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Muslims performing salah (prayer)

Islam (Arabic: About this sound الإسلام; al-'islām ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. The word Islam means "submission", or the total surrender of oneself to God (Arabic: [[Allah|الله, Allāh]]). An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits (to God)".[1][2] There are approximately 1.61 billion Muslims,[3] making Islam the second-largest religion in the world, after Christianity.[4]

Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, God's final prophet, and regard the Qur'an and the Sunnah (words and deeds of Muhammad) as the fundamental sources of Islam.[5] They do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Islamic tradition holds that Jews and Christians distorted the texts God gave to these prophets by either altering the text, using a false interpretation, or both.[6]

Islam includes many religious practices. Adherents are generally required to observe the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community.[7] In addition to the Five Pillars, Islamic law (sharia) has developed a tradition of rulings that touch on virtually all aspects of life and society. This tradition encompasses everything from practical matters like dietary laws and banking to warfare.[8]

Despite the Qur'an ordaining that Muslims are not to be divided into divisions or sections[Qur'an 3:103] there are two major denominations of Islam, the Sunni and Shi'a. The schism developed in the late 7th century following disagreements over the religious and political leadership of the Muslim community. Roughly 85 percent of Muslims are Sunni and 15 percent are Shi'a. Islam is the predominant religion throughout the Middle East, as well as in parts of Africa and Asia. Large communities are also found in China, the Balkan Peninsula in Eastern Europe and Russia. There are also large Muslim immigrant communities in wealthier and more developed parts of the world such as Western Europe. About 20 percent of Muslims live in Arab countries.[9]

Contents

Etymology and meaning

The word Islām is derived from the Arabic verb Aslama, which means to accept, surrender or submit. Thus, Islam means acceptance of and submission to God, and believers must demonstrate this by worshiping him, following his commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word is given a number of meanings in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), the quality of Islam as an internal conviction is stressed: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[10] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[11] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[12]

Articles of faith

According to the Qur'an all Muslims have to believe in God, his revelations, his angels, his messengers, and in the "Day of Judgment".[13] Also, there are other beliefs that differ between particular sects. The Sunni concept of predestination is called divine decree,[14] while the Shi'a version is called divine justice. Unique to the Shi'a is the doctrine of Imamah, or the political and spiritual leadership of the Imams.[15]

Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel. For them, Muhammad was God's final prophet and the Qur'an is the revelations he received over more than two decades.[16] In Islam, prophets are men selected by God to be his messengers. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic prophets are considered to be the closest to perfection of all humans, and are uniquely the recipients of divine revelation—either directly from God or through angels.[17] Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of the one God. Islam is described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind",[18] and the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham.[19]

As a historical phenomenon, Islam originated in Arabia in the early 7th century.[20] Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians "People of the Book" (ahl al-kitāb), and distinguishes them from polytheists. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[6]

God

Islam's fundamental theological concept is tawhīd—the belief that there is only one God. The Arabic term for God is Allāh; most scholars believe it was derived from a contraction of the words al- (the) and Template:ArabDIN (deity, masculine form), meaning "the God" (Template:ArabDIN), but others trace its origin to the Aramaic Alāhā.[21] The first of the Five Pillars of Islam, tawhīd is expressed in the shahadah (testification), which declares that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is God's messenger. In traditional Islamic theology, God is beyond all comprehension; Muslims are not expected to visualize God but to worship and adore him as a protector. Although Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet, they reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, comparing it to polytheism. In Islamic theology, Jesus was just a man and not the son of God;[22] God is described in a chapter (sura) of the Qur'an as "…God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."[23]

Qur'an

The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi

Muslims consider the Qur'an to be the literal word of God; it is the central religious text of Islam.[24] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the angel Gabriel on many occasions between 610 and his death on July 6, 632. The Qur'an was written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized in the time of Uthman, the third caliph. From textual evidence, modern Western academics find that the Qur'an of today has not changed over the years.[25]

The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or poetic verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[26] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[27] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[28]

The word Qur'an means "recitation". When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[29]

Angels

Belief in angels is crucial to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for Angels (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in perfect obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases…"[31]

Muhammad

Muhammad (c. 570 – July 6, 632) was an Arab religious, political, and military leader who founded the religion of Islam as a historical phenomenon. Muslims view him not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. In Muslim tradition, Muhammad is viewed as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets—as the man closest to perfection, the possessor of all virtues.[32] For the last 23 years of his life, beginning at age 40, Muhammad reported receiving revelations from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his companions.[33]

The Masjid al-Nabawi ("Mosque of the Prophet") in Medina is the site of Muhammad's tomb.

During this time, Muhammad preached to the people of Mecca, imploring them to abandon polytheism. Although some converted to Islam, Muhammad and his followers were persecuted by the leading Meccan authorities. After 13 years of preaching, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad established his political and religious authority. Within years, two battles had been fought against Meccan forces: the Battle of Badr in 624, which was a Muslim victory, and the Battle of Uhud in 625, which ended inconclusively. Conflict with Medinan Jewish clans who opposed the Muslims led to their exile, enslavement or death, and the Jewish enclave of Khaybar was subdued. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[34] By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless Conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 he ruled over the Arabian peninsula.[35]

In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an.[36]

Resurrection and judgment

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", yawm al-Qiyāmah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of Islamic scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. It states that resurrection will be followed by the gathering of mankind, culminating in their judgment by God.[37]

The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, usury and dishonesty. Muslims view paradise (jannah) as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to a greater joy—acceptance by God (ridwān).[38] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[39]

Predestination

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'…"[40] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. In Islamic theology, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil, because any evils that do occur are thought to result in future benefits men may not be able to see. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[41]

The Shi'a understanding of predestination is called "divine justice" (Adalah). This doctrine, originally developed by the Mu'tazila, stresses the importance of man's responsibility for his own actions. In contrast, the Sunni deemphasize the role of individual free will in the context of God's creation and foreknowledge of all things.[42]

Duties and practices

Five Pillars

Islam's basic creed (shahadah) written on a plaque in the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
Rituals of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the Kaaba in Mecca.

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: : اركان الدين) are five practices essential to Sunni Islam. Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the Five Pillars.[43] They are:

  • The shahadah, which is the basic creed or tenet of Islam: "Template:ArabDIN", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam (although technically the Shi'a do not consider the shahadah to be a separate pillar, just a belief). Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[44]
  • Salah, or ritual prayer, which must be performed five times a day. (However, the Shi'a are permitted to run together the noon with the afternoon prayers, and the evening with the night prayers). Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. In many Muslim countries, reminders called Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[45]
  • Zakat, or alms-giving. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. A fixed portion is spent to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. The zakat is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah). Many Shi'ites are expected to pay an additional amount in the form of a khums tax, which they consider to be a separate ritual practice.[46]
  • Sawm, or fasting during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[47]
  • The Hajj, which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. When the pilgrim is about ten kilometers from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing, which consists of two white seamless sheets. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina. The pilgrim, or the hajji, is honored in his or her community, although Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God instead of a means to gain social standing.[48]

In addition to the khums tax, Shi'a Muslims consider three additional practices essential to the religion of Islam. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar. The second is Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf, the "Enjoining to Do Good", which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life and to encourage others to do the same. The third is Nahi-Anil-Munkar, the "Exhortation to Desist from Evil", which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to also encourage others to do the same.[49]

Law

The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[50]

Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[51]

Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[52]

Religion and state

Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the ulema function as both jurists and theologians. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.[53]

Etiquette and diet

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health, such as the circumcision of male offspring. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims, like Jews, are restricted in their diet, and prohibited foods include pig products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.[54]

Jihad

Jihad means "to strive or struggle," and is considered the "sixth pillar of Islam" by a minority of Muslim authorities.[55] Jihad, in its broadest sense, is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one's own self, different categories of Jihad are defined.[56] Jihad when used without any qualifier is understood in its military aspect.[57][58]

Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants in the defense or expansion of the Islamic state, the ultimate purpose of which is to establish the universal domination of Islam. Jihad, the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law, may be declared against states which refuse to convert to Islam or submit to Islamic rule. It ceases when Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians submit to the authority of Islam and agree to pay the jizya (a poll tax) and kharaj (a land tax), and when polytheists convert to Islam.[59] Treaties (`ahd) may be established, subject to payment of the kharaj, although jurists differ over its permitted longevity.[60][61] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare: the external Jihad includes a struggle to make the Islamic societies conform to the Islamic norms of justice. [62]

Under most circumstances and for most Muslims, jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): its performance by some individuals exempts the others. Only for those vested with authority, especially the sovereign (imam), does jihad become an individual duty. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[59] Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.[63] Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[64]

History

The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba was founded by Arab general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. It is the oldest mosque in the western Islamic world [65] and represents one of the best architectural examples of Islamic civilization [66], in Kairouan, Tunisia.

Islam's historical development resulted in major political, economic, and military effects inside and outside the Islamic world. Within a century of Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an, an Islamic empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east ; one of the best preserved architectural examples of Islamic spread, is the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia) considered as the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world [65]. This new polity soon broke into civil war, and successor states fought each other and outside forces. However, Islam continued to spread into regions like Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. The Islamic civilization was one of the most advanced in the world during the Middle Ages, but was surpassed by Europe with the economic and military growth of the West. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Islamic dynasties such as the Ottomans and Mughals fell under the sway of European imperial powers. In the 20th century new religious and political movements and newfound wealth in the Islamic world led to both rebirth and conflict.[67]

Rise of empire (632–750)

Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[68]

The territory of the Caliphate in 750

His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.[69]

When Umar was assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Following this, Mu'awiyah, who was governor of Levant, seized power and began the Umayyad dynasty.[70]

These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that Ali was the only rightful successor; they became known as the Shi'a.[71] After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna". Afterward, the Umayyad dynasty prevailed for seventy years, and was able to conquer the Maghrib and Al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula, former Visigothic Hispania) and the Narbonnese Gaul} as well as expand Muslim territory into the Indian subcontinent.[72]. While the Muslim-Arab elite engaged in conquest, some devout Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life, emphasizing rather poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Devout Muslim ascetic exemplars such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Sufism.[73]

For the Umayyad aristocracy, Islam was viewed as a religion for Arabs only;[74] the economy of the Umayyad empire was based on the assumption that a majority of non-Muslims (Dhimmis) would pay taxes to the minority of Muslim Arabs. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. Even after conversion, these new Muslims (mawali) did not achieve social and economic equality with the Arabs. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of their propagandist and general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.[75] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished in the "Islamic Golden Age", with its capital at the cosmopolitan city of Baghdad.[76]

Golden Age (750–1258)

Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hattin in 1187, where Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin's Ayyubid forces

By the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphate began to fracture as various regions gained increasing levels of autonomy. Across North Africa, Persia, and Central Asia emirates formed as provinces broke away. The monolithic Arab empire gave way to a more religiously homogenized Muslim world where the Shia Fatimids contested even the religious authority of the caliphate. By 1055 the Seljuq Turks had eliminated the Abbasids as a military power, nevertheless they continued to respect the caliph's titular authority.[77] During this time expansion of the Muslim world continued, by both conquest and peaceful proselytism even as both Islam and Muslim trade networks were extending into sub-Saharan West Africa, Central Asia, Volga Bulgaria and the Malay archipelago.[1] This period also saw the destruction of the Hindu temple at Somnath by an invading Muslim army; fifty thousand Hindus died defending their temple.[78]

The Golden Age saw new legal, philosophical, and religious developments. The major hadith collections were compiled and the four modern Sunni Madh'habs were established. Islamic law was advanced greatly by the efforts of the early 9th century jurist al-Shafi'i; he codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith, a topic which had been a locus of dispute among Islamic scholars.[79] Philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabi sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like the 11th century theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[80] Finally, Sufism and Shi'ism both underwent major changes in the 9th century. Sufism became a full-fledged movement that had moved towards mysticism and away from its ascetic roots, while Shi'ism split due to disagreements over the succession of Imams.[81]

The spread of the Islamic dominion induced hostility among medieval ecclesiastical Christian authors who saw Islam as an adversary in the light of the large numbers of new Muslim converts. This opposition resulted in polemical treatises which depicted Islam as the religion of the antichrist and of Muslims as libidinous and subhuman.[82] In the medieval period, a few Arab philosophers like the poet Al-Ma'arri adopted a critical approach to Islam, and the Jewish philosopher Maimonides contrasted Islamic views of morality to Jewish views that he himself elaborated.[83]

Starting in the 9th century, Muslim conquests in Christian Europe began to be reversed. The Reconquista was launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, and Muslim Italian possessions were lost to the Normans. From the 11th century onwards a series of wars known as the Crusades brought the Muslim world into conflict with Christendom. Successful at first in their capturing of the Holy land which resulted in the establishment of the Crusader states, Crusader gains in the Holy Land were reversed by later Muslim generals such as Saladin, who recaptured Jerusalem during the Second Crusade.[84] The Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbasid dynasty at the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, which saw the Muslims overrun by the superior Mongol army. Meanwhile in Egypt, the slave-soldier Mamluks took control in an uprising in 1250.[85]

Ottomans and Islamic empires in India (1258–1918)

The Seljuk Turks fell apart rapidly in the second half of the 13th century. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Ottoman empire (named after Osman I) was established with a string of conquests that included the Balkans, parts of Greece, and western Anatolia. In 1453 under Mehmed II the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. The Byzantine fortress succumbed shortly thereafter, having been battered by superior Ottoman cannonry.[86]

Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely as a result of the efforts of al-Ghazzali to legitimize and reorganize the movement. He developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.[87] Also of importance to Sufism was the creation of the Masnavi, a collection of mystical poetry by the 13th century Persian poet Rumi. The Masnavi had a profound influence on the development of Sufi religious thought; to many Sufis it is second in importance only to the Qur'an.[88]

The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal[89]

In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia and established Shi'a Islam as an official religion there, and despite periodic setbacks, the Safavids remained powerful for two centuries. Meanwhile, Mamluk Egypt fell to the Ottomans in 1517, who then launched a European campaign which reached as far as the gates of Vienna in 1529.[90] After the invasion of Persia, and sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, Delhi became the most important cultural centre of the Muslim east. [91] Many Islamic dynasties ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting from the 12th century. The prominent ones include the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal empire (1526–1857). These empires helped in the spread of Islam in South Asia. but by the mid-18th century the British empire had ended the Mughal dynasty.[92] In the 18th century the Wahhabi movement took hold in Saudi Arabia. Founded by the preacher Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Wahhabism is a fundamentalist ideology that condemns practices like Sufism and the veneration of saints as un-Islamic.[93]

By the 17th and 18th centuries, despite attempts at modernization, the Ottoman empire had begun to feel threatened by European economic and military advantages. In the 19th century, the rise of nationalism resulted in Greece declaring and winning independence in 1829, with several Balkan states following suit after the Ottomans suffered defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The Ottoman era came to a close at the end of World War I.[94]

In the 19th century, the Salafi, Deobandi and Barelwi reform movements were initiated.

Modern times (1918–present)

After World War I losses, the remnants of the empire were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. Since then most Muslim societies have become independent nations, and new issues such as oil wealth and relations with the State of Israel have assumed prominence.[95]

The 20th century saw the creation of many new Islamic "revivalist" movements. Groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan advocate a totalistic and theocratic alternative to secular political ideologies. Sometimes called Islamist, they see Western cultural values as a threat, and promote Islam as a comprehensive solution to every public and private question of importance. In countries like Iran and Afghanistan (under the Taliban), revolutionary movements replaced secular regimes with Islamist states, while transnational groups like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda engage in terrorism to further their goals. In contrast, Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".[96]

In modern times Islam has come under criticism from idealogues such as Robert Spencer[97] and Ibn Warraq,[98] who criticize Islamic law and question the morality of the Qur'an; for example, they say that its contents justify mistreatment of women and encourage antisemitic remarks by Muslim theologians;[99] such claims are disputed by Muslim scholars.[100] Montgomery Watt, Norman Daniel, and Edward Said dismiss many of the criticisms as the product of old myths and medieval European polemics.[101] The rise of Islamophobia, according to Carl Ernst, had contributed to the negative views about Islam and Muslims in the West.[102]

Community

Muslim percentage of population by country

Demographics

Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population in 2007 range from 1.1 billion to 1.8 billion. Approximately 85% are Sunni and 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority belonging to other sects. Some 30–40 countries are Muslim-majority, and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide. South Asia and Southeast Asia contain the most populous Muslim countries, with Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh having more than 100 million adherents each.[103] According to U.S. government figures, in 2006 there were 20 million Muslims in China.[104] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.[103] Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries.[105]

Mosques

File:Eid Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque.jpeg
Eid prayers on the holiday of Eid al-Fitr at the Badshahi Mosque, Pakistan. The days of Eid are important occasions on the Islamic calendar.

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`). Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[106]

Family life

The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. The woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.[107] Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a dowry (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.[108]

A man may marry up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may marry one man only. In most Muslim countries, the process of divorce in Islam is known as talaq, which the husband initiates by pronouncing the word "divorce".[109] Scholars disagree whether Islamic holy texts justify traditional Islamic practices such as veiling and seclusion (purdah). Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success. At the same time, many Muslim women have attempted to reconcile tradition with modernity by combining an active life with outward modesty. Certain Islamist groups and regimes like the Taliban mostly seek to continue traditional law as applied to women.[110]

Calendar

The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. The assignment of this year as the year 1 AH (Anno Hegirae) in the Islamic calendar was reportedly made by Caliph Umar. It is a lunar calendar, with nineteen ordinary years of 354 days and eleven leap years of 355 days in a thirty-year cycle. Islamic dates cannot be converted to CE/AD dates simply by adding 622 years: allowance must also be made for the fact that each Hijri century corresponds to only 97 years in the Christian calendar.[111] The year 1428 AH coincides almost completely with 2007 CE.

Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the pilgrimage to Mecca.[112]

Other religions

A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in both Islam and Judaism that has been a source of controversy
The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building. Muslims believe that Muhammad ascended to heaven on this site.

According to Islamic doctrine, Islam was the primordial religion of mankind, professed by Adam.[113] At some point, a religious split occurred, and God began sending prophets to bring his revelations to the people.[114] In this view, Abraham, Moses, Hebrew prophets, and Jesus were all prophets of Islam, but their message and the texts of the Torah and the Gospels were corrupted by Jews and Christians. Similarly, children of non-Muslim families are born Muslims, but are converted to another faith by their parents.[115] The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."[116] Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, defamation of Islam is prohibited, and the testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.[117]

Islamic law divides non-Muslims into several categories, depending on their relation with the Islamic state. Christians and Jews who live under Islamic rule are known as dhimmis. Dhimmis must pay tribute (jizya) to the Islamic state, and as such are considered "protected peoples." Historically, dhimmis enjoyed a measure of communal autonomy under their own religious leaders, but were subject to legal, social and religious restrictions as well as humiliating regulations meant to highlight the inferiority of non-Muslim subjects.[118] The status was extended to Zoroastrians and sometimes to polytheists (such as Hindus), but not to atheists or agnostics.[119] Those who live in non-Muslim lands (dar al-harb) are known as harbis, and upon entering into an alliance with the Muslim state become known as ahl al-ahd. Those who receive a guarantee of safety while residing temporarily in Muslim lands are known as ahl al-amān. Their legal position is similar to that of the dhimmi except that they are not required to pay the jizya. The people of armistice (ahl al-hudna) are those who live outside of Muslim territory and agree to refrain from attacking the Muslims.[120][121] Apostasy is prohibited, and is punishable by death.[122][123]

Denominations

Although the Qur'an ordains that Muslims are not to be divided into divisions or sections and rather be united under a common goal of faith in one God alone[Qur'an 3:103], Islam consists of a number of religious denominations that are essentially similar in belief but which have significant theological and legal differences. The primary division is between the Sunni and the Shi'a, with Sufism generally considered to be a mystical inflection of Islam rather than a distinct school. According to most sources, approximately 85% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and approximately 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority who are members of other Islamic sects.[124]

Sunni

Divisions of Islam

Sunni Muslims are the largest group in Islam. In Arabic, as-Sunnah literally means "principle" or "path". The Sunnah (the example of Muhammad's life) as recorded in the Qur'an and the hadith is the main pillar of Sunni doctrine. Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him, those leaders had to be elected. Sunnis recognize four major legal traditions, or madhhabs: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim might choose any one that he or she finds agreeable, but other Islamic sects are believed to have departed from the majority by introducing innovations (bidah). There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions within Sunnism. For example, the recent Salafi movement sees itself as restorationist and claims to derive its teachings from the original sources of Islam.[125]

Shi'a

The Shi'a, who constitute the second-largest branch of Islam, believe in the political and religious leadership of infallible Imams from the progeny of Ali ibn Abi Talib. They believe that he, as the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was his rightful successor, and they call him the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs. To them, an Imam rules by right of divine appointment and holds "absolute spiritual authority" among Muslims, having final say in matters of doctrine and revelation.[126][127] Although the Shi'a share many core practices with the Sunni, the two branches disagree over the proper importance and validity of specific collections of hadith. The Shi'a follow a legal tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.[128] Shi'a Islam has several branches, the largest of which is the Twelvers (Template:ArabDIN), while the others are the Ismaili, the Seveners, and the Zaidiyyah.[129]

Sufism

Not strictly a denomination, Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[130] Sufism and Islamic law are usually considered to be complementary, although Sufism has been criticized by some Muslims for being an unjustified religious innovation. Most Sufi orders, or tariqas, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a.[131]

Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (Urdu: احمدِیہ) is a religious movement founded towards the end of the 19th century and originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908). Ghulam Ahmad was an important religious figure who claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies about the world reformer of the end times, who was to herald the Eschaton as predicted in the traditions of various world religions and bring about the final triumph of Islam as per Islamic prophecy. He claimed that he was the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”) and Mahdi awaited by Muslims.[132][133][134][135][136] Ahmadi emphasis lay in the belief that Islam is the final law for humanity as revealed to Muhammad and the necessity of restoring to it its true essence and pristine form, which had been lost through the centuries. Thus, Ahmadis view themselves as leading the revival and peaceful propagation of Islam.[137] The Ahmadis were among the earliest Muslim communities to arrive in Britain and other Western countries.[137]

Others

The Kharijites are a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites is Ibadism. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. The Imamate is an important topic in Ibadi legal literature, which stipulates that the leader should be chosen solely on the basis of his knowledge and piety, and is to be deposed if he acts unjustly. Most Ibadi Muslims live in Oman.[138]

The Yazidi, Druze, Bábí, Bahá'í, Berghouata and Ha-Mim movements either emerged out of Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam. Some consider themselves separate while others still sects of Islam though controversial in certain beliefs with mainstream Muslims. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late fifteenth century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism.[139]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  2. ^ "Lane's lexicon". http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume4/00000137.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  3. ^ This claim is made by Islamic population. Other sources give a range from 1 billion to 1.8 billion.[1]
  4. ^ "Major Religions of the World—Ranked by Number of Adherents" (HTML). http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html#Islam. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  5. ^ See:
  6. ^ a b See:
    • Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it.
    • Esposito (1998), pp.6,12
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
    • F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
    • Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  7. ^ Esposito (2002b), p.17
  8. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.111,112,118
    • "Shari'ah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  9. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), p.21
    • Esposito (2004), pp.2,43
  10. ^ Qur'an 6:125, Qur'an 61:7, Qur'an 39:22
  11. ^ Qur'an 5:3, Qur'an 3:19, Qur'an 3:83
  12. ^ See:
  13. ^ Qur'an 2:4, Qur'an 2:285, Qur'an 4:136
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim 1:1
  15. ^ See:
    • Farah (2003), p.109
    • Momen (1987), p.176
  16. ^ Esposito (2004), pp.17,18,21
  17. ^ See:
    • Momem (1987), p.176
    • "Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  18. ^ Qur'an 30:30
  19. ^ See:
  20. ^ "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion
  21. ^ See:
    • "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
    • L. Gardet. "Allah". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  22. ^ David Thomas. "Tathlith, Trinity". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. : Contrary to Muslim understanding, some scholars have suggested that the Qur'an only opposes certain deviant forms of Trinitarian belief.
  23. ^ See:
    • Qur'an 112:1–4
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.74–76
    • Esposito (2004), p.22
    • Griffith (2006), p.248
    • D. Gimaret. "Allah, Tawhid". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  24. ^ "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  25. ^ See:
    • William Montgomery Watt in The Cambridge History of Islam, p.32
    • F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that … the Quran is … the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  26. ^ See:
    • "Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
    • "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  27. ^ Esposito (2004), p.79
  28. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.79–81
    • "Tafsir". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  29. ^ See:
    • Teece (2003), pp.12,13
    • C. Turner (2006), p.42
    • "Qur'an". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. : The word Qur'an was invented and first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation.
  30. ^ Qur'an 21:19–20, Qur'an 35:1
  31. ^ See:
    • Qur'an 35:1
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.26–28
    • W. Madelung. "Malā'ika". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
    • Gisela Webb. "Angel". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. 
  32. ^ See:
    • Esposito (1998), p.12
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
    • "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  33. ^ See:
    • Qur'an 18:110
    • F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  34. ^ See:
    • F.E.Peters(2003), pp.78,79,194
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.23–28
  35. ^ F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  36. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p.666
    • J. Robson. "Hadith". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
    • D. W. Brown. "Sunna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  37. ^ See:
    • "Resurrection", The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2003)
    • "Avicenna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. : Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sīnā is known in the West as "Avicenna".
    • L. Gardet. "Qiyama". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  38. ^ Qur'an 9:72
  39. ^ See:
    • Smith (2006), p.89; Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, p.565
    • "Heaven", The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000)
    • Asma Afsaruddin. "Garden". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. 
    • "Paradise". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  40. ^ See:
    • Qur'an 9:51
    • D. Cohen-Mor (2001), p.4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us…" ' "
    • Ahmet T. Karamustafa. "Fate". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. : The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  41. ^ See:
    • Farah (2003), pp.119–122
    • Patton (1900), p.130
  42. ^ Momen (1987), pp.177,178
  43. ^ See:
    • Momem (1987), p.178
    • "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  44. ^ See:
    • Farah (1994), p.135
    • Momen (1987), p.178
    • "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals(2004)
  45. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.18,19
    • Hedáyetullah (2006), pp.53–55
    • Kobeisy (2004), pp.22–34
    • Momen (1987), p.178
  46. ^ See:
    • Qur'an 2:177
    • Esposito (2004), p.90
    • Momen (1987), p.179
    • "Zakat". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
    • "Zakat". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. 
  47. ^ See:
  48. ^ See:
    • Farah (1994), pp.145–147
    • Goldschmidt (2005), p.48
    • "Hajj". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  49. ^ Momen (1987), p.180
  50. ^ "Shari'ah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  51. ^ See:
    • Menski (2006), p.290
    • B. Carra de Vaux; J. Schacht, A.M. Goichon. "Hadd". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
    • N. Calder; M. B. Hooker. "Sharia". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  52. ^ Weiss (2002), pp.xvii,162
  53. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), p.84
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.502–507,845
    • Lewis (2003), p.100
  54. ^ See:
  55. ^ Esposito (2003), p.93
  56. ^ Firestone (1999) pp. 17-18
  57. ^ Reuven Firestone (1999), The Meaning of Jihād, p. 17-18
  58. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Jihad
  59. ^ a b "Djihād". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  60. ^ "Dar al-`Ahd". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  61. ^ For most Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation at 868 AD. cf. Sachedina (1998) p. 105 and 106
  62. ^ Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror, Mary R. Habeck, Yale University Press, p.108-109, 118
  63. ^ See:
    • Firestone (1999) p.17
    • "Djihad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  64. ^ See:
    • Brockopp (2003) pp. 99–100
    • Esposito (2003), p.93
    • "jihad". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  65. ^ a b John Stothoff Badeau and John Richard Hayes, The Genius of Arab civilization: source of Renaissance. Taylor & Francis. 1983. p. 104
  66. ^ Great Mosque of Kairouan (Muslim Heritage.com)
  67. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.50,112,197,380,489,578,817
    • Lewis (2004), pp.29,51–56
  68. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Hourani (2003), p.22
    • Lapidus (2002), p.32
    • Madelung (1996), p.43
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
  69. ^ See
    • Holt (1977a), p.74
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  70. ^ Holt (1977a), pp.67–72
  71. ^ Waines (2003) p.46
  72. ^ Donald Puchala, ‘’Theory and History in International Relations,’’ page 137. Routledge, 2003.
  73. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.90,91
    • "Sufism". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  74. ^ Hawting (2000), p.4
  75. ^ Lapidus (2002), p.56; Lewis (1993), pp. 71–83
  76. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), pp.80,92,105
    • Holt (1977b), pp.661–663
    • Lapidus (2002), p.56
    • Lewis (1993), p.84
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  77. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.103–143
    • "Abbasid Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  78. ^ Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India. Routledge, 1998, page 154.
  79. ^ Lapidus (2002), p.86
  80. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.160
    • Waines (2003) p.126,127
  81. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.44–45
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.90–94
    • "Sufism". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  82. ^ Tolan (2002) xv, xvi, 41
  83. ^ See:
    • Novak (February 1999)
    • Sahas (1997), pp.76–80
  84. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.288–290,310
  85. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.292
    • "Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  86. ^ See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.263
    • Lapidus (2002), p.250
    • "Istanbul". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  87. ^ Esposito (2004), pp.104,105
  88. ^ "Islamic Art". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  89. ^ Esposito (2004), p.65
  90. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.198,234,244,245,254
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  91. ^ Ikram, S. M. 1964. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press
  92. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.358,378–380,624
  93. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.572
    • Watt (1973), p.18: Wahhabism should not be confused with the early Kharijite sect of Wahabiyya, which was named after Abd-Allah ibn-Wahb ar-Rasibi, who opposed Ali at Nahrawan.
  94. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.380,489–493
  95. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.281–282,380,489–493,556,578,823,835
  96. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.118,119,179
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.823–830
  97. ^ Bostom, Andrew (July 21, 2003). "Islamic Apostates' Tales—A Review of Leaving Islam by Ibn Warraq". FrontPage Magazine (FrontPageMagazine.com). http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=9000. 
  98. ^ Rippin (2001), p.288
  99. ^ Timothy Garton Ash (10-05-2006). "Islam in Europe". The New York Review of Books (NYRB). http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19371. 
  100. ^ For example, see:
  101. ^
    • Seibert (1994), pp.88–89
    • Watt (1974), p.231
  102. ^ Ernst (2004), p.11
  103. ^ a b "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/rel_isl_num_of_mus-religion-islam-number-of-muslim. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  104. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2006—China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". U.S. department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2006. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  105. ^ See:
  106. ^ See:
    • J. Pedersen; R. Hillenbrand, J. Burton-Page, et al.. "Masdjid". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
    • "Mosque". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  107. ^ "al-Mar'a". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  108. ^
    • Waines (2003) pp. 93–96
    • The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p.339
    • Esposito (1998) p. 79
  109. ^ *"Talak". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  110. ^
    • Esposito (2004), pp.95,96,235–241
    • Harald Motzki. "Marriage and Divorce". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. 
    • Lori Peek. "Marriage Practices". Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. 
  111. ^ See:
    • Adil (2002), p.288
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.67
    • B. van Dalen; R. S. Humphreys, Manuela Marín, et al.. "Tarikh̲". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  112. ^ Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws
  113. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 14–16
  114. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 18–19
  115. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 18
  116. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 35
  117. ^ See:
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 35;
    • Lewis (1984), p. 39
  118. ^ See:
    • Lewis (1984), pp.9, 27, 36;
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 37;
  119. ^ Lewis (2001), p.273
  120. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 55
  121. ^ "Aman", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  122. ^ A woman who apostasizes is to be executed according to some jurists, or imprisoned according to others.
  123. ^ "Murtadd", Encyclopedia of Islam
  124. ^ See:
  125. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2003), pp.275,306
    • "Shariah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
    • "Sunnite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  126. ^ See
    • Lapidus (2002), p.46
    • "Imam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
    • "Shi'ite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  127. ^ Imamat, by Naser Makarem Shirazi
  128. ^ See:
    • Ahmed (1999), pp.44–45
    • Nasr (1994), p.466
  129. ^ See:
  130. ^ Trimingham (1998), p.1
  131. ^ See:
  132. ^ “The Fourteenth-Century's Reformer / Mujaddid”, from the “Call of Islam”, by Maulana Muhammad Ali
  133. ^ Claims of Hadhrat Ahmad, Chapter Two
  134. ^ Reflection of all the Prophets
  135. ^ Future of Revelation, Part 7
  136. ^ The Removal of a Misunderstanding
  137. ^ a b The Ahmadi Muslim Community. Who are the Ahmadi Muslims and what do they believe? Waqar Ahmad Ahmedi gives a brief introduction to the Ahmadi branch of Islam. Times Online. May 27, 2008.
  138. ^ See:
  139. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, "Sikhs"

References

Books and journals
  • Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 14 (1). ISSN 0959-6410. 
  • Adil, Hajjah Amina; Shaykh Nazim Adil Al-Haqqani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (2002). Muhammad: The Messenger of Islam. Islamic Supreme Council of America. ISBN 978-1930409118. 
  • Ahmed, Akbar (1999). Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World (2.00 ed.). I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1860642579. 
  • Brockopp, Jonathan E. (2003). Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. University of South Carolina press. ISBN 1570034710. 
  • Cohen-Mor, Dalya (2001). A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195133986. 
  • Curtis, Patricia A. (2005). A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0813819464. 
  • Eglash, Ron (1999). African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2614-0. 
  • Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4. 
  • Esposito, John; John Obert Voll (1996). Islam and Democracy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510816-7. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195112344. 
  • Esposito, John; Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (2000a). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1. 
  • Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. 978-0195107999. 
  • Esposito, John (2002a). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195168860. 
  • Esposito, John (2002b). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. 
  • Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. 
  • Esposito, John (2004). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd Rev Upd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195182668. 
  • Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0812018530. 
  • Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (7th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0764122266. 
  • Firestone, Reuven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019-5125800. 
  • Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521026994. 
  • Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690. 
  • Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813342757. 
  • Griffith, Ruth Marie; Barbara Dianne Savage (2006). Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801883709. 
  • Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240735. 
  • Hedayetullah, Muhammad (2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1553698425. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372. 
  • Hourani, Albert; Ruthven, Malise (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0674010178. 
  • Humphreys, Stephen (2005). Between Memory and Desire. University of California Press. ISBN 052-0246918. 
  • Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0313324727. 
  • Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Leiser, Gary (1992). The Origins of the Ottoman Empire. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791408191. 
  • Kramer, Martin (1987). Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813304533. 
  • Kugle, Scott Alan (2006). Rebel Between Spirit And Law: Ahmad Zarruq, Sainthood, And Authority in Islam. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253347114. 
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0462-0. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1928-5258-2. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1997). The Middle East. Scribner. ISBN 978-0684832807. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East (2nd ed.). Open Court. ISBN 978-0812695182. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2003). What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (Reprint ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060516055. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 978-0812967852. 
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Malik, Jamal; John R Hinnells, Inc NetLibrary (2006). Sufism in the West. Routledge. ISBN 0415274087. 
  • Menski, Werner F. (2006). Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia and Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521858593. 
  • Mohammad, Noor (1985). "The Doctrine of Jihad: An Introduction". Journal of Law and Religion 3 (2). 
  • Momen, Moojan (1987). An Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi`ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300035315. 
  • Nasr, Seyed Muhammad (1994). Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06067-700-7. 
  • Novak, David (February 1999). "The Mind of Maimonides". First Things. 
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
  • Patton, Walter M. (April 1900). "The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Brill Academic Publishers) 16 (3). ISBN 9004103147. 
  • Peters, F. E. (1991). "The Quest for Historical Muhammad". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 
  • Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2. 
  • Peters, Rudolph (1977). Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-04854-5. 
  • Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415217811. 
  • Ruthven, Malise (2005). Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning. Oxford University Press. ISBN 01-92-80606-8. 
  • Sahas, Daniel J. (1997). John of Damascus on Islam: The Heresy of the Ishmaelites. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004034952. 
  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195119150. 
  • Seibert, Robert F. (1994). "Review: Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Norman Daniel)". Review of Religious Research 36 (1). 
  • Sells, Michael Anthony; Emran Qureshi (2003). The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126670. 
  • Smith, Jane I. (2006). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195156492. 
  • Spencer, Robert (2005). The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1591022497. 
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 1-82760-198-1. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; R. Campbell (translator) (2002). Islamic teachings: An Overview and a Glance at the Life of the Holy Prophet of Islam. Green Gold. ISBN 0-922817-00-6. 
  • Teece, Geoff (2003). Religion in Focus: Islam. Franklin Watts Ltd. ISBN 978-0749647964. 
  • Tolan, John V. (2002). Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. Columbia University Press. 
  • Trimingham, John Spencer (1998). The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195120582. 
  • Tritton, Arthur S. (1970) [1930]. The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects: A Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar. London: Frank Cass Publisher. ISBN 0-7146-1996-5. 
  • Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: the Basics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 041534106X. 
  • Turner, Bryan S. (1998). Weber and Islam. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415174589. 
  • Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521539064. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for Historical Muhammad. Prometheus. ISBN 978-1573927871. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-068-9. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1973). The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. University Press Edinburgh. ISBN 0-85-224254-X. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4. 
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 9004120661. 
  • Williams, John Alden (1994). The Word of Islam. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-79076-7. 
  • Williams, Mary E. (2000). The Middle East. Greenhaven Pr. ISBN 0737701331. 
Encyclopedias
  • William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101. 
  • Gabriel Oussani, ed (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  • Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 978-1593392369. 
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. 
  • Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley, ed (2001). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill. ISBN 0-8028-2414-5. 
  • John Bowden, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4. 
  • George Thomas Kurian, Graham T. T. Molitor, ed (1995). Encyclopedia of the Future. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028972053. 
  • P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, ed (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038. 
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Brill Academic Publishers. 
  • Lindsay Jones, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332. 
  • Salamone Frank, ed (2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415941808. 
  • Peter N. Stearns, ed (2000). The Encyclopedia of World History Online (6th ed.). Bartleby. 
  • Josef W. Meri, ed (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 041-5966906. 
  • Wendy Doniger, ed (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 087-7790442. 
  • Glasse Cyril, ed (2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. ISSN 978-0759101906. 
  • Edward Craig, ed (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415073103. 

Further reading

  • Arberry, A. J. (1996). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (1st ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684825076. 
  • Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyard Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240727. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Muhsin; Al-Hilali Khan, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din (1999). Noble Quran (1st ed.). Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-9960740799. 
  • Kramer (ed.), Martin (1999). The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Syracuse University. ISBN 978-9652240408. 
  • Kuban, Dogan (1974). Muslim Religious Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004038132. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1993). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East. Open Court. ISBN 978-0812692174. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1994). Islam and the West. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195090611. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1996). Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195102833. 
  • Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman (2002). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1591440710. 
  • Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). History of Islam. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1591440345. 
  • Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices (New Edition ed.). Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253216274. 
  • Rahman, Fazlur (1979). Islam (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70281-2. 
  • Walker, Benjamin (1998). Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 978-0720610383. 

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Islam article)

From Wikiquote

Be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah: for Allah sees Well all that ye do.

Islam is a monotheistic religion originating with prophet Muhammad, a 7th century Arab, and centered on the religious text known as the Qur'an. It is the second-largest religion in the world today, with an estimated 1.84 billion adherents, spread across the globe, known as Muslims.[1] Linguistically, Islam means submission, referring to the total surrender of one's self to God (Arabic: الله, Allāh), and a Muslim is "one who submits to God".

Contents

Qur'an

(Note: All translations of the Qur'an are those of Yusuf Ali and Marmaduke Pickthall unless otherwise noted.)

Charity

  • Ali: And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah: for Allah sees Well all that ye do.
  • Pickthall: Establish worship, and pay the poor-due; and whatever of good ye send before (you) for your souls, ye will find it with Allah. Lo! Allah is Seer of what ye do.

Christianity

Interest (Usury)

  • Ali: Those who devour usury will not stand except as stand one whom the Evil one by his touch Hath driven to madness. That is because they say: "Trade is like usury," but Allah hath permitted trade and forbidden usury. Those who after receiving direction from their Lord, desist, shall be pardoned for the past; their case is for Allah (to judge); but those who repeat (The offence) are companions of the Fire: They will abide therein (for ever).
  • Pickthall: Those who swallow usury cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch. That is because they say: Trade is just like usury; whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbiddeth usury. He unto whom an admonition from his Lord cometh, and (he) refraineth (in obedience thereto), he shall keep (the profits of) that which is past, and his affair (henceforth) is with Allah. As for him who returneth (to usury) - Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein.
    • Original: الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لاَ يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذ
      يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ
      مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا فَمَن جَاءهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ
      مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىَ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ
      يَمْحَقُ
    • The Qur'an (القرآن), Sura 2:275 (The Cow, سورة البقرة), See also: Islamic banking

Death

  • Ali: Every soul shall have a taste of death: And only on the Day of Judgment shall you be paid your full recompense. Only he who is saved far from the Fire and admitted to the Garden will have attained the object (of Life): For the life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception.
  • Pickthall: Every soul will taste of death. And ye will be paid on the Day of Resurrection only that which ye have fairly earned. Whoso is removed from the Fire and is made to enter paradise, he indeed is triumphant. The life of this world is but comfort of illusion.

Disbelievers

Science

  • Ali: And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.
  • Pickthall: And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame.
    • Original: وَلَقَدْ زَيَّنَّاالسَّمَاءالدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ وَجَعَلْنَاهَا رُجُوماً لِّلشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَاب َالسَّعِيرِ
    • The Qur'an (القرآن), Sura 67:5 (The Sovereignty, Control, سورة الملك‎)
  • Ali: See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another, And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp?
  • Pickthall: See ye not how Allah hath created seven heavens in harmony, And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?
    • Original: أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا
      وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُوراً وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجاً
    • The Qur'an (القرآن),Sura 71:15-16 (Noah, سورة نوح)
  • Ali: When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up; When the stars fall, losing their lustre; When the mountains vanish (like a mirage); When the she-camels, ten months with young, are left untended; When the wild beasts are herded together (in the human habitations); When the oceans boil over with a swell; When the souls are sorted out, (being joined, like with like); When the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned - For what crime she was killed; When the scrolls are laid open; When the world on High is unveiled; When the Blazing Fire is kindled to fierce heat; And when the Garden is brought near;- (Then) shall each soul know what it has put forward. So verily I call to witness the planets - that recede, Go straight, or hide; And the Night as it dissipates; And the Dawn as it breathes away the darkness;- Verily this is the word of a most honourable Messenger, Endued with Power, with rank before the Lord of the Throne, With authority there, (and) faithful to his trust. And (O people!) your companion is not one possessed; And without doubt he saw him in the clear horizon. Neither doth he withhold grudgingly a knowledge of the Unseen. Nor is it the word of an evil spirit accursed. When whither go ye? Verily this is no less than a Message to (all) the Worlds: (With profit) to whoever among you wills to go straight: But ye shall not will except as Allah wills,- the Cherisher of the Worlds.
  • Pickthall: When the sun is overthrown, And when the stars fall, And when the hills are moved, And when the camels big with young are abandoned, And when the wild beasts are herded together, And when the seas rise, And when souls are reunited, And when the girl-child that was buried alive is asked For what sin she was slain, And when the pages are laid open, And when the sky is torn away, And when hell is lighted, And when the Garden is brought nigh, (Then) every soul will know what it hath made ready. Oh, but I call to witness the planets, The stars which rise and set, And the close of night, And the breath of morning That this is in truth the word of an honoured messenger, Mighty, established in the presence of the Lord of the Throne, (One) to be obeyed, and trustworthy; And your comrade is not mad. Surely he beheld Him on the clear horizon. And he is not avid of the Unseen. Nor is this the utterance of a devil worthy to be stoned. Whither then go ye ? This is naught else than a reminder unto creation, Unto whomsoever of you willeth to walk straight. And ye will not, unless (it be) that Allah willeth, the Lord of Creation.
  • Ali: Now let man but think from what he is created! He is created from a drop emitted- Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs: Surely (Allah) is able to bring him back (to life)!
  • Pickthall: So let man consider from what he is created. He is created from a gushing fluid That issued from between the loins and ribs. Lo! He verily is Able to return him (unto life).

Sourced

  • The inhabitants of the earth are of two sorts:
    Those with brains, but no religion,
    And those with religion, but no brains.
    • Abu'l-`Ala' al-Ma`arri (Arabic: أبو العلا المعري), poet of Ma`arra (Syria), 973–1057, quoted in Maalouf, Amin (1989). Crusades Through Arab Eyes.  
  • Allah, perchance, the secret word might spell;
    If Allah be, He keeps His secret well;
     What He hath hidden, who shall hope to find?
    Shall God His secret to a maggot tell?

    The Koran! well, come put me to the test—
    Lovely old book in hideous error drest—
     Believe me, I can quote the Koran too,
    The unbeliever knows his Koran best.

    And do you think that unto such as you,
    A maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew,
     God gave the secret, and denied it me?—
    Well, well, what matters it! believe that too.
  • Jews and Saracens [Muslims] of both sexes in every Christian province must be distinguished from the Christian by a difference of dress. On Passion Sunday and the last three days of Holy Week they may not appear in public.
  • But the most interesting conquest of the Seljukian Turks was that of Jerusalem, which soon became the theatre of nations. In their capitulation with Omar, the inhabitants had stipulated the assurance of their religion and property; … and the sepulchre of Christ, with the church of the Resurrection, was still left in the hands of his votaries. Of these votaries, the most numerous and respectable portion were strangers to Jerusalem: the pilgrimages to the Holy Land had been stimulated, rather than suppressed, by the conquest of the Arabs; … The harmony of prayer in so many various tongues, the worship of so many nations in the common temple of their religion, might have afforded a spectacle of edification and peace; but the zeal of the Christian sects was imbittered by hatred and revenge; and in the kingdom of a suffering Messiah, who had pardoned his enemies, they aspired to command and persecute their spiritual brethren.
  • About four hundred and sixty years after the conquest of Omar, the holy city was rescued from the Mahometan yoke. In the pillage of public and private wealth, the adventurers had agreed to respect the exclusive property of the first occupant; and the spoils of the great mosque, seventy lamps and massy vases of gold and silver, rewarded the diligence, and displayed the generosity, of Tancred. A bloody sacrifice was offered by his mistaken votaries to the God of the Christians: resistance might provoke but neither age nor sex could mollify, their implacable rage: they indulged themselves three days in a promiscuous massacre; and the infection of the dead bodies produced an epidemical disease. After seventy thousand Moslems had been put to the sword, and the harmless Jews had been burnt in their synagogue, they could still reserve a multitude of captives, whom interest or lassitude persuaded them to spare. … Bareheaded and barefoot, with contrite hearts, and in an humble posture, they ascended the hill of Calvary, amidst the loud anthems of the clergy; kissed the stone which had covered the Savior of the world; and bedewed with tears of joy and penitence the monument of their redemption. … nor shall I believe that the most ardent in slaughter and rapine were the foremost in the procession to the holy sepulchre.
  • [A]ll churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Muslim, are simply human inventions. They use fear to enslave us. They are a monopoly for power and profit.
  • Every national church or religion has established itself by pretending some special mission from God, communicated to certain individuals. The Jews have their Moses; the Christians their Jesus Christ, their apostles and saints; and the Turks their Mahomet; as if the way to God was not open to every man alike.
    Each of those churches shows certain books, which they call revelation, or the Word of God. The Jews say that their Word of God was given by God to Moses face to face; the Christians say, that their Word of God came by divine inspiration; and the Turks say, that their Word of God (the Koran) was brought by an angel from heaven. Each of those churches accuses the other of unbelief; and, for my own part, I disbelieve them all.
  • As the government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion; as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen [Muslims] … it is declared … that no pretext arising from religious opinion shall ever product an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries. … The United States is not a Christian nation any more than it is a Jewish or a Mohammedan nation.
  • Atatürk has stated, "He (Prophet Muhammed (s.a.v)) is Allah's first and greatest human-being. Today, in his footsteps, millions are walking. Your and my name would get erased someday but he, eternally, is immortal
    • Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as stated in, Atatürk'ün Fikir ve Düşünceleri (Atatürk ve Din Eğitimi, A. Gürtaş, s. 26)
  • Our life here is truly hellish. Fortunately, my soldiers are very brave and tougher than the enemy. What is more, their private beliefs make it easier to carry out orders which send them to their death. They see only two supernatural outcomes: victory for the faith or martyrdom. Do you know what the second means? It is to go straight to heaven. There, the houris, God's most beautiful women, will meet them and will satisfy their desires for all eternity. What great happiness!
    • Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, letter to Corinne Lütfü, from the Gallipoli peninsula (20 July 1917) as translated in Atatürk: The Biography of the founder of Modern Turkey (2002) by Andrew Mango. ISBN 158567334X
  • When the Imam said that "the relations with the America are like the relations between a wolf and a sheep," he meant that the tension in these relations would continue until America renounces its imperialist essence – and it is not about to do so for the time being. The Imam was talking about the struggle between Islam and America, not about compromising with America. He said: "We will not allow you to have interests in the world of Islam."
  • In Mohammedanism the limited principle of the Jews is expanded into universality and thereby overcome. Here, God is no longer, as with the Asiatics, contemplated as existent in immediately sensuous mode but is apprehended as the one infinite sublime Power beyond all the multiplicity of the world. Mohammedanism is, therefore, in the strictest sense of the world, the religion of sublimity.
  • Islam in its origins is just as shady and approximate as those from which it took its borrowings. It makes immense claims for itself, invokes prostrate submission or "surrender" as a maxim to its adherents, and demands deference and respect from nonbelievers into the bargain. There is nothing—absolutely nothing—in its teachings that can even begin to justify such arrogance and presumption.
  • The prophet died in the year 632 of our own approximate calendar. The first account of his life was set down a full hundred and twenty years later by Ibn Ishaq, whose original was lost and can only be consulted through its reworked form, authored by Ibn Hisham, who died in 834. Adding to this hearsay and obscurity, there is no agreed-upon account of how the Prophet's followers assembled the Koran, or of how his various sayings (some of them written down by secretaries) became codified. … It is said by some Muslim authorities that during the first caliphate of Abu Bakr, immediately after Muhammad's death, concern arose that his orally transmitted words might be forgotten. So many Muslim soldiers had been killed in battle that the number who had the Koran safely lodged in their memories had become alarmingly small. It was therefore decided to assemble every living witness, together with "pieces of paper, stones, palm leaves, shoulder-blades, ribs and bits of leather" on which sayings had been scribbled, and give them to Zaid ibn Thabit, one of the Prophet's former secretaries, for an authoritative collation. Once this had been done, the believers had something like an authorized version.
    If true, this would date the Koran to a time fairly close to Muhammad's own life. But we swiftly discover that there is no certainty or agreement about the truth of the story. Some say that it was Ali—the fourth and not the first caliph, and the founder of Shiism—who had the idea. Many others—the Sunni majority—assert that it was Caliph Uthman, who reigned from 644 to 656, who made the finalized decision. Told by one of his generals that soldiers from different provinces were fighting over discrepant accounts of the Koran, Uthman ordered Zaid ibn Thabit to bring together the various texts, unify them, and have them transcribed into one. When this task was complete, Uthman ordered standard copies to be sent to Kufa, Basra, Damascus, and elsewhere, with a master copy retained in Medina. Uthman thus played the canonical role that had been taken, in the standardization and purging and censorship of the Christian Bible, by Irenaeus and by Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. The roll was called, and some texts were declared sacred and inerrant while others became "apocryphal." Outdoing Athanasius, Uthman ordered that all earlier and rival editions be destroyed.
    Even supposing this version of events to be correct, which would mean that no chance existed for scholars ever to determine or even dispute what really happened in Muhammad's time, Uthman's attempt to abolish disagreement was a vain one. The written Arabic language has two features that make it difficult for an outsider to learn: it uses dots to distinguish consonants like "b" and "t," and in its original form it had no sign or symbol for short vowels, which could be rendered by various dashes or comma-type marks. Vastly different readings even of Uthman's version were enabled by these variations. … To take one instance that can hardly be called negligible, the Arabic words written on the outside of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem are different from any version that appears in the Koran.
  • The situation is even more shaky and deplorable when we come to the hadith, or that vast orally generated secondary literature which supposedly conveys the sayings and actions of Muhammad … As one might expect, the six authorized collections of hadith … were put together centuries after the events they purport to describe. One of the most famous of the six compilers, Bukhari, died 238 years after the death of Muhammad. Bukhari is deemed unusually reliable and honest by Muslims, and seems to have deserved his reputation in that, of the three hundred thousand attestations he accumulated in a lifetime devoted to the project, he ruled that two hundred thousand of them were entirely valueless and unsupported. Further exclusion of dubious traditions and questionable isnads reduced his grand total to ten thousand hadith. You are free to believe, if you so choose, that out of this formless mass of illiterate and half-remembered witnessing the pious Bukhari, more than two centuries later, managed to select only the pure and undefiled ones that would bear examination.
  • Every Muslim, from the moment they realize the distinction in their hearts, hates Americans, hates Jews and hates Christians. For as long as I can remember, I have felt tormented and at war, and have felt hatred and animosity for Americans.
    • Osama bin Laden As quoted in Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden (2005) by Bruce Lawrence ISBN 1844670457
  • We feel the only true solution is that millions of Muslims must be killed and the sooner the better it will be for the whole world. Not because Jews are somehow perfect or that Muslims just plain "need killing," but because Islam is so patently evil and needs to be defeated!

See also

Notes and references

  1. Teece (2005), p.10

External links

Favorable

Critical


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Islam + -ic, adjectival suffix.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ɪsˈlɑːmɪk/

Adjective

Islamic (comparative more Islamic, superlative most Islamic)

Positive
Islamic

Comparative
more Islamic

Superlative
most Islamic

  1. Of, pertaining to, originating in, characteristic of, or deriving from Islam.

Usage notes

  • The spelling (Islāmic) is far less common than (Islamic); however, some scholars assert that it implies a more correct pronunciation (with a long ‘ā’: [ɑː], as opposed to a short ‘a’: as [æ]). It is standard in the publications of The Muslim Education Trust; as, for example, in the 1998 [5th Ed.] publication of Islām: Beliefs and Teachings, by Ghulam Sarwar (ISBN: 0–907261–03–5).

Translations

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