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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jurassic Park film series

Jurassic Park Adventure Pack
Directed by Steven Spielberg (Jurassic Park & The Lost World: Jurassic Park)
Joe Johnston (Jurassic Park III)
Written by Michael Crichton (Jurassic Park & The Lost World)
Malia Scotch Marmo (Jurassic Park)
David Koepp (Jurassic Park & The Lost World)
Alexander Payne (Jurassic Park III)
Peter Buchman (Jurassic Park III)
Jim Taylor(Jurassic Park III)
Music by John Williams (Jurassic Park & The Lost World)
Don Davis (Jurassic Park III)
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) 1993 - present
Country United States
Language English
Budget $229,000,000
Gross revenue $1,902,110,926

The Jurassic Park franchise is a series of books, films and video centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Studios bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.

The book was very successful, as was the 1993 film adaptation which led to two sequels, although the last was not based on a novel, as the previous films were. The software developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software and Sega of America have had the rights to developing video games since the 1993 film, and numerous games have been produced.

Currently a fourth feature film is in the works, but it has been lingering in development hell since a year after the third film. Many rumors have surrounded the project since it was first reported, many surrounding plot and script ideas, and new logos. Recently in November 2009, Joe Johnston, the director of Jurassic Park III, stated that the fourth film will have a different plot than the other three films.[1]

Contents

Development

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay around a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA. After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with Jurassic Park.[2] Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Tristar and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante also bid for the rights,[3] Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[4] but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg.[3] Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical[5] and commercial[6] success.

After Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel. Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately. After the novel was published in 1995, The Lost World: Jurassic Park began production in September 1996.[7]

Before the production of the second film, Joe Johnston approached Steven Spielberg about directing the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[8] Production began on August 30, 2000.[9]

Books

Jurassic Park stemmed from the idea of a screenplay about cloning a pterosaur from fossilized DNA.[10] Michael Crichton worked on the idea for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting and a young boy as the main character.[10] Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, which went over much better.[10]

A sequel novel began production after readers and Steven Spielberg himself pressured Michael Crichton for a sequel novel.[11] Michael Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel of the same name.[12] The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics.[11] A film adaptation was released in 1997.

Comic books

From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published adaptions of the first two movies and several non-canon Jurassic Park comics. Those were:

  • Jurassic Park #1-4 (June - August 1993). Adaptation of the movie, adapted by Walter Simonson and pencilled by Gil Kane. Each issue had two covers - one by Kane, one by Dave Cockrum.
  • Jurassic Park #0 (November 1993, single issue). Features two prequel stories to the movie, one starring John Hammond showing Donald Gennaro around the park and one featuring an argument between Hammond and leading to Dennis Nedry's betrayal. Written by Walter Simonson, pencilled by Gil Kane. This issue was only available with the trade paperback of the movie adaption.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptor #1-2 (November - December 1993). First part of the "Raptor" trilogy and sequel to the movie. Written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Armando Gil and Dell Barras.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1-4 (March - June 1994). Second part of the trilogy, written by Englehart, pencilled by Armando Gil (#1) and Chaz Truog. This story revealed that character Robert Muldoon had not died.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1-4 (July - October 1994). Last part of the trilogy. Written by Englehart, artwork by Neil Vokes.
  • Jurassic Park Annual #1 (May 1995). Featuring two stories, one being a sequel and one being a prequel. Written by Neil Barrett Jr., Michael Golden and Renée Witterstaetter, pencilled by Claude St. Aubin and Ed Murr.
  • Return to Jurassic Park #1-9 (April 1995 - February 1996). Short-lived ongoing series. The first four issues were written again by Englehart (featuring his last involvement with the comic book) and pencilled by Joe Staton. It was not a sequel to the "Raptor" trilogy. The next four issues were written by Tom and Mary Bierbaum and drawn by Armando Gil. The Bierbaums introduced two complete new characters as the protagonists. The ninth and final issue was a jam book written by Keith Giffen and Dwight Jon Zimmerman and featured artwork by such acclaimed artists as Jason Pearson, Adam Hughes, Paul Gulacy, John Byrne, Kevin Maguire, Mike Zeck, George Pérez and Paul Chadwick. After this issue, the series went "on hiatus", never to return.
  • Lost World: Jurassic Park #1-4 (May - August 1997). Adaptation of the second movie. Adapted by Don McGregor and pencilled by Jeff Butler (#1-2) and Claude St. Aubin (#3-4). Each issue of the series featured multiple covers - one by Walter Simonson and a photo cover.

Except for #9 of "Return to Jurassic Park" all covers since the "Raptor" trilogy were drawn by Michael Golden. #9 had a painted cover by John Bolton.

Current films

Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film centers on the island of Isla Nublar, where scientists have created an amusement park of cloned dinosaurs. John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) invites a group of scientists, played by Sam Neill, Jeff Goldblum and Laura Dern, to visit the park. Sabotage sets the dinosaurs on the loose, and technicians and visitors attempt to escape the island.

Development of the film began before the novel was even published, and Crichton was hired to contribute to a script that cut much of its story. Spielberg hired Stan Winston Studios' puppets and worked with Industrial Light & Magic to develop cutting-edge CGI to portray the dinosaurs. Jurassic Park was well received by critics, although they criticized the characterization. During its release, the film grossed $914 million, becoming the most successful film yet released, and it is currently the 11th-highest grossing feature film, significantly inspiring a new breed of films that primarily used CGI for special effects. The film was followed by The Lost World: Jurassic Park in 1997 and by Jurassic Park III in 2001, with Jurassic Park IV in "development hell".

The Lost World: Jurassic Park

The Lost World: Jurassic Park is a 1997 science fiction film and sequel to Jurassic Park directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. After the success of the first film, fans and critics alike pressured Michael Crichton for a sequel novel. Having never done one before, Crichton originally declined, but when Steven Spielberg finally started pressuring Crichton, a sequel novel was announced. As soon as the novel was published, a film was in pre-production, with a target release date of mid-1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Although the film is said to be based on Crichton's novel exactly one scene from the book was actually used in the movie.

The film centers on the island of Isla Sorna, an auxiliary site for the main Jurassic Park island, where dinosaurs have taken over and live in the wild. Ian Malcolm leads a team to document the dinosaurs in their native habitat, while an InGen team attempts to capture them for a second Jurassic Park in San Diego.

After finishing The Lost World, Steven Spielberg stated he would never work on another Jurassic Park movie again. A few years later, he began production on Jurassic Park III.

Jurassic Park III

Jurassic Park III is a 2001 science fiction film and sequel to The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It is the first in the series not to be based on a book by Michael Crichton or directed by Steven Spielberg. Originally, a third Jurassic Park film was produced under the title Jurassic Park: Extinction,[13] with the script involving a killer disease that threatened to wipe out the dinosaurs on both islands. After numerous script changes, Universal decided to drop the idea in favor of the current plot, with the title Jurassic Park III. Although the idea was dropped, it was to be reused for Jurassic Park IV.[14]

Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[8] Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000[9] with filming in California, Oahu, and Molokai.[15] The film was a moderate success, and had mixed reviews from critics. Most were split on whether the third installment was better or worse than its predecessor. The film once again suffered reviews of little to no characterization.

No character who was in the second film appears in this one, although Sam Neill and Laura Dern from the original installment return. The setting takes place on Isla Sorna, the island from the second film, after a couple hires Dr. Alan Grant to help them find their son, Eric. But their plane crashes on the Island, and the survivors attempt to escape the island, while being stalked by a Spinosaurus and Velociraptors.

Future

Jurassic Park IV

In June 2002, director Steven Spielberg told Starlog magazine that he planned to produce Jurassic Park IV and that director Joe Johnston, who helmed Jurassic Park III, would direct it. In November 2002, screenwriter William Monahan was hired to write,[16] with the film's release slated for summer 2005.[17] In July 2003, Monahan completed the first draft, with the story no longer set in the jungle.[18] Actor Sam Neill said he was returning as Dr. Alan Grant, with filming expected to begin in 2004 in California and Hawaii.[19] In September 2004, screenwriter John Sayles was re-writing the script, with the film re-slated for a winter 2005 release.[20]

In October 2004, paleontologist Jack Horner said he would return as technical adviser for the fourth film as he had done for previous Jurassic Park films.[21] By April 2005, special effects artist Stan Winston explained that the delay in production was due to repeated revisions of the film's script, none of which satisfied Spielberg. According to Winston, "He felt neither of [the drafts] balanced the science and adventure elements effectively. It's a tough compromise to reach, as too much science will make the movie too talky, but too much adventure will make it seem hollow."[22] In February 2006, producer Frank Marshall said a "good script" had been completed and filming would begin in 2007 for a 2008 release.[23] In March 2007, Sam Neill said he was not asked to reprise his role as Dr. Alan Grant,[24] while Laura Dern was asked to return for the new film, which Universal still wanted to release by 2008.[25] Director Joe Johnston was also reported not to be directing the film.[26] Richard Attenborough has been contacted about reprising the role of John Hammond.[27] Jeff Goldblum has expressed some interest in reprising his role for the fourth film.[28]

In December 2008, Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy were asked if there was any development on the sequel. Kennedy responded, "No... I don't know. You know, when Michael Crichton passed away, I sorta felt maybe that's it. Maybe that's a sign that we don't mess with it."[29] While Marshall and Kennedy were no longer signed with Universal Pictures in a production capacity, the two will remain involved with the studio and its plans for Jurassic Park IV.[30] In November 2009, Joe Johnston discussed the possibility of Jurassic Park IV, stating that the story for the film is completely different from that of its predecessors and would take the franchise into a whole other trilogy.[31][32]

Jurassic Park III director, Joe Johnston, revealed in an interview in January 2010 that Jurassic Park IV was set to be the beginning of a second Jurassic Park trilogy.[33] He also added, “Jurassic Park 4 is going to be unlike anything you’ve seen.”[34] According to a new interview conducted in 2010 by Drew McWeeny with Joe Johnston on the website Behind the Films, a new script is under works with a different idea behind it. Johnston says once he finishes Captain America, he hopefully will develop Jurassic Park IV with Steven Spielberg.[35]

Principal cast

Character Film
Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park III
Alan Grant Sam Neill   Sam Neill
Ellie Sattler Laura Dern   Laura Dern
Ian Malcolm Jeff Goldblum  
John Hammond Richard Attenborough  
Tim Murphy Joseph Mazzello  
Lex Murphy Ariana Richards  
Donald Gennaro Martin Ferrero  
Robert Muldoon Bob Peck  
Ray Arnold Samuel L. Jackson  
Dennis Nedry Wayne Knight  
Sara Harding   Julianne Moore  
Nick Van Owen   Vince Vaughn  
Eddie Carr   Richard Schiff  
Peter Ludlow   Arliss Howard  
Roland Tembo   Pete Postlethwaite  
Kelly Malcolm   Vanessa Lee Chester  
Dieter Stark   Peter Stormare  
Paul Kirby   William H. Macy
Amanda Kirby   Tea Leoni
Eric Kirby   Trevor Morgan
Billy Brennan   Alessandro Nivola
Udesky   Michael Jeter
Nash   Bruce A. Young
Cooper   John Diehl

Continuity with novels

While the films portray a wide variety of dinosaurs, the books include several species (either seen on-screen or mentioned as having been cloned) that do not appear in the Jurassic Park films. This excludes Jurassic Park III, as the plot was not adapted from a novel. The dinosaurs Ceratosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Spinosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Corythosaurus and Mamenchisaurus are not mentioned in the novel series.

Jurassic Park novel

Camarasaurus 

The Lost World novel

Fictional locations

Isla Nublar

Isla Nublar is the fictional island in the book and film version of Jurassic Park. Its name is intended to mean "Cloudy Island" in Spanish.[36] In the story, it is said to be 120 miles (190 km) off the coast of Costa Rica,[37] and the island measures 8 miles (13 km) long and 3 miles (4.8 km) wide at the widest point,[38] For the film, Spielberg used the island of Kauai as a stand in for Isla Nublar.[39]

In popular culture, the island was recreated with animatronic dinosaurs and rides as one of the five "Islands of Adventure" at the Universal theme park in Florida.[40] Universal Studios Hollywood features "the Isla Nublar Jurassic Band near the entrance to Jurassic Park."[41]

Isla Sorna

Isla Sorna, also known as "Site B", is another fictional island that is seen in the book and film version of The Lost World and the film Jurassic Park III. Isla Sorna is the opposite of Isla Nublar and its amusement park setup in that it is solely a laboratory and research centre, where dinosaurs are hatched and reared before being moved to Isla Nublar as juveniles.[42] The island is eighty-seven miles from Isla Nublar,[43] and is located approximately 207 miles off the coast of Costa Rica.[44] For the film version of The Lost World, Jody Duncan and Don Shay said, "Eureka and New Zealand were intended to provide most of the rich and forested Isla Sorna exteriors."[45] In reviewing the book, Rob DeSalle and David Lindley write that "Crichton depicts the Velociraptors' lair as something out of the movie Animal House.[46]

Reception

Box office performance

Film Release date Box office revenue Box office ranking Budget Reference
United States Foreign Worldwide All time domestic All time worldwide
Jurassic Park June 11, 1993 $357,067,947 $557,623,171 $914,691,118 #14
#17(A)
#12 $63,000,000 [47]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park May 23, 1997 $229,086,679 $389,552,320 $618,638,999 #67
#97(A)
#43 $73,000,000 [48]
Jurassic Park III July 18, 2001 $181,171,875 $187,608,934 $368,780,809 #120 #139 $93,000,000 [49]
Total $767,326,501 $1,134,784,425 $1,902,110,926 $229,000,000
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (by Box Office Mojo).

Critical reaction

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
Overall Cream of the Crop
Jurassic Park 84% (37 reviews)[50] 90% (10 reviews)[51] 78% (20 reviews)[52]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park 48% (58 reviews)[53] 42% (12 reviews)[54] 59% (18 reviews)[55]
Jurassic Park III 49% (154 reviews)[56] 30% (30 reviews)[57] 49% (30 reviews)[58]

Video Games

Ever since the announcement of the 1993 Jurassic Park feature film, developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software and Sega of America were licensed to produce games to be sold to coincide with the release of the film on the popular platforms of the time.

Ocean Software released video games based on the 1993 film for NES, Super NES, Game Boy, PC:DOS, and Amiga. Sega of America released three games for Sega systems. Each game became substantial sellers, and spawned a second generation of video games for SNES and Game Boy. For the second film in the franchise, DreamWorks Interactive released 5 games for the most popular systems at the time. The third film had the biggest marketing push, spawning seven video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films.

There was also a game available for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and PC called Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis where the goal of the game was to create and manage their own version of Jurassic Park, in a manner somewhat similar to the Zoo Tycoon games.

References

  1. ^ "Joe Johnston Talks Jurassic Park 4". http://www.imdb.com/news/ni1168391/. Retrieved 8 November 2009. 
  2. ^ Michael Crichton. (2001). Michael Crichton on the Jurassic Park Phenomenon. [DVD]. Universal. 
  3. ^ a b Jurassic Park DVD Production Notes
  4. ^ "Leaping Lizards". Entertainment Weekly. 1990-12-07. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,318785,00.html. Retrieved 2007-02-17. 
  5. ^ Jurassic Park - Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes
  6. ^ Jurassic Park (1993)
  7. ^ "The LOST WORLD JURASSIC PARK". British Film Institute. http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/546128. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  8. ^ a b (DVD) The Making of Jurassic Park III. Universal Pictures. 2005. 
  9. ^ a b "Jurassic Park III". British Film Institute. http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/674339. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  10. ^ a b c "Jurassic Park". MichaelCrichton.com. http://www.michaelcrichton.net/books-jurassicpark.html. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  11. ^ a b The Lost World: Jurassic Park DVD Special Features - Production Notes
  12. ^ MichaelCrichton.com | The Lost World
  13. ^ 2001 DVD release, poster section under special features
  14. ^ Jurassic Park IV plot details?
  15. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Hollywood.com. http://www.hollywood.com/movie/Jurassic_Park_III/419715. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  16. ^ Linder, Brian (2002-11-07). "Jurassic Park IV Goes Ahead". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/376/376630p1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  17. ^ McNary, Dave; Carl Diorio (2002-12-22). Pat McGovern is rumered to be in the movie "Early-bird specials". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117877754.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1 Pat McGovern is rumered to be in the movie. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  18. ^ "Jurassic IV Draft Done". Sci Fi Wire. 2003-07-13. http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/art-main.html?2003-07/16/12.00.film. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  19. ^ Paul Davidson (2003-07-11). "Sam Neill Confirms Jurassic Park IV". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/428/428371p1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  20. ^ Paul Davidson (2004-09-17). "Rewriting Jurassic Park IV". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/549/549150p1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  21. ^ Bryan O'Connor (2003-10-12). "Scientist Horner challenges youths". Billings Gazette. http://www.billingsgazette.com/newdex.php?display=rednews/2003/10/12/build/local/45-horner.inc. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  22. ^ *Paul Davidson (2005-04-11). "Status of Jurassic Park IV". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/603/603381p1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  23. ^ Paul Davidson (2006-02-21). "Jurassic Park IV Script Ready". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/690/690254p1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  24. ^ Marilyn Beck; Stacy Jenel Smith (2007-03-07). "Sam Neill debunks web rumors about Jurassic Park IV". LA DailyNews. http://www.dailynews.com/celebrities/ci_5379532. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  25. ^ "JURASSIC PARK IV News". Collider.com. 2007-04-05. http://www.collider.com/entertainment/news/article.asp/aid/4039/tcid/1. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  26. ^ Shawn Adler (2007-04-06). "'Jurassic Park IV' To Hit Theaters In 2008". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1556604/20070406/story.jhtml. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  27. ^ John Millar (2007-12-09). "Movie Director In Tearful Scots Trip". The Sunday Mail. http://www.sundaymail.co.uk/news/scottish-news/2007/12/09/movie-director-in-tearful-scots-trip-78057-20224385/. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  28. ^ Vineyard, Jennifer (October 20, 2008). "Jeff Goldblum Mulls ‘Jurassic Park 4,’ Open To Possible Return". MTV Movies. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/10/20/jeff-goldblum-mulls-jurassic-park-4-open-to-possible-return/. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  29. ^ Silas Lenick (2008-12-07). "Producers Say No to Jurassic Park 4". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=51101. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  30. ^ Fernandez, Jay A.; Borys Kit (December 8, 2008). "Par, Uni won't renew major producer deals". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/film/news/e3idc160e735d514c2dc69dde424ffdbab4. Retrieved December 10, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Joe Johnston Talks Jurassic Park 4". Coming Soon. November 6, 2009. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=60710. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  32. ^ Jurassic Park 4 Talk? Bring on the Dinos!
  33. ^ A Heap of DNA Discovered, New 'Jurassic Park' Trilogy in the Works
  34. ^ Jackson Cresswell (January 13th, 2010). "Director Joe Johnston Talks CAPTAIN AMERICA, JURASSIC PARK 4". Collider.com. http://www.collider.com/2010/01/13/director-joe-johnston-talks-captain-america-jurassic-park-4/. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  35. ^ "More Jurassic Park 4 News! No Dinosaurs With Guns!". Behind the Films. 2010-02-08. http://www.behindthefilms.net/2010/02/08/more-jurassic-park-4-news-no-dinosaurs-with-guns/. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  36. ^ Susan Leigh Star, Ecologies of Knowledge: Work and Politics in Science and Technology (SUNY Press, 1995), 41.
  37. ^ Judith E. Boss, Leroy W. Dubeck, and Suzanne E. Moshier, Fantastic Voyages: Learning Science Through Science Fiction Films (Springer, 2003), 314.
  38. ^ Rob DeSalle and David Lindley, The Science of Jurassic Park and the Lost World, Or, How to Build a Dinosaur: And the Lost World Or, How to Build a Dinosaur (Basic Books, 1997), 150.
  39. ^ Claudia Hellmann and Claudine Weber-hof, On Location 2: Famous Landscapes in Film (Bucher, 2007), 36.
  40. ^ MIREYA NAVARRO, "TRAVEL ADVISORY: CORRESPONDENT'S REPORT; Two Rivals Up the Ante With New Theme Parks," The New York Times (November 16, 1997).
  41. ^ Bob Sehlinger, Unofficial Guide to Disneyland 2004 (Wiley, 2003), 234.
  42. ^ "A Missing Boy on an Island Tyrannized by Dinosaurs". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E03E6DA143CF930A3575BC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  43. ^ Ian Freer, The Complete Spielberg (Virgin, 2001), 239.
  44. ^ PETER M. NICHOLS, "TAKING THE CHILDREN; A Missing Boy on an Island Tyrannized by Dinosaurs," The New York Times (August 3, 2001).
  45. ^ Jody Duncan and Don Shay, The Making of the Lost World: Jurassic Park (Ballantine Books, 1997), [1].
  46. ^ Rob DeSalle and David Lindley, The Science of Jurassic Park and the Lost World, Or, How to Build a Dinosaur: And the Lost World Or, How to Build a Dinosaur (Basic Books, 1997), 147.
  47. ^ "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=jurassicpark.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  48. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=jurassicpark2.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  49. ^ "Jurassic Park III (2001)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=jurassicpark3.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  50. ^ "Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/jurassic_park/. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  51. ^ "Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/jurassic_park/?critic=creamcrop. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  52. ^ "Jurassic Park: Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/jurassicpark?q=Jurassic%20Park. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  53. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/lost_world_jurassic_park/. Retrieved 2010-010-08. 
  54. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/lost_world_jurassic_park/?critic=creamcrop. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  55. ^ Lost World: Jurassic Park "The Lost World: Jurassic Park: Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/lostworldjurassicpark?q=The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Retrieved 2010-01-8. 
  56. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/jurassic_park_iii/. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  57. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/jurassic_park_iii/?critic=creamcrop. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  58. ^ "Jurassic Park III: Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/jurassicpark3?q. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 

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