The Full Wiki

Islam and blasphemy: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on
Islamic Jurisprudence

(of Islamic studies)
Fields
Writer Salman Rushdie was accused of blasphemy and subject of a fatwā issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran, in February 1989.

Blasphemy in Islam is any irreverent behavior[1] which offends a Muslim. The Quran condemns such behavior, and Sharia provides penalties for blasphemy. Where Sharia pertains, the penalties for blasphemy can include fines, imprisonment, flogging, amputation, crucifixion, hanging, or beheading.[2][3] Muslim clerics may call for the murder of an alleged blasphemer by issuing a fatwa.[4][5]

Contents

Blasphemy against holy personages

In Islam, it is blasphemy:

  • to speculate about how Muhammad would behave if he were alive.[21][22]
  • to draw a picture to represent Prophet Muhammad[9][23][24][25][26] or any other prophet,[9] or to make a film which features a prophet.[27]
  • to write Prophet Muhammad's name on the walls of a toilet.[28]
  • to name a teddy bear Muhammad or any other prophet's name.[29]

Blasphemy against beliefs and customs

It is blasphemy:

  • to say Islam is an Arab religion; prayers five times a day are unnecessary; and the Quran is full of lies.[34]
  • to find fault with or to curse apostles, prophets, or angels.[35]
  • to pray for Muslims to become something else.[50]
  • to whistle during prayers.[51]
  • to publish an unofficial translation of the Quran.[52]

Blasphemy against artifacts

It is blasphemy:

  • to say the Quran is boring.[59]

Punishment

The appropriate punishment for blasphemy in Islam is a matter of debate.[60] The Quran does not discuss how different instances of blasphemy should be punished.

Advertisements

Blasphemy against the deity

The Quran[61] advises Muslims to shun those who find fault with Allah:

  • ". . . when ye hear the signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, ye are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme: if ye did, ye would be like them. For Allah will collect the hypocrites and those who defy faith - all in Hell." [Quran 4:140]
  • "Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant." [Quran 7:199]
  • "But they uttered blasphemy ... if they repent, it will be best for them, but if they turn back, Allah will punish them." [Quran 9:47]
  • "Allah is with those who restrain themselves . . . ." [Quran 16: 128]
  • "Therefore be patient with what they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of thy Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before its setting; yea, celebrate them for part of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day: that thou mayest have (spiritual) joy." [Quran 20:130]
  • "And the servants of Allah ... are those who walked on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say 'Peace'!" [Quran 25:63]
  • "And when they hear vain talk, they turn away therefrom and say: 'To us our deeds, and to you yours; peace be to you: we seek not the ignorant.'" [Quran 28: 55]
  • "Have patience with what they say, and leave them with noble (dignity)." [Quran 73:10]
  • "Tell those who believe, to forgive those who do not look forward to the Days of Allah. It is for Him to recompense (for good or ill) each People according to what they have earned." [Quran 45:14]
  • "Bear, then, with patience, all that they say, and celebrate the praises of thy Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting." [Quran 50:39]

The Quran speaks of punishment in relation only to those who make war and mischief in opposition to Allah and Muhammad:

The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter
Quran 5:33

Blasphemy against Prophet Muhammad

The hadith and other writings suggest death is the proper punishment for someone who insults Muhammad.

Blasphemy against beliefs and customs

The punishment for non-conformity with prevailing beliefs and customs varies by jurisdiction.[62] In September 2009, Abdul Kahar Ahmad pleaded guilty in a Malaysian Sharia court to charges of spreading false doctrines, blasphemy, and violating religious precepts. The court sentenced Ahmad to ten years in prison and six lashes from a rattan cane.[63]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/blasphemy
  2. ^ See the articles about Islamic jurisdictions under Blasphemy law.
  3. ^ Islamic Voice
  4. ^ a b "Blasphemy Salman Rushdie". Constitutional Rights Foundation. 2009. http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/blasphemy-salman-rushdie.html. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  5. ^ a b Doran, Michael Scott (January/February 2004). "The Saudi Paradox". Foreign Affairs. http://www.udel.edu/global/agenda/2004/student/readings/FASaudi-Doran.html. Retrieved 27 July 2009.  
  6. ^ "Egypt bans 'blasphemous' magazine". BBC. 8 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7989016.stm. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  
  7. ^ Ibrahim, Yusha'u A. (20 June 2009). "Nigeria: Blasphemy - Rioters Burn Police Outpost, Injure 12". Daily Trust. http://allafrica.com/stories/200906221085.html. Retrieved 30 July 2009.  
  8. ^ Ibrahim, Yusha'u A. (11 August 2008). "Nigeria: Mob Kills 50-Year-Old Man for 'Blasphemy'". Daily Trust. http://allafrica.com/stories/200808110940.html. Retrieved 30 July 2009.  
  9. ^ a b c "Nigeria: International Religious Freedom Report 2008". U.S. Department of State. 2008. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108385.htm. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  
  10. ^ "Blasphemy Laws and Intellectual Freedom in Pakistan". South Asian Voice. August 2002. http://members.tripod.com/~INDIA_RESOURCE/ifpakistan.html. Retrieved 21 June 2009.  
  11. ^ "Pakistan bans Da Vinci Code film". BBC News / South Asia. 4 June 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/south_asia/5045672.stm. Retrieved 4 June 2009.  
  12. ^ "Document - Pakistan: Fear for safety/ Prisoner of Conscience (POC), Mohammed Younus Shaikh". Amnesty International. 19 August 2005. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA33/023/2005/en/dc8bb567-d4b7-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/asa330232005en.html. Retrieved 21 June 2009.  
  13. ^ "KARACHI: Writer of sacrilegious book gets life term". Dawn the Internet Edition. 12 August 2005. http://www.dawn.com/2005/08/12/local4.htm. Retrieved 21 June 2009.  
  14. ^ Soage, Ana Belén (June 2007). "Faraj Fawda, or The Cost of Freedom of Expression". Volume 11, No. 2, Article 3/8. Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) Journal. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2007/issue2/jv11no2a3.html. Retrieved 16 July 2009.  
  15. ^ Durant, David (30 September 2007). "Banned Authors Week: Farag Foda". http://hereticallibrarian.blogspot.com/2007/09/banned-authors-week-farag-foda.html. Retrieved 15 July 2009.  
  16. ^ a b c Boyle, Kevin; Juliet Sheen (1997). "Freedom of Religion and Belief". Routledge. p. 30.  
  17. ^ Djavadi, Abbas (28 February 2009). "In Today’s Iran, Anything Else Is “Blasphemy”". Iran & Beyond. http://www.djavadi.net/2009/02/28/in-todays-iran-anything-else-is-blasphemy/. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  
  18. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (24 June 2007). "Iran Cracks Down on Dissent". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/24/world/middleeast/24iran.html?_r=1. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  19. ^ Fathi, Nazila (29 June 2004). "Iran Drops Death Penalty for Professor Guilty of Blasphemy". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/29/world/iran-drops-death-penalty-for-professor-guilty-of-blasphemy.html. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  20. ^ "Iran Frees Professor Set to Die for Speech". The New York Times. 1 August 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/01/world/iran-frees-professor-set-to-die-for-speech.html. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  21. ^ Mbachu, Dulue (22 November 2002). "100 Killed in Nigeria Riots Triggered by Miss World Pageant". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A25137-2002Nov22?language=printer. Retrieved 31 July 2009.  
  22. ^ "Nigeria: No justice for Kaduna killings". Issue 120. Pambazuka News. 24 July 2003. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/rights/16559. Retrieved 31 July 2009.  
  23. ^ "Nigeria: Muslim "Blasphemy" Riots - Three Killed". Western Resistance. 12 February 2008. http://www.westernresistance.com/blog/archives/003979.html. Retrieved 30 July 2009.  
  24. ^ "Nigeria Christian Killed In Riot Over Blasphemy; Dozens Injured". BosNewsLife. 13 February 2008. http://www.bosnewslife.com/3435-3435-nigeria-christians-killed-in-riot-over-blasph. Retrieved 1 August 2009.  
  25. ^ Samson, Elizabeth (10 September 2008). "Criminalizing Criticism of Islam". Wall Street Journal Europe. http://online.wsj.com/articleSB122099204692716155.html?mod=opinion_main_commentaries. Retrieved 26 June 2009.  
  26. ^ "Jordan charges Dutch politician with blasphemy". Reuters. 1 July 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL015190420080701. Retrieved 18 June 2009.  
  27. ^ Khouri, Malek (Spring 2006). "Anxieties of fundamentalism and the dynamics of modernist resistance: Youssef Chahine's Al Maseer". BNET. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3148/is_69/ai_n29271426/pg_3/. Retrieved 15 November 2009.  
  28. ^ "Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom May 2009". Pakistan. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. May 2009. http://www.uscirf.gov/images/AR2009/pakistan.pdf. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  
  29. ^ Sudanese teddy bear blasphemy case.
  30. ^ "Blasphemy Prisoner Acquitted After Six Years in Prison". International Christian Concern. 16 August 2002. http://persecution.org/news/Press_Releases/PR_2002/press2002-08-15.html. Retrieved 27 June 2009.  
  31. ^ Adams, Brad (19 November 2007). "Pakistan: Dubai Should End Shutdown of Pakistani Channels". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2007/11/19/pakistan-dubai-should-end-shutdown-pakistani-channels. Retrieved 20 August 2009.  
  32. ^ "Bangladesh". International Religious Freedom Report 2008. U.S. State Department. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108498.htm. Retrieved 7 August 2009.  
  33. ^ Ahmed, Rumi (30 September 2007). "Chronology of Major Blasphemy Cases in Bangladesh [1972-2007"]. http://rumiahmed.wordpress.com/2007/09/30/chronology-of-major-blasphemy-cases-in-bangladesh-1972-2007/. Retrieved 5 August 2009.  
  34. ^ Patung (11 April 2007). "Islam is for Arabs". Indonesia Matters. http://www.indonesiamatters.com/1229/islam-is-for-arabs/. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  
  35. ^ a b c http://www.peacefaq.com/blasphemy.html
  36. ^ Patung (27 February 2006). "Abdul Rahman, Blasphemer". Indonesia Matters. http://www.indonesiamatters.com/130/abdul-rahman-blasphemer/. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  
  37. ^ The unbelievers among the People of the Book | last = Murphy | first = Kim | title = A Matter of Censorship | publisher = Los Angeles Times | date = 7 May 1990 | url = http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/alaa-hamed | accessdate = 16 July 2009}}
  38. ^ Zenati, Hassen (5 June 2004). "Al-Azhar confiscates publications". Middle East Online. http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=10187. Retrieved 16 July 2009.  
  39. ^ http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP139206
  40. ^ Abdoun, Safaa (11 December 2008). "Late Publishing Mogul Madbouli leaves behind a Literary Legacy". Daily News Egypt. http://www.dailystaregypt.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=18360. Retrieved 16 July 2009.  
  41. ^ "Jordanian poet accused of 'atheism and blasphemy'". The Daily Star Lebanon. 25 October 2008. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=4&article_id=97072. Retrieved 18 June 2009.  
  42. ^ Alrawi, Karim (31 January 1992). "Egypt's Rushdie". v.5, no. 187, p. 27. New Statesman & Society. http://www.thefileroom.org/documents/dyn/DisplayCase.cfm/id/188. Retrieved 18 July 2009.  
  43. ^ "Egypt: Internet writer Kareem Amer ill treated". English PEN. 12 September 2008. http://www.englishpen.org/writersinprison/bulletins/egyptinternetwriterkareemamerilltreated/. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  
  44. ^ "Independent weekly hit by two bombs after threats from radical movement". Reporters Without Borders. 11 July 2006. http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=18246. Retrieved 6 August 2009.  
  45. ^ "To: Government of Bangladesh". Scholars for Peace in the Middle East. Undated (2008?). http://www.spme.net/cgi-bin/display_petitions.cgi?ID=6. Retrieved 6 August 2009.  
  46. ^ Mineeia, Zainab (21 October 2008). "Afghanistan: Journalist Serving 20 Years for "Blasphemy"". IPS (Inter Press Service). http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=44383. Retrieved 2 July 2009.  
  47. ^ Wiseman, Paul (31 January 2008). "Afghan student's death sentence hits nerve". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-01-31-Afghanstudent_N.htm. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  
  48. ^ "2008 Report on International Religious Freedom - Afghanistan". United States Department of State. 19 September 2008. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/48d5cbf4c.html. Retrieved 2 July 2009.  
  49. ^ "Supreme court confirms death sentence for two journalists for "blasphemy"". Reporters sans frontières. 6 August 2003. http://www.rsf.org/Supreme-court-confirms-death.html. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  
  50. ^ "Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom May 2009". Indonesia. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. May 2009. http://www.uscirf.gov/images/AR2009/indonesia.pdf. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  
  51. ^ a b "Indonesia". International Religious Freedom Report 2007. U.S. State Department. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90137.htm. Retrieved 22 June 2009.  
  52. ^ Wafa, Abdul Waheed; Carlotta Gall and Taimoor Shah (11 March 2009). "Afghan Court Backs Prison Term for Blasphemy". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/12/world/asia/12afghan.html?_r=1&ref=world. Retrieved 12 July 2009.  
  53. ^ "Two Christians punished for 'burning' Quran". Nerve News ... of India. 27 November 2006. http://www.nerve.in/news:25350024970. Retrieved 1 November 2009.  
  54. ^ "Man gets death sentence for blasphemy". Daily Times. 19 June 2008. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C06%5C19%5Cstory_19-6-2008_pg7_7. Retrieved 4 September 2009.  
  55. ^ "After Gojra, 3 ‘blasphemy’ killings in Pak Punjab for ‘desecrating Quran’". Thaindian News. 5 August 2009. http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/south-asia/after-gojra-3-blasphemy-killings-in-pak-punjab-for-desecrating-quran_100227891.html. Retrieved 16 August 2009.  
  56. ^ "'Blasphemy' claims three more victims". Daily Times. 5 August 2009. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009%5C08%5C05%5Cstory_5-8-2009_pg1_10. Retrieved 20 August 2009.  
  57. ^ Mansell, Hannah (15 June 2004). "Young Christian man accused of blasphemy killed". Religious Intelligence. http://www.religiousintelligence.co.uk/news/?NewsID=93. Retrieved 18 August 2009.  
  58. ^ "Muslim Police Constable Murders Christian in Hospital Accused of Blasphemy". Article 14510. Barnabas Fund. 10 June 2004. http://www.strategicnetwork.org/index.php?loc=kb&view=v&id=14510&fto=4408&. Retrieved 20 August 2009.  
  59. ^ http://www.islam-watch.org/AdrianMorgan/Islam-No-Compulsion-In-Religion.htm
  60. ^ See Blasphemy law.
  61. ^ English translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (The Meaning of The Holy Qur'an)
  62. ^ See Blasphemy law.
  63. ^ "Malaysia court sentences Muslim sect leader to 10 years in jail, caning over false teachings". 3news.co.nz. 21 October 2009. http://www.3news.co.nz/Malaysia-court-sentences-Muslim-sect-leader-to-10-years-in-jail-caning-over-false-teachings/tabid/209/articleID/126395/Default.aspx?ArticleID=126395. Retrieved 15 November 2009.  

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message