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.The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; Turkish: Hicri Takvim) is a lunar calendar based on 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days, used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar), and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals.^ The names of the lunar months are given with dates of the Gregorian year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ This will be a Common Year , 355 days in length.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first year was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred.^ Muhammad (pbuh) from Mecca to Medina, occurred.

^ The first year was the year during which the Hijra, i.e.

^ Medina: "city," short for "city of the Prophet"; second holiest city of Islam; destination of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) in AD 622; later period in Muhammad's life where more violent verses of the Quran were revealed; site of third major battle fought by Muhammad against the Quraish tribe from Mecca; formerly called Yathrib.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra).^ The first day of Year One of the Islamic calendar was set as the first day of the hijrah, the Prophet's migration from Makkah to Madinah on July 26, 622 C.E. The western convention in designating Islamic dates is thus by the abbreviation AH, which stands for the Latin anno hegirae, or "Year of the Hegira."

^ The "Flight" in Arabic is the H.ijrah , so the Era of the Moslem calendar is called that of the H.ijrah or, in English, the Hegira -- "AH," the Anno Hegirae .
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .A limited number of years before Hijra (BH) are used to date events related to Islam, such as the birth of Muhammad in 53 BH.[2] The current Islamic year is 1431 AH, from approximately December 17, 2009 (evening) to December 6, 2010 (evening).^ What are some important dates in the Islamic year?

^ Last year that was on the 18th December 2009.

^ Establishing Ramadhan and Other Islamic Dates by Muhammad Jibaly Allah (Subhnahu wa ta`ala) has set crescent sighting as the only means for establishing dates of various Islamic occasions such as `Ids and Hajj.
  • Islam and Muslims: 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC islamworld.net [Source type: General]

Contents

Months

The Islamic months are named as follows:[3]
  1. Muarram محرّم (or Muarram al aram)
  2. afar صفر (or afar al Muzaffar)
  3. Rabīʿ al-Awwal (Rabīʿ I) ربيع الأوّل
  4. Rabīʿ al-Thānī (or Rabīʿ al-Ākhir) (Rabīʿ II) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumādā al-Ūlā (Jumādā I) جمادى الأولى
  6. Jumādā al-Thānī (or Jumādā al-Ākhirah) (Jumādā II) جمادى الآخرة أو جمادى الثانية
  7. Rajab رجب (or Rajab al-Murājab)
  8. Shaʿbān شعبان (or Shaʿbān al-Muʿaẓẓam)
  9. Ramaḍān رمضان (or Ramaān al-Mubārak)
  10. Shawwāl شوّال (or Shawwāl al-Mukarram)
  11. Dhū al-Qaʿda ذو القعدة
  12. Dhū al-Ḥijja ذو الحجة
.Of all the months in the Islamic calendar, Ramadan is the most venerated.^ Saum ( Fasting during Ramadan (9 th month of the Islamic calendar) .
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twelve months of the Islamic Calendar are as follows: .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.Muslims are required to abstain from eating, drinking any liquid, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours of this month.^ In Ramadan, Muslims (with certain exceptions) must refrain during the daylight hours from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse.
  • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic daily fasting, from the break of dawn until sunset, requires complete abstention from eating, drinking, intimate sexual contacts and smoking.

^ During the fasting month, one must refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset.
  • ISLAM, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

Days of the week

.In the Arabic language, as in the Hebrew language, the "first day" of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week.^ Also featured: Key events in the history of Islam in America beginning with 1898 when the first Arabic language newspaper started publication here.
  • Albalagh Islamic Bookstore (Other Products -> Islam in America Wall Calendar 2010 (1430-1431)) 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.albalagh.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The first calendar week of a year: week 1, is that week which contains the first Thursday of the year (or, equivalently, the week which includes January 4th of the year; the first day of that week is the previous Monday).
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The names for the days are just their numbers: Sunday is the first day and Saturday the seventh; the week is considered to begin on Saturday.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Islamic and Jewish weekdays begin at sunset, whereas the medieval Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight.^ On the other hand, if the conjunction took place after 12:00 noon GMT, the month would begin in North America on sunset of the following day.

^ This emigration -- historically known as the Hijrah -- marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, because it was in Yathrib that the followers of Muhammad developed a society organized along the teachings of the Qur'an.

^ Weekdays are specified by number, with day 1 beginning at sunset on Saturday and ending at sunset on Sunday.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

[4] .Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on "gathering day" (Yaum Al-Jumu'ah) which corresponds with Friday.^ The Qur'an at one point told Muslims to worship al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat in Surah 53:19-20.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC wri.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On this day, the mid-day formal worship is replaced by a special congregational worship called Salat al-jum’ah (Friday prayer).

^ Al-Aqsa refers to the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem that Jews know as Temple Mount, the site of the destroyed Temple of Solomon, which Muslims call Al Haram Al Sharif.

.Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day of rest, so the following day, Saturday, is often regarded as the first day of the work week.^ A week of seven days is superimposed on the calendar, with the week considered to begin on Saturday.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first calendar week of a year: week 1, is that week which contains the first Thursday of the year (or, equivalently, the week which includes January 4th of the year; the first day of that week is the previous Monday).
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the reckoning of days is always kept to whole weeks following an original Shabbâ t , the remaining excess of parts places the Môlâ d Tishrii in a clear relation to the week.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arabic English Hindi Bangla Hebrew Indonesian Malay Urdu Persian
1 Yawm Al-Aḥad يوم الأحد first day Sunday Ravivaar रविवार রবিবার Yom Rishon יום ראשון Minggu Ahad Itwaar اتوار Yek-Shanbeh یکشنبه
2 Yawm Al-Ithnayn يوم الاثنين second day Monday Somvaar सोमवार সোমবার Yom Sheni יום שני Senin Isnin Pîr پير Do-Shanbeh دوشنبه
3 Yawm Ath-Thulaathaaʼ يوم الثلاثاء third day Tuesday Mangalvaar मंगलवार মঙ্গলবার Yom Shlishi יום שלישי Selasa Selasa Mangl منگل Seh-Shanbeh سه شنبه
4 Yawm Al-Arba'aa' يوم الأربعاء fourth day Wednesday Budhvaar बुधवार বুধবার Yom Revi'i יום רבעי Rabu Rabu Budh بدھ Chahar-Shanbeh چهارشنبه
5 Yawm Al-Khamīs يوم الخميس fifth day Thursday Guruvaar गुरुवार বৃহস্পতিবার Yom Khamishi יום חמישי Kamis Khamis Jumahraat جمعرات Panj-Shanbeh پنجشنبه
6 Yawm Al-Jumu'ah يوم الجمعة gathering day Friday Shukravaar शुक्रवार শুক্রবার Yom Shishi יום ששי Jumat Jumaat Jumah جمعہ Jom'e or Adineh جمعه or آدينه
7 Yawm As-Sabt يوم السبت sabbath day Saturday Shanivaar शनिवार শনিবার Yom Shabbat יום שבת Sabtu Sabtu Hafta ہفتہ Shanbeh شنبه
("yawm يوم" means day)

History

Pre-Islamic calendar

.Some scholars, both Muslim[5][6] and Western,[7] think that the pre-Islamic calendar of central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar, differing only when the sanctity of the four holy months were postponed by one month from time to time.^ Hubal: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other scholars, both Muslim[8][9] and Western,[10][11] concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant for Bedouin buyers.^ The Moslem calendar consists of years of 12 lunar months.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AD year for the appropriate calendar year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The years of the Islamic calendar (which employs lunar months) are designated in English "AH" or "After Hijra."
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

This intercalation was administered by the Nasa'a of the tribe Kinana, known as the Kalomis, the plural of Kalammas, who learned of it from Jews. .The process was called Nasi or postponement because every third year the beginning of the year was postponed by one month.^ Muslims fast in Ramadan every year, and it is also called The month of fasting.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, one should try to observe the fasts of Aym-e-Bdh, which are the middle days of every lunar month.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Since the Jewish calendar adds a month every two or three years, the correspondence between Jewish and Moslem months shifts at those times.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The intercalation doubled the month of the pilgrimage, that is, the month of the pilgrimage and the following month were given the same name, postponing the names and the sanctity of all subsequent months in the year by one.^ The names of the lunar months are given with dates of the Gregorian year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was given this name because it violated the sacredness of the Haram and the sacred months.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first intercalation doubled the first month Muharram, then three years later the second month Safar was doubled, continuing until the intercalation had passed through all twelve months of the year and returned to Muharram, when it was repeated.^ Month of the year: Safar is the second month of the Islamic calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The first month of this year is Muharram.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Safar: The second month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Support for this view is provided by inscriptions from the south Arabian pre-Islamic kingdoms of Qataban (Kataban) and Sheba (Saba) (both in modern Yemen), whose lunisolar calendars featured an intercalary month obtained by repeating a normal month.^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twelve months of the Islamic Calendar are as follows: .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The prohibition of Nasi was revealed when the intercalated month had returned to its position just before Nasi began.
.If Nasi meant intercalation, then the number and the position of the intercalary months between 1 AH and 10 AH are uncertain, western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the Hijra, the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Trench, should be viewed with caution as they might be in error by one, two or even three lunar months.^ Dating as it is commonly understood in western society in not permitted in Islam.

^ The years of the Islamic calendar (which employs lunar months) are designated in English "AH" or "After Hijra."
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note that the Islamic Calendar is lunar and dates are not fixed in advance, because they may change depending on the actual sighting of the moon.

Prohibiting Nasi

.In the tenth year of the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an (sura 9:36-37), Muslims believe God (Allah) revealed the prohibition of the Nasi.^ He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.” (Qur’an, 6:103) Muslims believe that God has no partners or associates who share in His divinity or authority, Muslims also believe that God is transcendent and unlike His creations, and thus has no physical form.

^ Muslims believe that our essential purpose in this world is to recognize and serve God by implementing His guidance as found in His divine scriptures.

^ The Qur'an (The Koran) According to the Muslim belief The Qura'n was revealed to Prophet Mohammad through the angel Gabriel in small parts over a period of 23 years.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The number of months with Allah has been twelve months by Allah's ordinance since the day He created the heavens and the earth.^ Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) created the heavens and the earth on this blessed day.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ As the Quran says: Surely the number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve, in accordance with His decree from the day He created the heavens and the earth, out of which four are sacred (9:36) .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ For Muslims, burial represents human beings’ return to the most elemental state, since we were fashioned from earth by the Creator.

.Of these four are known as forbidden [to fight in]; That is the straight usage, so do not wrong yourselves therein, and fight those who go astray.^ The number of months In the sight of Allah Is twelve (in a year) So ordained by Him The day He created The heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred; That is the straight usage So wrong not yourselves Therein, and fight the Pagans.
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (II:189) The number of months In the sight of Allah Is twelve (in a year) So ordained by Him The day He created The heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred; That is the straight usage So wrong not yourselves Therein, and fight the Pagans .
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then do not wrong yourselves therein, but fight the idolaters one and all, as they fight you one and all, and know that God is with those who fear.
  • Muslim Calendar - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.^ Only those who have acted similarly and who have modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord!

^ Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: The Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful.^ Move from one month to another: .
  • Hijri and Gregorian calendar, Date conversion, Special Islamic days and events. 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicfinder.org [Source type: General]

^ Months are grouped into four seasons; the three months of each season end with the same letters and rhyme with one another.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each one believes in Allah and His angles and His scriptures and His messengers and they say: We hear, and we obey.

.The evil of their course seems pleasing to them.^ The evil of their course Seems pleasing to them.
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.^ And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord!

^ Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (Submission to Allah), Never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost."
  • Islam and Muslims: 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC islamworld.net [Source type: General]

Muhammad prohibiting intercalation, illustration of Al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (17th century copy of an early 14th century Ilkhanid manuscript).[12]
.This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the farewell sermon which was delivered on 9 Dhu al-Hijja 10 AH on Mount Arafat during the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca.^ Treaty of Hudaybieh - In 628, Muhammad and his followers set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and met the ‎Quraysh tribe at Hudaybiyeh, where the Quraysh had assembled to block the ‎pilgrimage.
  • Islam & Arabs: History 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he died at age 63, the whole of the Arabian Peninsula was under the fold of Islam and at the time of his last pilgrimage, at the city of Mecca, he delivered his famous Farewell Address to 150,000 people who had come to Mecca as pilgrims.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts of worship (al-ibadat), which includes: Ritual Purification (Wudu) Prayers (Salah) Fasts (Sawm and Ramadan) Charity (Zakat) Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) .
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

Certainly the Nasi is an impious addition, which has led the infidels into error. .One year they authorise the Nasi, another year they forbid it.^ Hence they regard the sighting of the moon in one region as valid for people of another region, provided the news of sighting the moon reaches them through authentic means .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Generations of Muslims had spent their lives dreaming that one day they will bring back the glory of the early years of Islam.
  • Global Politician - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American founders and Islamic scholars could not conceive of separating religion from public life, but they guarded against the domination of one religious group over another.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

.They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane.^ They declared God to be pure Essence without attributes, because attributes would imply multiplicity.
  • ISLAM, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of divine attributes or “names.” Which serve to describe God, are found in the Qur’an.

^ It is not simply a month of self torture by starvation for which God has no respect.
  • Global Politician - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: Original source]

.Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth.^ For Muslims, burial represents human beings’ return to the most elemental state, since we were fashioned from earth by the Creator.

^ People who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): “Our Lord!

^ Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) created the heavens and the earth on this blessed day.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve.^ As the Quran says: Surely the number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve, in accordance with His decree from the day He created the heavens and the earth, out of which four are sacred (9:36) .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive.
—translated by Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby[13]
.The three successive forbidden months mentioned by Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are Dhu al-Qi'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, months 11, 12, and 1. The single forbidden month is Rajab, month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar, although whether they maintained their "forbidden" status after the conquest of Mecca has been disputed among Islamic scholars.^ Rabi-al-Awwal: The third month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dhul Qa'dah : is the elevent month of the Islamic Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Numbering the years

.In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it.^ Hubal: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uzza: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lat: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants.^ According to several sources, early versions of ‎Islamic practice included Jewish practices such as the fast of Yom Kippur and prayer ‎to Jerusalem, perhaps influenced by the Jews of Medina.
  • Islam & Arabs: History 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been an attempt to destroy a US plane by a Nigerian student who says he received training in Yemen.

^ Important elements from Judaism and Christianity were incorporated into the emergent religion, but it was rooted in the pre-Islamic Arabic tradition; such central institutions as the pilgrimage and the Kaaba shrine were absorbed, in modified form, from Arabic paganism.
  • ISLAM, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant. .It saw the birth of Muhammad (see surat al-Fil).^ The birth of Prophet Muhammad is commemorated on the twelfth of the month of Rabi Al- Awwal.

^ It is important to note that only two wives of the Prophet Muhammad(saw) gave birth to his children.

That corresponded to the year 570 or 571 CE.
.In 638 (the year 17 AH), Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari, one of the officials of the second Caliph Umar in Basrah, complained about the absence of any dating system in the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent.^ The second caliph was Umar.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ali Al-Murtada (May Allh Be Pleased With Him) is elected the fourth Khalifah, at a difficult time.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This makes it easier to determine actual dates, Gregorian dates, for luni-solar reckoning.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce a calendar system for Muslims.^ The Muslim scholars introduced the use of zero and, with it, the modern system of writing numbers in tens, hundreds, thousands, millions and so on.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After debating the issue with his Counsellors, he decided to start the calendar with the date of Muhammad's arrival at Madina tun Nabi (known as Yathrab, before Muhammad's arrival).^ On this date Muslims recall Prophet Muhammad’s miraculous journey from Makkah to Jerusalem and thence to Heaven atop the heavenly steed known as Buraq.

^ The hijrah (migration of Prophet Muhammad from Makkah to Madinah in 622 C.E.), marks the starting point of the Islamic calendar, comprised of twelve lunar months.

.Uthman ibn Affan then suggested to start the calendar with the month of Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time.^ Since the Jewish calendar adds a month every two or three years, the correspondence between Jewish and Moslem months shifts at those times.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

^ Ashura , tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic Calendar commemorating the tragedy of the death of the grandson of the Prophet, Imam Hussain at Karbala in Iraq .
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Islamic calendar numbering of the years thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina.^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shawwal : Is the tenth month of the Islamic Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.According to calculations, the first day of the first year corresponded to Friday, July 16, 622 (even though the actual emigration took place in September).^ It took place in 622 AD, and it marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You’ve got to try your best to meet the brother at that time and place even though you haven’t made a promise to Allah, because You’ve given your word.

^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

[1] Because of the Hijra event, the calendar was named the Hijra calendar.[14]
.The first surviving attested use of the Hijri calendar is on a papyrus from Egypt in 22 AH, PERF 558.^ Islamic (lunar Hijri, Persian/Afghan solar Hijri, Ottoman mali/solar Hijri), and other calendars used in the study of the Middle East and the Islamic world.
  • Reference Tools in Islamic Art & Architecture - Harvard College Library 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC hcl.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Muslims use such a Hijri calendar for various religious obligations such as fasting during Ramadan, celebrating the two Eid holidays, and performing the Hajj.

Astronomical considerations

.The Islamic calendar is not to be confused with a lunar calendar that is based on astronomical calculations.^ Please note that the Islamic Calendar is lunar and dates are not fixed in advance, because they may change depending on the actual sighting of the moon.

^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ AH: "after Hijra"; the Islamic calendar?s system of dating; employs lunar rather than solar years; as of January 2007, we are in AH 1428.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.The latter is based on a year of 12 months adding up to 354.37 days.^ There are 360 months in the cycle, and 354 days in a common year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intercalary days must then be added to this to approximate the Metonic year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each lunar month begins at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located on a straight line between the Earth and the Sun.^ The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Since the Jewish calendar adds a month every two or three years, the correspondence between Jewish and Moslem months shifts at those times.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

.The month is defined as the average duration of a rotation of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days).^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Jewish and Islâmic calendars, each month is given a conventional length, alternating 30 days and 29 days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That will be off a day against the mean synodic month (29.530588) every 2568.5 (Moslem) years, or just slightly less accurate for the moon than the Gregorian calendar is for the sun (off a day in 3320 years).
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days.^ The twelfth month is 29 days in common years, 30 days in leap years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Jewish and Islâmic calendars, each month is given a conventional length, alternating 30 days and 29 days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 mn to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours (i.e. the equivalent of one full day) in 2.73 years. .To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar, every four years.^ For a lunar calendar adjusting to the solar year, the best approximations (by continued fractions ) to the difference between twelve synodic months and the tropical year would be to add one month every three years, three every eight, four every eleven, seven every nineteen, or 123 every 334.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two specifications are incompatible, as 366 day years defined by the equinox do not recur on a regular four year schedule.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Months are grouped into four seasons; the three months of each season end with the same letters and rhyme with one another.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] The technical details of the adjustment are described in Tabular Islamic Calendar.
.The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions.^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Another way to do this calendar, however, is set aside the Julian intercalation and the 300 year correction and to piggyback our reckoning onto the Gregorian calendar.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His essay, "India through its Calendars" [pp.317-333], however, is almost entirely about the Eras used in different calendars, not about the calendars themselves.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order.^ The twelfth month is 29 days in common years, 30 days in leap years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Jewish and Islâmic calendars, each month is given a conventional length, alternating 30 days and 29 days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal shortly after sunset.^ Days are considered to begin at sunset.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The calendar begins on Friday, July 16th, 622 C.E. in the Julian calendar, Julian day 1948439.5, the day of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina, with sunset on the preceding day reckoned as the first day of the first month of year 1 A.H.—“ Anno Hegiræ ”—the Arabic word for “separate” or “go away”.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

.If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets...^ However, one should try to observe the fasts of Aym-e-Bdh, which are the middle days of every lunar month.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ This was not even attempted by the Babylonians, so the table just provides a range (early vs. On the Moslem calendar the first day of the month is usually the second day after the astronomical New Moon (so that the crescent can be observed).
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. .Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders.^ At one point, in 621, a group of delegates from Madinah (Medina) responded to his call and made a covenant with Muhammad and declared themselves to be Muslims.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men who wish to take on more then one wife should study his(saw) seerah and try to implement his(saw) treatment towards his(saw) wives in their own lives.

^ At such a time, the Muslim scholars & the Islamic organizations at international level have started serious efforts to be one against the terrorism.
  • Global Politician - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: Original source]

.Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries.^ Islam originated in Arabia and many of the Arabic speaking people (Arabs) are Muslims, however most of the Muslims in the world are not Arabs.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam, like many other religions, allows for armed self-defense, or retribution against tyranny, exploitation, and oppression.

^ This universal principle of Islam was observed only in the breech throughout much of Muslim history, and especially in the modern era.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

.This traditional practice is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries.^ This painful period has not really come to an end in many Muslim countries, where people are still under the control of foreign powers or puppet regimes supported by foreign powers.

^ This has come to be known as the majority viewpoint, designated “Sunni” in reference to these Muslims’ reliance on the Qur’an and Sunnah of Muhammad as the sources of religious doctrine and practice.

^ Never Intervene in a Muslim Country Muhammad Hussain - 5/22/2007 When the UN-lead forces drove the Taliban out of Afghanistan, I was indignant of the US, like those overwhelming majority of the Muslims worldwide.
  • Global Politician - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each Islamic State proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory.^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

^ If weather prevented the observation of the crescent, the Babylonians would begin the new month anyway after 30 days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the Tawaf-ul-qudum, followed by the Sai' of Hajj cannot be performed before Shawwal, while it can be performed any day after the beginning of Shawwal.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 15–18 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters.^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

^ It is declared as valid, subject to the condition that the quality and the nature of the article of sale and the time and place of delivery and the price are clearly defined at the time of making the contract of such a sale.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That occurred at the time of the first visible crescent of the New Moon, on the first day of the month of Muh.arram, or 16 July 622 AD (Julian reckoning).
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Given the fact that the moon sets progressively later than the sun as one goes West, Western Muslim countries are likely to observe the new moon one day earlier than Eastern Muslim countries.^ This is given with the benchmark date a day earlier.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years, Muslim countries ranging from Turkey in the West to Pakistan , Bangladesh , and Indonesia in the East have elected women heads of state.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Karen Armstrong writes: Popular films like Harem give an absurd and inflated picture of the sexual life of the Muslim sheikh which reveals more about Western fantasy than it does about reality (p.190).

.Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, and the information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month.^ Months are grouped into four seasons; the three months of each season end with the same letters and rhyme with one another.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does one have to choose between being an American and a Muslim?
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason, places have been designated for these according to ethnic group, either within the city or without, so that they may be restricted to these and not extend their dwelling beyond them."
  • Global Politician - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months.^ Since year 1 of the Indian calendar differs from year 1 of the Gregorian, to determine whether a year in the Indian calendar is a leap year, add 78 to the year of the Saka era then apply the Gregorian calendar rule to the sum.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early Muslim scholars of hadith spent tremendous labor trying to determine which hadiths were authoritative and which were suspect.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

.Thus, Malaysia, Indonesia, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset).^ Days are considered to begin at sunset.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The calendar begins on Friday, July 16th, 622 C.E. in the Julian calendar, Julian day 1948439.5, the day of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina, with sunset on the preceding day reckoned as the first day of the first month of year 1 A.H.—“ Anno Hegiræ ”—the Arabic word for “separate” or “go away”.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun...A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do.^ Days are considered to begin at sunset.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The calendar begins on Friday, July 16th, 622 C.E. in the Julian calendar, Julian day 1948439.5, the day of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina, with sunset on the preceding day reckoned as the first day of the first month of year 1 A.H.—“ Anno Hegiræ ”—the Arabic word for “separate” or “go away”.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the Tawaf-ul-qudum, followed by the Sai' of Hajj cannot be performed before Shawwal, while it can be performed any day after the beginning of Shawwal.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

[18]

Theological considerations

.If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today.^ They were all always ready and prepared.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ GIFT OF ALLAH. islam is peaceful, so that if you will be a good muslim like prophet Muhammad(s.a.w) sayed in all his masseges(hadith), you will be a mirror of the world.
  • Ramadan on the Net - The Religion of Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.holidays.net [Source type: General]

^ In short, the reason that Muslims are once again waging war against the non-Muslim world is because they can.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so.[19]
.A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations on the grounds that the Qur'an requires direct sighting in Surah al-Baqarah 2:185 [20] and that calculations would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months.^ Prophet Mohammad said that the month of Ramadan is a month of great forgiveness from Allah swt; its beginning is mercy, its middle is forgiveness and its end is salvation from hell fire.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The calendar presented here is the most commonly used civil calendar in the Islamic world; for religious purposes months are defined to start with the first observation of the crescent of the new Moon.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Some jurists see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months.^ The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Jahiliyyah: The age of Ignorance, This name was given to the period between Prophet Isa and the Prophet Muhammad when people forgot the teachings of the Prophets, and violated the religious sanctities.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

[22] .They consider that Muhammad's recommendation was adapted to the culture of the times, and should not be confused with the acts of worship.^ The issue of whether they were entitled to do so did not even arise until after the time of the first four caliphs when pre-Islamic cultural practices began to be reasserted.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This approach reminds the Muslims that they should not rely only on the accomplishments of their ancestors, rather, they should themselves perform meritorious acts to please their Creator.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ For instance, The Qura'n commands that the Muslims should pray and worship, and pay in charity; the Hadees explains the method of prayer, worship and the acts of charity.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23][24][25]
.Thus, jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in 1939 and 2004 respectively.^ Rabi-al-Awwal: The third month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26][27] So did the "Fiqh Council of North America" (FCNA) in 2006[28][29] and the "European Council for Fatwa and Research" (ECFR) in 2007.[30]

Saudi Arabia's Umm al-Qura calendar

.Saudi Arabia uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar.^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

^ The beginning of the month in the Babylonian calendar was determined by the direct observation by priests of the young crescent moon at sunset after the astronomical New Moon.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic (lunar Hijri, Persian/Afghan solar Hijri, Ottoman mali/solar Hijri), and other calendars used in the study of the Middle East and the Islamic world.
  • Reference Tools in Islamic Art & Architecture - Harvard College Library 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC hcl.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Since AH 1419 (1998/99) several official hilal sighting committees have been set up by the government to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the beginning of each lunar month.^ The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 29 or 30 days.

^ The Jewish month can begin with the New Moon, but usually it is delayed for ritual or other reasons into the range of the visible crescent.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it.^ In Islâm, months whose commencement is of religious significance, like the month after the Fast of Ramadân, still depend on the actual observation of the crescent moon by a respected religious authority.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Prophet’s birth date is an important event recognized by Muslims, it is not an official Religious holiday like Eid al-Fitr or Eid al-Adha.

.The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes.^ When comparing historical dates, it's important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1957 the Indian government's Calendar Reform Committee adopted the National Calendar of India for civil purposes and, in addition, defined guidelines to standardise computation of the religious calendar, which is based on astronomical observations.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, since it is based on the direct use of the stars, there is no general calendar rule for it, and it depended, .
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes over the past decade.^ A brief essay with a concise and useful classified bibliography introducing the literature of the field (for the scholarship of the past two decades, see Index Islamicus ).
  • Reference Tools in Islamic Art & Architecture - Harvard College Library 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC hcl.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.Before AH 1420 (before April 18, 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyad was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month.^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a married man dies, his wife must not remarry until at least four months and ten days have passed.

^ Those with apocalyptic inclinations will be relieved to observe that the present cycle will not end until Columbus Day, October 12, 4772 in the Gregorian calendar.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.^ What is the holy day of Muslims?

^ In Muslim countries, festivities are often in evidence for three or more days.

^ For example, the Tawaf-ul-qudum, followed by the Sai' of Hajj cannot be performed before Shawwal, while it can be performed any day after the beginning of Shawwal.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.For AH 1420-22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed).^ The same cycle of 19 names is used for days and months.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Days are considered to begin at sunset.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The calendar begins on Friday, July 16th, 622 C.E. in the Julian calendar, Julian day 1948439.5, the day of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina, with sunset on the preceding day reckoned as the first day of the first month of year 1 A.H.—“ Anno Hegiræ ”—the Arabic word for “separate” or “go away”.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the beginning of AH 1423 (March 16,In 2007, the Islamic Society of North America, the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations, using the same parameters as the Umm al-Qura calendar, to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances).^ Rabi-al-Awwal: The third month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All dates are from Fiqh Council of North America adopted Islamic Calendar.
  • IU Bloomington Religious Holidays Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: General]

^ The fourth month of the Islamic calendar is Rabbi al-Akhir (thani).
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.This was intended as a first step on the way to unify Muslims' calendars throughout the world, in some future time.^ Will there be a united Muslim world in the future?

^ Islam's persecution of non-Muslims is in no way limited to jihad, even though that is the basic relationship between the Muslim and non-Muslim world.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

.But, despite this stated objective, they will continue to differ, on this point, from Saudi Arabia's officially stated, but hard to verify policy of relying exclusively on sighting to determine the dates of religious observances.^ While the Prophet’s birth date is an important event recognized by Muslims, it is not an official Religious holiday like Eid al-Fitr or Eid al-Adha.

^ They have been involved in plots to assassinate Arab leaders in different countries, and they instigated and carried out the attack on the United States on September 11, 2001.
  • Islam & Arabs: History 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Quran affirms that there is no difference in the souls of men and women, and they are equal in the sight of God.
  • Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cuii.org [Source type: Original source]

[32][33]

Tabular Islamic calendar

.There exists a variation of the Islamic calendar known as the tabular Islamic calendar in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation.^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shawwal : Is the tenth month of the Islamic Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days.^ There are 11 leap years in a 30 year cycle.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ This will be a Common Year , 355 days in length.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Days are named in a cycle of 19 names.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2500 years.^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

^ In the proposed calendar, each zone will thus have its own calendar, but the two will coincide (in about three quarters of months) and differ by one day (never more) in the rest of the cases.
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is significantly too long (over the 365.24220 days of the tropical year) and would be off a day in only 60 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also deviates up to about 1 or 2 days in the short term.^ Using Gregorian dates as above, we end up off by a day against the moon about every 235 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kuwaiti algorithm

.Microsoft uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm" to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones.^ The Islamic calendar testifies to the paramouncy of the Hijra by setting year one from the date of its occurrence.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As with the Haab calendar, cycles are not counted and one cannot, therefore, convert a Tzolkin date into a unique date in other calendars.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When comparing historical dates, it's important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsoft claims that it is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait[34] but it is in fact a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar.^ For example, the various dates in the Islamic Calendar such as Ramadan and Hajj rotate every year and are not fixed like the Solar Year.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Consequently, over a period of about thirty-six years, the events in the Islamic calendar cycle through the various seasons.

[35]

Notable dates

Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
.
  • 1 Muharram (Islamic New Year)
  • 10 Muharram (Day of Ashura) For Sunni Muslims, the crossing of the Red Sea by the Israelites.^ That we are here with you," a Muslim woman participating in the open day event told Euro News on Sunday, November 8.
    • islamic invitation web site center bank for free islam book 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamic-invitation.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Muslims defeated hostile forces (Byzantines and Persians for example) and gained controls of new lands where Islamic rule was established, yet non-Muslim inhabitants were not forced to become Muslims.

    ^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
    • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

    .For Shia Muslims, the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, and his followers.
  • 12 Rabi al Awal (Mawlid an Nabi for Sunni Muslims)
  • 17 Rabi al Awal (Mawlid an Nabi for Shia Muslims Twelvers)
  • 13 Rajab (Birthday of Ali ibn Abi Talib.^ Ibn Yahyā al-Maghribī al-Samaw’al was an Arab Muslim mathematician and astronomer of Jewish descent.His father was a Jewish Rabbi from Morocco, but al-Samawʾal converted to Islam.

    ^ For Muslims, following the straight path laid down by the prophets and exemplified by the last Prophet, Muhammad, whose message has been preserved since its revelation, is the means of safety and salvation.

    ^ This has come to be known as the majority viewpoint, designated “Sunni” in reference to these Muslims’ reliance on the Qur’an and Sunnah of Muhammad as the sources of religious doctrine and practice.

    )
  • 27 Rajab (Isra and Miraj)
  • 15 Sha'ban (Mid-Sha'ban, or Night of Forgiveness), and the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi (The Twelfth Imam)
  • 1 Ramadan (first day of fasting)
  • 21 Ramadan Ali ibn Abi Talib's Martyrdom.
  • 27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia)
  • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr
  • 1 Shawwal (Eid al-Fitr)
  • 8-13 Dhu al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Mecca)
  • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah (Eid al-Adha)
  • 18 Dhu al-Hijjah (Eid al-Ghadeer)
  • 24 Dhu al-Hijjah (Eid al-Mubahila)

Current correlations

.For a very rough conversion, multiply the Islamic year number by 0.97, and then add 622 to get the Gregorian year number.^ Convert between Gregorian Year and Islamic Year : Gregorian Year = 32/33 * (Islamic Year) + 622 Islamic Year = 33/32 * (Gregorian Year - 622) .
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

^ It took place in 622 AD, and it marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An Islamic year will be entirely within a Gregorian year of the same number in the year 20874. The Islamic calendar year of 1429 occurred entirely within the Gregorian calendar year of 2008. Such years occur once every 33 or 34 Islamic years (32 or 33 Gregorian years).^ In the Julian calendar every fourth year is a leap year in which February has 29, not 28 days, but in the Gregorian, years divisible by 100 are not leap years unless they are also divisible by 400.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since year 1 of the Indian calendar differs from year 1 of the Gregorian, to determine whether a year in the Indian calendar is a leap year, add 78 to the year of the Saka era then apply the Gregorian calendar rule to the sum.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic calendar testifies to the paramouncy of the Hijra by setting year one from the date of its occurrence.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

More are listed here:
Islamic year within Gregorian year
Islamic Gregorian Difference
1060 1650 590
1093 1682 589
1127 1715 588
1161 1748 587
1194 1780 586
1228 1813 585
1261 1845 584
1295 1878 583
1329 1911 582
1362 1943 581
1396 1976 580
1429 2008 579
1463 2041 578
1496 2073 577
1530 2106 576
1564 2139 575
.Because a hijri or Islamic lunar year is between 10 and 12 days shorter than a Gregorian year, it begins 10–12 days earlier in the Gregorian year following the Gregorian year in which the previous hijri year began.^ Since the lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year, dates in the Islamic calendar “move forward” eleven days every year in relation to the commonly-used Gregorian calendar.

^ For example, the Tawaf-ul-qudum, followed by the Sai' of Hajj cannot be performed before Shawwal, while it can be performed any day after the beginning of Shawwal.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The following acts are prescribed as Sunnah at the beginning of the day of 'Eid-ul-Fitr before proceeding to the Eid prayer: 1.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

.Once every 33.58 hijri years, or once every 32.58 Gregorian years, the beginning of a hijri year (1 Muharram) coincides with one of the first ten days of January.^ The first month of this year is Muharram.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ In the Julian calendar every fourth year is a leap year in which February has 29, not 28 days, but in the Gregorian, years divisible by 100 are not leap years unless they are also divisible by 400.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The equation to its right demonstrates how the length of the year and the day upon which the following year begins are calculated.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsequent hijri New Years move backward through the Gregorian year back to the beginning of January again, passing through each Gregorian month from December to January.^ The names of the lunar months are given with dates of the Gregorian year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If in the short Zodiacal periods of the winter (when the sun, near perihelion, moves quickly), a lunar month should entirely encompass the sun's passage through a constellation, with the next month due to begin two Zodiacal periods after it began, then the name for the month associated with the intervening period is passed over.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISO 8601 permits us to jettison the historical and cultural baggage of weeks and months and express a date simply by the year and day number within that year, ranging from 001 for January 1st through 365 (366 in a leap year) for December 31st.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To find the Gregorian year and approximate Gregorian month within which a specific hijri year begins, locate that hijri year within the table above.^ The names of the lunar months are given with dates of the Gregorian year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That approximates the Metonic year to within a day every 12,555 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the tables below, on the left is found a notation such as "2/353/5," wherein "2" signifies the day upon which the year begins, i.e.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subtract from it the hijri year after the previous hijri year which occurred within a single Gregorian year (the coinciding year).^ Leap years in the Indian calendar occur in the same years as as in the Gregorian calendar; the two calendars thus have identical accuracy and remain synchronised.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actual dates can then be constructed using a simple rule from the Gregorian Easter reckoning: Each year, the lunar dates occur 11 days earlier.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the hijri year 1344, the previous coinciding hijri year was 1329, so subtract 1330 from 1344, yielding 14. Add 14 to the coinciding Gregorian year of 1911 yielding 1925. To determine the approximate Gregorian month within which the stated hijri year begins, divide 14 by 33 (the coincidence period) and multiply by 12 months yielding 5.5 months before January.^ That approximates the Metonic year to within a day every 12,555 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be determined that the 19 year period from 5130 to 5148 (counting 0-18 in the 19 year cycle) contains only 6 intercalations, and no 29 day month.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since year 1 of the Indian calendar differs from year 1 of the Gregorian, to determine whether a year in the Indian calendar is a leap year, add 78 to the year of the Saka era then apply the Gregorian calendar rule to the sum.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus hijri year 1330 begins within July 1925.

Uses

.The Islamic calendar is now used primarily for religious purposes, and for official dating of public events and documents in Muslim countries.^ What kind of calendar do Muslims use?

^ Canadian Muslim website with various writings on Islamic doctrine and events in the Muslim world.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, when looking at event sin the Muslim World, it should be kept in mind that a long period of colonialism ended fairly recently in most Muslim countries.

.Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendar and the 1789 Ottoman calendar (a modified Julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countries.^ The calendar presented here is the most commonly used civil calendar in the Islamic world; for religious purposes months are defined to start with the first observation of the crescent of the new Moon.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar Calendar consisting of 354-355 days annually and is 10-11 days shorter than the western Solar Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ AH: "after Hijra"; the Islamic calendar?s system of dating; employs lunar rather than solar years; as of January 2007, we are in AH 1428.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

In Morocco, the Berber calendar (another Julian calendar) is still used by farmers in the countryside. .These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.^ If we want a luni-solar calendar based on the New Moon, all these dates must be advanced by a couple of days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alignment with the solar year is better than the Julian calendar, but inferior to the Gregorian.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The farmers and Bedouin began to adopt Medina’s lunar-solar calendar, as it was more useful for agricultural and livestock purposes.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.As noted above, Saudi Arabia uses the Islamic calendar to date religious occasions such as Ramadan, Hajj, etc.^ The Islamic calendar testifies to the paramouncy of the Hijra by setting year one from the date of its occurrence.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, the various dates in the Islamic Calendar such as Ramadan and Hajj rotate every year and are not fixed like the Solar Year.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The calendar presented here is the most commonly used civil calendar in the Islamic world; for religious purposes months are defined to start with the first observation of the crescent of the new Moon.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and the .Umm-al-Qura calendar, based on calculations, for administrative purposes and daily government business.^ In 1957 the Indian government's Calendar Reform Committee adopted the National Calendar of India for civil purposes and, in addition, defined guidelines to standardise computation of the religious calendar, which is based on astronomical observations.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The civil calendar is used throughout India today for administrative purposes, but a variety of religious calendars remain in use.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Watt, W. Montgomery. "Hidjra". in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  2. ^ Prophet Muhammad by Islamic Finder
  3. ^ B. van Dalen; R.S. Humphreys; A.K.S Lambton, et al.. "Tarikh". in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  4. ^ Trawicky (2000) p. 232
  5. ^ Mahmud Effendi (1858), as discussed by Burnaby, pages 460–470.
  6. ^ According to "Tradition", repeatedly cited by F.C. De Blois.
  7. ^ F.C. De Blois, "TA'RIKH": I.1.iv. "Pre-Islamic and agricultural calendars of the Arabian peninsula", The Encyclopaedia of Islam X:260.
  8. ^ al-Biruni, "Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs", The Chronology of Ancient Nations, tr. C. Edward Sachau, (London: William H. Allen, 1000/1879) 13–14, 73–74.
  9. ^ Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (787–886), Kitab al-Uluf, Journal Asiatique, series 5, xi (1858) 168+. (French) (Arabic)
  10. ^ A. Moberg, "NASI'", The Encyclopaedia of Islam VII:977.
  11. ^ A. Moberg, "NASI'", E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam
  12. ^ From an illustrated manuscript of Al-Biruni's 11th c. Vestiges of the Past (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Arabe 1489 fol. 5v. (Bibliothèque Nationale on-line catalog Mandragore
  13. ^ Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby, Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars (London: 1901) 370.
  14. ^ Appreciating Islamic History (Microsoft Word document, 569KB)
  15. ^ Emile Biémont, Rythmes du temps, Astronomie et calendriers, De Borck, 2000, 393p
  16. ^ Khalid Chraibi: Issues in the Islamic Calendar, Tabsir.net
  17. ^ Karim Meziane et Nidhal Guessoum : La visibilité du croissant lunaire et le ramadan, La Recherche n° 316, janvier 1999, pp. 66–71
  18. ^ Moonsighting.com - Methods for beginning of Islamic months in different countries
  19. ^ Allal el Fassi : « Aljawab assahih wannass-hi al-khaliss ‘an nazilati fas wama yata’allaqo bimabda-i acchouhouri al-islamiyati al-arabiyah », "[...] and the beginning of Islamic Arab months", report prepared at the request of King Hassan II of Morocco, Rabat, 1965 (36 p.), with no indication of editor.
  20. ^ Interpretation of the Meaning of The Noble Quran Translated into the English Language By Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali Ph.D. & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan
  21. ^ Muhammad Mutawalla al-Shaârawi : Fiqh al-halal wal haram (edited by Ahmad Azzaâbi), Dar al-Qalam, Beyrouth, 2000, p. 88.
  22. ^ Abderrahman al-Haj : « The faqih, the politician and the determination of lunar months » (in arabic)
  23. ^ Allal el Fassi : "Aljawab assahih..." op. cit.
  24. ^ The dynasty of Fatimids in Egypt used a tabular pre-calculated calendar over a period of two centuries, between the 10th and 12th centuries, before a change of political regime reactivated the procedure of observation of the new moon.
  25. ^ Helmer Aslaksen: The Islamic calendar
  26. ^ Ahmad Shakir : « The beginning of arab months … is it legal to determine it using astronomical calculations? » (published in arabic in 1939) reproduced in the Arab daily « Al-Madina », 13 october 2006 (n° 15878)
  27. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi : « Astronomical calculations and determination of the beginning of months » (in arabic)
  28. ^ Fiqh Council of North America Islamic lunar calendar
  29. ^ Zulfikar Ali Shah The astronomical calculations: a fiqhi discussion
  30. ^ Islamic Center of Boston, Wayland
  31. ^ Crescent sighting using the Uml al Qura calendar in Saudi ArabiaPDF (268 KB)
  32. ^ Ramadan and Eid announcement by the Fiqh Council of North America (revised)
  33. ^ Khalid Chraibi : Can the Umm al Qura calendar serve as a global Islamic calendar?
  34. ^ Hijri Dates in SQL Server 2000
  35. ^ The "Kuwaiti Algorithm" (Robert van Gent)
  36. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam, pp. 98-99. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0759101906.

External links

.

Date converters

.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to Hijri article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

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Hijri
  1. (Islam) the Islamic lunar calendar; begins with the migration of Muhammad, 16 July 622 AD; months begin at sunset on the day of visual sighting of the new moon.

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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Islam Portal
.The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days.^ Muslims measure the passage of time using the Islamic ( Hijrah ) calendar.

^ Use of calculations in determining the Islamic dates is not against the Sunnah.
  • ISNA New Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicmoon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic Calendar, used by Muslim s, is based on the moon .
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a lunar calendar having 12 lunar months in a year of about 354 days.^ It is a purely lunar calendar and a year has either 354 or 355 days.

^ There are 360 months in the cycle, and 354 days in a common year.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic calendar is a 12-month lunar calendar. Each month can be 29 or 30 days long.
  • Using astronomical calculations for the Islamic calendar - Muslim Women - Religion, culture and Islam - timesunion.com - Albany NY 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC blog.timesunion.com [Source type: General]

.Because this lunar year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year, Islamic holy days, although celebrated on fixed dates in their own calendar, usually shift 11 days earlier each successive solar year, such as a year of the Gregorian calendar.^ This is given with the benchmark date a day earlier.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This day marks the beginning of the year for the Islamic calendar.
  • Islamic Holidays (Perpetual Multicultural Calendar Software) 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.calendarmine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 12 lunar months are, on average, 11 days shorter than the (Gregorian) civil year, the Islamic year shifts earlier in each civil year by about this amount.
  • Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC aa.usno.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar — Naval Oceanography Portal 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.usno.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Islamic years are also called Hijra years because the first year was the year during which the Hijra occurred— Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Medina.^ Within ten years of his flight to Medina, Mecca surrendered to Muhammad.

^ Al Hijra: The Islamic New Year begins on the day Muhammad left Mecca to travel to Medina.

^ Muhammad (pbuh) from Mecca to Medina, occurred.

.Thus each numbered year is designated either H or AH, the latter being the initials of the Latin anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra).^ On this date AH 1 started (AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra).
  • :: Islam Channel :: Discover Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamchannel.tv [Source type: General]

^ On that date AH 1 started (AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra).
  • Islamic Calendar,islam Calendar,Calendar,Ramadan,Muslim Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.funmunch.com [Source type: General]

^ On that date AH 1 started (AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra).
  • Islamic calendar for year 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.ottawamuslim.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The current Islamic Year is 1428 AH.^ The count of years for the Islamic calendar begins in 622 CE; specifically, 1 Muharram 1 AH corresponds to 16 July 622 CE (Julian calendar).
  • Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC aa.usno.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar — Naval Oceanography Portal 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.usno.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The years are numbered with Islamic Year 1 corresponding to 622 CE. Islamic New Year 1428 starts on 20 January 2007 in the Gregorian calendar.
  • UEA Islamic Society, Islam in Norwich 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC ueaisoc.org [Source type: General]

^ To roughly convert an Islamic calendar year (AH) into a Gregorian equivalent (A.D./C.E.), or vice versa, use one of the following equations.

Contents

Pre-Islamic calendar

.The Arabian predecessor to the Islamic calendar was a lunisolar calendar which used lunar months, but was also synchronized with the seasons by the insertion of an additional, intercalary month, when required.^ The Islamic calendar is lunar.
  • .:. Islamic Calendar .:. ASTRAL TRAVELER .:. 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.astraltraveler.com [Source type: General]

^ The Islamic Lunar Calendar – Hijri Calendar The Islamic lunar calendar has twelve months.

^ Islamic practices are based on the lunar calendar.
  • Islam --An Introduction Summary | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whether the intercalary month (nasi) was added in the spring like that of the Hebrew calendar or in autumn is debated.^ Whenever someone sees a new crescent moon, that's when the new month starts, similar to other lunar calendars like the Jewish or Chinese calendar.
  • Islamic Calendar - iCalShare 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC icalshare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word nasi does not necessarily designate the insertion of an additional month, which would suggest the existence of lunisolar calendars in pre-Islamic Arabia.
  • The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.ortelius.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hebrew calendar is a combined solar/lunar calendar, in that it strives to have its years coincide with the tropical year and its months coincide with the synodic months.
  • 4. The Hebrew Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.tondering.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is assumed that the intercalary month was added between the twelfth month (the month of the pre-Islamic Hajj) and the first month (Muharram) of this pre-Islamic year.^ The Designated Months: The first day of the month Muharram is set as the beginning of the year.

^ Al Hijra is the first day of the Islamic New Year and of the Islamic month of Muharram.
  • UEA Islamic Society, Islam in Norwich 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC ueaisoc.org [Source type: General]

^ Muharram First month in the Islamic calendar .
  • Glossary of Islam - ReligionFacts 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two Rabi' months denote grazing and the modern Meccan rainy season (only slightly less arid than normal), which would promote the growth of grasses for grazing, occurs during autumn.^ Every year begins eleven days later than the previous year, so over the course of one's lifetime Ramadan, for example, would occur in every season.
  • Global Ministries - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC new.gbgm-umc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic New Year slowly moved backwards through the seasons 11 days a year, while harvest was only possible in late summer and autumn.
  • The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.ortelius.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Muslims living in Britain, the fast may therefore be comparatively short if Ramadan falls during the winter months, or much longer if it occurs during the summer.
  • BBC - Schools - Ramadan 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

.These imply a pre-Islamic year beginning near the autumnal equinox.^ As stated above, the year begins at the spring equinox .
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic (Muslim) year begins with Muharram.
  • Islamic Council on Scouting of North America and National Islamic Committee on Scouting, Boy Scouts of America 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC islamiccouncilonscouting.com [Source type: General]

^ These systems – calendars – also dictated when the year should begin, and how to divide the year into manageable units of time, such as months, weeks and days.
  • UEA Islamic Society, Islam in Norwich 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC ueaisoc.org [Source type: General]

.However, the rainy season after which these months are named may have been different when the names originated (before Muhammad's time) or the calendar may have been imported from another region which did have such a rainy season.^ A hmad - Another name for Muhammad.

^ He may also have been named by Muhammad as a successor.
  • The Caliphate 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ The names of the months and their lengths in the calendar are: .
  • Islamic calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.sizes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, the Qur'an forbids the intercalary month (releasing the calendar from the seasons) by Sura 9, verse 36 (believed to have been revealed about the end of Muhammad's lifetime), which implies a pre-Islamic year beginning near the vernal equinox because that is when the modern lunar year began during his last year.^ The Islamic Lunar Calendar – Hijri Calendar The Islamic lunar calendar has twelve months.

^ It was during this month that the Qur'an began to be revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
  • About Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicnj.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another Irânian calendar also begins with the Vernal Equinox.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Months

Islamic Calendar
  1. Muharram
  2. Safar
  3. Rabi' al-awwal
  4. Rabi' al-thani
  5. Jumada al-awwal
  6. Jumada al-thani
  7. Rajab
  8. Sha'aban
  9. Ramadan
  10. Shawwal
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah
The Islamic months are named as follows:[2]
  1. Muharram محرّم (long form: Muarram ul aram)
  2. Safar صفر (long form: afar ul Muzaffar)
  3. Rabi' al-awwal (Rabī' I) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabi' al-thani (or Rabī' al Thānī, or Rabī' al-Akhir) (Rabī' II) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-awwal (Jumādā I) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada al-thani (or Jumādā al-akhir) (Jumādā II) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab رجب (long form: Rajab al Murajab)
  8. Sha'aban شعبان (long form: Sha'abān ul Moazam)
  9. Ramadan رمضان (or Ramzān, long form: Ramaān ul Mubarak)
  10. Shawwal شوّال (long form: Shawwal ul Mukarram)
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah ذو الحجة
.Of all the months in the Islamic calendar, RamaānImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif is the most venerated.^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muharram First month in the Islamic calendar .
  • Glossary of Islam - ReligionFacts 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between dawn and sunset, Muslims are supposed to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse in accordance with the Ramaān holidayImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif that lasts throughout the entire month of the same name.^ Fasting during the month of Ramadan: Muslims during the month of Ramadan not only abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from dawn to sunset, but also from immoral behavior.
  • Islamic Center of Marietta 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC icmga.org [Source type: General]

^ During Ramadan, Muslims are to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex from dawn to sunset.

^ During the fasting month, one must refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset.
  • ISLAM, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

Days of the week

.The Islamic week is derived from the Jewish week, as was the medieval Christian week, all of which have numbered weekdays in common.^ Though the beliefs of Muslims worldwide are about as diverse as those among Christians, there are six basic articles of faith common to nearly all Muslims.
  • What is Islam? 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic law codifies various other restrictions on the dhimmi, all of which derive from the Quran and the Sunnah.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Counties such as Egypt, Morocco, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan all have significant Christian and/or Jewish populations.

.The "first day" of the Islamic week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week.^ This day corresponds to no holiday in the Islamic calendar.
  • Hawaii ‘Islam Day’ falls on Sept 11 of Julian calendar! « Creeping Sharia 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC creepingsharia.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems to have been designed to be closer to new Moon than to the first visibility of the lunar crescent, so it often runs a day or two ahead of the regular Islamic calendars.
  • http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/calendar/islamic.shtml 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.math.nus.edu.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ January 3rd, 2010 For Muslims, the Islamic New Year begins on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

.The Islamic and Jewish weekdays begin at sunset, whereas the medieval Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight.^ On the other hand, if the conjunction took place after 12:00 noon GMT, the month would begin in North America on sunset of the following day.

^ This emigration -- historically known as the Hijrah -- marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, because it was in Yathrib that the followers of Muhammad developed a society organized along the teachings of the Qur'an.

^ Weekdays are specified by number, with day 1 beginning at sunset on Saturday and ending at sunset on Sunday.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on "gathering day", which corresponds to the sixth day of the Jewish and medieval Christian weeks, and to Friday of the planetary week.^ Muslims’ special day is Friday.

^ Every Friday at noon Muslims gather for communal prayer.
  • Global Ministries - Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC new.gbgm-umc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims gather at mosques to worship Allah, pray, and study scripture.
  • Islam Origins, Islam History, Islam Beliefs 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  1. yaum al-ahad يوم الأحد (first day - Sunday) (Urdu, Itwaar اتوار) (Persian: Yek-Shanbeh یکشنبه)
  2. yaum al-ithnayn يوم الإثنين (second day - Monday) (Urdu, Pîr پير) (Persian: Do-Shanbeh, دوشنبه)
  3. yaum ath-thulaathaa' يوم الثُّلَاثاء (third day - Tuesday) (Urdu, Mangl منگل) (Persian: Seh-Shanbeh, سه شنبه)
  4. yaum al-arbia`aa' يوم الأَرْبِعاء (fourth day - Wednesday) (Urdu, Budh بدھ) (Persian: Chahar-Shanbeh, چهارشنبه)
  5. yaum al-khamis يوم الخَمِيس (fifth day - Thursday) (Urdu, Jumahraat جمعرات) (Persian: Panj-Shanbeh, پنجشنبه)
  6. yaum al-jumu`a يوم الجُمُعَة (gathering day - Friday) (Urdu, Jumah جمعہ) (Persian: Jom'eh, جمعه or Adineh آدينه)
  7. yaum as-sabt يوم السَّبْت (sabbath day - Saturday) (Urdu, Hafta ہفتہ) (Persian: Shanbeh, شنبه)

Annulling intercalation

.In the ninth year after the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an (9:36-37), Allah revealed the prohibition of the intercalary month.^ There is no intercalary period, since the Quran (Sura IX, verses 36–37) sets the calendar year at 12 months.
  • Islamic calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.sizes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Verily the transposing (Of a prohibited month) Is an addition to Unbelief: The Unbelievers are led To wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, And forbidden another year, Of months forbidden by Allah And make such forbidden ones Lawful.
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Quran - 9.36 ] Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth..
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

.
The number of months with Allah has been twelve months by Allah's ordinance since the day He created the heavens and the earth.^ "Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve .
  • Al-Serat: Martyrdom ... Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.al-islam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Quran - 9.36 ] Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth..
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred.
  • :: Islam Channel :: Discover Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamchannel.tv [Source type: General]

.Of these four are known as forbidden [to fight in]; That is the straight usage, so do not wrong yourselves therein, and fight those who go astray.^ The number of months In the sight of Allah Is twelve (in a year) So ordained by Him The day He created The heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred; That is the straight usage So wrong not yourselves Therein, and fight the Pagans.
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (II:189) The number of months In the sight of Allah Is twelve (in a year) So ordained by Him The day He created The heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred; That is the straight usage So wrong not yourselves Therein, and fight the Pagans .
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then do not wrong yourselves therein, but fight the idolaters one and all, as they fight you one and all, and know that God is with those who fear.
  • Muslim Calendar - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.^ Only those who have acted similarly and who have modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord!

^ Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: The Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful.^ Move from one month to another: .
  • Hijri and Gregorian calendar, Date conversion, Special Islamic days and events. 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicfinder.org [Source type: General]

^ Months are grouped into four seasons; the three months of each season end with the same letters and rhyme with one another.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each one believes in Allah and His angles and His scriptures and His messengers and they say: We hear, and we obey.

.The evil of their course seems pleasing to them.^ The evil of their course Seems pleasing to them.
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.^ And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord!

^ Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e.
  • Islam 101 - Jihad Watch 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (Submission to Allah), Never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost."
  • Islam and Muslims: 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC islamworld.net [Source type: General]

This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the last sermon on Mount Arafat which was delivered during the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca on 9 Dhu al-Hijja 10 AH:
.
O People, intercalation is an addition to unbelief, through it [God, Allah] leads the unbelievers astray: they make it permissible one year and forbid it [at their mere convenience] the next one to elude the timing of what God forbade, so that they make permissible that which Allah forbade [fighting in the forbidden months], and forbid that which Allah has made permissible [fighting in other months].^ God has made Ramadan a month of blessings.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 9th year of Hijra, Islam forbade intercalation of the additional month every leap year.
  • Al-Serat: Martyrdom ... Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.al-islam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And [now, this year] time has turned the way it was the day God created Heavens and Earth [The intercalary months since the creation of Heavens and Earth have all canceled out (summed up to whole years)].^ This has been God's law since the day He created the heavens and the earth.
  • The Islamic Calendars and Others- Understadning, calculating Ramadan, Hajj and other Islamic events-Hilal-Crescent-new-Calendar-dates-Prophet Muhammed, Mohammed-Islam (Submission)-Hadith and Sunna in Islam (Submission)- Ahadith-Sunnah-Quran, Qur'an, Koran-information-laws-legal-justice-translation-English Allah-God-pillars-converting-Jihad-terrorism-poitical-politics-countries-Muslims-Moslems-Muslima-Moslem Hadiths-Hadith-ahadith-Sunna-sunnah-sunni Shiites, Ahmadiyya,God in Islam (Submission in English),Islam (Submission). Your best source for Islam on the Intenet. Happiness is submission to God-Allah, God, Islam, Muslims, Moslems, Arabic, Farsi, Urdu, Indonesia, Arabia, Mecca, USA-Prophet Muhammed's Last Sermon. A historical Event. Prophet Muhammed's Last Sermon-Farewell Pilgrimage-laws-fatwa-Quran, Qur'an, Koran, Islam-Submission-Muhammed-Allah-Qur'an-Koran-Quran Medina-scholars-Moslem-Moslems-Muslim-Muslims-Submitters-translation-English-issues-abortion, polygamy-marriage-girls-Hijab-Khimar-veil translation-English-Holy-book Muhammed-Mohammed-Sunna-Hadiths-Shiites-Ahmadayya-Bahaii Allah-God-women-Jihad-terrorism-Jews-Christians Ramadan-fast,-Zakat-charity-Salat- books-hadiths-sunna Prophet Muhammed's Last Sermon-Farewell Pilgrimage-laws-fatwa-Quran, Qur'an, Koran, Islam-Submission-Muhammed-Allah-Qur'an-Koran-Quran Medina-scholars-Moslem-Moslems-Muslim-Muslims-Submitters-translation-English-issues-abortion, polygamy-marriage-girls-Hijab-Khimar-veil translation-English-Holy-book Muhammed-Mohammed-Sunna-Hadiths-Shiites-Ahmadayya-Bahaii Allah-God-women-Jihad-terrorism-Jews-Christians Prophet Muhammed's Last Sermon-Farewell Pilgrimage-laws-fatwa-Quran, Qur'an, Koran, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.submission.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These systems – calendars – also dictated when the year should begin, and how to divide the year into manageable units of time, such as months, weeks and days.
  • UEA Islamic Society, Islam in Norwich 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC ueaisoc.org [Source type: General]

^ [Quran - 9.36 ] Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth..
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

.The year is twelve months, four of them are forbidden, three successive: Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram; and the Rajab of Mudar which is between Jumada and Shaban.^ The four Sacred Months ( al- Ashhur al- Hurum ) are Rajab , Dhul Qadah , Dhul Hijjah and Muharram .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Dhu al-Hijjah 10 .
  • CIE - Important Dates in the Islamic Lunar Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cie.org [Source type: General]

^ It is one of the four sanctified months of the year.

[4]
.The three successive forbidden months mentioned by Muhammad (months in which battling is forbidden) are Dhu al-Qi'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, thus excluding an intercalary month before Muharram.^ Dhu Al Qa'dah, 1431 .
  • Islamic Shia Ithna Asheri Jamaat of Toronto - A Centre Serving Muslims in the GTA | Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jaffari.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dhu al-Hijjah 10 .
  • CIE - Important Dates in the Islamic Lunar Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cie.org [Source type: General]

^ Dhu Al Hijjah, 1431 .
  • Islamic Shia Ithna Asheri Jamaat of Toronto - A Centre Serving Muslims in the GTA | Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.jaffari.org [Source type: Academic]

The single forbidden month is Rajab. .These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar, although whether they maintained their "forbidden" status after the conquest of Mecca has been disputed among Islamic scholars.^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shawwal : Is the tenth month of the Islamic Calendar.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

Numbering the years

.According to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants.^ According to several sources, early versions of ‎Islamic practice included Jewish practices such as the fast of Yom Kippur and prayer ‎to Jerusalem, perhaps influenced by the Jews of Medina.
  • Islam & Arabs: History 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the strong tradition of portraying the human figure in Christian art, Islamic art does not include depictions of human beings.

^ There has been an attempt to destroy a US plane by a Nigerian student who says he received training in Yemen.

.Although the raid was unsuccessful, because it was customary to name a year after a major event which occurred during it, that year became known as the Year of the Elephant, which was also the year that Muhammad was born.^ The Umrah can be taken at any time throughout the year and although completing it is highly commendable, Muslims are still required to perform the greater Hajj, during the appointed time.

^ Although the major acts of Hajj are normally performed in the first ten days of Zulhijjah, yet the whole period starting from the first of Shawwal up to the 10th of Zulhijjah is held to be the period of Hajj because some acts of Hajj can be performed any time during this period.
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ Muhammad was born around the year 570 C.E. in the Arabian city of Makkah (traditinally spelled Mecca).

(See surat al-Fil.) .Although most Muslims equate it with the Western year 570, a minority equate it with 571. Later years were numbered from the Year of the Elephant, whether for the years of the pre-Islamic lunisolar calendar, the lunisolar calendar used by Muhammad before he forbade the intercalary month, or the first few years of the lunar calendar thus created.^ Islamic practices are based on the lunar calendar.
  • Islamic Information Centre - Invite to the Way of Your Lord with Wisdom 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamottawa.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Islam --An Introduction Summary | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moslem calendar consists of years of 12 lunar months.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 638 (AH 17), the second Caliph Umar began numbering the years of the Islamic calendar from the year of the Hijra, which was postdated AH 1. The first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of that proleptic Islamic year, that is, after the removal of all intercalary months between the Hijra and Muhammad's prohibition of them nine years later, corresponded to July 16, 622 (the actual emigration took place in September).^ The Islamic Calendar was started by the second Caliph Umar in 16 AH/ 637 CE .
  • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

^ The hijra calendar starts counting its days starting on July 16, 622 CE, which is the estimated date of Muhammad's flight to Yathrib.
  • Muslim Calendar - LookLex Encyclopaedia 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It took place in 622 AD, and it marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[1] .The first surviving attested use of the Hijri calendar is on a papyrus from Egypt in 22 AH, PERF 558.^ The first is the civil calendar, which uses a fixed cycle of alternating 29- and 30-day months, with a leap day added to the last month of 11 out of every 30 years.

^ In my converter, I use out of convenience the abbreviations AD & BC for Christian Dates, AH (Anno Hejirae) & BH (Before Hijra) for the Hijri Calendar.
  • Tarek's Gregorian (Christian) /Hijri (Islamic)/ Julian / Hebrew (Jewish) / Chinese Universal Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC bennyhills.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overwhelming majority including Saudi, Egypt, and Irani astronomers agreed with the calendar (adopted by Fiqh Council of North America), that can be used as a Global Islamic Calendar.

Observation of Hilal, date calculations, and nonuniform dates among regions

.There is at least one recorded incident in the first Islamic century[5] where Muslims in Medina and al-Sham fasted independently upon their respective observations of the lunar crescent (Hilal).^ There upon, he fasted on that day and ordered [the Muslims] to fast.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ This flight (hijra) from Mecca to Medina marks the beginning of the Muslim lunar calendar, and is celebrated each year in the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.

^ History of the Hijri (Islamic) Calendar: The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was first introduced in 638 CE by the close companion of the Prophet Muhammad and the second Caliph, `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (586-644 CE).
  • Tarek's Gregorian (Christian) /Hijri (Islamic)/ Julian / Hebrew (Jewish) / Chinese Universal Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC bennyhills.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order.^ Months must alternate between 30 and 29 days; .
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (No month can be longer than 30 days.
  • IFANCA Presents: The Basics Of Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.ifanca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 29 and 30 day months in calendar.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.Traditionally, the first day of each month was the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the lunar crescent (the hilāl) shortly after sunset.^ Each Islamic month starts at sunset, when the lunar crescent is visually sighted after a new moon.
  • :: Islam Channel :: Discover Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamchannel.tv [Source type: General]

^ So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e.
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each month starts when the lunar crescent is first seen after a new moon.
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

.If the hilāl was not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month, either because clouds blocked its view or because the western sky was still too bright when the moon set, then the day that began at that sunset was the 30th.^ Each month began at sunset on the day of the birth of the new moon.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the North of India, the month began with the day after the Full Moon.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Moon sets before the Sun the next day is the 30th of the month.
  • UEA Islamic Society, Islam in Norwich 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC ueaisoc.org [Source type: General]

.Such a sighting had to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders.^ The Hajj, which draws more than 2 million Muslims from around the globe, is believed to be one of the world’s largest annual religious events.

^ But over the past 20 years one religion has made the front page perhaps more than any other .
  • What is Islam? 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Contributions of more than one hundred other major Muslim personalities can be found in several famous publications by Western historians.
  • Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.cyberistan.org [Source type: Original source]

.Determining the most likely day that the hilāl could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries.^ Muslims who needed a day off from work or had to make plans for pulling their children out of school could not say when the celebration would be.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ After being on the defensive for many centuries, Islam was now on the offensive!
  • What is Islam? 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam originated in Arabia and many of the Arabic speaking people (Arabs) are Muslims, however most of the Muslims in the world are not Arabs.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This traditional practice is still followed in a few parts of the world, like India, Pakistan and Jordan.^ Indonesia has the worlds largest Muslim population, followed by Pakistan and India.
  • islamic invitation web site center bank for free islam book 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamic-invitation.com [Source type: News]

^ Hence in Islam, like traditional Judaism, Islamic practice in harmony with guidance given by God's revelation is emphasized as being the key to salvation.
  • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For, like in the case of Christians, Jews, and followers of any religion or creed, some Muslims do not practice what their religion teaches.

.However, in most Muslim countries astronomical rules are followed which allow the calendar to be determined in advance, which is not the case using the traditional method.^ However, Muslims also use the Gregorian calendar in their daily religious lives.
  • Islamic Information Centre - Invite to the Way of Your Lord with Wisdom 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamottawa.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Islam FAQ (Part 3/15): Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Islam --An Introduction Summary | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rule, unlike that used with the Gregorian calendar, is quite complicated - there is no consistent method of calculation , or at least I have yet to see one.
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is based on the solar calendar established by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 and adopted by most countries.

.Malaysia, Indonesia, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset).^ If the sun sets before the moon, this signals the beginning of the new month.

^ Each month began at sunset on the day of the birth of the new moon.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new moon is always the first day of each month.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun.^ If the sun sets before the moon, this signals the beginning of the new month.

^ Each month began at sunset on the day of the birth of the new moon.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new moon is always the first day of each month.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.The moon sets progressively later than the sun for locations further west, thus western Muslim countries are more likely to celebrate some holy day one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries.^ Thus, there is only a one day new moon celebration (day 1).
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ The holy day of the Muslims is Friday.
  • Islamic Information Centre - Invite to the Way of Your Lord with Wisdom 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamottawa.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Islam --An Introduction Summary | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the holy day of Muslims?

Umm al-Qura calendar

.The official Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia used a substantially different astronomical method until recent years [1].^ Calendar Mine is the only calendar that you need, providing accurate date information starting in 1583 up until year 2500.

^ Until 1933 when a written constitution was adopted and the administration of government organised along much the same lines as it is now, many official documents, particularly those called Faiykolhu (royal edicts) used the Islamic calendar but not the Hegira year.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the time of Mohamed, the Arabs used a luni-solar calendar similar to that of the Jews.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before AH 1420 (before April 18, 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyad was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month.^ The age of the Moon is more than 8 hours.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ Each month began at sunset on the day of the birth of the new moon.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Ramadan in the Maldives 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new moon is always the first day of each month.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.^ Thus, there is only a one day new moon celebration (day 1).
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ The holy day of the Muslims is Friday.
  • Islam --An Introduction Summary | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the holy day of Muslims?

.During one memorable year during the AH 1380s (the 1970s), different Muslim countries ended the fast of Ramadan on each of four successive days.^ Muslims fast in Ramadan every year, and it is also called The month of fasting.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Saum : fasting during the month of Ramadan Muslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan.

^ But, I left that country in 5 days after the start of Ramadan.

.The celebrations became more uniform beginning in AH 1420. For AH 1420-22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed).^ The seven-day week is observed with each day beginning at sunset.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ The word “calendar” is derived from the Latin word “kalendae”, which means the first day of every month.
  • Free Printable 2010 Calendar - Holiday Calendar 2010, 2009 & Blank Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.calendarlabs.com [Source type: General]

^ He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, phrase that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful than wrongdoing at any other time.
  • :: Islam Channel :: Discover Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamchannel.tv [Source type: General]

.Since the beginning of AH 1423 (March 16, 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca.^ If the sun sets before the moon, this signals the beginning of the new month.

^ When the moon breaks the plane between the earth and sun it is called conjunction.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, a calendar based on the moon and the sun requires a 13th month approximately every 3 years.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent.^ It is thus affected by the position at which the observations are made, seasonal variations in the time of sunset, the eccentricities of the moon's orbit, and even the weather at the observation site.

^ Babylonian (Age at sunset > 24hrs, Moonset Lag > 48 min) 500 C.E. This is the earliest astronomical criterion for ascertaining the crescent’s first visibility.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

^ We can’t see the moon at its conjunction, it is between the earth and the sun, but at that moment it enters its rebuilding phase, it becomes new.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.Strictly speaking, the Umm al-Qura calendar is intended for civil purposes only.^ As Harry R. van Gent says : “Strictly speaking, the Umm al-Qura calendar is intended for civil purposes only.
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But other Muslim countries use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes and turn to the Islamic calendar for religious purposes.
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

^ Another important calendar to mention and discuss here is the “Umm al-Qura” (one of Mecca’s names) Calendar, which is the default calendar in use – for civil purposes – in Saudi Arabia.
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their makers are well aware of the fact that the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent (hilāl) can occur up to two days after the date calculated in the Umm al-Qura calendar.^ This is the Hijra, and the Islamic lunar calendar dates from that day.
  • An Overview of Islam for Christians 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.oddparts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For any date the program will show conformity between calendars and the following additional information: day's number of the year, number of days in the year, week's number of the year, number of weeks in the year, day of week, age of the Moon (in days), Julian Day number.

^ Calendar Mine is the only calendar that you need, providing accurate date information starting in 1583 up until year 2500.

.Since AH 1419 (1998/99) several official hilāl sighting committees have been set up by the government of Saudi Arabia to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the begin of each lunar month.^ So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e.
  • One Islamic / Hijri Calendar (One Ramadhan ... One Eid) | 4islam.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.4islam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fasting begin here by sighting the crescent .
  • Islamic Calendar@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each month starts when the lunar crescent is first seen after a new moon.
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

.Nevertheless, the religious authorities of Saudi Arabia also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see the lunar crescent.^ Although, they tend to portray themselves as followers of the global sighting position, in reality they only determine their Islamic dates according to the moon sighting announcements made all the way in Saudi Arabia.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that the Islamic Calendar is lunar and dates are not fixed in advance, because they may change depending on the actual sighting of the moon.

^ It thus becomes clear that the idea of a calendar has not constituted an important issue in the minds of Muslims, including the elites and the officials, who by and large have focused on the “problem of the crescent”, that is the question of whether or not to declare the start of the religious month.
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is particularly the case for the most important dates on the Islamic calendar - the beginning and end of Ramadan (the month of the fast) and the beginning of Dhu al-Hijja (the month of the annual pilgrimage to Makkah).^ It is performed during the Islamic lunar month of Dhu al-hijja.
  • Middle East | Institute | Library | Introduction to Islam | Religion 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mei.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramadan set as the month of fasting.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fasting (Sawm) during the Month of Ramadan .
  • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a Muslim male resident (two in the case of the end of Ramadan) sees the new moon on the 29th day of the preceding month, and if this sighting is accepted by the religious authorities, then the new month is judged to have arrived, even though the official Umm al-Qura calendar calls for a 30th day before the new month begins.^ In order for Ramadan to begin and end, the crescent moon must be seen.
  • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eid is celebrated at the end of the month of Ramadan.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The sighting of the new moon, which is called The Hilal or the crescent on the last day of Ramadan signals the day of Eid.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This can change the actual beginning and/or end of the fast (in the case of Ramadan) or the timing of the pilgrimage to Makkah (in the case of Dhu al-Hijja).^ The fast ends at the time of sun set.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is paid at the end of the Ramadan fast.
  • Middle East | Institute | Library | Introduction to Islam | Religion 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mei.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This, and the Eid al-Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are the main festivals of the Muslim calendar.
  • Muslim American Society 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.masnet.org [Source type: Original source]

.This happens occasionally, with the most recent occurrences being in AH 1427 (2006-2007), when the beginning of the months of both Ramadan and Dhu al-Hijja occurred a day earlier than called for in the official Umm al-Qura calendar.^ It is performed during the Islamic lunar month of Dhu al-hijja.
  • Middle East | Institute | Library | Introduction to Islam | Religion 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.mei.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The greater Hajj (al-hajj al-akbar) begins on the eighth day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah.

^ The Ramadan The month of Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Recently,[6] the Islamic Society of North America, the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research have announced that they too in future will follow the Umm al-Qura calendar for regulating the Islamic days of observance.^ Here is some information from the Fiqh Council of North America and here is the calendar for the next 5 years .
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ All dates are from Fiqh Council of North America adopted Islamic Calendar.
  • IU Bloomington Religious Holidays Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: General]

^ For any date the program will show conformity between calendars and the following additional information: day's number of the year, number of days in the year, week's number of the year, number of weeks in the year, day of week, age of the Moon (in days), Julian Day number.

Tabular Islamic calendar

Main article: Tabular Islamic calendar
.There exists a variation of the Islamic calendar known as the tabular Islamic calendar in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation.^ It has the same year numbers and months, but the months are determined by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculations.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Dictionary of Islamic Terms 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days.^ There are 11 leap years in a 30 year cycle.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ This will be a Common Year , 355 days in length.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Days are named in a cycle of 19 names.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2500 years.^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

^ In the proposed calendar, each zone will thus have its own calendar, but the two will coincide (in about three quarters of months) and differ by one day (never more) in the rest of the cases.
  • Progress in Solving the Problem of the Crescent-based Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.science-islam.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is significantly too long (over the 365.24220 days of the tropical year) and would be off a day in only 60 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also deviates up to about 1 or 2 days in the short term.^ Using Gregorian dates as above, we end up off by a day against the moon about every 235 years.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kuwaiti algorithm

Main article: Kuwaiti algorithm
.Microsoft uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm" to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones.^ A Gregorian/Hijri date converter is also provided.
  • IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicity.com [Source type: General]

^ The Gregorian Calendar is used here for dates.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore Islamic dates differ from Gregorian dates.
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsoft claims that it is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait[7] but it is in fact a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar.^ The Islamic calendar starts from this historical event.
  • About Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicnj.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Islamic religious calendar follows a lunar pattern punctuated by a number of significant public feasts and celebrations that have both historical and theological roots.
  • Islam Origins, Islam History, Islam Beliefs 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ III&E A. Calendar: Islamic practices are based on the lunar calendar.
  • Islam FAQ (Part 3/15): Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Notable dates

Main article: Muslim holidays
Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
.
  • 1 Muharram (Islamic New Year)
  • 10 Muharram (Day of Ashurah, Anniversary of the martyrdom of Imam Husayn ibn Ali and his followers.^ Key dates and Important Anniversaries of Muharram 1st - Islamic New Year, .
    • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Islamic New Year but excluded the anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • Complaints prompt Publix to remove calendar that omitted Pearl Harbor (Put Islamic New Year Instead) 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

    )
  • .
  • 12 Rabiul Awal (Milad un Nabi for Sunni Muslims)
  • 17 Rabiul Awal (Milad un Nabi for Shia Muslims)
  • 13 Rajab (Birthday of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib.^ Sermons, Letters, and Sayings of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shi'i Imam and the fourth of the "Rightly-Guided Caliphs" (al-khulafa' al-rashidun)   Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni is a scholarly article concerning the first of the four major works of Shi'i hadith.
    • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Muslims belong to one of the two main Schools of Islam -- the majority Sunni School (comprising more than 90% of believers) or the Shia' School.

    ^ Eid Milad Un Nabi; Birth of the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala alayhi wa Sallam ) 12th - Birth ; Hadrat Imam Jafar Sadiq .
    • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: General]

    )
  • .
  • 27 Rajab (Isra and Miraj)
  • 1 Ramadan (first day of fasting)
  • 21 Ramadan (Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib's death date.^ Sermons, Letters, and Sayings of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shi'i Imam and the fourth of the "Rightly-Guided Caliphs" (al-khulafa' al-rashidun)   Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni is a scholarly article concerning the first of the four major works of Shi'i hadith.
    • Faith, Practice, and Law in Sunni and Shi'i Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Hidden Imam is believed to enact God’s plan in the world and provide continued guidance on behalf of the first Imam Ali.

    ^ ''Fast in Sha'baan, in honour of Ramadan '' Hadrat Ubaydullah ibn Qais once heard A'isha Radi Allahu anha say: .
    • SHAYKH AL ISLAM | JANASHEEN - MUHADDITH AL A'ZAM AL HIND 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islam786.org [Source type: Original source]

    He was Mohammad's cousin and son in law and the father of Imam Husayn ibn Ali)
  • 27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan in Malaysia)
  • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr
  • 1 Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr)
  • 8-10 Dhu al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Makkah)
  • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah (Eid ul-Adha).

Current correlations

.For a very rough conversion, multiply the Islamic year number by 0.97, and then add 622 to get the Gregorian year number.^ Convert between Gregorian Year and Islamic Year : Gregorian Year = 32/33 * (Islamic Year) + 622 Islamic Year = 33/32 * (Gregorian Year - 622) .
  • History of Islam Muslim faith 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

^ It took place in 622 AD, and it marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
  • EAWC Essay: An Introduction to Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An Islamic year will be entirely within a Gregorian year of the same number in the year 20874. The Islamic calendar year of 1429 will occur entirely within the Gregorian calendar year of 2008. Such years occur once every 33 or 34 Islamic years (32 or 33 Gregorian years).^ The first is the civil calendar, which uses a fixed cycle of alternating 29- and 30-day months, with a leap day added to the last month of 11 out of every 30 years.

^ An Islamic year is, on average, about 354 days long, so each successive Islamic year starts about 11 days earlier in the corresponding Gregorian year.

^ It has the same year numbers and months, but the months are determined by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculations.
  • Procrastination » Islamic Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

More are listed here:
Islamic year within Gregorian year
Islamic Gregorian Difference
1228 1813 585
1261 1845 584
1295 1878 583
1329 1911 582
1362 1943 581
1396 1976 580
1429 2008 579
1463 2041 578
1496 2073 577
1530 2106 576
1564 2139 575

Uses

.The Islamic calendar has been used primarily for religious purposes, and has sometimes been used for official purposes as well.^ The Islamic religious calendar follows a lunar pattern punctuated by a number of significant public feasts and celebrations that have both historical and theological roots.
  • Islam Origins, Islam History, Islam Beliefs 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic calendar is strictly lunar, and thus an Islamic year of twelve lunar months does not correspond to the solar year used by most other calendar systems, including the Gregorian.

^ The Islamic religious calendar, however, is based on the observation of the crescent moon.

.Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, however, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendar and the 1789 Ottoman calendar (a modified Julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countrues.^ The Islamic lunar calendar starts from this historical event.
  • About Islam 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.islamicnj.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But other Muslim countries use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes and only turn to the Islamic calendar for religious purposes.
  • MarkTheDay.com: Islam Holiday Reminders – Choose your Islam Holiday Reminders 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.marktheday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the Islamic calendar is lunar, Islamic festivals are not confined to any one season.
  • ISLAM, 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

.These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.^ If we want a luni-solar calendar based on the New Moon, all these dates must be advanced by a couple of days.
  • Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alignment with the solar year is better than the Julian calendar, but inferior to the Gregorian.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The farmers and Bedouin began to adopt Medina’s lunar-solar calendar, as it was more useful for agricultural and livestock purposes.
  • Islamic Jewish Christain Calendar 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.multifaiths.com [Source type: General]

.Saudi Arabia is currently the only Islamic country to use the Islamic calendar as the calendar of daily government business.^ The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in many Muslim countries, especially Saudi Arabia.
  • MarkTheDay.com: Islam Holiday Reminders – Choose your Islam Holiday Reminders 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.marktheday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic calendar’s shortcomings are indeed severe, since the data it shows each month differs from one Muslim country to another, and the information it provides does not extend beyond the current month.

^ The use of the same pre-calculated calendar in all Muslim countries will give them an opportunity to celebrate all major Islamic events on the same day, throughout the world, thereby increasing their feeling of solidarity and unity.

[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b {{cite encyclopedia | author = Watt, W. Montgomery | editor = P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs | encyclopedia =Encyclopaedia of Islam
  2. ^ {{cite encyclopedia | author =B. van Dalen |coauthors = R.S. Humphreys; A.K.S Lambton, et al. | editor = P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs | encyclopedia =Encyclopaedia of Islam
  3. ^ Trawicky (2000) p. 232
  4. ^ Sahih Muslim
  5. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  6. ^ Ramadan and Eid announcement by the Fiqh Council of North America (revised)
  7. ^ Hijri Dates in SQL Server 2000
  8. ^ The "Kuwaiti Algorithm" (Robert van Gent)
  9. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam, pp. 98-99. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0759101906.

External links

Date converters

.This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.^ The influence of the Muslim world on Western science can be seen in the vocabulary of science as many of the words used by Muslim scientists have been retained and have entered the English language.
  • Islam Spain and the history of technology 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.engr.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use the page, your browser must support JavaScript and you must not have disabled execution of that language.
  • Calendar Converter 10 January 2010 21:37 UTC www.fourmilab.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The original content was at Islamic calendar. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Islamic calendarRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Islamic calendar" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

The Islamic calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري)is a calendar. It is used to determine islamic holidays. It is a lunar calendar. It has 12 months, and about 354 days. This means that each year, the calendar is about 11 days shorter than a solar calendar, like the Gregorian. Islamic years are often called hijra years, because the first year of the calendar when the hijra occurred, that is when Muhammad went from Mecca to Medina. Each year is therefore labelled with either H or AH.

How the months are called

  1. Muharram محرّم (long form: Muḥarram ul Ḥaram)
  2. Safar صفر (long form: Ṣafar ul Muzaffar)
  3. Rabi' al-awwal (Rabī' I) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabi' al-thani (or Rabī' al Thānī, or Rabī' al-Akhir) (Rabī' II) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-awwal (Jumādā I) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada al-thani (or Jumādā al-akhir) (Jumādā II) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab رجب (long form: Rajab al Murajab)
  8. Sha'aban شعبان (long form: Sha'abān ul Moazam)
  9. Ramadan رمضان (or Ramzān, long form: Ramaḍān ul Mubarak)
  10. Shawwal شوّال (long form: Shawwal ul Mukarram)
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah ذو الحجة

Other websites



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Islamic calendar, which are similar to those in the above article.








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