Islamophobia: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Islamophobia is prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims.[1] The term seems to date back to the late 1980s,[2] but came into common usage after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States.[3] In 1997, the British Runnymede Trust defined Islamophobia as the "dread or hatred of Islam and therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims," stating that it also refers to the practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social, and public life of the nation. It includes the perception that Islam has no values in common with other cultures, is inferior to the West and is a violent political ideology rather than a religion.[4] Professor Anne Sophie Roald writes that steps were taken toward official acceptance of the term in January 2001 at the "Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance", where Islamophobia was recognized as a form of intolerance alongside Xenophobia and Antisemitism.[5]

Sources have suggested an increasing trend in Islamophobia, some of which attribute it to the September 11 attacks,[6] while others associate it with the increased presence of Muslims in the Western world.[7] In May 2002 the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), a European Union watchdog, released a report entitled "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", which described an increase in Islamophobia-related incidents in European member states post-9/11.[8] Although the term is widely recognized and used, it has not been without controversy.[9]



Islamophobia is a neologism formed of Islam, the post-classical Latin -o- connecting vowel, and the post-classical Latin combining form -phobia which is used to form nouns with the sense 'irrational fear of' or 'aversion to.'[10] See List of anti-ethnic and anti-national terms for other "-phobia" coinages. As opposed to being a psychological or individualistic phobia, according to associate professor of religion Peter Gottschalk, Islamophobia connotes a social anxiety about Islam and Muslims.[11][12]


A number of individuals and organizations have made attempts to define the concept. Kofi Annan told a UN conference on Islamophobia in 2004: "[W]hen the world is compelled to coin a new term to take account of increasingly widespread bigotry, that is a sad and troubling development. Such is the case with Islamophobia."[13]

In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Professor Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. Their report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In this report, Islamophobia was defined by the Trust as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination."[14] An early documented use of the word in the United States was by the conservative American Insight magazine in 1991, used to describe Russian activities in Afghanistan.[14] Other claims of early use include usage by Iranian clerics in 1979,[15] or its use in 1921 by the painter Étienne Dinet.[16]

The American writer Stephen Schwartz has defined Islamophobia as the condemnation of the entirety of Islam and its history as extremist; denying the existence of a moderate Muslim majority; regarding Islam as a problem for the world; treating conflicts involving Muslims as necessarily their own fault; insisting that Muslims make changes to their religion; and inciting war against Islam as a whole.[17]

In a 2007 article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti-Asian and anti-Arab racism.[18] Similarly, John Denham has drawn parallels between modern Islamophobia and the antisemitism of the 1930s.[19] So has Maud Olofsson[20] and professor Jan Hjärpe.[21]

In a 2008 article in the "Journal of Political Ideologies" Jose P. Zuquete argues that Islamophobia is a catch-all term that should be avoided. Islamophobia places under the broad umbrella of 'fear or hatred of Islam' discourses and criticisms that may have distinct sources, motivations and goals. He argues instead for the use of "anti-Islamic" (because it distinguishes between different discourses about Islam).


The Runnymede report identified eight perceptions related to Islamophobia:

  1. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change.
  2. It is seen as separate and "other." It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them.
  3. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
  4. It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations.
  5. It is seen as a political ideology, used for political or military advantage.
  6. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand.
  7. Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.
  8. Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal.[22]

The above perceptions are seen as closed views on Islam. These are contrasted, in the report, with open views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, permit legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique.[23] According to Benn and Jawad, The Runnymede Trust notes that anti-Muslim discourse is increasingly seen as respectable, providing examples on how hostility towards Islam and Muslims is accepted as normal, even among those who may actively challenge other prevalent forms of discrimination.[24]

In some societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims as the national "Other", where exclusion and discrimination occurs on the basis of their religion and civilization which differs with national tradition and identity. Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively.[25] This sentiment, according to Malcolm Brown and Robert Miles, significantly interacts with racism, although Islamophobia itself is not racism.[26] The publication "Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives" describes Islamophobia as the new form of racism in Europe,[27] arguing that "Islamophobia is as much a form of racism as Anti-Semitism, a term more commonly encountered in Europe as a sibling of Racism, Xenophobia and Intolerance."[28]

Brown and Miles write that another feature of Islamophobic discourse is to amalgamate nationality (i.e. Arab), religion (Islam), and politics (terrorism, fundamentalism) — while most other religions are not associated with terrorism, or even "ethnic or national distinctiveness."[29] They feel that "many of the stereotypes and misinformation that contribute to the articulation of Islamophobia are rooted in a particular perception of Islam", such as the notion that Islam promotes terrorism; especially prevalent after the September 11, 2001 attacks.[30]



According to Elizabeth Poole in the Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, the media has been criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia. She cites a case study examining a sample of articles in the British press from between 1994 and 2004, which concluded that Muslim viewpoints were underrepresented and that issues involving Muslims usually depicted them in a negative light. Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western security and values.[31] Benn and Jawad write that hostility towards Islam and Muslims are "closely linked to media portrayals of Islam as barbaric, irrational, primitive and sexist."[24] Egorova and Tudor cite European researchers in suggesting that expressions used in the media such as "Islamic terrorism", "Islamic bombs" and "violent Islam" have resulted in a negative perception of Islam.[32]

There have been several initiatives, based upon the sixty recommendations listed in the Runnymede Trust's report, aimed at increase Muslim participation in media and politics. Soon after the release of the Runnymede report, the Muslim Council of Britain was formed to serve as an umbrella body aiming to "represent Muslims in the public sphere, to lobby government and other institutions." The "Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism" (FAIR) was also established, designed to monitor coverage in the media and establish dialogue with media organizations. Following the attacks of September 11, the Islam Awareness Week and the "Best of British Islam Festival" were introduced to improve community relations and raise awareness about Islam.[33]


Islamophobia has become a topic of increasing sociological and political importance.[29] According to Benn and Jawad, Islamophobia has increased since British Muslims' denouncement of Salman Rushdie's "The Satanic Verses" and the September 11 attacks.[34] Anthropologist Steven Vertovec writes that the purported growth in Islamophobia may be associated with increased Muslim presence in society and successes.[7] He suggests a circular model, where increased hostility towards Islam and Muslims results in governmental countermeasures such as institutional guidelines and changes to legislation, which itself may fuel further Islamophobia due to increased accommodation for Muslims in public life. Vertovec concludes: "As the public sphere shifts to provide a more prominent place for Muslims, Islamophobic tendencies may amplify."[7]

Patel, Humphries, and Naik claim that "Islamophobia has always been present in Western countries and cultures. In the last two decades, it has become accentuated, explicit and extreme."[35] However, Vertovec states that some have observed that Islamophobia has not necessarily escalated in the past decades, but that there has been increased public scrutiny of it.[7] According to Abduljalil Sajid, one of the members of the Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, "Islamophobias" have existed in varying strains throughout history, with each version possessing its own distinct features as well as similarities or adaptations from others.[36] An observatory report on Islamophobia by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference similarly states that Islamophobia has existed for as long as Islam itself.[37]

Some Muslims in India have complained about substantial discrimination. According the controversial Sachar Committee report, muslims are heavily under-represented in different government and social areas.[38][39] Among other claims, it declared that in the province of West Bengal, where Muslims make up 27% of the population, their employment in the government sector was below 3%.[40]. These findings have been disputed, in particular, by Indian Muslim politician Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi (who is generally very critical of Islamophobic hatred[41]) as politically motivated propaganda designed to secure votes from the substantially sized Muslim electorate in India by cultivating division in Indian society.[42] Numerous prominent Indian Muslims have declared that Muslims in India are treated exceedingly well compared to other countries.[43]

Muslims in the Uyghur region of China have complained of discrimination from Han Chinese[44]. Adherents of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, a secessionist movement among the Uyghur Sunni Muslims of Western China have claimed that the Communist regime of China engages in active restrictions of Islamic practises. Hajj travel for Muslims is controlled, as is Sawm during Ramadan, and Koranic teachings are censored by the government.[44] Reports argue that the July 2009 Ürümqi riots were the result of such discriminations. Human Rights Watch, as well as Uyghur activists like Rebiya Kadeer, have alleged that the Chinese state is carrying out systematic anti-Muslim campaign in the name of counter-terrorism and anti-separatism.[45]

A Pew report released in 2009 noted that nearly six-in-ten American adults see Muslims as being subject to a lot of discrimination, far more than Mormons, Atheists, or Jews.[46]

EUMC reports

The largest project monitoring Islamophobia was undertaken following 9/11 by the EU watchdog, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Their May 2002 report "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", written by Chris Allen and Jorgen S. Nielsen of the University of Birmingham, was based on 75 reports — 15 from each EU member nation.[47][48] The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became targets for abusive and sometimes violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. Incidents consisted of verbal abuse, blaming all Muslims for terrorism, forcibly removing women's hijabs, spitting on Muslims, calling children "Usama," and random assaults. Muslims have been hospitalized and on one occasion paralyzed.[48] The report also discussed the portrayal of Muslims in the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated."[48]

The EUMC has since released a number of publications related to Islamophobia, including "The Fight against Antisemitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities together (European Round Tables Meetings)" (2003) and "Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia" (2006).[49]

Criticism of concept

Salman Rushdie was one of 12 writers who signed a statement regarding Islamophobia; "We refuse to renounce our critical spirit out of fear of being accused of "Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it."[50]

The concept of Islamophobia has been criticized on several grounds.[51][52][53] Some critics argue that it is real, but is just another form of racism and does not require its own category,[54] while others argue that it is used to censor criticism, that its use threatens free speech,[52][55] or is used to silence issues relating to Muslim populations in Western countries[56]

Novelist Salman Rushdie and others signed a manifesto entitled Together facing the new totalitarianism in March 2006 which denounced Islamophobia as "a wretched concept."[50] British academic Michael Burleigh argues that the term 'spares anyone the need to examine what has gone wrong within [Europe's Muslim] communities'[56]. Some opponents argue that Islamophobia is justified.[9] Others, such as Edward Said, consider Islamophobia as it is evinced in Orientalism to be a 'secret sharer' in a more general antisemitic Western tradition[57][58][59] However, Daniel Pipes says that "'Islamophobia' deceptively conflates two distinct phenomena: fear of Islam and fear of radical Islam."[60]

The concept of Islamophobia as formulated by Runnymede is criticized by professor Fred Halliday on several levels. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims and their actions, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism."[61] Poole responds by noting that many Islamophobic discourses attack what they perceive to be Islam's tenets, while Miles and Brown write that Islamophobia is usually based upon negative stereotypes about Islam which are then translated into attacks on Muslims.[62][63] Halliday also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis. Miles and Brown respond by arguing that "the existence of different ‘Islamophobias’ does not invalidate the concept of Islamophobia any more than the existence of different racisms invalidates the concept of racism."[62] Halliday argues that the concept of Islamophobia unwittingly plays into the hands of extremists.[61]

British writer and academic Kenan Malik believes that the charge of Islamophobia confuses discrimination against Muslims with criticism of Islam, and that it is used to silence critics and Muslim reformers. He writes that the extent to which Muslims are more vulnerable to social exclusion and attacks than other groups is frequently and allows for a culture of victimhood, where all failings are attributed to Islamophobia. Islamophobia is not a form of racism, in his view, because Islam is a belief system.[64] This analysis is criticized by Inayat Bunglawala from the Muslim Council of Britain and Abdul Wahid from the Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir.[65] Bunglawala writes that Malik's argument is limited to overt acts of violence against Muslims, without recognizing less overt forms of prejudice or discrimination. By ignoring non-violent examples of Islamophobia, Malik's commentary "makes a mockery of victims of prejudice by pretending they have not been discriminated against," according to Bunglawala.[65]

In the wake of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, a group of 12 writers signed a statement in the French weekly satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo in March 2006, warning against the use of the term Islamophobia to prevent criticism of "Islamic totalitarianism." The novelist Salman Rushdie was among these signatories.[50] These views are shared by Dutch law professor Afshin Ellian.[66] Critics cite the case of British journalist Polly Toynbee, who was nominated in May 2003 for the title of "Most Islamophobic Media Personality of the Year" at the 'Annual Islamophobia Awards' overseen by the Islamic Human Rights Commission, for claiming that Islam "... imposes harsh regimes that deny the most basic human rights."[67]

In an article called "Fighting Islamophobia: A Response to Critics", Assistant Professor Deepa Kumar writes that the modern-day demonization of Arabs and Muslims by US politicians and others is racist and Islamophobic, and employed in support of an unjust war. About the public impact of this rhetoric, she says that "One of the consequences of the relentless attacks on Islam and Muslims by politicians and the media is that Islamophobic sentiment is on the rise." She also chides some "people on the left" for using the same "Islamophobic logic as the Bush regime". She concludes with the statement "At times like this, people of conscience need to organize and speak out against Islamophobia."[68]

Johann Hari of The Independent has criticized the use of the term by organizations like Islamophobia Watch, arguing that liberal Muslims interested in reform are left unsupported because people fear being accused of Islamophobia.[69] Writing in the New Humanist, philosopher Piers Benn suggests that people who fear the rise of Islamophobia foster an environment "not intellectually or morally healthy", to the point that what he calls "Islamophobia-phobia" can undermine "critical scrutiny of Islam as somehow impolite, or ignorant of the religion's true nature."[70] The New Criterion editor Roger Kimball argues that the word "Islamophobia" is a misnomer. "A phobia describes an irrational fear, and it is axiomatic that fearing the effects of radical Islam is not irrational, but on the contrary very well-founded indeed, so that if you want to speak of a legitimate phobia... ...we should speak instead of Islamophobia-phobia, the fear of and revulsion towards Islamophobia."[71]

Public discourse

Efforts against Islamophobia

There have been efforts against Islamophobia by many organizations in many countries; some of these are detailed below.

Islamophobic acts


  • In January 2006 the Dutch parliament voted in favor of a proposal to ban the burqa in public, leading to accusations of Islamophobia.[85] Filip Dewinter, the leader of Vlaams Belang bloc has said his party is "Islamophobic." He said: "Yes, we are afraid of Islam. The Islamisation of Europe is a frightening thing."[86]




A protester at a counter-demonstration against the September 15, 2007 anti-war protest in Washington, D.C.
The Mosque of Castres after vandal attack.
  • Destruction and vandalism of Muslim graves in France were seen as Islamophobic by a report of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia [97].
  • French town accuses a popular fast-food chain Quick of discrimination because it only serves burgers prepared according to Islamic dietary law [98].



  • Giles Tremlett of The Guardian referred to the burning of a Muslim Sanctuary in the Spanish city of Ceuta, as an instance of Islamophobia.[99]

United Kingdom

  • Vandalism of Muslim Graves in Charlton cemetery in Plumstead, London.[100]
  • In 2005, The Guardian commissioned an ICM poll which indicated an increase in Islamophobic incidents, particularly after the London bombings in July 2005.[101][102] Another survey of Muslims, this by the Open Society Institute, found that of those polled 32% believed they had suffered religious discrimination at airports, and 80% said they had experienced Islamophobia.[103][104]
  • On the 26 August 2007 fans of the English football club Newcastle United directed Islamophobic chants at Egyptian Middlesbrough F.C. striker Mido. An FA investigation was launched[105] He revealed his anger at The FA's investigation, believing that they would make no difference to any future abuse.[106] Two men were eventually arrested over the chanting and were due to appear at Teesside Magistrates Court.[107]
  • On July 6 2009, the Glasgow branch of Islamic Relief was badly damaged by a fire which police said was started deliberately, and which members of the Muslim community of Scotland allege were Islamophobic.[108]

United States of America

  • Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in September 2007 in what authorities call a bias crime.[109] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpatrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in whic Iranian-American Zohreh Assemi was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.[109]
  • Bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan was detained in Newark Airport in the USA and was questioned for about two hours because of his common Muslim surname Khan,[110] before the Indian mission intervened and secured his release. The actor was heading towards Chicago to participate in the Indian Independence Day celebrations. "It is a Muslim name and I think the name is common on their checklist," he told Indian television channels over telephone.[111][112]

Allegations of Islamophobic views

ABC News has reported that "[p]ublic views of Islam are one casualty of the post-Sept. 11, 2001 conflict: Nearly six in 10 Americans think the religion is prone to violent extremism, nearly half regard it unfavorably, and a remarkable one in four admits to prejudicial feelings against Muslims and Arabs alike."[129] They also report that 27 percent of Americans admit feelings of prejudice against Muslims.[129] According to Gallup polls, 40 percent of Americans admit to prejudice against Muslims, and 39 percent believe Muslims should carry special identification.[130]

Incidents on aircraft

Some incidents with Muslim passengers on aircraft have given rise to the expression "Flying while Muslim".[131]

  • On 16 August 2006 British passengers on-board a flight from Malaga to Manchester requested the removal of two men of Asian descent from a plane. According to a spokesman for the Civil Guard in Malaga, "These men had aroused suspicion because of their appearance and the fact that they were speaking in a foreign language thought to be an Arabic language, and the pilot was refusing to take off until they were escorted off the plane." A security sweep of the plane found no explosives or any item of a terrorist nature. Monarch Airlines booked the men, who were Urdu speakers, into a hotel room, gave them a free meal and sent them home on a later plane. The men later responded, "Just because we're Muslim, does not mean we are suicide bombers." The Islamic Human Rights Commission blamed "ever-increasing Islamophobia" related to the "war on terror" for the incident.[132][133][134]
  • A passenger traveling to the British Virgin Islands on a plane bound for the United States from Manchester in the UK was forced off the plane prior to takeoff. The man, a British-born Muslim residing in the United States, said he was singled out because he was a Muslim pilot and was left feeling "demoralized and humiliated. I must have met the profile on the day. I have an Arabic name, I am a Muslim, I'm from Britain and I know how to fly."[135][136]
  • On 21 November 2006, six imams were forcefully removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport for security reasons. The event led to an outcry from Muslim organizations in America saying that what happened showed the growing prejudice against Muslims in America.[137] Investigations by the airline and police so far have reported that the airline and ground crews responded to security concerns properly in removing the men from the plane.[138] See Flying Imams controversy for more details regarding this incident.
  • In 2009 AirTran Airways removed nine Muslim passengers, including three children, from a flight and turned them over to the FBI after one of the men commented to another that they were sitting right next to the engines and wondered aloud where the safest place to sit on the plane was. Although the FBI subsequently cleared the passengers and called the incident a "misunderstanding," AirTran refused to seat the passengers on another flight, forcing them to purchase last minute tickets on another airline that had been secured with the FBI's assistance. A spokesman for AirTran initially defended the airline's actions and said they would not reimburse the passengers for the cost of the new tickets. Although the men had traditional beards and the women headscarves, AirTran denied that their actions were based on the passengers' appearance.[139] The following day, after the incident received widespread media coverage, AirTran reversed its position and issued a public apology, adding that it would in fact reimburse the passengers for the cost of their rebooked tickets.[140]

In video games

  • Muslim Massacre: The Game of Modern Religious Genocide is a controversial 2008 amateur shoot 'em up computer game, as the aim of the game is to kill all Muslims that appear on the screen. The game's creator took down the game's download site with a statement of apology on his personal website, claiming his original intention in releasing the game, to "mock the foreign policy of the United States and the commonly held belief in the United States that Muslims are a hostile people to be held with suspicion", had backfired and not been understood by the wider public, and that its release "did not achieve its intended effect and instead only caused hurt to hospitable, innocent people."[141]. However it later emerged that the apology was indeed fake.[142] Thereafter, the LA Times Middle East blog Babylon & Beyond printed a comment from an anonymous contributor to an article on the website of the Arab TV channel Al Arabiya about the game, which stated, "if it were a game showing Muslims killing Israelis, the whole world would have sought revenge."[143]

See also


  1. ^
    • Sandra Fredman, Discrimination and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199246033, p.121.
    • Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195148061, p.19
    • Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60. ISBN 075464233X. Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home Secretary Jack Straw
  2. ^ Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60; Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7, 2004.
  3. ^
    • Casciani, Dominic. "Islamophobia pervades UK - report", BBC News, June 2, 2004.
    • Rima Berns McGowan writes in Muslims in the Diaspora (University of Toronto Press, 1991, p. 268) that the term "Islamophobia" was first used in an unnamed American periodical in 1991.
  4. ^ Runnymede 1997, p. 5, cited in Quraishi 2005, p. 60.
  5. ^ Roald, Anne Sophie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts. Brill. pp. 53. 
  6. ^ Benn, Jawad (2004) p. 111
  7. ^ a b c d Steven Vertovec, "Islamophobia and Muslim Recognition in Britain"; in Haddad (2002) pp. 32-33
  8. ^ See:
    • Greaves (2004) p. 133
    • Allen, Chris; Nielsen, Jorgen S.; Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001 (May 2002), EUMC.
  9. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies p. 218, Routledge 2003. Routledge. 2003. pp. 218. "The Runnymede Trust has been successful in that the term Islamophobia is now widely recognized and used, though many right-wing commentators either reject its existence or argue that it is justified." 
  10. ^ "Islamophobia". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Draft Entry Sept. 2006.
  11. ^ Corrina Balash Kerr (2007-11-20). "Faculty, Alumnus Discuss Concept of "Islamophobia" in Co-Authored Book". Wesleyan University Newsletter. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  12. ^ "Images of Muslims: Discussing Islamophobia with Peter Gottschalk". Political Affairs.. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  13. ^ Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7, 2004.
  14. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Race and Ethics, p. 215
  15. ^ Islamophobie?, Caroline Fourest & Fiammetta Venner; in prochoix, no.26/27, 2003.
  16. ^ :: Minorités ::
  17. ^ "The 'Islamophobes' That Aren't", FrontPage Magazine, April 28, 2005.
  18. ^ Scott Poynting, Victoria Mason (2007). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. 
  19. ^ The Times: Fascism fears: John Denham speaks out over clashes
  20. ^ SvD: Reinfeldt: Kärnan i partiets idé
  21. ^ SvD: Sverigedemokrat till hårt angrepp mot muslimsk ideologi i tal
  22. ^ "Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All"PDF (69.7 KiB), Runnymede Trust, 1997.
  23. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 162
  24. ^ a b Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 165
  25. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 216
    • Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  26. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163, 164
  27. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. 182
  28. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. xxii
  29. ^ a b Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  30. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 166
  31. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 217
  32. ^ See Egorova; Tudor (2003) pp. 2-3, which cites the conclusions of Marquina and Rebolledo in: "A. Marquina, V. G. Rebolledo, ‘The Dialogue between the European Union and the Islamic World’ in Interreligious Dialogues: Christians, Jews, Muslims, Annals of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, v. 24, no. 10, Austria, 2000, pp. 166-8. "
  33. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 218
  34. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 111
  35. ^ Naina Patel, Beth Humphries and Don Naik, "The 3 Rs in social work; Religion,‘race’ and racism in Europe", in Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) pp. 197-198
  36. ^ Imam Dr Abduljalil Sajid. "Islamophobia: A new word for an old fear". Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  37. ^ 1st OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia
  38. ^ Sachar report to be implemented in full
  39. ^ The Missing Muslim, the Sunday Express. Full coverage on Sachar Report
  40. ^ Fearful Muslims adopt Hindu IDs, The Toronto Star, August 15, 2007
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ Report shows Sachar findings manipulated
  43. ^
    • Azim Premji - "'ll tell a Muslim, if you want to be Premji, you’ve every chance to do that in India"[2]
    • Feroz Khan - "I am a proud Indian. India is a secular country. The Muslims there are making lot of progress unlike in Pakistan. Our President is a Muslim and our Prime Minister a Sikh. Pakistan was made in the name of Islam, but look how the Muslims are killing Muslims here." [3]
  44. ^ a b Wary of Islam, China Tightens a Vise of Rules, New York Times
  45. ^ [4]
  46. ^ Among U.S. Religious Groups, Muslims Seen as Facing More Discrimination
  47. ^ ""EUMC presents reports on Discrimination and Islamophobia in the EU"". "European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia media release". 2006-12-18. 
  48. ^ a b c Allen, Chris and Nielsen, Jorgen S. "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", EUMC, May, 2002.
  49. ^ EUMC website - Publications . Retrieved on 2007-11-17.
  50. ^ a b c "We refuse to renounce our critical spirit out of fear of being accused of "Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it." Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  51. ^ Muslims Create Islamophobes, Then Want Islamophobes Punished | The Brussels Journal
  52. ^ a b Islamophobia as an Excuse to Silence Critics of Islam?
  53. ^ Michelle Malkin » Critics of Islam under fire…again
  54. ^ Faisal Bodi: Islamophobia is as wrong as racism | Politics | The Guardian
  55. ^ Tyranny begins with self-censorship | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET
  56. ^ a b Burleigh, M (2009) Blood and Rage, A Cultural History of Terrorism, Harper Perennial, P440
  57. ^ Edward W.Said, Orientalism, Pantheon Books, New York 1978 pp.27-28
  58. ^ Edward W. Said, ‘Orientalism Reconsidered’ in Francis Barker, Peter Hulme, Margaret Iversen, Diana Loxley (eds), Literature, Politics, and Theory, Methuen & Co, London 1986 pp.210-229, pp.220f.
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  77. ^ Teaching tolerance amid tension BBC - Friday, 15 July, 2005
  78. ^ Prayer mats lined the pavements BBC - Saturday, 11 February 2006
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  98. ^ After burqa, halal menu target of French ire
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  117. ^ Rising Islamophobia makes Birmingham fertile ground for BNP, The Independent, April 8, 2006
  118. ^ Obituary of Oriana Fallaci - The Guardian, 16 September 2006. "Controversial Italian journalist famed for her interviews and war reports but notorious for her Islamaphobia"
  119. ^ Annual Islamophobia Awards, 2003
  120. ^ "The gospel according to John (Ashcroft)" San Francisco Chronicle
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  122. ^ Filip Dewinter interview, Jewish Week, December 9, 2006
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  • Cashmore, E, ed (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. Routledge. 
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  • Haddad, Y. (2002). Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195148053. 
  • Johnson, M. R. D.; Soydan, H; Williams, C. (1998). Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415169623. 
  • Miles, R.; Brown, M. (2003). Racism. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415296765. 

Further reading

  • Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. Zed. ISBN 978-1842774496. 
  • van Driel, B. (2004). Confronting Islamophobia In Educational Practice. Trentham Books. ISBN 1858563402. 
  • Gottschalk, P.; Greenberg, G. (2007). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield publishers. ISBN 978-0742552869. 
  • Greaves, R. (2004). Islam and the West Post 9/11. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 0754650057. 
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey (2006). Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime, Terrorism and Political Violence (Routledge), 18:1, 1 - 33.
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg (2004).The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press. (Arabic Edition, 2005).
  • Pynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2007). The resistible rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim racism in the UK and Australia before 11 September 2001. Journal of Sociology, The Australian Sociological Association. 43(1): 61–86.
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, Tomaz Kastrun and Karl Mueller (2007), ‘'Against Islamophobia: Muslim Communities, Social Exclusion and the Lisbon Process in Europe'’ Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, and Karl Mueller (2007), "Muslim Calvinism”, internal security and the Lisbon process in Europe Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers
  • Tausch, Arno (2007), Against Islamophobia. Quantitative analyses of global terrorism, world political cycles and center periphery structures Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers
  • Quraishi, M. (2005). Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 075464233X. 
  • Ramadan, T. (2004). Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019517111X. 
  • Zuquete, Jose Pedro (2008), The European extreme-right and Islam: New directions, [Journal of Political Ideologies]

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Islamophobia is the fear of Islamic ideology or Muslims.


  • There are people who regard their next door Muslim as a potential terrorist. That is not good for building community relations.
  • "Islamophobia", the thought-crime that seeks to suppress legitimate criticism of Islam and demonize those who would tell the truth about Islamic aggression.
  • But because we live in a liberal democracy and therefore have certain double standards to maintain, any criticism of Islam or of Muslims always draws the immediate accusation of Islamophobia, a dishonest word which seeks to portray legitimate comment as some kind of hate crime.

External links

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Wikipedia has an article about:
Look up Islamophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Wikipedia has an article on:


Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:





Islamophobia (uncountable)

  1. The fear or hatred of Islam or Muslims

Related terms


  • OED (online) 2007

Simple English

File:Manifesto della Lega Nord a Trento "No Moschee in Trentino" - August
Poster of Lega Nord, from 2007. This poster wanted to limit the building of mosques in Trentino

Islamophobia is a political term meant as an insult that literally means the fear of Muslims. It is sometimes used to describe a hatred of the religion and its followers and often actions taken in order to voice this fear and hatred. "Islamophobia" can supposedly take the form of criticisms against certain ideological positions taken by believers but almost always state the religion itself as the actual problem.

In 1996, the Runnymede Trust looked at the problem, and found the following:[1]

  1. The Islamic World ("Islam") is seen as a single block, which will not change
  2. Islam is separate and "other". It does not have common values with other cultures.
  3. Islam is inferior to "the West". It has a barbaric culture, which is also irrational and sexist.
  4. It is seen as violent, aggressive, and threatening. It is seen as supporting terrorism.
  5. It is seen as an ideology which can be used in politics or war.
  6. When Muslims criticise "the West", these criticisms are not tolerated
  7. When Muslims are discriminated against in society, Islamophobia is used as a justification.
  8. Hostility against Muslims is seen as natural and normal


  1. "Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All"PDF (69.7 KiB), Runnymede Trust, 1997.


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