The Great White Roots and their nature is Peace and Strength.

^ If then an answer is returned in favor of justice and in accord with this Great Law, then the Lords shall individualy pledge themselves again by again furnishing the necessary shells for the pledge.

^ The Smoke of the Confederate Council Fire shall ever ascend and pierce the sky so that other nations who may be allies may see the Council Fire of the Great Peace.

.The popularity of the Influence Thesis culminated with the United States Congress passing a resolution in October 1988, specifically recognizing the influence of the Iroquois League upon the US Constitution and Bill of Rights.^ The Cherokee people, whose historic homeland was in the southeastern United States, belong to the same linguistic group and share some other links with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois opposed American citizenship when it was finally extended by the Congress in 1924 to all Native Americans in the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the Iroquois political system, however, that made them unique, and because of it, they dominated the first 200-years of colonial history in both Canada and the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.The Influence Thesis has since been rejected by many scholars, however, including experts on the Iroquois and the US Constitution.^ Since the Iroquois League was formed prior to any contact, it owed nothing to European influence.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Iroquois, however, still consider themselves a distinct nation from either Canada or the United States.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

According to historian Jack Rakove, "The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s contain no significant references to the Iroquois."[39] Scholars of the Iroquois Confederacy who have rejected the Influence Thesis include William N. Fenton and Francis Jennings, who called it "absurd".[40] Anthropologist Dean Snow writes:
.
There is, however, little or no evidence that the framers of the Constitution sitting in Philadelphia drew much inspiration from the League.^ Although disputed by some, there is significant evidence that the Iroquois Confederacy served as a model or inspiration for the U.S. Constitution.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no question, however, that all of the Iroquoian confederacies (Neutrals, Susquehannock, Huron, and Iroquois) were established prior to European contact.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No evidence has been found to indicate where they came from, however.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can even be argued that such claims muddle and denigrate the subtle and remarkable features of Iroquois government.… Yet the temptation to demonstrate that the United States Constitution was derived from a Native American form of government remains, for ephemeral political purposes, too strong for some to resist.^ Working together we can end some of the historical misinformation about Native Americans.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After 1989, Farmer began lecturing on Native American culture and issues on many campuses in the United States and Canada, focusing on media, environmental, and social topics relevant to Native communities.
  • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rising to leadership among the Mohawk afterwards, Brant was convinced the Iroquois would lose their land if the Americans won and strongly opposed the council's decision to remain neutral.
  • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[41]

Modern communities

Iroquois in Buffalo, New York, 1914.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Haudenosaunee is pronounced /hɔːdɛnəˈʃɔːni/ in English, Akunęhsyę̀niˀ in Tuscarora (Rudes, B., Tuscarora English Dictionary, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), and Rotinonsionni in Mohawk.
  2. ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0170e.shtml. 
  3. ^ a b c Richter, "Ordeals of the Longhouse", in Richter and Merrill, eds., Beyond the Covenant Chain, 11–12.
  4. ^ a b Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 4–5.
  5. ^ a b Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 72–73.
  6. ^ Peck, William (1908). History of Rochester and Monroe county, New York. pp. 12. http://books.google.com/books?id=IvssAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA11. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  7. ^ "The Iroquois Confederacy". The Light Party. http://www.lightparty.com/Spirituality/Iroquois.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  8. ^ "The Iroquois". Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=P7e82KQoX6IC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=iroquois+basque&source=web&ots=W1269hy5wt&sig=7cFTz0iO46ls-BD-HQQeKDe43Nk. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  9. ^ Jennings, p.43
  10. ^ Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 2009
  11. ^ Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 69.
  12. ^ Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 25.
  13. ^ Johansen, Bruce (1995). "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy". Akwesasne Notes New Series 1 (3): 62–63. http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/DatingIC.html. Retrieved Dec 12, 2008. 
  14. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 231.
  15. ^ The History of Onondage'ga'
  16. ^ Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough's Pond, University Press of New England
  17. ^ Bernard G. Hoffman, 1955, Souriquois, Etechemin, and Kwedech - - A Lost Chapter in American Ethnography
  18. ^ James F. Pendergast, 1991, The Massawomeck.
  19. ^ "From beads to banner". Indian Country Today. http://www.indiancountrytoday.com/archive/28214379.html. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  20. ^ "Haudenosaunee Flag". First Americans. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/kmartin/School/iroqflag.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  21. ^ Reville, F. Douglas. The History of the County of Brant, p. 20.
  22. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Hurons"
  23. ^ Francis Parkman[citation needed]
  24. ^ a b Jennings, p. 135
  25. ^ Jennings, p.160
  26. ^ Jennings, p. 111
  27. ^ "The Four Indian Kings". Library and Archives Canada. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/virtual-vault/4-kings/index-e.html. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  28. ^ Joseph Solomon Walton, 1900, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania p. 76-121.
  29. ^ Oneida Nation of New York Conveyance of Lands Into Trust pg 3-159, Department of Indian Affairs
  30. ^ Jennings, p. 95
  31. ^ Bial, Raymond (1999). Lifeways: The Iroquois. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 0761408029. 
  32. ^ a b Wagner, Sally Roesch (1999). "Iroquois Women Inspire 19th Century Feminists". National NOW Times. National Organization for Women. http://www.now.org/nnt/summer-99/iroquois.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  33. ^ Wallace, Anthony (April 12, 1972). Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. Vintage. ISBN 978-0394716992. 
  34. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Iroquois
  35. ^ a b c d e Wagner, Sally Roesch (1993). "The Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights". in Sakolsky, Ron; Koehnline, James. Gone To Croatan: Origins of North American Dropout Culture. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia. pp. 240–247. ISBN 0936756926. http://books.google.com/books?id=B5TKKAAACAAJ. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  36. ^ "The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth". Ratical.com. http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/index.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  37. ^ Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: American History Through the Voices of the Indians. Pocket Books. p. 14. SBN 671-78555-9. 
  38. ^ "H. Con. Res. 331, October 21, 1988". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/hconres331.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  39. ^ "Did the Founding Fathers Really Get Many of Their Ideas of Liberty from the Iroquois?". George Mason University. http://hnn.us/articles/12974.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  40. ^ Francis Jennings, Empire of fortune: crowns, colonies, and tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), p. 259 note 15.
  41. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 154.

Bibliography

  • Fenton, William N. .The Great Law and the Longhouse: a political history of the Iroquois Confederacy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0806130032.
  • Jennings, Francis.^ Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture Powered by JRank Countries and Their Cultures .
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: the Covenant Chain confederation of Indian tribes with English colonies from its beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744.^ Giving in after the war to demands by Kansas for the removal of all Indians from inside its borders, the government in 1867 negotiated a treaty with the eastern tribes which had been removed to Kansas during the 1830s.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Instead, the Iroquois saw an opportunity to lure an important member of the Great Lakes alliance from the French and into the Covenant Chain.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During that period, the Iroquois began to acquire European trade goods through raids on other Indian tribes.
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Norton, 1984. ISBN 0393017192.
  • Jennings, Francis, ed. .The History and culture of Iroquois diplomacy: an interdisciplinary guide to the treaties of the Six Nations and their league. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1985. ISBN 0815626509.
  • Richter, Daniel K. The ordeal of the longhouse: the peoples of the Iroquois League in the era of European colonization. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0807820601.
  • Richter, Daniel K., and James H. Merrell, eds.^ Syracuse University Press, 1975.
    • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Iroquois have been willing to adapt to a changing world, but they have resisted efforts to substitute a European culture for their own heritage.
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not an original member of the Iroquois League, the Tuscarora joined as a non-voting member in 1722 after they had been forced to leave North Carolina in 1714 after a war with the English colonists.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Beyond the covenant chain: the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North America, 1600–1800. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ISBN 027102299X.
  • Shannon, Timothy J. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier.^ The Iroquois ordered them to the upper Susquehanna in north-central Pennsylvania where the League was running its own "Indian reservation" for Covenant Chain tribes displaced by British settlement.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Their role in North America was as a catalyst in an already existing framework of inter-tribal conflicts and their particular relationships with the Iroquois were of necessity and not of design.
    • Lowensteyn 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lowensteyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Viking, 2008. ISBN 9780670018970.
  • Snow, Dean R. The Iroquois.^ Sensing trouble, the New York Iroquois called for a meeting with the Ohio tribes at Buffalo Creek in the spring of 1786.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most Mingo, as well as the Iroquois League in New York, remained neutral.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The alliance again asked the New York Iroquois for help.
    • Iroquois 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford, UK and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994. ISBN 1557862257.
  • Tooker, Elisabeth, ed. .An Iroquois source book.^ An Iroquois Source Book, Volumes 1 and 2, edited by Elisabeth Tooker.
    • Iroquois Confederacy - History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues, Acculturation and assimilation, Traditional culture 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    3 volumes. New York: Garland, 1985–1986. ISBN 0824058771.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

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Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Iroquois
Plural
-
Iroquois
.
  1. A confederacy of (originally) five Native American (Indian) tribes: the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas.^ Established in either 1142 or 1451, the Five Nations Iroquois confederacy consisted of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas.

    ^ Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
    • The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]
    • NativeWeb Home 10 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nativeweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From east to west, the tribes included the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca.

    Also known as the Iroquois League.
  2. A person belonging to one of these tribes.
  3. Any of the languages of the Iroquois, belonging to the Iroquoian family of languages.
  4. A kind of hairdo, where both sides of the head are shaved leaving only a stripe of hair in the middle.

Translations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Iroquois, which are similar to those in the above article.








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