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Sir Isaac Newton
Head and shoulders portrait of man in black with shoulder-length gray hair, a large sharp nose, and an abstracted gaze
Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (aged 46)
Born 4 January 1643(1643-01-04)
[OS: 25 December 1642][1]
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth
Lincolnshire, England
Died 31 March 1727 (aged 84)
[OS: 20 March 1726][1]
Kensington, Middlesex, England
Residence England
Fields physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology
Institutions University of Cambridge
Royal Society
Royal Mint
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2]
Benjamin Pulleyn[3][4]
Notable students Roger Cotes
William Whiston
Known for Newtonian mechanics
Universal gravitation
Infinitesimal calculus
Optics
Binomial series
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica
Influences Henry More[5]
Polish Brethren[6]
Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier
John Keill
Signature
Is. Newton
.
Notes
His mother was Hannah Ayscough.^ Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug.
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^ Born prematurely , he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug .
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His half-niece was Catherine Barton.
.Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 [OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726])[1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who is considered by many scholars and members of the general public to be one of the most influential men in human history.^ Sir isaac newton th...
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^ Sir Isaac Newton Jan 01, 2004; Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was an English scientist and mathematician.
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^ SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642- 1727), English natural philosopher, was born on the 25th of December 1642 (o.s.

.His 1687 publication of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (usually called the Principia) is considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics.^ His Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica , published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science.
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^ His treatise Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ His Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica , published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science .
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.In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.^ In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion , laying the groundwork for classical mechanics , which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering.
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^ Main article: Newton's laws of motion The famous three laws of motion: .
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^ Newton also presented the laws of universal gravitation.
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.Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.^ Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.
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^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
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^ Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution .
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.Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope[7] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum.^ This is known as Newton's theory of colour.
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^ In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum.
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^ In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum .
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.He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.^ He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.
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^ He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and proposed a theory of the origin of stars.
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^ He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound .
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.In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus.^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus.
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^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the calculus.
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^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus .
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.He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.^ He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem , developed the so-called " Newton's method " for approximating the zeroes of a function , and contributed to the study of power series .
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^ Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent.
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^ He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
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.Newton remains influential to scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science and had the greater contribution to humankind, Newton or Albert Einstein.^ In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.
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^ In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science , Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein .
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^ Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.
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.Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution on both.^ Newton is the president of the Royal Society.
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^ Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.
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^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
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[8]
.Newton was also highly religious, though an unorthodox Christian, writing more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than the natural science for which he is remembered today.^ Newton was also highly religious (though unorthodox), producing more work on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.
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^ (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.
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^ (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies .
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.In spite of this, The 100 by Michael H. Hart ranks Newton as the second most influential person in history (below Muhammad and above Jesus).^ Newton is arguably the most important person in modern history.
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^ His Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica , published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science.
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^ In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science , Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein .
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[9]

Contents

Life

Early life

.Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.^ He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7.
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^ Woolsthorpe, a hamlet in the parish of Colsterworth, Lincolnshire , about 6 m.

^ Main article: Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 [OS: December 25, 1642] [1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.
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.At the time of Newton's birth, England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton.^ At the time of Newton's birth, England had not adopted the latest papal calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642.
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^ Newton was born three months after his father, also called Isaac, died.
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^ He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7.
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.Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.1 litre).^ Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug.
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^ Born prematurely , he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug .
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.When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough.^ When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough.
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^ When Newton was little more than two years old his mother married Barnabas Smith, rector of North Witham .

^ His mother’s brother, Mr W. Ayscough, the rector of the next parish, was a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge, and when he found that Newton’s mind was wholly devoted to mechanical and mathematical problems, he urged upon Mrs Smith the desirability of sending her son to his own college, a proposal to which she was not at all unwilling to give her consent.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."^ The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.
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^ The young Isaac disliked his step-father and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry to the list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them According to E.T. Bell and H. Eves: Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King's School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school.
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^ His dear father and mother, his brother George, and the sweet face of little Emily Robinson must all vanish and leave him in utter darkness and solitude.
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[10]
Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller
.
Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science.
^ Customer Review: Newton would be bounced out of today's science departments: I found this book to be very interesting as I had not known the extent of Isaac Newton's greatness nor the breadth of his interests.
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^ For that purpose, I devote this preface to the exemplary, tragic case of a very famous, professed devotee of Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle years Main article: Isaac Newton's middle years Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science.
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NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889
)
.From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill).^ From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill).
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^ The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later, the staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton.
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^ While attending Grantham school Newton lived in the house of Mr Clark, an apothecary of that town.
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.He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him.^ He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him.
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^ His mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, remarried when he was three, and left him with his grandmother until her second husband died, in 1653, when Newton was 11.
  • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence.
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He hated farming.[11] .Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.^ Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.
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^ It appears to have been Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, who persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.
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^ He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him.
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.Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student.^ Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King's School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school.
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[12]
.In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort of work-study role.^ He was accordingly admitted a member of Trinity College on June 5, 1661, as a subsizar, and was matriculated on July 8.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge.
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^ A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.
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[13] .At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes, and of astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler.^ At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Galileo, Copernicus and Kepler.
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^ Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.
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^ If astronomers ever discover a comet with such an orbit, we will know that it has emerged from the depths of interstellar space and is on a one-time tour through the inner solar system.

.In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become infinitesimal calculus.^ In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become calculus.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Development began to bog down as it became clear that the language would not run efficiently on the Hobbit processor that Sakoman had selected three years before.
  • The Story Behind Apple's Newton 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague.^ Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague.
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^ Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in April of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague.
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^ Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague.
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.Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student,[14] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation.^ Newton also presented the laws of universal gravitation.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the next 2 years, Newton worked at his home in Woolsthorpe on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation.
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^ For the next 18 months Newton worked at home on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation.
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.In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.^ On his return to Cambridge (1667), Newton became a Fellow of Trinity College, and, in 1668, took his MA. In the following year, Isaac Barrow resigned his chair in favour of his young pupil.
  • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The above article was written by Henry Martyn Taylor, M.A., F.R.S.; Fellow and former Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge; Mayor of Cambridge, 1900-01.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]

Middle years

Mathematics

Newton's mathematical work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".[16]
.Newton's early work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen, for example, in a manuscript of October 1666, now published among Newton's mathematical papers.^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the calculus.
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^ Appendices provide those selections from the works of Newton that Clarke frequently refers to in the correspondence.
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^ The collected works of Newton were published in 1779 by Dr Samuel Horsley, F.R. S., under the title Isaaci Newtoni Opera quae exstant Omnia.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .A related subject of his mathematical work was infinite series.^ This work by Leibniz was to serve as a starting-point for Carl Gauss's definition, from 1799 on, of the complex domain and related general principles of mathematical-physical curvature.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most among today's teachers and professors of mathematics are, in effect, clinically insane in their customary treatment of that and related subject-matters.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

.Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton, a fellow of our College, and very young ...^ He wrote a paper Analysis per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas, which he put, probably in June 1669, into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then a fellow of Trinity College, and the first occupant of the Lucasian chair of mathematics), at the same time giving him permission to communicate the contents to their common friend Mr John Collins, a mathematician of no mean order, and a correspondent of many of the eminent men of his time.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wrote a paper Analysis per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas, which he put, probably in June 1669, into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian professor of mathematics), at the same time giving him permission to communicate the contents to their common friend John Collins (1624-1683), a mathematician of no mean order.

^ In a subsequent letter on the 20th of August, Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper, and added, "the name of the author is Newton, a fellow of our college, and a young man, who is only in his second year since he took the degree of master of arts, and who, with an unparalleled genius (eximio quo est acumine), has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics."
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things".[18]
.Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus.^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the calculus.
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^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.
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^ NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889) Mathematics Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations.
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.Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently, although with very different notations.^ Although over 20 years old, it is probably one of the most definitive biographies of Isaac Newton, although, I believe that later books do a better job of defending Leibniz in the debatee over the priority of the discovery of the differential and integral calculus.The modern consensus os that Leibniz independently formulated his own version of the valculus, without plagiarizing Mewton.
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^ Newton is arguably the most important person in modern history.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

^ This work had wide circulation and brought differential notation, as developed by Leibniz, into general use throughout continental Europe.
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.Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704, while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method", nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations, were adopted by continental European mathematicians, and after 1820 or so, also by British mathematicians.^ Moreover, Leibniz's notation and "differential Method" were universally adopted on the Continent, and after 1820 or so, in the British Empire.
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^ Meanwhile, Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684.
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^ It will be more convenient, and not much more charge.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sir Isaac Newton - LoveToKnow 1911 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Such a suggestion, however, fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts, such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"), of 1684. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.^ I would love to see any writings Newton did on the book of Ezekiel.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

^ He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684).
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^ He published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684).
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But Newton's work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form, based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[19] and explained why he put his expositions in this form,[20] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'.
.Because of this content the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[21] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time.^ These calculating rods, or bones (so-called because they were made of ivory), inspired by the standard multiplication tables, could be used in multiplication, division and the extractiion of roots.
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^ Customer Review: Newton The Great: A little known life experience of one of our truly great scientist of all time.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become infinitesimal calculus.
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[22] Newton's use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in Newton's De Motu Corporum in Gyrum of 1684[23] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684".[24]
.Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.^ Newton claimed that he had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared being mocked for it.
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^ Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.
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^ Passages such as this, form the time of the calculus controversy, reflected aspects of the philosophic stance that Newton assumed vis-a-vis Leibnitz.
  • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.^ Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.
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^ He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693.
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^ It was the first attempt to apply dynamics to bodies of finite size rather than just to particles and this was later to influence Newton's theory of gravitation.
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.In 1691, Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia, but never finished it.^ Customer Review: Newton abridged: This book is an abridged version of the author's much larger full biography, Never at Rest, published in 1980.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepar for a second edition.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia, a very important event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public in a new light.

.However, in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed.^ However, in 1694 the relationship between the two men cooled down.
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.At the time, Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.^ At the time, Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.
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^ At the time, Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz .
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[26]
.Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud.^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
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^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
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^ Newton is the president of the Royal Society.
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.This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz.^ This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ The historian of religion George Marsden wrote that Newton was the most important individual in the founding of the 18th century Enlightenment.
  • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

Thus began the bitter Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.[27]
.Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent.^ Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent.
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^ In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become infinitesimal calculus.
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^ He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
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.He discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.^ He discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.
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^ Two things stand out about Newton: First, "he firmly believed that God was the creator of all things" (p.
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^ Various people will likely have different opinions in answer to that question, but certainly everyone should be able to agree that one of them is Sir Isaac Newton.
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.He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula), and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series.^ He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula), and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series.
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^ In this work Viète gives for the first time the formula equivalent to sin A sin B = 1/2[cos (A-B) - cos (A+B)] , which formed the starting point for Napier's discovery of logarithms.
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^ He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
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.He was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest.^ Newton was elected Lucasian professor on the 29th of October 1669.
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^ He was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669.
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^ In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science).^ However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science).
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^ Beyond the minimal requirements for baptism, however, they were, in the primitive church, to proceed in the spirit of charity.
  • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 10th of December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship, thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity, which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.

.Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument.^ Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument.
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^ At one time Newton's friends had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College, Cambridge, but the college offered a successful resistance on the ground that the appointment would be illegal, as the statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders.

^ At one time Newton’s friends had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of king’’s College Cambridge, but the college offered a successful resistance on the ground that the appointment would be illegal, as the statutes required that the provost should be in priest’s orders.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.^ Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.
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^ Writes Beaton in the Sun , Because his religious research conflicted with the official view of the Catholic Church and the Church of England, Newton ran the risk of being declared a heretic a grave criminal offense that merited execution in those days.
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^ De Motu (Berkeley's essay) Gauss-Newton algorithm History of calculus Isaac Newton's religious views Newton fractal Newton polygon Newton polynomial Newton series Newton v.
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[28]

Optics

A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672[29]
.From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.^ Optics From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.
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^ From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.
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^ The subject Newton chose for his lectures was optics.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.^ During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.
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^ He passed the emergent spectrum of colors back through a second prism and recovered the pure white he started with, demonstrating a remarkable property of light that has no counterpart on the artist's palette' these same colors of paint, when mixed, would leave you with a color resembling that of sludge.

^ In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[30]
.He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.^ He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.
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^ A replica of Newton's 6-inch reflecting telescope of 1672 for the Royal Society.He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties, by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.
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^ Thus the colours we observe are the result of how objects interact with the incident already-coloured light, not the result of objects generating the colour.
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.Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour.^ Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour.
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.Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.^ Thus the colours we observe are the result of how objects interact with the incident already-coloured light, not the result of objects generating the colour.
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^ Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.
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^ You have an innate ability to instinctively absorb atmospheres and impressions that nurture you, and as a result, you are often dreaming your life away rather than actually living it.
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.This is known as Newton's theory of colour.^ J Marek, Newton's report 'New theory about light and colours' and its relation to results of his predecessors, Physis - Riv.
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^ For more details, see Newton's theory of colour.
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^ Title: A Serie's of Quere's propounded by Mr. Isaac Newton , to be determin'd by Experiments, positively and directly concluding his new Theory of Light and Colours .

[31]
.From this work, he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).^ From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem.
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^ You may also see, that, if any of the Colours at the Lens be intercepted, the Whiteness will be changed into the other colours.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sir Isaac Newton - LoveToKnow 1911 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He studied the nature of light, concluding that white light is a mixture of colors which can be separated by refraction, and devised the first reflecting telescope.
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

.As a proof of the concept, he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem.^ By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror.
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^ From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
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^ Most of the translations provide proof of this equation (a 2 + b 2 = c 2 using a geometrical construction known as "the bride's chair."
  • From Euclid to Newton 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Building the design, the first known functional reflecting telescope, today known as a Newtonian telescope,[32] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique.^ He applied his talents to astronomy and mathematics, and to the technological problems of optics, heat engines, and clock design, hoping to use his pendulum clock for solving the problem of determining longitudes at sea.
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^ From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ This allowed him to solve problems connected with the quadrature of curves and surfaces, to determine centers of mass, and to calculate areas and volumes of complex geometric shapes.
  • From Euclid to Newton 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes.^ By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror.
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^ Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query).
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^ R S Westfall, Huygens' rings and Newton's rings : Periodicity and seventeenth century optics, Ratio 10 (1968), 64-77.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

.In late 1668[33] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope.^ He studied the nature of light, concluding that white light is a mixture of colors which can be separated by refraction, and devised the first reflecting telescope.
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ In optics, he built the first "practical" reflecting telescope [5] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum.
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.In 1671, the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.^ In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.
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^ A replica of Newton's 6-inch reflecting telescope of 1672 for the Royal Society.He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties, by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ He had few friends, and when he presided over meetings of the Royal Society, anyone who attempted a witticism or who laughed was asked to leave the room.
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[34] .Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks.^ Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks.
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^ Part IV [ Read normalized text ] [ Read diplomatic text ] The Third Book of Opticks [ Read normalized text ] [ Read diplomatic text ] Published in: Opticks: Or, A treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light.

^ Part I [ Read normalized text ] [ Read diplomatic text ] Published in: Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light.

.When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.^ When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.
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^ In thus appealing to Newton’s candour, Halley obviously wished that some acknowledgment of Hooke should be made.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton himself was rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676 .
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.Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679-80, when Hooke, appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions,[35] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation - History and De motu corporum in gyrum).^ He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684).
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^ S Aoki, The moon-test in Newton's 'Principia' : accuracy of inverse-square law of universal gravitation, Arch.
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^ B H Pourciau, On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics, Ann.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

.But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death.^ The two men remained enemies until Hooke's death.
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^ More of a philosopher than a mathematician, he eventually became head of the Academy, and remained there until his death.
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^ It represents the grandparents, old people, scientists, knowledgeable men, Saturn corresponds to old age; it goes from 70 years old until death.
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[36]
.Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium.^ Newton notably argued that light is composed of particles.
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^ Today's quantum mechanics restores the idea of "wave-particle duality", although photons bear very little resemblance to Newton's corpuscles (e.g., corpuscles refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium).
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^ From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.II, Props.^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles and were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light ( Opticks Bk.
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^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light ( Opticks Bk.
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^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light (Opticks Bk.
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12), but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.13). .Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns, and the general phenomenon of diffraction.^ Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for diffraction.
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.Today's quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.^ Today's quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave-particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today's quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of waveparticle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.
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^ Today's quantum mechanics restores the idea of "wave-particle duality", although photons bear very little resemblance to Newton's corpuscles (e.g., corpuscles refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium).
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.^ In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.
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^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light ( Opticks Bk.
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^ Here Newton generalizes the law of attraction: every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle of matter with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
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.The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy.^ The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy.
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.He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.^ He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.
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^ Here Newton generalizes the law of attraction: every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle of matter with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
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^ In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.
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John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians."[37] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science; however, he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches.[5] .(This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.^ (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.
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^ Remember the former things of old, for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me, declaring the END from the BEGINNING, and from ancient times things that are NOT YET DONE .
  • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I see no advantage in this current day separation and when immersing yourself in this edition of The Principia, there is a longing for those days now past when there was a unification of science and philosophy.
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) .Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.^ Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.(See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.^ (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.
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^ Ackroyd is also wonderfully skilled at explaining links between Newton's occult studies and his scientific studies.
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^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

)
.In 1704, Newton published Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.^ In 1704 Newton published Opticks , in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.
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^ In 1704 Newton wrote Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.
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^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light ( Opticks Bk.
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.He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, ...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"^ He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another,...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, ...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"
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^ Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles and were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light ( Opticks Bk.
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query).^ Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query).
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^ By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror.
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Mechanics and gravitation

Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition
.In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.^ Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica In 1677, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject.
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^ The first of his laws of planetary motion asserts that planets orbit the Sun in ellipses.

^ Mechanics and gravitation Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject.
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.This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679-80 with Hooke, who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
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^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
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^ He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catharine Barton , who married Conduitt, a fellow of the Royal Society, and one of Newton's intimate friends.

[35] .Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680-1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.^ Dr Edleston, in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes, justly remarks: " If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested of him.

^ M B Hall, Newton and his theory of matter in the eighteenth century, Vistas Astronom.
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^ Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture, and " laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter."

[39] .After the exchanges with Hooke, Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation - History and De motu corporum in gyrum).^ He published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684).
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^ He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684).
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^ Mechanics and gravitation Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject.
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.Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum, a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684.[40] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia.^ He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684).
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^ He published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684).
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^ Although this manuscript contained only the first book, yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given " that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton; and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council; and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley, to make a report thereof to the council."

.The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.^ The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (now known as the Principia ) was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.
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^ His Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica , published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science.
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^ Edmond Halley (1656-1742) paid for publishing the first edition of the Principia , because neither Newton nor the Royal society had sufficient funds, and booksellers were unwilling to risk their own capital on a difficult scientific treatise.
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.In this work, Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
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^ Main article: Newton's laws of motion The famous three laws of motion: .
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^ Newton's laws of motion .
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation.^ He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation.
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^ He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the force that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation.
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^ Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock.
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.In the same work, Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios', gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air, inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth, accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness, initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon, provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets, and much more.^ In the same work he presented the first analytical determination, based on Boyle's law , of the speed of sound in air.
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^ In the same work he presented the first analytical determination, based on Boyle's law, of the speed of sound in air.
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^ He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound .
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.Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way, because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system.^ Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Newton's head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity.
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^ Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.
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^ Drosnin declares, The first modern scientist, the man who figured out the mechanics of our solar system and discovered the force of gravity, Sir Isaac Newton, was certain there was a hidden code in the Bible that would reveal the future.
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[41] .For Newton, it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest, but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth, the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World", and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre, wherever it was, was at rest).^ Earth and other planets rotated on their axes and revolved around the Sun.

^ Newton also showed that the gravity exerted by any spherical object acts as though all the object's mass were concentrated at its center.

^ His equations indicated that the planets should long ago have either fallen into the Sun or flown the coop—leaving the Sun, in either case, devoid of planets.

[42]
.Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.^ Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.
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^ Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Newton's head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity.
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^ Newton's theological researches led him to the conclusion that much accepted Christian theology is wrong and he had to conceal his Arianism and anti-Trinitarianism for much of his life.
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[43] .Later, in the second edition of the Principia (1713), Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium, writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction, as they did; but they did not so far indicate its cause, and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena.^ This is by far the best edition of The Principia I have ever read.
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^ Mechanics and gravitation Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Once I did, I discovered two things that made this book both possible, and from a writer's point of view, inescapable.
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.(Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo).^ Westfall delineates Newton's difficult personality very well and is fair in dealing with the numerous conflicts in which Newton became enmeshed, particularly the famous priority dispute with Leibnitz.
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^ Lesson learned for me was the extent that Newton explored alchemy (which became very useful when he was put in charge of the Royal Mint) .
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.With the Principia, Newton became internationally recognised.^ With the Principia, Newton became internationally recognised.
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^ With the Principia , Newton became internationally recognised.
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[44] .He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693, when it abruptly ended, at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.^ He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693.
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^ Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.
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^ The end of this friendship led Newton to a nervous breakdown.
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[45]

Later life

Isaac Newton in old age in 1712, portrait by Sir James Thornhill
Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac Newton[46]
.In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.^ Portrait by Sir James Thornhill.In the 1690s Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.
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.Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas.^ Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas.
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^ Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.
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^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
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.A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.^ A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.
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Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death. .He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).^ He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).
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.Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.^ Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draft in the chamber and request that the window be closed.
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^ Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.
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^ According to Newton's inner circle, Newton had worked out his method years before Leibniz, yet he published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704.
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[47]
.Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer.^ Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer.
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^ M Keynes, The personality of Isaac Newton, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 49 (1995), 1-56.
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^ In 1696, he was appointed warden of the Mint, and was master of the Mint from 1699 until his death.
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.He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley).^ He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley).
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.Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas' death in 1699, a position Newton held until his death.^ In 1696, he was appointed warden of the Mint, and was master of the Mint from 1699 until his death.
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^ Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas' death in 1699, a position Newton held until his death.
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^ More of a philosopher than a mathematician, he eventually became head of the Academy, and remained there until his death.
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.These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters.^ These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters.
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^ He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
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^ He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
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.As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold.^ As Master of the Mint in 1717 Newton unofficially moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by creating a relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in the "Law of Queen Anne"; these were all great reforms at the time, adding considerably to the wealth and stability of England.
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^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
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^ It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705.
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This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. .Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences.^ Newton's grave in Westminster AbbeyNewton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Acadmie des Sciences.
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^ Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Acadmie des Sciences.
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^ He also sat in parliament on two occasions, was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703, and was knighted in 1705.
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

.In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica, which Newton had used in his studies.^ In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's star catalogue, which Newton had used in his studies.
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^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
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^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
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[48]
.In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge.^ He also sat in parliament on two occasions, was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703, and was knighted in 1705.
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.
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^ It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705.
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  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705, rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint.^ Newton was also highly religious (though unorthodox), producing more work on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
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  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albert Einstein confessed that his own discoveries would have been impossible without the scientific work of Newton and his amazing discoveries.
  • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] Newton was the first scientist ever to be knighted.[46]
.Towards the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park, near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in 1727.[50] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726],[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey.^ He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newton died in London on March 31, 1727 [OS: March 20, 1727] [1] , and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newton died in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726] [1] , and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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.His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt,[51] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle,"[52] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox.^ His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, [17] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle," [18] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle", according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ House V 959' Pisces House V The Fifth House is the sphere of pleasures and love affairs (but not commitment or marriage), creations and entertainments, children, arts and game.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate.^ Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years he actually died intestate.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits.^ After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits.
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^ Although Newton probably had discovered the calculus in 1666, Leibniz was the first to publish his method, which employed a system of notation that was far superior to the fluxions advocated by Newton.
  • From Euclid to Newton 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.^ Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]

After death

Fame

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[54] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:
.Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;
God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.
^ S Pierson, Two mathematics, two Gods : Newton and the second law, Perspect.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

^ H Nakajima, Two kinds of modification theory of light : some new observations on the Newton-Hooke controversy of 1672 concerning the nature of light, Ann.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676:
.If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.^ If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants .
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55][56]
.Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.^ Says Springstein, those are the two great virtues that Newton revisits time and time again.
  • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaac NEWTON, the predominance of planets in the Northern hemisphere prompts you to reflect and imagine rather than to exteriorize your actions and to be at the forefront of the stage.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Firstly, although discovery shows that the images of sense-perception are shadows of reality, rather than substance, we can not deny the role of sense-perception.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

[57][58] On the other hand, the widely-known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'.
In a later memoir, Newton wrote:
.I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.^ He said of himself, shortly before his death, I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me (Moore, p.518).
  • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.
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  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, World War the only time it is encoded in the Bible appears in the same place and crosses one of the sacred verses.
  • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.Newton remains influential to scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Albert Einstein.^ In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.
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  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.^ Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
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  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newton's grave in Westminster AbbeyNewton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Acadmie des Sciences.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[8] .In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.^ Eodyssey/Quotes/History/100.html ^ Reflecting telescopes Historical Introduction The Early Period (16081672) ^ "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public".
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^ Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.
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[60]

Commemorations

Newton statue on display at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History
.Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb.^ Newton died in London on March 31, 1727 [OS: March 20, 1727] [1] , and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newton died in London on 20 March(Old Style), 1727 (New Style), and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent.^ It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (16941770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent (16851748).
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.The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design.^ In the first part, an overall analysis of the chart enables us to figure out the personality's main features and to emphasize several points that are confirmed or not in the detailed analysis: in any case, those general traits are taken into account .
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ This paragraph begins with a few excerpts of the astrological portrait which analyses several features of the personality of Isaac NEWTON, from a numerological view, dealing only with the life path.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.^ A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680.
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^ By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror.
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  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] The Latin inscription on the base translates as:
.Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced.^ The dominant planets of Isaac NEWTON .
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years he actually died intestate.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In love, you are more cerebral and friendly than really passionate, Isaac NEWTON. You are made for amorous friendships, for refined and light feelings where each partner retains one's freedom, and almost detachment, without getting really committed.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners.^ Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners.
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.Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race!^ Such is mankind's power to increase the human species' power to exist, something which can occur among lower species only through an evolutionary up-shift of species, not by any willful potential available to that species.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[61]
.From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England).^ From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D 1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last 1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England).
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^ Whereas Leibniz's notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Newton's known notes.
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.Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.^ Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I B Cohen, Newton's 'System of the world' : some textual and bibliographical notes, Physis - Riv.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Depot and round table are shown in the 1856 Hughes' Map of Newton to the right ).
  • Newton, NJ - Sussex Railroad 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.newtonnj.net [Source type: News]

[62]
.A statue of Isaac Newton, standing over an apple, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.^ A statue of Isaac Newton, standing over an apple, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.
  • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Newton’s conception of the universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became the seed for Enlightenment ideology.
  • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
  • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

In popular culture

Religious views

Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey
Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an antitrinitarian.[6] .In an age notable for its religious intolerance there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.^ Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ This paragraph begins with a few excerpts of the astrological portrait which analyses several features of the personality of Isaac NEWTON, from a numerological view, dealing only with the life path.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.In a view disputed by Snobelen,[6] T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and most Protestants.^ Full Synopsis Biography: Geronimo This is the story of one of the most famous figures in Western lore: Geronimo....
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Isaac NEWTON, the predominance of planets in the Northern hemisphere prompts you to reflect and imagine rather than to exteriorize your actions and to be at the forefront of the stage.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[63] .In his own day, he was also accused of being a Rosicrucian (as were many in the Royal Society and in the court of Charles II).^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[64]
.Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock.^ L Rosenfeld, Newton and the law of gravitation, Arch.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Take as our first choice of illustration, Kepler's uniquely original discovery of universal gravitation, as sufficiently illustrated by his 1609 The New Astronomy .
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ S Aoki, The moon-test in Newton's 'Principia' : accuracy of inverse-square law of universal gravitation, Arch.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[65]
His scientific fame notwithstanding, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. .Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.^ Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (part 1: ff.

^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Title: Various drafts and copies of the Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture and related material.

He also placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[66] He also tried, unsuccessfully, to find hidden messages within the Bible.
.Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ V P Lishevskii, The genius of the natural sciences (on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the birth of Isaac Newton) (Russian), Vestnik Ross.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than other people, you are willing to keep some degree of autonomy in all circumstances, and you often display an individualistic nature.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. .Thus, the ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason.^ Second, there must be the discovery of an additional class of universal principles which, like what are ordinarily considered physical principles, pertain to the necessary ordering of social processes.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[67] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.^ Mechanics and gravitation Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.Further information: The writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ I B Cohen, Newton's 'System of the world' : some textual and bibliographical notes, Physis - Riv.
  • References for Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gap-system.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So, we are able to proceed from the work of the laboratory-experimental machine-tool or comparable designer of the experiment, to the application of those features of the experimental design which reflect the newly defined principle.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

[68] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[69] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

Effect on religious thought

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[70] Thus, the clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[71] and, at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion".
"Newton", by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted as a "divine geometer".
The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. .Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.^ Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[72] .Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.^ This sweep of the development of the hypothesis of universal gravitation into the form of an experimentally demonstrated universal physical principle, typifies the case I am addressing at this juncture.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] .These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.^ These principles were not new in themselves; the Classical Greece of Solon, Socrates, and Plato had already defined those principles.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, all of these elements of knowledge are not sufficient to give us a clear, principled image of the human individual.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]
Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[75][76][77] .His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.^ This makes sense only if the birth time is known because within a few minutes, the twelve houses (including the 1st one, the Ascendant) change significantly.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ It is only from this point of historical reference, that we are able to situate the present-day political significance of reductionists such as Euler, Lagrange, Kant, Laplace, Cauchy, et al.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A human being is a complex whole and only bodies of texts can attempt to successfully figure out all the finer points.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[78] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[79] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[80]
.On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical Universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.^ On the other hand, you are genuine, you cannot be satisfied with chimeras and you remain far away from illusions but also from dreams!
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[81]

Views of the end of the world

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. .In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."^ The humanist, who is dormant in you, may turn into a frequent traveller reaching out to others in order to understand them and communicate with them.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[82]

Enlightenment philosophers

.Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day.^ The unifying and predictive power of his laws was central to the scientific revolution, the advancement of heliocentrism, and the broader acceptance of the notion that rational investigation can reveal the inner workings of nature.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
  • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
  • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.^ No one respects laws and social structures better than you.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[83]
.It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ The unifying and predictive power of his laws was central to the scientific revolution, the advancement of heliocentrism, and the broader acceptance of the notion that rational investigation can reveal the inner workings of nature.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[84] .Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems and the sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress.^ For example, consider the Aristotelean's self-evident conception of a Creator as a creature who, by creating the universe, had deprived himself of the power to alter the course predetermined by the laws built into the original creation.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ If the majority of humanity is to be hunted or herded, and culled, as Locke's Essays on Human Understanding prescribe, as beasts are, then man must be defined politically, and by law.
  • The Pagan Worship of Isaac Newton, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

.Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.^ Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Counterfeiters

.As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20% of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage were counterfeit.^ Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convictions of the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult to achieve; however, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[85] Disguised as an habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[86] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. .Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699 conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects.^ In love, you are more cerebral and friendly than really passionate, Isaac NEWTON. You are made for amorous friendships, for refined and light feelings where each partner retains one's freedom, and almost detachment, without getting really committed.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ More than other people, you are willing to keep some degree of autonomy in all circumstances, and you often display an individualistic nature.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[87]
.One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.^ ISAAC NEWTON(6) 1822-1886 One of several Chenoweths in various lines with the name Isaac Newton, Newton was the eighth son of William Pugh and Lydia Kittle Chenoweth.
  • Chenoweth: [JOHN: WILLIAM: JOHN: WILLIAM PUGH] Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC chenowethsite.com [Source type: Academic]

[88] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phoney conspiracies of Catholics and then turn in the hapless conspirators whom he entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[89] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697, but Chaloner had friends in high places who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[88] .Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence.^ He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[90]

Laws of motion

Classical mechanics
History of ...
Scientists
Isaac Newton · Jeremiah Horrocks · Leonhard Euler · Jean le Rond d'Alembert · Alexis Clairaut
Joseph Louis Lagrange · Pierre-Simon Laplace · William Rowan Hamilton · Siméon-Denis Poisson
.The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians."
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Newton's Second Law states that an applied force, \vec{F}, on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, \vec{p}, with time.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Mathematically, this is expressed as
 \vec F = \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec p}{\mathrm{\mathrm{d}}t} \, = \, \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t} (m \vec v) \, = \, \vec v \, \frac{\mathrm{d}m}{\mathrm{d}t} + m \, \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec v}{\mathrm{d}t} \,.
Since the second law applies to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0), the first term vanishes, and by substitution using the definition of acceleration, the equation can be written in the iconic form
 \vec F = m \, \vec a \ .
.The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle, in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion.^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion.^ However, they are only indications and you must include them in the rest of your chart in order to see whether they are validated or not!
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

The SI unit of force is the newton, named in Newton's honour.
.Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.^ In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Another example is the recoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).
Unlike Aristotle's, Newton's physics is meant to be universal. For example, the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone.
.The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes.^ It contains his thoughts on a wide range of religious topics, including idolatry, the nature of Christ, Christ's relationship with God and the central differences between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism.

^ By demonstrating consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.Before Newton, it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving.^ The Sun is one of the most important symbols in the birth chart, as much as the Ascendant, then the Moon (a bit less for a man), the ruler of the Ascendant and the fast-moving planets.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia, this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted, and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices.[91]

Apple

 
Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree, at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden
.Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.^ In 1665--6 the fall of an apple is said to have suggested the train of thought that led to the law of gravitation.
  • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

[92]
Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Newton's head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. .It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.^ Whereas Leibniz's notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Newton's known notes.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Isaac Newton, Theological Notebook (Part 1) [Keynes Ms. The first of two parts of one of Isaac Newton's notebooks.

^ Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

[93] John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, described the event when he wrote about Newton's life:
In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.[94]
.The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit.^ The Lunar nodes are fictional points and not actual heavenly bodies: they are the intersections of the Moon with the Ecliptic (the path made by the Sun in its orbit as seen from the Earth).
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".
A contemporary writer, William Stukeley, recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726, in which Newton recalled:
when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. It was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood. Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground, thought he to himself. Why should it not go sideways or upwards, but constantly to the Earth's centre? Assuredly the reason is, that the Earth draws it. There must be a drawing power in matter. And the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the Earth must be in the Earth's centre, not in any side of the Earth. Therefore does this apple fall perpendicularly or towards the centre? If matter thus draws matter; it must be proportion of its quantity. Therefore the apple draws the Earth, as well as the Earth draws the apple."[95]
.In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree."^ (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Portrait by Sir James Thornhill.In the 1690s Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
  • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. .The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later.^ From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill).
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton.^ Portrait by Godfrey Kneller.According to the modern calendar, Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

.A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.^ In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge.
  • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[96] can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.[97]

His writings

See also

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e During Newton's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe, and the Gregorian or 'New Style', in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar, but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. By the time he died, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Moreover, prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752, the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day', i.e. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.
  2. ^ Mordechai Feingold, Barrow, Isaac (1630–1677), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2007; accessed 24 February 2009; explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton, Leibniz, and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation"; Isis, Vol. 84, No. 2 (June, 1993), pp. 310-338
  3. ^ Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Newton, Isaac, n.4
  4. ^ Gjersten, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 
  5. ^ a b Westfall, Richard S. (1983) [1980]. "Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 530–1. ISBN 9780521274357. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32: 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. http://www.isaac-newton.org/heretic.pdf. 
  7. ^ "The Early Period (1608–1672)". James R. Graham's Home Page. http://etoile.berkeley.edu/~jrg/TelescopeHistory/Early_Period.html. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  8. ^ a b "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public". The Royal Society. http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/news.asp?id=3880. 
  9. ^ Hart, Michael H. The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. New York: Carol Publishing Group/Citadel Press; first published in 1978, reprinted with minor revisions 1992. ISBN 978-0-8065-1068-2
  10. ^ Cohen, I.B. (1970). Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 11, p.43. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  11. ^ Westfall 1994, pp 16-19
  12. ^ White 1997, p. 22
  13. ^ Michael White, Isaac Newton (1999) page 46
  14. ^ ed. Michael Hoskins (1997). Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy, p. 159. Cambridge University Press
  15. ^ Newton, Isaac in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  16. ^ W W Rouse Ball (1908), "A short account of the history of mathematics", at page 319.
  17. ^ D T Whiteside (ed.), The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1), (Cambridge University Press, 1967), part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions", at page 400, in 2008 reprint.
  18. ^ D Gjertsen (1986), "The Newton handbook", (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986), at page 149.
  19. ^ Newton, 'Principia', 1729 English translation, at page 41.
  20. ^ Newton, 'Principia', 1729 English translation, at page 54.
  21. ^ Clifford Truesdell, Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin, 1968), at p.99.
  22. ^ In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris, 1696).
  23. ^ Starting with De Motu Corporum in Gyrum#Contents of 'De Motu', see also (Latin) Theorem 1.
  24. ^ D T Whiteside (1970), "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol.1, pages 116-138, especially at pages 119-120.
  25. ^ Stewart 2009, p.107
  26. ^ Westfall 1980, pp 538–539
  27. ^ Ball 1908, p. 356ff
  28. ^ White 1997, p. 151
  29. ^ ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. King, Page 74. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC&dq=history+of+the+telescope&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPA74,M1. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  30. ^ Ball 1908, p. 324
  31. ^ Ball 1908, p. 325
  32. ^ a b White 1997, p170
  33. ^ '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought''', by Alfred Rupert Hall, page 67. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=32IDpTdthm4C&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=newton+reflecting+telescope++1668+letter+1669&source=bl&ots=PKABaGwPaN&sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI&hl=en&ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=newton%20reflecting%20telescope%20%201668%20letter%201669&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  34. ^ White 1997, p168
  35. ^ a b See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton, vol.2, 1676-1687' ed. H W Turnbull, Cambridge University Press 1960; at page 297, document #235, letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679.
  36. ^ Iliffe, Robert (2007) Newton. A very short introduction, Oxford University Press 2007
  37. ^ Keynes, John Maynard (1972). "Newton, The Man". The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. MacMillan St. Martin's Press. pp. 363–4. 
  38. ^ Dobbs, J.T. (December 1982). "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". Isis 73 (4): 511. doi:10.1086/353114.  quoting Opticks
  39. ^ R S Westfall, 'Never at Rest', 1980, at pages 391-2.
  40. ^ D T Whiteside (ed.), 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton', vol.6, 1684-1691, Cambridge University Press 1974, at page 30.
  41. ^ See Curtis Wilson, "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy", pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy, Volume, 2A', at page 233.
  42. ^ Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia, Book 3 (1729 vol.2) at pages 232-233).
  43. ^ Edelglass et al., Matter and Mind, ISBN 0-940262-45-2. p. 54
  44. ^ Westfall 1980. Chapter 11.
  45. ^ Westfall 1980. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio, pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown.
  46. ^ a b Gerard Michon. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton". Home.att.net. http://home.att.net/~numericana/arms/index.htm#newton. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  47. ^ White 1997, p. 232
  48. ^ White 1997, p.317
  49. ^ "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting, an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science, nor for his service at the Mint, but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705." Westfall 1994 p.245
  50. ^ Yonge, Charlotte M. (1898). "Cranbury and Brambridge". John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. www.online-literature.com. http://www.online-literature.com/charlotte-yonge/john-keble/6/. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  51. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 44.
  52. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 595
  53. ^ "Newton, Isaac (1642-1727)". Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Newton.html. Retrieved 2006-08-30. 
  54. ^ Fred L. Wilson, History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre, M. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. le comte J. L. Lagrange," Oeuvres de Lagrange I. Paris, 1867, p. xx.
  55. ^ Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke, 5 February 1676, as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos, New Horizons
  56. ^ Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants,
  57. ^ John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543-2001, p 164.
  58. ^ White 1997, p187.
  59. ^ Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Ch. 27)
  60. ^ Opinion poll. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists; Newton runner-up: BBC news, Monday, 29 November 1999, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/541840.stm
  61. ^ a b "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton". Westminster Abbey. http://www.westminster-abbey.org/our-history/people/sir-isaac-newton. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  62. ^ "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/nonflash/1-SeriesD-Revised.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  63. ^ Pfizenmaier, T.C. (1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. 
  64. ^ Yates, Frances A. (1972). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. London: Routledge. 
  65. ^ Tiner, J.H. (1975). Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Milford, Michigan, U.S.: Mott Media. 
  66. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, v. 1, pp. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33, provisionally judges 30 most likely.
  67. ^ . Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692, in Turnbull et al. (1959–77), vol 3, p. 233.
  68. ^ Opticks, 2nd Ed 1706. Query 31.
  69. ^ H. G. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, Manchester University Press, 1998, p. 11.
  70. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. (1976). The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Cornell University Press. pp. 37,44. 
  71. ^ Westfall, Richard S. (1958). Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 200. 
  72. ^ Haakonssen, Knud. "The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". in Martin Fitzpatrick ed.. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 64. 
  73. ^ Frankel, Charles (1948). The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. New York: King's Crown Press. p. 1. 
  74. ^ Germain, Gilbert G.. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. p. 28. 
  75. ^ Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
  76. ^ A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65.
  77. ^ Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.
  78. ^ H. G. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, Manchester University Press, 1998, p. 14.
  79. ^ Westfall, 1958 p201.
  80. ^ Marquard, Odo. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability," in Farewell to Matters of Principle. Robert M. Wallace trans. London: Oxford UP, 1989.
  81. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. p100–101.
  82. ^ "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse". Associated Press. 19 June 2007. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20070619/28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton%27s_Religious_Side%2C_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  83. ^ Cassels, Alan. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. p2.
  84. ^ "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment, the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543-2001, p 241
  85. ^ White 1997, p. 259
  86. ^ White 1997, p. 267
  87. ^ Westfall 2007, p.73
  88. ^ a b White 1997, p 269
  89. ^ Westfall 1994, p 229
  90. ^ Westfall 1980, pp. 571–5
  91. ^ Ball 1908, p. 337
  92. ^ White 1997, p. 86
  93. ^ I. Bernard Cohen and George E. Smith, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. 6
  94. ^ Conduitt, John. "Keynes Ms. 130.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge". Newtonproject. Imperial College London. http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/view/texts/normalized/THEM00167. Retrieved 2006-08-30. 
  95. ^ Stukeley, William. "Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life". http://physics.info/gravitation/apple.html. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  96. ^ "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection". Brogdale.org.uk. http://www.brogdale.org.uk/nfc_home.php. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  97. ^ "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree". http://www.brogdale.org.uk/image1.php?varietyid=1089. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  98. ^ Newton's alchemical works transcribed and online at Indiana University. Retrieved 11 January 2007.

References

  • Ball, W.W. Rouse (1908). A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. New York: Dover. 
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8.  This well documented work provides, in particular, valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics
  • Craig, John (1958). ."Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". Nature 182: 149. doi:10.1038/182149a0. 
  • Craig, John (1963).^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician Hit found in personal name .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ."Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18: 136. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1963.0017. 
  • Stewart, James (2009).^ Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Newton's grave in Westminster AbbeyNewton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Acadmie des Sciences.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495557425. 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (1980, 1998). Never at Rest. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (2007). Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780199213559. 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (1994). .The Life of Isaac Newton.^ Later life For more details on this topic, see Isaac Newton's later life.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Early years Main article: Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Newton in 1702.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This paragraph begins with a few excerpts of the astrological portrait which analyses several features of the personality of Isaac NEWTON, from a numerological view, dealing only with the life path.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379.
     
  • White, Michael (1997). Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Fourth Estate Limited. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. 

Further reading

  • Andrade, E. N. De C. (1950). Isaac Newton. New York: Chanticleer Press. 
  • Bardi, Jason Socrates. .The Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. 2006. 277 pp.^ In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889) Mathematics Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    excerpt and text search
  • Bechler, Zev (1991). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. Springer. ISBN 0792310543. .
  • Berlinski, David. .Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. (2000).^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician Hit found in personal name .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    256 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-684-84392-7
  • Buchwald, Jed Z. and Cohen, I. Bernard, eds. .Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. MIT Press, 2001. 354 pp.^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    excerpt and text search
  • Casini, P. (1988). "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". .Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1988.0006.^ Published in: Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society (London, 1757), vol.

    ISSN 0035–9149. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0035-9149%28198801%2942%3A1%3C35%3AN%27ATPO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H.
     
  • Christianson, Gale E. (1996). Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019530070X.  See this site for excerpt and text search.
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. 
  • Cohen, I. Bernard and Smith, George E., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. (2002). 500 pp. focuses on philosophical issues only; excerpt and text search; complete edition online
  • Cohen, I. B. (1980). The Newtonian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Craig, John (1946). Newton at the Mint. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Dampier, William C.; Dampier, M. (1959). Readings in the Literature of Science. New York: Harper & Row. 
  • de Villamil, Richard (1931). Newton, the Man. London: G.D. Knox.  – Preface by Albert Einstein. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1972).
  • Dobbs, B. J. T. (1975). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Gjertsen, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. 
  • Gleick, James (2003). Isaac Newton. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0375422331. 
  • Halley, E. (1687). "Review of Newton's Principia". Philosophical Transactions 186: 291 – 297. 
  • Hawking, Stephen, ed. On the Shoulders of Giants. .ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Einstein
  • Herivel, J. W. (1965).^ At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Galileo, Copernicus and Kepler.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. .Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Keynes, John Maynard (1963).^ John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians."
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    Essays in Biography. W. W. Norton & Co. .ISBN 0-393-00189-X.  Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.
  • Koyré, A. (1965).^ John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians."
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    Newtonian Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Newton, Isaac. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy, edited by I. Bernard Cohen. .Harvard University Press, 1958,1978. ISBN 0-674-46853-8.
  • Newton, Isaac (1642–1727).^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician Hit found in personal name .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    The Principia: a new Translation, Guide by I. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999)
  • Pemberton, H. (1728). .A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy.^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    London: S. Palmer.
     
  • Shamos, Morris H. (1959). Great Experiments in Physics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.. 
  • Shapley, Harlow, S. Rapport, and H. Wright. A Treasury of Science; "Newtonia" pp. 147–9; "Discoveries" pp. 150–4. Harper & Bros., New York, (1946).
  • Simmons, J. (1996). The Giant Book of Scientists  – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Sydney: The Book Company. 
  • Stukeley, W. (1936). .Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life.^ Early years Main article: Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Newton in 1702.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    London: Taylor and Francis.
      (edited by A. H. White; originally published in 1752)
  • Westfall, R. S. (1971). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. London: Macdonald. 

Religion

  • Dobbs, Betty Jo Tetter. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1991), links the alchemy to Arianism
  • Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, eds. Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence. (1999), 342pp . Pp. xvii + 325. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts
  • Ramati, Ayval. ."The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. in JSTOR, argues that his calculus had a theological basis
  • Snobelen, Stephen "'God of Gods, and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia," Osiris, 2nd Series, Vol.^ Middle years Main article: Isaac Newton's middle years Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    .16, (2001), pp. 169–208 in JSTOR
  • Snobelen, Stephen D. "Isaac Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite," British Journal for the History of Science 32: 381–419. in JSTOR
  • Pfizenmaier, Thomas C. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol.^ Middle years Main article: Isaac Newton's middle years Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    58, No. 1 (January, 1997), pp. 57–80 in JSTOR
  • Wiles, Maurice. Archetypal Heresy. Arianism through the Centuries. (1996) 214pp, with chapter 4 on 18th century England; pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search,

Primary sources

  • Newton, Isaac. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press, (1999). 974 pp.
    • Brackenridge, J. Bruce. .The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1, 2, and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press, 1996. 299 pp.
  • Newton, Isaac.^ ISAAC NEWTON(6) 1822-1886 One of several Chenoweths in various lines with the name Isaac Newton, Newton was the eighth son of William Pugh and Lydia Kittle Chenoweth.
    • Chenoweth: [JOHN: WILLIAM: JOHN: WILLIAM PUGH] Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC chenowethsite.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Vol. .1: The Optical Lectures, 1670–1672. Cambridge U. Press, 1984. 627 pp.^ Optics From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    • Newton, Isaac. Opticks (4th ed. 1730) online edition
    • Newton, I. (1952). .Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light.^ In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum.
      • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

      ^ From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem.
      • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

      ^ During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.
      • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

      .New York: Dover Publications.
  • Newton, I. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World, tr.^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    A. Motte, rev. Florian Cajori. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1934).
  • Whiteside, D. T. (1967–82). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  – 8 volumes
  • Newton, Isaac. The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. H. W. Turnbull and others, 7 vols. .(1959–77)
  • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. S. Thayer, (1953), online edition
  • Isaac Newton, Sir; J Edleston; Roger Cotes, Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, including letters of other eminent men, London, John W. Parker, West Strand; Cambridge, John Deighton, 1850. – Google Books
  • Maclaurin, C. (1748).^ Middle years Main article: Isaac Newton's middle years Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, in Four Books.^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    London: A. Millar and J. Nourse.
  • Newton, I. (1958). .Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents, eds.^ Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician .
    • Janus: Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) Knight, natural philosopher and mathematician 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC janus.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your thirst for learning is considerable, Isaac NEWTON, and you can spend a lifetime studying languages, geography, philosophy and law, particularly.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    I. B. Cohen and R. E. Schofield. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Newton, I. (1962). The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library, Cambridge, ed. A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Newton, I. (1975). .Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).^ Early years Main article: Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Newton in 1702.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]

    London: Dawson.

External links

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Writings by him

Parliament of England
Preceded by
Robert Brady
Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
with Robert Sawyer

1689–1690
Succeeded by
Edward Finch
Preceded by
Anthony Hammond
Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
with Henry Boyle

1701–1702
Succeeded by
Arthur Annesley
Government offices
Preceded by
Thomas Neale
Master of the Mint
1700 – 1727
Succeeded by
John Conduitt

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.
.Sir Isaac Newton (January 4, 1643March 31, 1727 or in Old Style: December 25, 1642March 20, 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, inventor and natural philosopher.^ Xrefer - Search Results - Isaac Newton newton sir isaac 1642 1727.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists: Newton Sir Isaac 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SIR ISAAC NEWTON 14 .

^ Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian calendar which was in...
  • Free Isaac Newton Essays 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]

.He is often regarded as the most influential scientist in history and is best known for discovering the Laws of Gravity.^ He is often regarded as the most influential scientist in history and is best known for discovering the Laws of Gravity .
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law of gravity became Newton's best-known discovery.
  • Isaac Newton at AllExperts 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of Newton's most well known discoveries is his Law of Gravity.
  • CSMH History Class / 1687 - Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC csmh.pbworks.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — but my greatest friend is truth.
.
I frame no hypotheses
  • Amicus Plato — amicus Aristoteles — magis amica veritas
    • Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — but my greatest friend is truth.
    • These are notes in Latin that Newton wrote to himself that he titled: Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae [Certain Philosophical Questions] (c.^ A new set of notes, which he entitled Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae (Certain Philosophical Questions), begun sometime in 1664, usurped the unused pages of a notebook intended for traditional scholastic exercises; under the title he entered the slogan Amicus Plato amicus Aristoteles magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth).
      • Sir Isaac Newton Biography - Biography.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ I frame no hypotheses Amicus Plato — amicus Aristoteles — magis amica veritas Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — but my greatest friend is truth .
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — truth is a greater friend.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .1664)
    • Variant translations: Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth.^ Variant translations: Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — truth is a greater friend.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — but my greatest friend is truth .
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]


      .Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — truth is a greater friend.
  • If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of giants.
    • Modernized variants: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.
      If I have seen farther it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.
    • Letter to Robert Hooke (15 February 1676) [dated as 5 February 1675 using the Julian calendar with March 25th rather than January 1st as New Years Day, equivalent to 15 February 1676 by Gregorian reckonings]
    • variant of mathematician Peter Winkler: "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Hungarians."
    • Origin: Pigmaei gigantum humeris impositi plusquam ipsi gigantes vident.
  • I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses;' for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called a hypothesis, and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.^ Origin: Pigmaei gigantum humeris impositi plusquam ipsi gigantes vident.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses;' for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called a hypothesis, and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, or based on occult qualities, or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Robert Hooke (15 February 1676) [5 February 1675 (O.S.)]
  • The 2300 years do not end before the year 2132 nor after 2370.
    The time times & half time do not end before 2060. ....^ He once said, in a letter to Hooke dated 5 February 1676: .
    • Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Newton to Hooke, 5 February 1676 .
    • Brendan DeMelle: Climategate In Perspective, Featuring Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
    • Brendan Demelle | Climategate in Perspective, Featuring Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.desmogblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The time times & half time do not end before 2060.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner.
    This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.^ However, he added, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."
    • Sir Isaac Newton  |  Study Archive @ PreteristArchive.com - The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterism  |   The Preterist Archive www.preteristarchive.com,reformed,partial,orthodoxy,orthodox,futurist,preterism,historicism,fulfillment,apocalypse 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."
    • Newton, Isaac - OPT Telescopes 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.optcorp.com [Source type: Original source]
    • WikiSlice 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Introduction to Astrophysics/Historical Context/Isaac Newton - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Christ comes as a thief in the night, & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his own breast.
    • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1704), regarding his calculations "Of the End of the World" based upon the prophecies of Daniel, quoted in Look at the Moon!^ Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture .
      • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (part 1: ff.

      ^ An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1704), regarding his calculations "Of the End of the World" based upon the prophecies of Daniel , quoted in Look at the Moon!
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      the .Revelation Chronology
      (2007) by John A. Abrams, p.^ Revelation Chronology (2007) by John A. Abrams, p.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .141
    • Modern typographical and spelling variant:
    • This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.^ This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ However, he added, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."
      • Sir Isaac Newton  |  Study Archive @ PreteristArchive.com - The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterism  |   The Preterist Archive www.preteristarchive.com,reformed,partial,orthodoxy,orthodox,futurist,preterism,historicism,fulfillment,apocalypse 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."
      • Newton, Isaac - OPT Telescopes 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.optcorp.com [Source type: Original source]
      • WikiSlice 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Introduction to Astrophysics/Historical Context/Isaac Newton - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age...
  • To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age.^ As quoted in "The world will end in 2060, according to Newton" in the London Evening Standard (19 June 2007) To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age...
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While the particles continue entire, they may compose bodies of one and the same nature and texture in all ages: but should they wear away or break in pieces, the nature of things depending on them would be changed.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here is an 1895 quote from Ostwald (Chemistry Nobel Laureate in 1909): "The proposition that all natural phenomena can ultimately be reduced to mechanical ones cannot even be taken as a useful working hypothesis: it is simply a mistake.

    .'Tis much better to do a little with certainty, & leave the rest for others that come after you, than to explain all things by conjecture without making sure of any thing.
    • Statement from unpublished notes for the Preface to Opticks (1704) quoted in Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (1983) by Richard S. Westfall, p.^ 'Tis much better to do a little with certainty, & leave the rest for others that come after you, than to explain all things by conjecture without making sure of any thing.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Isaac Newton biography, 5.
      • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Of Isaac Newton makes me want to.
      • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

      643
.
The design of God was much otherwise...
^ The design of God was much otherwise.
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The design of God was much otherwise...
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

not to gratify mens curiosities by enabling them to foreknow things, but that after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the event, and his own .Providence, not the Interpreters, be then manifested thereby to the world.
  • The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretell times and things by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets.^ "The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretel times and things by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets.
    • Newton Vindicated: Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein�s Theory of Relativity 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.foundationwebsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretell times and things, by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets.
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretell times and things by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .By this rashness they have not only exposed themselves, but brought the Prophecy also into contempt.

    The design of God was much otherwise.^ By this rashness they have not only exposed themselves, but brought the Prophecy also into contempt.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Newton Vindicated: Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein�s Theory of Relativity 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.foundationwebsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The design of God was much otherwise.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The design of God was much otherwise...
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    He gave this and the Prophecies of the Old Testament, not to gratify mens curiosities by enabling them to foreknow things, but that after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the event, and his own Providence, not the Interpreters, be then manifested thereby to the world.
    • Observations Upon The Apocalypse Of St. John (published posthumously 1733)
  • I have studied these things — you have not.
    • Reported as Newton's response, whenever Edmond Halley would say anything disrespectful of religion, by Sir David Brewster in The Life of Sir Isaac Newton (1831). .This has often been quoted in recent years as having been a statement specifically defending Astrology.^ For this he has often been criticized in recent years.
      • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ He has been quoted as having told regime officials that the 12 th Imam will reappear in two years!
      • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

      .Newton wrote extensively on the importance of Prophecy, and studied Alchemy, but there is little evidence that he took favourable notice of Astrology.^ Newton wrote extensively on religious matters.

      ^ A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.
      • Newton, Isaac - OPT Telescopes 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.optcorp.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
      • WikiSlice 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Introduction to Astrophysics/Historical Context/Isaac Newton - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A clone of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.
      • Isaac Newton at AllExperts 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Brewster attributes the anecdote to the astronomer Nevil Maskelyne who passed it on to Oxford professor Stephen Peter Rigaud.
.
Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.
  • I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.
    • Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Ch.^ Isaac Newton was a boy born on Christmas.
      • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I am doing a project on Sir Isaac Newton!
      • Ten Strange Facts About Newton - Neatorama 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

      ^ "I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."
      • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
      • WikiSlice 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

      27). .Compare: "As children gath'ring pebbles on the shore", John Milton, Paradise Regained, Book iv.^ Compare: "As children gath'ring pebbles on the shore", John Milton , Paradise Regained , Book iv.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Line 330.
      • Recently the statement "I know not how I may seem to others, but to myself I am but a small child wandering upon the vast shores of knowledge, every now and then finding a small bright pebble to content myself with."^ "I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."
        • WikiSlice 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ He said of himself, shortly before his death, I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me (Moore, p.518).
        • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Towards the end of his life, he wrote some lines that I have heard often repeated---very inspiring lines---that illustrate an attitude I admire, his humble recognition of the limits of his vast knowledge (Westfall 1980, p.863): I don't know what I may seem to the world, but, as to myself, I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.
        • Rosalind W. Picard 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

        has been attributed to .Plato, but the earliest published occurrence of this seems to be in The Mindful Coach: Seven Roles for Helping People Grow (2004) by Douglas K. Silsbee, p.^ Plato , but the earliest published occurrence of this seems to be in The Mindful Coach: Seven Roles for Helping People Grow (2004) by Douglas K. Silsbee, p.
        • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Yet people seem to enjoy thinking that our bodies, our minds, and even our universe represent pinnacles of form and reason.

        13, where it is attributed to Plato without a sourced citation.
Sir Isaac Newton had on his table a pile of papers upon which were written calculations that had taken him twenty years to make. One evening, he left the room for a few minutes, and when he came back he found that his little dog "Diamond" had overturned a candle and set fire to the precious papers, of which nothing was left but a heap of ashes.
.
God created everything by number, weight and measure.
  • God created everything by number, weight and measure.^ God created everything by number, weight and measure.
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted in Symmetry in Plants (1998) by Roger V. Jean and Denis Barabé, p.^ As quoted in Symmetry in Plants (1998) by Roger V. Jean and Denis Barabé, p.
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      xxxvii, a translation of a .Latin phrase he wrote in a student's notebook, elsewhere given as Numero pondere et mensura Deus omnia condidit.^ Latin phrase he wrote in a student's notebook, elsewhere given as Numero pondere et mensura Deus omnia condidit .
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Isaac Newton - Wikiquote 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ A Latin translation, Fundamenta arithmetica et geometrica , was edited for the scholarly community by his student, Willebrord Snell (1580-1626), and also published in 1615.
      • From Euclid to Newton 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      This is similar to Latin statements by Thomas Aquinas, and even more ancient statements of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras.

Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687)

.
The errors are not in the art, but in the artificers.
  • The ancients considered mechanics in a twofold respect; as rational, which proceeds accurately by demonstration, and practical.^ The ancients considered mechanics in a twofold respect; as rational, which proceeds accurately by demonstration; and practical.

    ^ But as artificers do not work with perfect accuracy, it comes to pass that mechanics is so distinguished from geometry, that what is perfectly accurate is called geometrical; what is less so, is called mechanical.

    ^ "Errors are not in the art but in the artificers."
    • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

    .To practical mechanics all the manual arts belong, from which mechanics took its name.
    But as artificers do not work with perfect accuracy, it comes to pass that mechanics is so distinguished from geometry, that what is perfectly accurate is called geometrical; what is less so is called mechanical.^ But as artificers do not work with perfect accuracy, it comes to pass that mechanics is so distinguished from geometry, that what is perfectly accurate is called geometrical; what is less so, is called mechanical.

    ^ To practical mechanics all the manual arts belong, from which mechanics took its name.

    ^ Many biographers of Newton tend to ignore his work at the royal mint, where he took an inefficient process for producing coins and turned it into a producer of coinage that all had confidence in.
    • Amazon.com: Biography - Sir Isaac Newton: Gravity of Genius (A&E DVD Archives): Sir Isaac Newton: Movies & TV 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .But the errors are not in the art, but in the artificers. He that works with less accuracy is an imperfect mechanic: and if any could work with perfect accuracy, he would be the most perfect mechanic of all; for the description of right lines and circles, upon which geometry is founded, belongs to mechanics.^ But as artificers do not work with perfect accuracy, it comes to pass that mechanics is so distinguished from geometry, that what is perfectly accurate is called geometrical; what is less so, is called mechanical.

    ^ To practical mechanics all the manual arts belong, from which mechanics took its name.

    ^ Galileo found that an object continues to move uniformly in a straight line if not acted upon by a force.

    Geometry does not teach us to draw these lines, but requires them to be drawn; for it requires that the learner should first be taught to describe these accurately, before he enters upon geometry; then it shows how by these operations problems may be solved.
.
Geometry does not teach us to draw these lines, but requires them to be drawn...
  • Our design, not respecting arts, but philosophy, and our subject, not manual, but natural powers, we consider chiefly those things which relate to gravity, levity, elastic force, the resistance of fluids, and the like forces, whether attractive or impulsive; and therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy; for all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this — from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of nature, and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena...^ For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in thisfrom the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of nature, and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena.

    ^ Things will therefore not only be related in space but also related to space .
    • Reference Pieces on Space 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Isaac Newton (1686 - 1713) .
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Preface
  • I wish we could derive the rest of the phenomena of nature by the same kind of reasoning from mechanical principles; for I am induced by many reasons to suspect that they may all depend upon certain forces by which the particles of bodies, by some causes hitherto unknown, are either mutually impelled towards each other, and cohere in regular figures, or are repelled and recede from each other; which forces being unknown, philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain; but I hope the principles here laid down will afford some light either to that or some truer method of philosophy.^ These forces being unknown, philosophers have hitherto attempted the investigation of nature in vain; but I hope the principles here laid down will afford some light on either this or some truer method of philosophy.

    ^ The latter was a philosophy of nature that attempted to explain natural phenomena by means of imagined mechanisms among invisible particles of matter.
    • Sir Isaac Newton Biography - Biography.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Sir Isaac Newton (English physicist and mathematician) :: Career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He constructed mechanical models of all kinds.
    • Isaac Newton's Battle with the Past 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC kantz.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Preface
  • I do not define time, space, place, and motion, as being well known to all. Only I must observe, that the common people conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to sensible objects.^ For times and spaces are, as it were, the places as well of themselves as of all other things.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
    • newton 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I do not define time, space, place and motion, as.

    ^ No other object has the power to do this.

    .And thence arise certain prejudices, for the removing of which it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative, true and apparent, mathematical and common.^ And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative, true and apparent, mathematical and common.

    ^ Absolute time, in astronomy, is distinguished from relative, by the equation or correction of the apparent time.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is an absolute and a relative sense in which this is true.
    • Reference Pieces on Space 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.
We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.
  • It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover, and effectually to distinguish, the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent; because the parts of that immovable space, in which those motions are performed, do by no means come under the observation of our senses.^ Newton defined the true motion of a body to be its motion through absolute space.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover, and effectually to distinguish, the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent; But in the Latin, the word ‘distinguere’ is nowhere to be found.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet the thing is not altogether desperate; for we have some arguments to guide us, partly from the apparent motions, which are the differences of the true motions; partly from the forces, which are the causes and effects of the true motions.^ This completes the sequence of arguments from the properties, causes, and effects of motion.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And that is the purpose of the arguments from properties, causes, and effects.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Evidence is available in part from apparent motions, which are the differences of true motions, and in part from the forces, which are the causes and effects of true motions.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Definitions - Scholium
  • We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.
    • "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy" : Rule I
  • Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
    • Laws of Motion, I
  • The alternation of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.^ Change occurs in proportion to the force applied and in the same direction.
    • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An impressed force is an action exerted upon a body, in order to change its state, either of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Laws of Motion, II
  • To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.^ For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.

    ^ To every action there is always an opposed and equal reaction.
    • Isaac Newton Biography - Newton's Life, Career, Work - Dr Robert A. Hatch 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.clas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Life of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Laws of Motion, III
  • Hypotheses non fingo.
    • I frame no hypotheses.
      • A famous statement in the "General Scholium" of the third edition, indicating his belief that the law of universal gravitation was a fundamental empirical law, and that he proposed no hypotheses on how gravity could propagate.
    • Variant translation: I feign no hypotheses.
    • I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena, and I do not feign hypotheses. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, or based on occult qualities, or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.^ After all, in the General Scholium, “hypotheses non fingo” concerns the postulation of a cause for gravity.
      • Isaac Newton: Philosophical Writings - Cambridge University Press 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Hypotheses non fingo ” .
      • Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Newton also presented the laws of universal gravitation.
      • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]
      • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

      .In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena, and afterwards rendered general by induction.^ In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena, and afterwards rendered general by induction.
      • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
      • newton 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Rule IV. In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions collected by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true, notwithstanding any contrary hypotheses that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.

      ^ In experimental philosophy we are to look, upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true, notwithstanding any contrary hypotheses that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may cither be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.
      • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Opticks (1704)

There were several editions of Opticks in English and in Latin made in Newtons lifetime, including expansions of the original 16 "Queries" to eventually number 31.
The main Business of natural Philosophy is to argue from Phenomena without feigning Hypotheses, and to deduce Causes from Effects, till we come to the very first Cause, which certainly is not mechanical.
.
What is there in places empty of matter?
  • To make way for the regular and lasting Motions of the Planets and Comets, it's necessary to empty the Heavens of all Matter, except perhaps some very thin Vapours, Steams or Effluvia, arising from the Atmospheres of the Earth, Planets and Comets, and from such an exceedingly rare Æthereal Medium ...^ That the motions of the planets in the heavens may subsist an exceedingly long time.

    ^ It's a slope with only a very minor grade, probably flat to the naked eye and which one would need some high quality surveyor's equipment to determine drainage and there's plenty of ways to reroute the flow to greener pastures and such, but a slope toward a bad place nonetheless."
    • Isaac Newton invented the cat door - snopes.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC message.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In different ways both Aristotle and Descartes denied that there could be such a thing as literally 'empty space'.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A dense Fluid can be of no use for explaining the Phænomena of Nature, the Motions of the Planets and Comets being better explain'd without it.^ "This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being.
    • Ten Strange Facts About Newton - Neatorama 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To demonstrate this theory, he used gravitational attraction to explain a wide range of previously unrelated phenomena including the motion of the planets and their moons, the precession of the equinoxes, the action of the tides and the eccentric orbit of comets.
    • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton invented the refracting telescope, explained the motion of planets and comets, discovered the multicolored nature of light, and created an entirely new field of mathematical understanding: calculus.
    • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

    .It serves only to disturb and retard the Motions of those great Bodies, and make the frame of Nature languish: And in the Pores of Bodies, it serves only to stop the vibrating Motions of their Parts, wherein their Heat and Activity consists.^ It is the “nature of bodies” to be such that the motion of any body can be altered only by something “contiguous” to that body.
    • Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Reasoning : From the property, the [relative] motion of a body out of a given place is only part of the motion of the body if the place in question is itself in motion.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part 2, on cycloidal motion, contains an account of the descent of heavy bodies under their own weight in a vacuum, and establishs the cycloid as a tautochronous curve.
    • From Euclid to Newton 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And as it is of no use, and hinders the Operations of Nature, and makes her languish, so there is no evidence for its Existence, and therefore it ought to be rejected.^ Gravity as Newton understands it in the Principia is not a viable possibility because there is no indication as to how it could operate through impact and is therefore not, from Leibniz's perspective, even a candidate for a physical actor.
    • Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Newton engineers responded to his incredulity by making the case that there could be no compromises if Figaro was to succeed.
    • The Story Behind Apple's Newton 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That is to say, as far as Leibniz's understanding of the planetary orbits is concerned, there is no independent empirical evidence indicating the existence of the fluid in question.
    • Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .And if it be rejected, the Hypotheses that Light consists in Pression or Motion propagated through such a Medium, are rejected with it.^ These comments were expressed at a time when the luminiferous ether was still the presumed medium in which light propagated through space, and when the slight difference between the observed and predicted path of Mercury around the Sun was real and unsolved.

    ^ Newton fully accepted the mechanical nature of light, although he chose the atomistic alternative and held that light consists of material corpuscles in motion.
    • Sir Isaac Newton (English physicist and mathematician) :: Career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to UPT, the light ray should bend in all these three fields as they all affect the sharmons of the light propagating medium and also the photon, which is itself, composed by sharmons.
    • http://www.geocities.com/drratiram_sharma/RelativityReappraisal.html 12 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]


    .And for rejecting such a Medium, we have the authority of those the oldest and most celebrated philosophers of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, who made a vacuum and atoms and the gravity of atoms the first principles of their philosophy, tacitly attributing Gravity to some other Cause than dense Matter.^ These forces being unknown, philosophers have hitherto attempted the investigation of nature in vain; but I hope the principles here laid down will afford some light on either this or some truer method of philosophy.

    ^ That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The ancient Philosophers who held Atoms and Vacuum attributed gravity to atoms without telling us the means unless in figures: as by calling God Harmony representing him and matter by the God Pan and his Pipe...Whence it seems to have been an ancient opinion that matter depends upon a Deity for its laws of motions as well as for its existence.
    • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Later Philosophers banish the Consideration of such a Cause out of natural Philosophy, feigning Hypotheses for explaining all things mechanically, and referring other Causes to Metaphysicks: Whereas the main Business of natural Philosophy is to argue from Phenomena without feigning Hypotheses, and to deduce Causes from Effects, till we come to the very first Cause, which certainly is not mechanical.
    • Query 28 : Are not all Hypotheses erroneous in which Light is supposed to consist of Pression or Motion propagated through a fluid medium?
  • What is there in places empty of matter?^ For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in thisfrom the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of nature, and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena.

    ^ The latter was a philosophy of nature that attempted to explain natural phenomena by means of imagined mechanisms among invisible particles of matter.
    • Sir Isaac Newton Biography - Biography.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Sir Isaac Newton (English physicist and mathematician) :: Career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For it may be that there is no body really at rest, to which the places and motions of others may be referred.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]
    • newton 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]

    and .Whence is it that the sun and planets gravitate toward one another without dense matter between them?^ Corollary 3: All the planets do mutually gravitate towards one another, by Corollary I and 2.

    ^ He had a problem concerning the gravitational attraction between the sun and the planets.
    • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lastly, if it universally appears, by experiments and astronomical observations, that all bodies about the earth gravitate towards the earth, and that in proportion to the quantity of matter which they severally contain; that the moon likewise, according to the quantity of its matter, gravitates towards the earth; that, on the other hand, our sea gravitates towards the moon; and all the planets mutually one towards another; and the comets in like manner towards the sun; we must, in consequence of this rule, universally allow that all bodies whatsoever are endowed with a principle of mutual gravitation.

    .Whence is it that Nature doth nothing in vain?
    and Whence arises all that order and beauty which we see in the world?^ And prince arises all that order and beauty which we see in the world.
    • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To this purpose the philosophers say that Nature does nothing in vain, and more is in vain when less will serve; for Nature is pleased with simplicity, and affects not the pomp of superfluous causes.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Irans President Sees End of World Order, page 78).
    • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

    To what end are comets? and .Whence is it that planets move all one and the same way in orbs concentrick, while comets move all manner of ways in orbs very excentrick?^ The proofs and insights contained here were revolutionary, and allowed the calculation of the orbit of any object, from planet to comet or asteroid, moving through a gravitational field.
    • The 10 Days of Newton - Opinionator Blog - NYTimes.com 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC judson.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Whence also he is all similar, all eye, all ear, all brain, all arm, all power to perceive, to understand, and to act; but in a manner not at all human, in a manner not at all corporeal, in a manner utterly unknown to us.
    • Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 25 January 2010 17:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was very funny and we laughed all the way back to our classroom.
    • Wayne Newton is not Isaac Newton’s Brother | Steve Spangler's Blog 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.stevespangler.com [Source type: General]

    and .What hinders the fixed stars from falling upon one another?^ Thus after seventy-two years the colure of the vernal equinox which passed through a fixed star, corresponds with another fixed star.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Voltaire: Letters on Newton from Letters on The Englishor Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sixty-three kings of France have sat upon the throne; these have, one with another, reigned about twenty years each.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Voltaire: Letters on Newton from Letters on The Englishor Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Suppose now that, in addition to the globes, there is second system of bodies maintaining fixed positions with respect to one another (for example, the fixed stars).
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Query 28 : Are not all Hypotheses erroneous in which Light is supposed to consist of Pression or Motion propagated through a fluid medium?
  • The changing of bodies into light, and light into bodies, is very conformable to the course of Nature, which seems delighted with transmutations.
    • Query 30 : Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another, and may not bodies receive much of their activity from the particles of light which enter into their composition?
  • It seems probable to me that God, in the beginning, formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, moveable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other properties, and in such proportions to space, as most conduced to the end for which He formed them; and that these primitive particles, being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous bodies compounded of them, even so very hard as never to wear or break in pieces; no ordinary power being able to divide what God had made one in the first creation.^ And so we conclude the least particles of all bodies to be also all extended, and hard and impenetrable, and moveable, and endowed with their proper inertia .

    ^ Newton defined the true motion of a body to be its motion through absolute space.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It seems probable to me that God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other properties, and in such proportion to space, as most conduced to the end for which he formed them; and that these primitive particles being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous bodies compounded of them; even so very hard, as never to wear or break in pieces; no ordinary power being able to divide what God himself made one in the first creation.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    While the particles continue entire, they may compose bodies of one and the same nature and texture in all ages: but should they wear away or break in pieces, the nature of things depending on them would be changed.
    • Query 31 : Have not the small particles of bodies certain powers, virtues, or forces, by which they act at a distance, not only upon the rays of light for reflecting, refracting, and inflecting them, but also upon one another for producing a great part of the Phenomena of nature?

Board of Longitude

.
  • One [method] is by a Watch to keep time exactly.^ I suppose it will not cause any one a shock to be told that "the greatest thinker of all time" was not exactly a perfect man.
    • Sir Isaac Newton - Biographies, Biography, Biographical 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.extremeintellect.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He mentioned four: (1) by a watch to keep time exactly, (2) by the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, (3) by the place of the moon, (4) by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton.

    ^ He mentioned four :—(1) by a watch to keep time exactly, (2) by the eclipse of Jupiter’s satellites, (3) by the place of the moon, (4) by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton.
    • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But, by reason of the motion of the Ship, the Variation of Heat and Cold, Wet and Dry, and the Difference of Gravity in different Latitudes, such a watch hath not yet been made.^ The motion of the ship, though the man perceives it not, is a real different state, and has real different effects; and, upon a sudden stop, it would have other real effects; and so likewise would an indiscernible motion of the universe."
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton's laws of motion and gravity provided a basis for predicting a wide variety of different scientific or engineering situations, especially the motion of celestial bodies .
    • Isaac Newton at AllExperts 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These were the four haptic qualities of hot, cold, wet, and dry.
    • Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Written in remarks to the 1714 Longitude committee; quoted in Longitude (1995) by Dava Sobel, p. .52 (i998 edition) ISBN 1-85702-571-7),
  • A good watch may serve to keep a recconing at Sea for some days and to know the time of a Celestial Observ[at]ion: and for this end a good Jewel watch may suffice till a better sort of Watch can be found out.^ You know it's been dream a new matters as well as sort of ability true for -- mind or in some minds to income pass all of human knowledge.
    • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some 530 million years ago, when animals like the trilobites were skittering around, days had less time.
    • The 10 Days of Newton - Opinionator Blog - NYTimes.com 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC judson.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Attila's capital city was in modern-day Hungary, but the Huns were finally driven out later that same century, and I don't know if any nation remains from them.
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    But when the Longitude at sea is once lost, it cannot be found again by any watch.
    • Letter to Josiah Burchett (1721), quoted in Longitude (1995) by Dava Sobel, p. 60

A short Schem of the true Religion

Religion is partly fundamental & immutable partly circumstantial & mutable.
We must be righteous & do to all men as we would they should do to us.
Undated manuscript : Keynes Ms. 7: '"A short Schem of the true Religion'"
.
  • Religion is partly fundamental & immutable partly circumstantial & mutable. The first was the Religion of Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham Moses Christ & all the saints & consists of two parts our duty towards God & our duty towards man or piety & righteousness, piety which I will here call Godliness & Humanity.
  • Godliness consists in the knowledge love & worship of God, Humanity in love, righteousness & good offices towards man.
    • Of Godliness
  • Atheism is so senseless & odious to mankind that it never had many professors. Can it be by accident that all birds beasts & men have their right side & left side alike shaped (except in their bowells) & just two eyes & no more on either side the face & just two ears on either side the head & a nose with two holes & no more between the eyes & one mouth under the nose & either two fore leggs or two wings or two arms on the sholders & two leggs on the hipps one on either side & no more?^ "For there are Gods many and Lords many) yet to us there is but one God the Father of whom are all things and we in him and one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things and we by him," that is, but one God and one Lord in our worship: "One God and one mediator between God and man the man Christ Jesus."
    • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And this is the first and principal part of religion.
    • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It consists of two parts.
    • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Whence arises this uniformity in all their outward shapes but from the counsel & contrivance of an Author? .Whence is it that the eyes of all sorts of living creatures are transparent to the very bottom & the only transparent members in the body, having on the outside an hard transparent skin, & within transparent juyces with a crystalline Lens in the middle & a pupil before the Lens all of them so truly shaped & fitted for vision, that no Artist can mend them?^ Newton was born prematurely , and no one expected him to live; indeed, his mother, Hannah Ayscough , is reported to have said that his body at that time could have fit inside a quart mug (Bell, 1937).
    • Isaac Newton at AllExperts 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For since the qualities of bodies are only known to us by experiments, we are to hold for universal all such as universally agree with experiments; and such as are not liable to diminution can never be quite taken away.

    ^ For it is very reasonable that in this nomination, before the difference be determined between you, the heads should have regard to the inclination of the body, especially seeing you all agree in two men that are very worthy, and very fit for the place."
    • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Did blind chance know that there was light & what was its refraction & fit the eys of all creatures after the most curious manner to make use of it?^ I learned most of what I know about Newton first from Bertoloni Meli and Michael Friedman, and later from George Smith; I am grateful for all their advice over the years.
    • Isaac Newton: Philosophical Writings - Cambridge University Press 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You know moves and you look at the way we can infer that there is dark matter because of its gravitational impact on the on the visible objects we can -- and all these different things.
    • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They have there no appropriate colour, but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them, but yet with this difference, that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own day-light colour.

    .These & such like considerations always have & ever will prevail with man kind to believe that there is a being who made all things & has all things in his power & who is therfore to be feared.^ Newton was a man who saw the interconnectedness of all things.
    • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next , and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.
    • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In different ways both Aristotle and Descartes denied that there could be such a thing as literally 'empty space'.
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Of Atheism
  • Idolatry is a more dangerous crime because it is apt by the authority of Kings & under very specious pretenses to insinuate it self into mankind. Kings being apt to enjoyn the honour of their dead ancestors: & it seeming very plausible to honour the souls of Heroes & Saints & to believe that they can heare us & help us & are mediators between God & man & reside & act principally in the temples & statues dedicated to their honour & memory?^ That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prior interpretations of Newton's writing has led us to accept an erroneous image of a man who was far more eclectic in his approach than we have previously understood.
    • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And yet this being against the principal part of religion is in scripture condemned & detested above all other crimes.^ And this is the first and principal part of religion.
    • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This unity of reality (God, Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light, Vibration) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' as the other is part of the self.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These Germanic tribes all migrated from the other side of the Black Sea or south from Scandinavia, and almost certainly are part of the scattered ten tribes of Israel.
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    The sin consists first in omitting the service of the true God. .
    • Of Idolatry
  • The other part of the true religion is our duty to man. We must love our neighbour as our selves, we must be charitable to all men for charity is the greatest of graces, greater then even faith or hope & covers a multitude of sins.^ A part of the duties of a subsizar was to clean boots, scrub floors and perform various other delightful tasks which everybody else evaded.
    • Sir Isaac Newton - Biographies, Biography, Biographical 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.extremeintellect.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I suppose it will not cause any one a shock to be told that "the greatest thinker of all time" was not exactly a perfect man.
    • Sir Isaac Newton - Biographies, Biography, Biographical 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.extremeintellect.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was uninterested in art, literature, music, or women, and because of our times it must be specified that his sexual interest in men is mere undocumented speculation.
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We must be righteous & do to all men as we would they should do to us.
    • Of Humanity
  • No man hath seen God at any time, if we love one another God dwelleth in us.^ That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Physics: Isaac Newton's Mechanics 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He saw the whole purpose of these revelations is not to satisfy man's curiosity about the future, but to be a testimony of the foreknowledge of God after they are all fulfilled in the last days.
    • Newton on Daniel 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For, should we imagine our terrestrial bodies removed to the orbit of the moon, and there, together with the moon, deprived of all motion, to be let go, so as to fall together towards the earth, it is certain, from what we have demonstrated before, that, in equal times, they would describe equal spaces with the moon, and of consequence are to the moon, in quantity of matter, as their weights to its weight.

    .If a man say I love God & hateth his brother he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen how can he love God whom he hath not seen?^ All these trials were for Gods supreme purpose, to demonstrate He controls history and the future, and He works deliverance for His people, whom He loves.
    • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pharaoh was so impressed he said to his court, Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom is the Spirit of God?
    • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Of Humanity

Disputed

.
  • I can calculate the motions of the heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
    • This first appears in Henry Richard Fox Bourne's 1876 The Romance of Trade as "I can calculate the motions of erratic stars, but not the madness of the multitude" (claimed to be Newton's view on the outcome of the South Sea Bubble).^ "I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people."
      • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If I may dare to correct you in one small particular: I don’t think it is quite right to say that Newton discovered “the phenomenon of gravity.” What he discovered was the universality of gravity — that gravity exists throughout the Universe, and governs the motions of the heavenly bodies.
      • The 10 Days of Newton - Opinionator Blog - NYTimes.com 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC judson.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

      ^ People always combat a new idea when first presented, and so Newton found himself overwhelmed with correspondence.
      • Sir Isaac Newton - Biographies, Biography, Biographical 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.extremeintellect.com [Source type: Original source]

      [1]
    • .
    • Variants: I can calculate the motions of heavenly bodies but not the madness of men.^ "I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people."
      • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ So the bodies constituting any reference system cannot be at relative rest, as their mutual separations and/or velocities of relative motion are not fixed, but vary with time.
      • http://www.geocities.com/drratiram_sharma/RelativityReappraisal.html 12 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ For the motion of a material particle in a gravitational field, the space coordinates (x) locate the physical body moving at velocity v ( < c) which is not constant or fixed but varies with time.
      • http://www.geocities.com/drratiram_sharma/RelativityReappraisal.html 12 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]


      .I can calculate the movement of the stars, but not the madness of men.
  • It is the perfection of God's works that they are all done with the greatest simplicity.^ I suppose it will not cause any one a shock to be told that "the greatest thinker of all time" was not exactly a perfect man.
    • Sir Isaac Newton - Biographies, Biography, Biographical 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.extremeintellect.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, many consider Isaac Newton to be the greatest scientist of all time, because his work was the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Customer Review: Stories for Children Magazine 5 Star Review: Who do you think is the greatest scientist of all time?
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

    .He is the God of order and not of confusion.
    And therefore as they would understand the frame of the world must endeavor to reduce their knowledge to all possible simplicity, so must it be in seeking to understand these visions.^ But the world loves to be deceived, they will not understand, they .
    • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those that would have their knowledge increased must take pains, must not sit still in slothfulness and bare wishes but run to and fro, must make use of all the means of knowledge and improve all opportunities of getting their mistakes rectified, their doubts resolved , and their acquaintance with the things of God improved, to know more and to know better what they do know.
    • MATHEMATICAL PRECISION OF PROPHECY 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.beholdthebeast.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They, therefore, allowed too great a number of years, and consequently some years must be subtracted from their computation.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Voltaire: Letters on Newton from Letters on The Englishor Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Cited in Rules for methodizing the Apocalypse, Rule 9, from a manuscript published in The Religion of Isaac Newton (1974) by Frank E. Manuel, p.^ I recommend the reader to read also the interesting book on Newton scientific approach to bible: The Religion of Isaac Newton, by Frank Manuel, OUP, 1972; Frimantle Lectures at Oxford, 1971.
      • Sir Isaac Newton  |  Study Archive @ PreteristArchive.com - The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterism  |   The Preterist Archive www.preteristarchive.com,reformed,partial,orthodoxy,orthodox,futurist,preterism,historicism,fulfillment,apocalypse 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ This is best considered in connection with Newton's manuscript on the same subject which was published by John Colson in 1736, and of which it is a summary.
      • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one, which is in the form of a single letter to a friend, and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand.

      .120, quoted in Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (1983) by Richard S. Westfall, p.^ Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius .
      • Biography: Sir Isaac Newton - The Gravity of Genius - Synopsis - MSN Movies 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Customer Review: Newton abridged: This book is an abridged version of the author's much larger full biography, Never at Rest, published in 1980.
      • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]
      • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Richard S. Westfall Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (Cambridge University Press: 1980) .
      • The Religious Beliefs of Sir Isaac Newton 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

      326, in Fables of Mind: An Inquiry Into Poe's Fiction (1987) by Joan Dayan, p. .240, and in Everything Connects: In Conference with Richard H. Popkin (1999) by Richard H. Popkin, James E. Force, and David S. Katz, p.^ Arianism Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, eds.
      • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A major turning point in the future of Newton's legacy came with the 1990 publication of Essays of the context, nature and influence of Isaac Newton's theology by James E. Force and Richard H. Popkin.
      • Skyscript: Sir Isaac Newton and the Ocean of Truth, by Sue Toohey 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.skyscript.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

      124
  • Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things. .
    • Cited in Rules for methodizing the Apocalypse, Rule 9, from a manuscript published in The Religion of Isaac Newton (1974) by Frank E. Manuel, p.^ I recommend the reader to read also the interesting book on Newton scientific approach to bible: The Religion of Isaac Newton, by Frank Manuel, OUP, 1972; Frimantle Lectures at Oxford, 1971.
      • Sir Isaac Newton  |  Study Archive @ PreteristArchive.com - The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterism  |   The Preterist Archive www.preteristarchive.com,reformed,partial,orthodoxy,orthodox,futurist,preterism,historicism,fulfillment,apocalypse 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ This is best considered in connection with Newton's manuscript on the same subject which was published by John Colson in 1736, and of which it is a summary.
      • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one, which is in the form of a single letter to a friend, and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand.

      120, as quoted in Socinianism And Arminianism : Antitrinitarians, Calvinists, And Cultural Exchange in Seventeenth-Century Europe (2005) by Martin Mulsow, Jan Rohls, p. 273.
    • Variant: Truth is ever to be found in the simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.
      • As quoted in God in the Equation : How Einstein Transformed Religion (2002) by Corey S. Powell, p. 29
  • By always thinking unto them. ... .I keep the subject constantly before me and wait till the first dawnings open little by little into the full light.
    • No known citation to Newton.^ Briefly, what Newton showed is that a prism separates white light into its component colors, associated with specific indices of refraction, and that a second prism can recombine the dispersed light and render it white again.
      • Isaac Newton (1643-1727): Isaac Newton biography, Isaac Newton pictures - Download Philosophi� Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), translated in English... 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC isaac-newton.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In Opticks Newton observed that white light could be separated by a prism into a spectrum of different colours, each chracterised by a unique refractivity and proposed the corpuscular theory of light.

      ^ The remaining events of Newton's life require little or no comment.
      • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .First appears, attributed to him as a reply upon being asked how he made his discoveries, in an anecdote told at the Newton Tercentenary Celebrations: 15-19 July 1946 (1947) by The Royal Society; also in Nature (4 September 1965)
  • Atheism is so senseless.^ Newton ruled the Royal Society magisterially.
    • Sir Isaac Newton (English physicist and mathematician) :: Career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet, he first presented his findings to the British Royal Society three years later, when he was elected as a fellow.
    • Ten Strange Facts About Newton - Neatorama 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The telescope!Newton's initial lectures as Lucasian Professor dealt with optics, including his remarkable discoveries made during the plague years.
    • Sir Isaac Newton  |  Study Archive @ PreteristArchive.com - The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterism  |   The Preterist Archive www.preteristarchive.com,reformed,partial,orthodoxy,orthodox,futurist,preterism,historicism,fulfillment,apocalypse 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .When I look at the solar system, I see the earth at the right distance from the sun to receive the proper amounts of heat and light.^ Second, gravity was an invisible force that extended over vast distances: its influence could be shown even on the planets in the solar system.
    • Google celebrates Isaac Newton's birthday with a falling apple doodle | Technology | guardian.co.uk 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ For example, how do we, here on earth, sense the heat and light from the sun so distant in Space.
    • Sir Isaac Newton: WSM Explains Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion(Issac Newtons Laws of Motion) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hooke, Huygens, Halley, and Wren had all conjectured that the force of the attraction of the sun or earth on an external particle varied inversely as the square of the distance.
    • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This did not happen by chance.
    • As quoted in What If Jesus Had Never Been Born (1994) by D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, p. .100; also in Lord Of All : Developing a Christian World-and-life View (2005) by the same authors.
    • "Atheism is so senseless" is a portion of a statement Newton is known to have made (which is posted above in "A short Schem of the true Religion"), but there have been no occurrences of the rest of this statement yet located prior to 1994. Newton is known to have been profoundly religious, but the tone, style and arguments simply do not seem to match any which Newton is likely to have used.^ As I. Bernard Cohen has astutely shown, Newton’s choice of the vernacular rather than Latin for the presentation of his optical views may reflect his opinion that English was more appropriate for a field like optics, which had not yet achieved the same status as the science of the Principia , in part because it had not yet been sufficiently mathematized.
      • Isaac Newton: Philosophical Writings - Cambridge University Press 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ So Newton's broader view has something like the following structure: (i) Spatiality is an affection of every kind of being; (ii) God exists necessarily, so (iii) there is no time at which God fails to exist; and, therefore, (iv) space exists, and there is no time at which space fails to exist (Stein 2002; Janiak 2000, 221-27).
      • Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This might seem like a reasonable position for a man of science, but in that era, the reverse was actually true: most learned men believed in the existence of Satan, and considered Newton’s view as blasphemous.
      • Ten Strange Facts About Newton - Neatorama 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

      .The argument that Earth is the "right distance from the sun" and even the idea that its placement might have possibly been "by chance" are rather modern in tone, and strongly imply some evolutionary assumptions which Newton would not likely have even considered.
  • If I had stayed for other people to make my tools and things for me, I had never made anything.
    • Not directly attributable to Newton.^ Newton made some interesting projections.

      ^ To some, this seemed like a supernatural or even an occult idea.
      • Google celebrates Isaac Newton's birthday with a falling apple doodle | Technology | guardian.co.uk 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

      ^ Newton was made a justice of the peace and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699 conducted some 200 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects.
      • Isaac Newton at AllExperts 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Ten Strange Facts About Newton - Neatorama 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]
      • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .First appears in the 1934 Isaac Newton: a biography, citing unpublished papers by John Conduitt reporting an anecdote when Conduitt asked where he got the tools to make his reflecting telescope.^ Of Isaac Newton makes me want to.
      • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ As an adult, he built the first reflecting telescope.
      • The 10 Days of Newton - Opinionator Blog - NYTimes.com 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC judson.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

      ^ That also applies to the first law of Isaac Newton.
      • Wayne Newton is not Isaac Newton’s Brother | Steve Spangler's Blog 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.stevespangler.com [Source type: General]

      .Newton is said to have laughed and replied, "If I had stayed for other people to make my tools and things for me I had never made anything of it."^ On being by asked by Halley that how he managed to make so many discoveries Newton said that he never relied an inspiration or serendipity to give him insight.

      ^ Francois Marie Arouet de Voltair (1694-1778), the French writer and philosopher, said : “Newton taught men to examine, weigh, calculate and measure but never to conjecture … He saw, and made people see; but he did not put his fancies in place of truth.” .

      ^ And he was so unreasonable as to wonder that people laughed at him for making such an assertion.
      • Modern History Sourcebook: Voltaire: Letters on Newton from Letters on The Englishor Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

      [2]

Misattributed

  • Tact is the art of making a point without making an enemy. .
    • Actually a statement by American advertising executive and author Howard W. Newton (1903 - 1951)
  • In the absence of any other proof, the thumb alone would convince me of God's existence.^ Author Philip Ashley Fanning has diligently examined the evidence and concludes that the two major aspects of Newton’s research—conventional science and alchemy—were actually inseparable.
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But in the absence of data, at the border between what he could explain and what he could only honor—the causes he could identify and those he could not—Newton rapturously invokes God: .

    ^ Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • No findable citation to a Newton work. It first appears around 1980, and has since been widely propagated, for instance via the book Fearfully and Wonderfully Made [3]

Quotes about Newton

.
His peculiar gift was the power of holding continuously in his mind a purely mental problem until he had seen it through.
^ It wasn't until after the events of 1948 and 1967 had passed that we could check both ends of most of the prophetic math problems assigned to us through prophecy.
  • MATHEMATICAL PRECISION OF PROPHECY 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.beholdthebeast.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That Newton’s mind was even then quite clear and powerful is sufficiently proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (1642-1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That Newton's mind was even then quite clear and powerful is sufficiently proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success.

~ .John Maynard Keynes
  • He bought a book of Iudicial Astrology out of a curiosity to see what there was in that science & read in it till he came to a figure of the heavens which he could not understand for want of being acquainted with Trigonometry, & to understand the ground of that bought an English Euclid with an Index of all the problems at the end of it & only turned to two or three which he thought necessary for his purpose & read nothing but the titles of them finding them so easy & self evident that he wondered any body would be at the pains of writing a demonstration of them & laid Euclid aside as a trifling book, & was soon convinced of the vanity & emptiness of the pretended science of Iudicial astrology.^ Only problem there is the parking can be a mess.
    • Isaac Newton's Fun Food & Drink - Newtown, PA 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, he thought its propositions as self-evident and thus he put it aside as “trifling book”.

    ^ I would love to see any writings Newton did on the book of Ezekiel.
    • Books - Isaac Newton- Today in Science History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • An account by John Conduitt, Newton's assistant and his niece's husband, of Newton saying that, as a young student, he had read a book on astrology and was not impressed with it.^ During his last years, his niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, and her husband lived with him.
      • Sir Isaac Newton (English physicist and mathematician) :: Career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an antitrinitarian .
      • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire.
      • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Also quoted in The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (1967) by D.T. Whiteside, M.A. Hoskin and A. Prag, Vol.^ Isaac Newton's birthday celebrated with a falling Apple doodle - Computerworld Blogs Home News Blogs Reviews White Papers Newsletters IT Careers .
      • Isaac Newton's birthday celebrated with a falling Apple doodle - Computerworld Blogs 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Mathematical Papers of Isaac .
      • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Newton Sir Isaac 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

      ^ The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton .
      • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      1, pp. .15-19.
  • His peculiar gift was the power of holding continuously in his mind a purely mental problem until he had seen it through.
  • Newton was not the first of the age of reason.^ In fact he was so repelled, that he wrote, Newton was not the first of the age of reason.
    • The Bible Codes, Sir Isaac Newton, and 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.triumphpro.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians."
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
    • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It wasn't until after the events of 1948 and 1967 had passed that we could check both ends of most of the prophetic math problems assigned to us through prophecy.
    • MATHEMATICAL PRECISION OF PROPHECY 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.beholdthebeast.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He was the last of the magicians
    , the last of the Babylonians and Sumerians, the last great mind that looked out on the visible and intellectual world with the same eyes as those who began to build our intellectual inheritance rather less than 10 000 years ago.^ Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years he actually died intestate.
    • Astrology: Isaac NEWTON, born 1643/01/04, Horoscope, Natal Chart, Biography, Planets, Photo. 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC www.astrotheme.com [Source type: General]
    • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years, he actually died intestate .
    • Isaac Newton encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years, and died intestate.
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • John Maynard Keynes, Address to the Royal Society Club (1942), as quoted in A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (1977) by Alan L. MacKay, p.140
  • Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;
    God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.
  • There is a traditional story about Newton: as a young student, he began the study of geometry, as was usual in his time, with the reading of the Elements of Euclid.^ Description: Alexander Pope’s couplet about Isaac Newton gives me goosebumps: Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night; God said: Let Newton be!
    • Isaac Newton drops in at MIT at Boston.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.
    • Sir Isaac Newton : Famous : Biography : Information 26 January 2010 17:23 UTC famous.y2u.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Isaac Newton: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nature and Nature’s laws lay hid in night God said, “Let Newton be !

    He read the theorems, saw that they were true, and omitted the proofs. He wondered why anybody should take pains to prove things so evident. .Many years later, however, he changed his opinion and praised Euclid.^ Newton, however, asserted that ``you may almost know how many roots are impossible'' by counting the changes of sign in the series of symbols formed as above.
    • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Newton communicated these results to his friends and pupils from and after 1669, but they were not published in print till many years later.
    • Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) 11 September 2009 10:25 UTC www.maths.tcd.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fortunately for us, he never followed through with his threat to disengage from discussions in natural philosophy, and sent many important letters in his later years.
    • Isaac Newton: Philosophical Writings - Cambridge University Press 22 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The story may be authentic or not, ...

References

  1. p292, The Romance of Trade, HR Fox Bourne Cassell, 1876 Internet Archive
  2. Isaac Newton: a biography, Louis Trenchard More, C. Scribner's Sons, 1934
  3. Fearfully and Wonderfully Made, Philip Yancey and Paul W. Brand, p. 161 Google Books

External links

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Simple English

Sir Isaac Newton
Born 4 January 1643
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England
Died 31 March 1727[1]
Kensington, London

Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727)[2] was an English physicist and mathematician. He is famous for his work on the laws of motion, optics, gravity, and calculus. He was born in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England.[2] He started his education at the The King's School, Grantham. After a few years, his mother called him back to his home and asked him to do farming. But, his teacher begged for Isaac to come back to his school. So, after one year he did so. Later, he wrote a paper called the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica which became very famous.[1]

Contents

Early life

Isaac Newton was born on January 4 1643, (the same year Galileo Galilei died) in a manor house in Lincolnshire, England. His father died three months before his birth. When Isaac was three his mother remarried, and Isaac remained with his grandmother. He was not interested in the family farm, so he was sent to the University of Cambridge to study. It is sometimes told that Isaac Newton was reading a book under a tree when he saw an apple fall to the ground. This led to his calculations of gravity.

Early workings

Isaac Newton explained the workings of the universe through mathematics. He described laws of motion and gravitation. These laws are math formulas that explain how objects move when a force acts on them. Isaac published his most famous book, Principia, in 1687[1] while he was a mathematics professor at Trinity College, Cambridge. In the Principia, Isaac explained three basic laws that govern the way objects move. He then described his idea, or theory, about gravity. Gravity is the force that causes things to fall down. If a pencil fell off a desk, it will land on the floor, not the ceiling. In his book Isaac also used his laws to show that the planets revolve around the suns in orbits that are oval, not round.

The three laws of motion

Following are the three.

The first law (Law of Inertia)

The First Law states that an object that is not being pushed or pulled by some force will stay still, or will keep moving in a straight line at a steady speed. It is easy to understand that a rocket will not move unless something pushes or pulls it. It is harder to understand that an object will continue to move without help. Think of the rocket again. If someone is flying a rocket and jumps off before the rocket is stopped, what happens? The rocket continues on until it goes into space. The tendency of an object to remain still, or keep moving in a straight line at a steady speed is called inertia.

The second law (Law of Acceleration)

The Second Law explains how a force acts on an object. An object accelerates in the direction the force is moving it. If someone gets on a bike and pushes the pedals forward the bike will begin to move. If someone gives the bike a push from behind, the bike will speed up. If the rider pushes back on the pedals the bike will slow down. If the rider turns the handlebars, the bike will change direction.

The third law (Law of Reciprocal Actions)

The Third Law states that if an object is pushed or pulled, the object will be push or pull equally in the opposite direction. If someone lifts a heavy box, they use force to push it up. The box is heavy because it is producing an equal force downward on the lifter’s arms. The weight is transferred through the lifter’s legs to the floor. The floor presses upward with an equal force. If the floor pushed back with less force, the person lifting the box would fall through the floor. If it pushed back with more force the lifter would fly into the air like young birds taking their first flight and falling back down again.

The discovery of the Law of Gravitation

When most people think of Isaac Newton, they think of him sitting under an apple tree watching an apple fall. Some people even believe the apple fell onto his head. Newton understood that what makes things like apples fall to the ground is a specific kind of force — the force we call gravity. Newton thought that gravity was the force of attraction between two objects, such as an apple and the earth. He also thought that an object with more matter – mass – exerted the greater force, or pulled the smaller object toward it. That meant that the large mass of the earth pulled objects toward it. That is why the apple fell down instead of up, and why people don’t float in the air.

Isaac Newton went on thinking about gravity. Before Newton, people thought that only objects near to the earth would fall down. But Newton thought that gravity should not just be limited to the earth and the objects on it. What if gravity extended to the moon and beyond?

Newton invented a formula for calculating the force of attraction between two bodies. He used it to calculate the force needed to keep the moon moving around the earth. Then he compared it with the force that made the apple fall downward. After allowing for the fact that the moon is much farther from the earth, and has a much greater mass, he discovered that the forces were the same. The moon is held in an orbit around earth by the pull of earth’s gravity.

The formula invented by Newton is called the Law of Gravitation.

Impact

Isaac Newton’s calculations changed the way people understood the universe. No one had been able to explain why the planets stayed in their orbits. What held them up? Less than 50 years before Isaac Newton was born it was thought that the planets were held in place by an invisible shield. Isaac proved that they were held in place by the sun’s gravity. He also showed that the force of gravity was affected by distance and by mass. He was not the first to understand that the orbit of a planet was not circular, but more elongated, like an oval. What he did was to explain how it worked.

The great physicist, Albert Einstein, thought that Newton's idea of gravity was not completely accurate. He corrected many of the things that Newton did.

Death

Isaac Newton died on March 31 1727, in London, England.[1] He is buried in Westminster Abbey.[1] He set the stage for many great physicists to come, such as Albert Einstein, James Chadwick, and Stephen Hawking.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Gay, Peter; Time-Life Books (1966). "The Practical Philosophers". Age of Enlightenment. Time. pp. 12, 18. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727)". bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
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