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Islam in India


Jama Masjid Delhi.JPG


History

Architecture

Mughal · Indo-Islamic · Indo-Saracenic

Major figures

Moinuddin Chishti  · Shah Waliullah
Ahmad Raza Khan
Sayyed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
Shah Ahmad Noorani Siddiqi
Syed Faiz-ul Hassan Shah

Communities

Northern · Mappilas · Tamil
Konkani · Marathi · Vora Patel
Memons · North-Eastern · Kashmiris
Hyderabadi · Dawoodi Bohras · Khoja
Oriya · Nawayath · Bearys · The Saits
Meo · Sunni Bohras
Kayamkhani · Bengali

Schools of law

Hanafi · Shafi`i · Maliki · Hanbali

Schools of thought

Barelvi · Deobandi · Ahle Hadith

Mosques in India

Historic Mosques of India

Culture

Muslim culture of Hyderabad

Islamic Universities

Jamia Millia Islamia
Aligarh Muslim University
Jamia Nizamia
Aliah University

Other topics

Ahle Sunnat Movement in South Asia
Indian Muslim nationalism
Muslim chronicles for Indian history
Jamaat-e-Islami Hind

During the late Middle Ages, several Islamic empires were established in South Asia.

Contents

Delhi Sultanate

During the last quarter of the twelfth century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain, conquering in succession Ghazni, Multan, Sindh, Lahore, and Delhi. Qutb-ud-din Aybak, one of his generals proclaimed himself Sultan of Delhi. In the 13th century, Shams ud din Iltumish (1211 - 1236), a former slave-warrior, established a Turkic kingdom in Delhi, which enabled future sultans to push in every direction; within the next 100 years, the Delhi Sultanate extended its way east to Bengal and south to the Deccan, while the sultanate itself experienced repeated threats from the northwest and internal revolts from displeased, independent-minded nobles. The sultanate was in constant flux as five dynasties rose and fell: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khalji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodi dynasty (1451-1526). The Khilji dynasty, under Ala ud din (1296 - 1316), succeeded in bringing most of South India under its control for a time, although conquered areas broke away quickly. Power in Delhi was often gained by violence—nineteen of the thirty-five sultans were assassinated—and was legitimized by reward for tribal loyalty. Factional rivalries and court intrigues were as numerous as they were treacherous; territories controlled by the sultan expanded and shrank depending on his personality and fortunes.

Both the Qur'an and sharia (Islamic law) provided the basis for enforcing Islamic administration over the independent Hindu rulers, but the sultanate made only fitful progress in the beginning, when many campaigns were undertaken for plunder and temporary reduction of fortresses. The effective rule of a sultan depended largely on his ability to control the strategic places that dominated the military highways and trade routes, extract the annual land tax, and maintain personal authority over military and provincial governors. Sultan 'Ala ud-Din made an attempt to reassess, systematize, and unify land revenues and urban taxes and to institute a highly centralized system of administration over his realm, but his efforts were abortive. Although agriculture in North India improved as a result of new canal construction and irrigation methods, including what came to be known as the Persian wheel, prolonged political instability and parasitic methods of tax collection brutalized the peasantry. Yet trade and a market economy, encouraged by the free-spending habits of the aristocracy, acquired new impetus both inland and overseas. Experts in metalwork, stonework, and textile manufacture responded to the new patronage with enthusiasm. In this period Persian language and many Persian cultural aspects became dominant in the centers of power in India.

Southern dynasties

The sultans' failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527) and the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states, known as the Deccan sultanates (Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Berar, and Bidar) in 1527. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting.

Founded in 1336, the Vijayanagara Empire (named for its capital Vijayanagara (Vijayanagar), "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagara rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagara rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tungabhadra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers' capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses—initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese—and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler.

The city of Vijayanagara itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. When the rulers of the five Deccan sultanates combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagara in 1565, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot. Most muslim rulers of south India were Shia muslims.[1]

Mughal era

Taj Mahal

The Mughal Empire (Persian: مغل بادشاہ) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1707. The empire was founded by the Turco-Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last Pashtun King of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. The word "Mughal" is the Persian version of Mongol. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb were prominent rulers of Mughal empire.

Hyderabad Nizam

Nizam (Urdu: نظام‌), a shortened version of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Urdu: نظام‌الملک), meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the native sovereigns of Hyderabad state, India, since 1719, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721 and who intermittently ruled under the title Asaf Jah in 1724, and After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mogul empire crumbled and the viceroy in Hyderabad, the young Asaf Jah, declared himself independent.

Other Islamic rulers

Nawab of Awadh ruled parts of current day Uttara Pradesh. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were in power in Mysore kingdom.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]

Literature

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History of South Asia
Stone Age before 3300 BC
Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BC
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC
Late Harappan Culture • 1700–1300 BC
Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BC
Iron Age 1200–1 BC
Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BC
Magadha Empire • 684–424 BC
Nanda Empire • 424-321 BC
Maurya Empire • 321–184 BC
Sunga Empire • 185-73 BC
Kanva Empire • 75-26 BC
Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BC
Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BC–300s AD
Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 AD
Chera Kingdom • 300 BC–1200 AD
Chola Empire • 300 BC–1279 AD
Pandyan Kingdom • 250 BC–1345 AD
Satavahana Empire • 230 BC–220 AD
Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BC–10 AD
Middle Kingdoms 1AD–1279 AD
Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s AD
Western Satrap Kingdom • 35–405 AD
Kushan Empire • 60–240 AD
Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 AD
Vakataka Empire • 250–500 AD
Kalabhras Kingdom • 250–600 AD
Gupta Empire • 280–550 AD
Pallava Kingdom • 275–800 AD
Kadamba Empire • 345–525 AD
Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 AD
Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 AD
Huna Kingdom • 475-576 AD
Chalukya Empire • 543–753 AD
Harsha Empire • 590-647 AD
Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 AD
Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 AD
Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 AD
Pala Empire • 750–1174 AD
Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 AD
Paramara Kingdom of Malwa • 800–1327 AD
Yadava Empire • 850–1334 AD
Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 AD
Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 AD
Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 AD
Sena Empire • 1070–1230 AD
Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 AD
Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 AD
Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 AD
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 AD
Delhi Sultanate • 1206–1526 AD
Deccan Sultanates • 1490–1596 AD
Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 AD
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 AD
Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 AD
Mughal Empire 1526–1858 AD
Madurai Nayak Kingdom 1559 –1736 AD
Thanjavur Nayak Kingdom 1572–1918 AD
Maratha Empire 1674–1818 AD
Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799 AD
Sikh Empire 1799–1849 AD
Company rule in India 1757–1858 AD
British India 1858–1947 AD
Partition of India 1947 AD
Nation histories
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Regional histories
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Specialised histories
CoinageDynastiesEconomy
IndologyLanguageLiteratureMaritime
MilitaryScience and TechnologyTimeline

During the late Middle Ages, several Islamic empires were established in South Asia.

Contents

Delhi Sultanate

During the last quarter of the twelfth century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain, conquering in succession Ghazni, Multan, Sindh, Lahore, and Delhi. Qutb-ud-din Aybak, one of his generals proclaimed himself Sultan of Delhi. In the 13th century, Shams ud din Iltumish (1211 - 1236), a former slave-warrior, established a Turkic kingdom in Delhi, which enabled future sultans to push in every direction; within the next 100 years, the Delhi Sultanate extended its way east to Bengal and south to the Deccan, while the sultanate itself experienced repeated threats from the northwest and internal revolts from displeased, independent-minded nobles. The sultanate was in constant flux as five dynasties rose and fell: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khalji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodi dynasty (1451-1526). The Khilji dynasty, under Ala ud din (1296 - 1316), succeeded in bringing most of South India under its control for a time, although conquered areas broke away quickly. Power in Delhi was often gained by violence -- nineteen of the thirty-five sultans were assassinated -- and was legitimized by reward for tribal loyalty. Factional rivalries and court intrigues were as numerous as they were treacherous; territories controlled by the sultan expanded and shrank depending on his personality and fortunes.

in Lahore, Pakistan]]

Both the Qur'an and sharia (Islamic law) provided the basis for enforcing Islamic administration over the independent Hindu rulers, but the sultanate made only fitful progress in the beginning, when many campaigns were undertaken for plunder and temporary reduction of fortresses. The effective rule of a sultan depended largely on his ability to control the strategic places that dominated the military highways and trade routes, extract the annual land tax, and maintain personal authority over military and provincial governors. Sultan 'Ala ud-Din made an attempt to reassess, systematize, and unify land revenues and urban taxes and to institute a highly centralized system of administration over his realm, but his efforts were abortive. Although agriculture in North India improved as a result of new canal construction and irrigation methods, including what came to be known as the Persian wheel, prolonged political instability and parasitic methods of tax collection brutalized the peasantry. Yet trade and a market economy, encouraged by the free-spending habits of the aristocracy, acquired new impetus both inland and overseas. Experts in metalwork, stonework, and textile manufacture responded to the new patronage with enthusiasm. In this period Persian language and many Persian cultural aspects became dominant in the centers of power in India.

Southern dynasties

The sultans' failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527) and the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states, known as the Deccan sultanates (Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Berar, and Bidar) in 1527. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting.

Founded in 1336, the Vijayanagara Empire (named for its capital Vijayanagara (Vijayanagar), "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagara rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagara rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tungabhadra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers' capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses--initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese--and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler.

The city of Vijayanagara itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. When the rulers of the five Deccan sultanates combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagara in 1565, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot.

Mughal era

The Mughal Empire (Persian: مغل بادشاہ) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. The word "Mughal" is the Indo-Aryan version of Mongol.

The Greater Mughal Emperors
Emperor Reign start Reign end
Babur 1526 1530
Humayun 1530 1556
Akbar 1556 1605
Jahangir 1605 1627
Shah Jahan 1627 1658
Aurangzeb 1658 1707

Asaf Jahi Deccan

Nizam (Urdu: نظام‌), a shortened version of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Urdu: نظام‌الملک), meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the native sovereigns of Hyderabad state, India, since 1719, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721 and who intermittently ruled under the title Asaf Jah in 1724, and After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mogul empire crumbled and the viceroy in Hyderabad, the young Asaf Jah, declared himself independent.

See also

References

Literature


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