The Full Wiki

More info on Israel–Jordan peace treaty

Israel–Jordan peace treaty: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A handshake between Hussein I of Jordan and Yitzhak Rabin, accompanied by Bill Clinton, during the Israel-Jordan peace negotiations, October 26, 1994

The IsraelJordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew: הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן‎; transliterated: Heskem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisra'el Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية‎; transliterated: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah, and sometimes referred to as the Wadi Araba Treaty) is a peace treaty signed in 1994. The treaty normalized relations between the two countries and resolved territorial disputes between them. The conflict between them had cost roughly 18.3 billion dollars. Its signing is also closely linked with the efforts to create peace between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization representing the Palestinian Authority. It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabah on October 26, 1994, and made Jordan only the second Arab country, after Egypt, to normalize relations with Israel.

Contents

Background to negotiations

Arab League states and Israel map.png
This article is part of the
Arab-Israeli conflict series.
History
Views of the conflict
Media coverage of the conflict
International law
Related
Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Arab League
Soviet Union, Russia
Israel, Palestine and the United Nations
Iran-Israel relations
Israel-United States relations
Boycott of Israel
Peace treaties and proposals
Israel-Egypt
Israel-Jordan

The relationships between Jewish leaders in Palestine and the Hashemite dynasty in the area was characterized by ambivalence as both parties' prominence grew in the area. Jordan consistently subscribed to the anti-Zionist policy of the Arab world, but made specific decisions in keeping with a pragmatic point of view.

Several factors are cited for their relative pragmatism towards Israel. Among these are the two countries' close geographic proximity, King Hussein's pro-Western orientation, and Jordan's modest territorial aspirations. Nevertheless, a state of war existed between the two countries from 1948 until the treaty was signed.

Memoir writers and political analysts have identified a number of "back-channel" and at times clandestine communications between the two countries, often resulting in limited accommodations even during times of war.

After the Fedayeen attacks from Jordan decreased as a result of the victory of Israel in the Suez War of 1956, the tense relations between Israel and Jordan following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war started to ease off. In the 1967 Six Day War, Jordan aligned itself with Nasser's Egypt despite an Israeli warning not to get involved in the war. This resulted in the fall of East Jerusalem and the West Bank to Israel. Besides the loss of territory, this was also an economic loss to the kingdom since much of the kingdom's economy was based in the West Bank.

In 1970 King Hussein waged the war of Black September against the PLO, ejecting the organization which was in real danger of usurping Hussein's rule over his country. During the events of Black September, Syrian troops invaded the kingdom, threatening to further destabilize the King's situation. In response, the Israeli Air Force made a series of overflights over the Syrian forces, prompting them to return to Syria.

The war against the PLO terrorist factions may have strengthened the connections between Israel and Jordan. Some claim that the Mossad gave warning to Hussein about a Palestinian assassination attempt and that Hussein warned Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir in a clandestine face-to-face meeting about Egyptian and Syrian threats prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Hussein's intention was to stay out of the war.

In 1987 Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres and King Hussein tried to secretly promote a peace agreement in which Israel would concede control over the West Bank to Jordan. The two signed an agreement defining a framework for a Middle Eastern peace conference, however the proposal was not consummated due to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir’s objection. The following year Jordan abandoned its claim for the West Bank in favor of a peaceful resolution between Israel and the PLO[1].

The negotiation of the agreement

During 1994 the ice was broken. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres informed King Hussein that after the Oslo Accords with the PLO, Jordan may be "left out of the big game". Hussein consulted with the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and the Syrian President Hafez al-Assad. Mubarak encouraged him, but Assad told him only to "talk" with Israel and not sign any accord. U.S. President Bill Clinton pressured Hussein to start peace negotiations and to sign a peace treaty with Israel and promised him that Jordan's debts would be forgiven. The efforts succeeded and Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel. Rabin, Hussein and Clinton signed the Washington Declaration in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. The Declaration says that Israel and Jordan would end the official state of enmity and would start negotiations in order to achieve an "end to bloodshed and sorrow" and a just and lasting peace. [1]

The signing of the agreement

In July 1994 the Prime Minister of Jordan Abdelsalam al-Majali declared an "end to the age of wars" and Shimon Peres declared that "the moment of peace has arrived". Rabin and King Hussein held a public meeting with Clinton at the White House.

On October 26, 1994 Jordan and Israel then signed the historic peace treaty in a ceremony held in the Arava valley of Israel, north of Eilat and near the Jordanian border. Prime Minister Rabin and Prime Minister Abdelsalam al-Majali signed the treaty and the President of Israel Ezer Weizman shook hands with King Hussein. It was witnessed by President Bill Clinton, accompanied by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher. Thousands of colorful balloons released into the sky ended the event.

The Israeli public fully supported the agreement and was very excited about such a historic moment. Egypt welcomed the agreement and Syria ignored it. However, the Lebanese militia group Hezbollah resisted the treaty and 20 minutes prior to the signature ceremony shelled the northern Galilee settlements with mortar shells and rockets. The Israeli settlers, who were forced to evacuate the settlements for the safety of shelters, took with them radio transistors and mobile TVs in order not to miss the historical moment of signing a second peace treaty with an Arab state.

Following the agreements, Israel and Jordan opened their borders as borders of peace. Several border-crossings were erected across the border, allowing tourists, merchants and workers to travel between the two states. Israeli tourists started to visit Jordan, many of them traveled especially to see the sela ha'adom ("Red Rock") of Petra - a stone-carved Nabatean city which fascinated Israelis during the 50's and the 60's, often luring adventurers to visit it secretly.

Trade treaty of 1996

In 1996 an additional trade treaty was signed, and Israel provided considerable assistance during the establishment of a modern medical center in Amman.

Main principles in the agreement

  • Borders: the agreed upon border was set to be the Jordan river, and if its flow changed, Jordan's border would be reset by the river's new course. In addition, Israel gave Jordan 300 square kilometers, including the Peace Island, and leased 2850 dunams (2.85 km²) in the Arabah (Muvlaat Tzofar). The border segment from Ein Gedi to Beit She'an was not marked, because Jordan said that the Palestinian Authority should be a partner for setting this border.
  • Normalization: full normalization, establishment of diplomatic relations and the opening of embassies, granting tourists visas, opening a flight connection, freedom of access to seaports and the establishment of a free trade zone and an industrial park in the Arava. In the framework of good neighborliness, there is a prohibitation of hostile propaganda and negative expression in the countries' laws.
  • Security and Defense: respect for the sovereignty and territory of each side, not entering without permission, cooperation against terrorism and joint counter-terror efforts; including thwarting border attacks and smugglers, each country is obliged to prevent any hostile attack against the other and not to cooperate with any terrorist organization against the other.
  • Jerusalem: Jordan will be given preference when it comes to the status of the Muslim holy places in the city (as a guardian or keeper of the Muslim holy places) in any future peace agreement with the Palestinians.
  • Water: in the framework of a just division of the water of the Jordan River and the Arava's underground water resources, Israel agreed to give Jordan 50 million cubic meters of water each year (Jordan demanded 100 million) and to share the Yarmouk River so that Jordan has three-fourths of it. Both countries will develop other water resources and reservoirs and will help each other in years of drought.
  • Palestinian refugees: Israel and Jordan will cooperate in order to relieve the suffering of the refugees, including a four-way committee (Israel, Jordan, Egypt and the Palestinians) which will try to work towards a solution.

The treaty

The treaty consists of a preamble, thirty articles, five annexes, and agreed minutes.

Preamble of the treaty: Desire for peace Israel and Jordan note and agree to honor the Washington Declaration, signed July 25, 1994, and basing themselves on U.N Security Council Resolution and in all aspects, they declared the termination of the state of belligerency between them and establish peace between them in accordance with the treaty of peace.

Articles of the treaty

The following is a synopsis of the treaty's thirty articles:

Advertisements

Article 1: Peace established

Peace is established between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Article 2: Mutual recognition

Recognise and respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence. The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan is in harmony with the State Of Israel.

Article 3: Borders

Delineation and recognition of the international boundary between Israel and Jordan was delimited with reference to the boundary definition under the Mandate. But, without prejudice to the status of any territories that came under Israeli military government control in 1967 (paragraph 2). The Peace Island came under Jordanian military control, but Israel maintains administration and civilian presence.

Article 4: Security cooperation

Mutual understanding and co-operation in security-related matters would form a significant part of relations. They recognized the achievements of the European Union in developing the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) and committed themselves to the creation, in the Middle East, of a CSCME (Conference on Security and Co-operation in the Middle East). And to refrain from the threat or use of force or weapons, conventional, non-conventional or of any other kind, and combating terrorism of all kinds.

Article 5: Diplomatic relations

Establishing full diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange resident ambassadors, including normalization of economic and cultural relations.

Article 6: Water resources

Recognizing the rightful water allocations of both of them in the Jordan River and Yarmouk River waters and Arabah (Arava) ground water and development of new water resources.

Article 7: Economic cooperation

To promote economic cooperation by removing discriminatory barriers and terminate economic boycotts.

Article 8: Refugees

The problem of displaced persons would also be discussed together with Egypt and the Palestinians, and the issue of refugees would be discussed in a multilateral manner in conjunction with and at the same time as the permanent status negotiations pertaining to the territories. Noteworthy, the terminology used does not distinguish along ethnic or religious categories suggesting that it is recognised and a solution must involve Jewish and Arab displaced persons.

Article 9: Holy places

Freedom of access to places of religious and historical significance. Israel would respect the special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines. The states also pledged to promote interfaith relations among Judaism, Islam and Christianity, with the aim of working towards religious understanding, moral commitment, freedom of religious worship, and tolerance and peace.

Article 10: Culture and science

Establishing cultural and scientific exchanges in all fields, and agree to establish normal cultural relations.

Article 11: Mutual understanding and tolerance

Parties abstain from propaganda against each other, prevent the dissemination of such propaganda in their own countries, ensure mutual enjoyment by each other's citizens of due process of law.

Article 12: Drugs and crime

Combating crime, smuggling, trafficking in illicit drugs, and bringing to trial the perpetrators.

Article 13: Roads

Permitting the free movement of people and vehicles and not to impose discriminatory taxes or restrictions. To open and maintain roads and border-crossings, and agreed to continue negotiations for a highway to be constructed between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat.

Article 14: Freedom of the sea

Right of passage through territorial waters in accordance with the rules of international law with normal access to ports.The Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba are to be international waterways open to all nations.

Article 15: Air travel

Recognition of the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the multilateral aviation agreements, particularly of the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (The Chicago Convention) and the 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement.

Article 16: Communications

Having direct telephone and facsimile lines and postal links.

Article 17: Tourism

Promoting co-operation in the field of tourism.

Article 18: Environment

Cooperating relating to the environment, conservation of nature and prevention of pollution.

Article 19: Energy

Development of energy resources and projects such as the utilisation of solar energy. Interconnecting of the electric grids in the Eilat-Aqaba area.

Article 20: Rift Valley

Development of the Jordan Rift Valley area, including joint projects in the economic, environmental, energy-related and tourism fields.

Article 21: Health

Cooperation in the area of health.

Article 22: Agriculture

Cooperation in the areas of agriculture, including veterinary services, plant protection, biotechnology and marketing.

Article 23: Aqaba-Eilat

Arrangements for the joint development of the towns of Aqaba and Eilat, such as tourism development, customs, free trade zone, aviation, prevention of pollution, maritime matters, police, customs and health co-operation.

Article 24: Claims commission

Establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

Article 25: Obligations

The treaty would not affect their rights and obligations under the United Nations Charter, to fulfil in good faith their obligations and to abolish all pejorative references to each other.

Article 26: Legislation

To enact the legislation necessary tyin order to implement the treaty, and to terminate any international commitments and to repeal any legislation that is inconsistent with it.

Article 27: Ratification

The would treaty would be ratified by both countries in conformity with their respective national procedures.

Article 28: Interim measures

Application of interim measures.

Article 29: Dispute resolution

Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of the treaty should be resolved by negotiations. Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations should be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.

Article 30: Registration with UN

The treaty would be transmitted to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Annexes of the treaty

Annex 1: Borders

See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex I, Israel-Jordan International Boundary Delimitation and Demarcation [2]

Annex 3: Crime and drugs

See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex III, Combatting Crime and Drugs [3]

Annex 4: Environment

See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex IV, Environment [4]

Agreed minutes of the treaty

See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Agreed Minutes [5]

Violations of the treaty

From the Israeli side, there has been disappointment with failures to observe commitments of the treaty. Thus, High Court Justice Elyakim Rubinstein commented, “The peace agreement with Jordan is not as warm as we would have liked.”[2]

In spite of the stipulations in article 7, there has been a growing boycott aginst Israel, including a cutting of imports of Jewish products from Judea and Samaria.[2]

Article 9 notwithstanding, there have been several instances of Jewish visitors being stopped at the Jordanian border for carrying religious items, such as tefillin.[2]

See also

References

Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message