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Military of Israel
Israel army flag.gifIdf logo4.jpg
Israel Defense Forces flag and logo
Manpower
Military age 18
Conscription 18
Available for
military service
1,499,186 males, age 17–49 (2000 est.),
1,462,063 females, age 17–49 (2000 est.)
Fit for
military service
1,226,903 males, age 17–49 (2000 est.),
1,192,319 females, age 17–49 (2000 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
50,348 males (2000 est.),
47,996 females (2000 est.)
Active personnel 176,500[1] (ranked 34th)
Reserve personnel 445,000[1]
Expenditures
Budget $13.3 billion[2] (2009)
Industry
Domestic suppliers Israel Aerospace Industries
Israel Military Industries
Israel Weapon Industries
Elbit Systems
Elisra
Elta
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Soltam Systems
Plasan
Automotive Industries
Hatehof
Israel Shipyards
SimiGon
BUL Transmark
Aeronautics Defense Systems Ltd
Israeli Ordnance Corps
Foreign suppliers  United States
 Germany
 United Kingdom[3]
 France
 Italy
 South Korea
 Belgium[4]
 Spain
 Czech Republic
 Slovakia
 Turkey
 Canada
 Hungary
 Serbia
 Slovenia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[5]
 Sweden
 Austria
.The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎, About this sound Tzva Hagana LeYisra'el , lit. Defense Army for Israel, Arabic: جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal (צה"ל), are Israel's military forces, comprising the ground forces, air force and navy.^ IDF - Israel Defense Forces Jr. Hoodie $37.99 .
  • IDF - Israel Defense Forces : RightWingStuff - Conservative Anti Obama T-Shirts 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

^ Girls of Israel Defense Force(IDF), 201 to 271 total 271 .
  • Girls of Israel Defense Force(IDF), 201 to 271 total 271 - Kingdom of Adulu.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.adulu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel's ground, air, and naval forces, known as the Israel Defense Force (IDF), fall under the command of a single general staff.

.It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel.^ The Israeli military kidnaps 12 civilians from the...
  • Israel-Palestine: The Missing Headlines: PA defense crews assist in rescue of settlers in bus fire 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.israel-palestinenews.org [Source type: News]
  • Israel-Palestine: The Missing Headlines: Israeli forces detain 7 Palestinians 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.israel-palestinenews.org [Source type: News]

^ Israel Defense Forces: changes in Israeli military .
  • Israel Defense Forces: Changing the Israeli military. Size of Israeli Army, strength and military capabilities. 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC samsonblinded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel Defense Forces: Changing the Israeli military.
  • Israel Defense Forces: Changing the Israeli military. Size of Israeli Army, strength and military capabilities. 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC samsonblinded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel; as of 2010 Rav Aluf Gabi Ashkenazi has served as Chief of Staff since 2007.
.An order of Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on May 26, 1948 officially set up the Israel Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah, incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi.^ The Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Tzva Hagannah Leyisrael, were formed on May 28, 1948, and the Haganah became the IDF. .

^ Israel Defense Forces spending in flux .
  • Israel Defense Forces spending in flux - UPI.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ Bless the soldiers of Israel's Defense Forces, .
  • Bless the soldiers of Israel's Defense Forces, - URJ 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC urj.org [Source type: General]

.The IDF served as Israel's armed forces in all the country's major military operations — including the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the 1956 Sinai War, the 1967 Six-Day War, the War of Attrition, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Operation Litani, the 1982 Lebanon War, Operation Defensive Wall, the 2006 Lebanon War and Operation Cast Lead.^ Israel Defense Forces spending in flux .
  • Israel Defense Forces spending in flux - UPI.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ The Arab assaults and aggressions against Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1968, and 1973 had nothing to do with Palestinians.
  • History of Israel and Palestine in VERY Easy To Understand Maps 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masada2000.org [Source type: Original source]

^ IDF Ground Forces - (Read Israeli Defense Forces Israel defense force.
  • Israeli Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.While originally the IDF operated on three fronts—against Lebanon and Syria in the north, Jordan and Iraq in the east, and Egypt in the south—after the 1979 Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, it has concentrated its activities in southern Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories, including the First and the Second Intifada.^ From the north, east and south came the armies of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Transjordan, and Egypt.

^ Israeli-Palestinian 'peace deals' meaningless?
  • Source: Obama team asked Israel to end offensive 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: News]

^ I served in the territories in the first intifada.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways, including the conscription of women, and the structure, with close relations between the ground forces, air force and navy.^ Resources for air force and israel .
  • air force and israel Resources | BNET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Israel Defense Forces spending in flux .
  • Israel Defense Forces spending in flux - UPI.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ IDF Ground Forces - (Read Israeli Defense Forces Israel defense force.
  • Israeli Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.Since its founding, the IDF has striven to become a unique army fitting Israel's specific requirements.^ The Israel Defense Forces, also referred to as the IDF, is the name used to describe the entirety of Israel 's military forces, including Army, Air Force, and Sea Corps divisions.
  • Israeli Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Since its founding in 1948, Israel has fought five major wars, conducted numerous major operations against hostile neighbors and supplied an army of occupation in the West Bank and Gaza for more than 30 years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel; as of 2010Lieutenant General Gabi Ashkenazi has served as Chief of Staff since 2007.

.In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel Prize for its contribution to education.^ Israel Defense Forces spending in flux .
  • Israel Defense Forces spending in flux - UPI.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ Bless the soldiers of Israel's Defense Forces, .
  • Bless the soldiers of Israel's Defense Forces, - URJ 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC urj.org [Source type: General]

^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel’s military force.
  • The Ethical Code of the Israel Defense forces (IDF) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .The IDF uses several technologies developed in Israel, many of them made specifically to match the IDF's needs, such as the Merkava main battle tank, advanced Hi-Tech weapons systems, and the Galil and Tavor assault rifles.^ Israel also has developed its own independent weapons industry, which has developed weapons and vehicles such as the Merkava battle tank series, Kfir fighter aircraft, and various small arms such as the Galil and Tavor assault rifles and the .
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though it has always been outnumbered by its enemies, the IDF maintains a qualitative advantage by deploying advanced weapons systems, many of which are developed and manufactured in Israel for its specific needs.
  • Israel Defense Forces - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF's tank brigades now boast the most advanced main battle tank in the world, the Israeli-made Merkava (Hebrew for Chariot).
  • The I.D.F. : Israel Today - Israel My Beloved 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.israelmybeloved.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Uzi submachine gun was invented in Israel and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. Since around 1967, the IDF has had close military relations with the United States,[7] including development cooperation, such as on the F-15I jet, THEL laser defense system, and the Arrow missile defense system.^ Tags: army · IDF · Israel · Israel Defense Forces · military · socks .

^ U.S. to relocate missile defense system .

^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel’s military force.
  • The Ethical Code of the Israel Defense forces (IDF) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

The Ink Flag, a symbol of the IDF's victory in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Heavily armed Israeli soldiers in full combat gear prepare for a night raid
.The IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv, starting with the Second Aliyah (1904 to 1914).^ To these ends, the first part of the article will examine air power’s place in the IDF’s traditional doctrine, while the second part will explore its place in the IDF’s "new" doctrine.
  • The Role of the Israel Air Force in the Operational Doctrine of the Israel DefenseForces: 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally it started as just to share news and information about Israel and Jewish issues with a bit of commentary here and there.
  • Inside The Jewish Internet Defense Force | THE CUBAN REVOLUTION 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.briancuban.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the developing force of Jewish self-defence split into many different organizations during the Second World War.
  • Foundations of the Israeli Army and Defense Forces (IDF) at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, and was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property.^ The goal of Hamas is to expel all Jews who came to Historic Palestine, now Israel, after 1917, and then create a single, Islamic state.
  • RealClearPolitics - Articles - Israel Is Exercising Its Right of Self-Defense 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.realclearpolitics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ed Koch 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jewishworldreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It accomplished this mission until June 1, 1948, when the Israel Defence Forces - the IDF - officially came into being, several days after the provisional government passed a resolution to this effect (May 26).
  • From Hashomer to the Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few years later, in 1907, a small group of settlers decided to become self-reliant on their own protection and established a self-defence organization ( 'Bar Giora' , named after a famous Jew who fought against the Romans in the final rebellion which preceded the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D.), which in turn grew into a wider, national self-defence entity in 1909, called 'HaShomer' ('The Watchman' or 'The Guardsman').
  • Foundations of the Israeli Army and Defense Forces (IDF) at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During World War I the forerunners of the Haganah/IDF were the Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion.^ The IDF succeeded the Haganah (in particular, its operational branch, the Palmach) as the permanent army of the Jewish state.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Haganah answers to the authority of the World Zionist Organization in conjunction with the organized Jewish community in the Land, is at their service and obeys their orders.
  • From Hashomer to the Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the succeeding decades until the Holocaust conducted by Nazi Germany during World War II, Jewish immigration to Palestine continued at a fairly steady pace.

.After the Arab riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv's leadership saw the need to create a nationwide underground defense organization, and the Haganah was founded in June of the same year.^ T he Palestinian Jews were forced to form an organized defense against the Arabs Palestinians....
  • History of Israel and Palestine in VERY Easy To Understand Maps 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masada2000.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company still performed at a loss but compared to the same quarter last year saw strong improvement .

.The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps, Guard Corps and the Palmach.^ T he Palestinian Jews were forced to form an organized defense against the Arabs Palestinians....
  • History of Israel and Palestine in VERY Easy To Understand Maps 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masada2000.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ISP is a one-stop shop for supplying military, police, security organizations, counter-terror units, SWAT teams, and Special Forces worldwide with field-proven Israeli know-how for physical protection.
  • Israel Security Products | Military,Homeland Security,SWAT,Counter-Terror,Anti-Terror Products and Training 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israel-security-products.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, it appears that the Israel Defense Forces are working on creating a dedicated new media unit that would do just that.

.During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade.^ Treats service as a member of the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II for any individual honorably discharged therefrom as active service in the computation of military retired pay.
  • H.R.3326: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010 - U.S. Congress - OpenCongress 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.opencongress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A variety of obsolete and surplus ex-World War II (mostly Ex-Luftwaffe) combat aircraft were quickly sourced by various means to supplement this fleet.
  • Israel Air-Force - a knol by Anonymous 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case specifically, the foundations of the IAF are built on old World War II foes - the British Spitfire and the German Messerschmidt.
  • The Israeli Military (IDF) & Security Services Resources Page at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The IDF was founded following the establishment of the State of Israel, after Defense Minister and Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion issued an order on May 26, 1948. The order called for the establishment of the Israel Defense Forces, and the abolishment of all other Jewish armed forces.^ He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel Defense Forces spending in flux .
  • Israel Defense Forces spending in flux - UPI.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion became Israel’s first president and prime minister.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Ben-Gurion had no legal authority to issue such an order, the order was made legal by the cabinet on May 31.[8] The two other Jewish underground organizations, Irgun and Lehi, agreed to join the IDF if they would be able to form independent units and agreed not to make independent arms purchases.^ They make no mention of proportionality as an independent principle.
  • A Follow-Up on Israel and Gaza « EJIL: Talk! 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ejiltalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every generous check or money order (which can be anonymous) made out to "JTF" (which is political and not tax-deductible) or to "VJA" (which is fully tax-deductible and non-political) makes a huge difference.
  • Jewish Task Force (JTF.ORG): America And Israel May Share Lebanon's Fate (Part 2) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC jtf.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was the background for the dispute which led to the Altalena Affair, when following a confrontation regarding the weapons it brought resulted in a battle between Irgun members and the newly-created IDF. It ended when the ship was shelled.^ There seems to be no dispute though that the Jericho-I was designed to deliver nuclear warheads, despite Israel's policy of opacity with regards to its status as a nuclear weapon state.
  • NTI: Country Overviews: Israel: Missile Overview 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minister Friedmann will formulate answers to possible questions regarding IDF operations, which the self-righteous are liable to raise concerning the character of the Israeli fighting and its results.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end result, according to Biton, is a combined ability “to manage battles, execute debriefs and implement corrections, all in real time.” .
  • EuCom deploys radar, troops to Israel - Army News, news from Iraq, - Army Times 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.armytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Following the affair, all independent Irgun and Lehi units were either disbanded or merged into the IDF. The Palmach, a strong lobby within the Haganah, also joined the IDF with provisions, and Ben Gurion responded by disbanding its staff in 1949, after which many senior Palmach officers retired, notably its first commander, Yitzhak Sadeh.^ Many officers in the Border Guard come from the IDF combat units.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The units at Ben Gurion Airport were ordered back to their bases, and the command post disbanded.

^ The first 120-seat Knesset (parliament) went into session following national elections (25 January 1949) in which nearly 85 percent of all eligible voters cast their ballots.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new army organized itself during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, when Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen declared war on Israel.^ Establishment of the State See main articles: Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel and 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the north, east and south came the armies of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Transjordan, and Egypt.

^ The Israeli army in southern Lebanon .
  • Jewish Task Force (JTF.ORG): America And Israel May Share Lebanon's Fate (Part 2) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC jtf.org [Source type: Original source]

.Twelve infantry and armored brigades formed: Golani, Carmeli, Alexandroni, Kiryati, Givati, Etzioni, the 7th and 8th armored brigades, Oded, Harel, Yiftach and Negev.^ The Givati Brigade, one of the infantry brigades of the IDF...
  • IDF and Security Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelmint.com [Source type: General]

^ The units should be drawn from Yoni Netanyahu’s paratroops, another paratroop unit and the Golani Infantry Brigade.

^ In 1948 all the resistance movements were joined together in order to form the IDF. One of the Hagana outfits - the Golany unit, was turned into the IDF first infantry brigade in February 48 - the Golani infantry brigade.

[9] .After the war, some of the brigades were converted to reserve units, and others were disbanded.^ Like the other major units of the IDF, the Home Command also underwent a comprehensive process of reassessment following the second Lebanon war.
  • Israeli Defense Force | The Jewish Chronicle 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC thejc.com [Source type: News]

^ My gut feel is that command and control, planning, and synchronization were poor at the brigade level and above -- possibly in some battalion-sized units as well.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the years preceding the Yom Kippur War, the brigade had demonstrated a remarkable ability to “pull itself up by its own bootstraps” and was now recognized as an elite unit.

.Directorates and corps were created from corps and services in the Haganah, and this basic structure in the IDF still exists today.^ By this time, the Haganah had created a Field Corps, a Medical Service, a Signals Corps, an Intelligence service, Aliya Bet (which handled illegal immigration), an arms industry and services for the procurement and storage of weapons.
  • From Hashomer to the Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally, they served in the framework of a special unit called "The Minorities' Unit", which still exists today, in the form of the Harev independent battalion.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 1950s, the IDF Armored Corps underwent a number of changes in its command structure.

.Immediately after the 1948 war, the Israel Defense Forces shifted to low intensity conflict against Arab Palestinian guerrillas.^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel’s military force.
  • The Ethical Code of the Israel Defense forces (IDF) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel Defense Forces from 1969-2004.
  • The TaxPayers' Alliance - Media Coverage: Israel News Agency: Israel Defense Forces IDF Hero Doron Almog Takes On UK Police, Justice 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.taxpayersalliance.com [Source type: News]

^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel's military force.

.In the 1956 Suez Crisis, the IDF's first test of strength after 1949, the new army proved itself by capturing the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, which was later returned.^ The first test of this system came in the 1956 Sinai Campaign.

^ The 1948-49 War of Independence and the 1956 Suez War had demonstrated the superior quality of the IDF in relation to the armies of its Arab enemies--not in terms of its equipment, which mostly turned out to be inferior, but rather in terms of its manpower, which proved to be better educated, more physically fit, more highly motivated, better trained, and better led.
  • The Role of the Israel Air Force in the Operational Doctrine of the Israel DefenseForces: 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combination of elegance and functionality proved itself in scores of armies around the world and brought in a billion dollars to the Military Industry.
  • The Israeli Military (IDF) & Security Services Resources Page at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula, West Bank and Golan Heights from the surrounding Arab states, changing the balance of power in the region as well as the role of the IDF. In the following years leading up to the Yom Kippur War, the IDF fought a war of attrition against Egypt in the Sinai and a border war against the PLO in Jordan, culminating in the Battle of Karameh.^ And we wish the IDF and the state of Israel a happy 60-year anniversary.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jordan but in reality their ARAB "Palestinian state!
  • History of Israel and Palestine in VERY Easy To Understand Maps 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masada2000.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CAREER A well-balanced 'Day on the Job' .
  • CNN.com - Israeli attacks kill 1 in Arafat's bodyguard unit - March 28, 2001 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.The surprise of the Yom Kippur War and its aftermath completely changed the IDF's procedures and approach to warfare.^ Arieh Shalev, who was then MI chief, sheds light on the failings of the Yom Kippur War.
  • Israeli defense official: Fatah arms transfer bolsters forces of peace - Haaretz - Israel News 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different operational plans have advanced, procedures have been established, the environment within the division has progressed and the IDF’s preparedness in dealing with the challenges of war has substantially increased.” .
  • Israel Defense Force Spokesperson 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC idfspokesperson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Israel, too, after the Yom Kippur War, military professionals understood that the "line of containment" could never be the border itself.

.Organizational changes were made and more time was dedicated to training for conventional warfare.^ The soldiers are all graduates of the Search and Rescue course, and are trained in first aid, Krav Maga, infantry, ABC (atomic, biological, chemical) warfare, and more.
  • Israel Defense Force Spokesperson 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC idfspokesperson.com [Source type: News]

^ Such a missile system is five times more effective than the Soviet-made Scud B missiles in Syria and Egypt.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout this period, however, the Jewish defense forces made substantial progress in organization and training.

.However, in the following years the army's role slowly shifted again to low-intensity conflict, urban warfare and counter-terrorism.^ At the last meeting, in Delhi, they compared experiences dealing with low-intensity conflict, lessons of the 2006 Lebanon War and strategy and tactics for small wars.
  • Israel Keeps Mum About India's Botched Rescue - Newsweek.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

^ In recent years Israel has focused it's military R&D efforts on resources for fighting Low Intensity Conflicts and ballistic missile defense.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the last two and a half years, Israel 's army has learned a thing or two about psychological warfare.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was involved in the Lebanese Civil War, initiating Operation Litani and later the 1982 Lebanon War, where the IDF ousted Palestinian guerilla organizations from Lebanon.^ Attacks were quite rare before the Lebanon war (low two digit deaths) and Lebanese civilian casualties were much greater than Israelis casualties to rockets ever.
  • Israel Eyes Thinking Machines to Fight ‘Doomsday’ Missile Strikes (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Like the other major units of the IDF, the Home Command also underwent a comprehensive process of reassessment following the second Lebanon war.
  • Israeli Defense Force | The Jewish Chronicle 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC thejc.com [Source type: News]

^ They showed that while enhanced armor did indeed reduce casulties from an average of 2 for the 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1.5 Operation Peace of Galilee (1982) and 1 for the 2006 Lebanon War; they still did not neutralize the threat.
  • DailyTech - Israel Defense Forces' Trophy Active Protection System Operational 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Palestinian militancy has been the main focus of the IDF ever since, especially during the First and Second Intifadas, Operation Defensive Shield and the Gaza War, causing the IDF to change many of its values and publish the IDF Spirit.^ I didn't really have to do anything during the second intifada where everything really changed.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ IDF: 10 Palestinians, 1 soldier killed in Gaza operation .
  • Israeli Defense Forces: News & Videos about Israeli Defense Forces - CNN.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Since its founding in 1948, Israel has fought five major wars, conducted numerous major operations against hostile neighbors and supplied an army of occupation in the West Bank and Gaza for more than 30 years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Shia organization Hezbollah has also been a growing threat, against which the IDF fought a full-scale war in 2006.

Etymology

.The Israeli cabinet ratified the name "Israel Defense Forces" (Hebrew: צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎), Tzva HaHagana LeYisra'el, literally "army for the defense of Israel," on May 26, 1948. The other main contender was Tzva Yisra'el (Hebrew: צְבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל‎).^ Tags: army · IDF · Israel · Israel Defense Forces · military · socks .

^ Israeli Defense Forces, November 3, 2009 .
  • Israel: Forging NATO Missile Shield, Rehearsing War With Iran [Voltaire] 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.voltairenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: army · democracy · IDF · Israel · Israel Defense Forces · military .

.The name was chosen because it conveyed the idea that the army's role was defense, and because it incorporated the name Haganah, upon which the new army was based.^ Even in the past, defense ministers and generals were fired as a result of these investigations, because we want to keep our Army clean.
  • Shimon Peres - Defense News 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.defensenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically, the military advantage has shifted between attackers and defenders based upon various factors, from new technologies to innovative tactics or asymmetric organizational skills.
  • Lessons from Lebanon - October 2006 - Armed Forces Journal - Military Strategy, Global Defense Strategy 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.armedforcesjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So we see the discussion of what to name our army wasn’t just over words: The Israel Defense Forces.
  • The Israel Restraint Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.saveisrael.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] Among the primary opponents of the name were Minister Haim-Moshe Shapira and the Hatzohar party, both in favor of Tzva Yisra'el.[10]

Organization

.All branches of the IDF answer to a single General Staff.^ High command (General Staff) All branches of the IDF are subordinate to a single General Staff.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF's three service branches (ground forces, air force and navy) function under a unified command, headed by the chief-of-staff, with the rank of lieutenant-general, who is responsible to the Minister of Defense.
  • Ahavat Eretz Israel - Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ahavat-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel's ground, air, and naval forces, known as the Israel Defense Force (IDF), fall under the command of a single general staff.

.The Chief of the General Staff is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General (Rav Aluf).^ Each headed by an officer with rank of Major General.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fotw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.atlasgeo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chief of the General Staff is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current chief of staff is (Lieutenant) .
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet.^ He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rabin's assassination): Prime minister, defense minister.
  • Shimon Peres - Defense News 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.defensenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overnight operation was authorized by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defense of the State of Israel.
  • Israel Defense Force Spokesperson 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC idfspokesperson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chiefs of Staff are formally appointed by the cabinet, based on the Defense Minister's recommendation, for three years, but the government can vote to extend their service to four (and in rare occasions even five) years.^ Chiefs of Staff are formally appointed by the cabinet, based on the Defense Minister's recommendation, for three years, but the government can vote to extend their service to four (and in rare occasions even five) years.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should also be noted that Israel has extended its unilateral moratorium on export of all anti-personnel landmines for an additional three years (until July 2005).
  • The Israeli Defense Force's Humanitarian Demining Efforts by Aharon Etengoff, Gerald Steinberg and Jennette Townsend (8.1) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC maic.jmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report said Israel's Defense Ministry has requested from the government of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon authorization for a retaliatory nuclear strike.
  • U.S. Air Force: Israel has 400 nukes, building naval force 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The current chief of staff is Gabi Ashkenazi.^ The current chief of staff is (Lieutenant) .
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 5, 2009 IDF Chief of Staff Gabi Ashkenazi is to meet his US counterparts in Washington next week for talks aimed at convincing the Obama administration of the urgency of acting against Iran’s nuclear programme.
  • Israeli Defense Force | The Jewish Chronicle 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC thejc.com [Source type: News]

^ In the Gaza incursion, both Defense Minister Ehud Barak and Major General Gabi Ashkenazi , Israel Defense Force Chief of Staff kept a low profile and let trained people handle the media.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He replaced Dan Halutz, who resigned from the IDF following the 2006 Lebanon War.^ He replaced Dan Halutz, who announced his resignation on January 17, 2007, following a critical report by former Chief of Staff Dan Shomron concerning some aspects of the 2006 Lebanon War Weapons and equipment The IDF possesses top-of-the-line weapons and computer systems used and recognized worldwide.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the last meeting, in Delhi, they compared experiences dealing with low-intensity conflict, lessons of the 2006 Lebanon War and strategy and tactics for small wars.
  • Israel Keeps Mum About India's Botched Rescue - Newsweek.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

^ The extra defense funds were allocated following Israel's less-than-stellar performance in the 2006 Second Lebanon War.
  • Israel to operate on truncated defense budget in 2009 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

Structure

The IDF includes the following bodies (those whose respective heads are members of the General Staff are in bold):
.
Structure of the Israel Defense Forces.
^ MFA History of Israel Modern History/Zionism Zionism From Hashomer to the Israel Defense Forces .
  • From Hashomer to the Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: Avraham Halfi · Hebrew poetry · Israel Defense Forces · military service · soldiers .

^ The Mission of the Israel Defense Forces is to defend the existence and territorial sovereignty of the state of Israel.

(click to enlarge)

Regional commands

Arms

Air and Space Arm
Sea Arm

Other bodies

Military:
Civilian:

Branches

Related bodies

.The following bodies work closely with the IDF, but do not (or only partially) belong to its formal structure.^ We also work closely with webmaster at the following sites: Information about Israel and Zionism at http://www.zionism-israel.com .
  • International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.zionismontheweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is clear that this is true about the IDF, which operates according to the Spirit of the IDF , and in accordance with restraints pertaining to the close proximity between times of fighting and police work.
  • Israel Behind the News: Israel Resource Review - 'The Mental Preparation for Disengagement' & its Aftermath in the Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelbehindthenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Security forces

Development

Ranks and insignia

Ranks

Soldiers of the Engineering Corps being awarded with Silver berets
.Unlike most world armies, the IDF uses the same rank names in all corps, including the air force and navy.^ Conversations with a broad range of commanders - junior, including noncommissioned officers (NCO), and senior grades from both the standing army and reservists serving in the ground forces, air force, and navy - revealed a willingness to try a different approach.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Teaching Morality in Armed Conflict: The Israel Defense Forces Mod 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were joined by illegal immigrants who had served in the Red Army, some who had served in the French Foreign Legion, and eventually by volunteers from the United States and Canada (including notably, about 300 air-force veterans who would serve in the nascent IDF)  as well as some British soldiers.

^ By all accounts, however, the Israeli strikes have hit their targets precisely enough to do significant damage to Hamas forces -- both to its leadership and, on Sunday, to the tunnels from Gaza to Egypt that Hamas uses to smuggle in weapons and build its growing army.
  • Israel's Gaza Defense - WSJ.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.All enlisted ranks, as well as some of the officer and NCO ranks, may be given as a result of time spent in service, and not for accomplishment or merit.^ In some cases lawyers and legal firms may be sympathetic to the Palestinian cause and willingly give their time and resources to solidarity initiatives.
  • Military Ties | Global BDS Movement 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC bdsmovement.net [Source type: General]

^ The resultant challenges and caveats for Israeli policy makers are discussed, as well as some of the possible detriments for the USA which are likely to arise from Israeli under-spending on national defense.
  • Statement of Martin Sherman 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Terms of Service All content © 2010, Army Times Publishing Company .
  • Shimon Peres - Defense News 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.defensenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the formation of the IDF until the late 1980s, sergeant major was a particularly important warrant officer rank, in line with usage in other armies.^ Each headed by an officer with rank of Major General.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fotw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professor Uzi Even, chairman of Tel Aviv University’s Chemistry Department, created a public sensation when he testified that he had been stripped of his rank of officer and barred from sensitive IDF research in the 1980s because of his sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF has received numerous requests for the video from other armies.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Teaching Morality in Armed Conflict: The Israel Defense Forces Mod 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in the 1980s and 1990s the proliferating ranks of sergeant major became devalued, and now all professional NCO ranks are a variation on sergeant major (rav samal) with the exception of rav nagad.^ For the rest however, after release from compulsory service there remain years of reserve ('miluim') service - originally from age 21 to 55; now to 45 (if at all).
  • The Israeli Military (IDF) & Security Services Resources Page at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All translations here are the official translations of the IDF's website.^ All photos are property of the official IAF website .
  • All IAF aircraft 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.waronline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
Conscripts (Hogrim) (Conscript ranks may be gained purely on time served)
Warrant Officers (Nagadim) (All volunteers)
  • Sergeant First Class (Rav Samal)
  • Master Sergeant (Rav Samal Rishon)
  • Sergeant Major (Rav Samal Mitkadem)
  • Warrant Officer (Rav Samal Bakhir)
  • Chief Warrant Officer (Rav Nagad)
Academic officers (Ktzinim Akadema'im)
  • Professional Academic Officer (Katzin Miktzo'i Akadema'i)
  • Senior Academic Officer (Katzin Akadema'i Bakhir)
Officers (Ktzinim)

Insignia

.IDF soldiers have three types of insignia (other than rank insignia) which identify their corps, specific unit, and position.^ Kaplan and Ben-Ari conducted in-depth interviews with 21 self-identified gay IDF combat soldiers and found that five of them (23.8 percent) were known to be homosexual by at least one other member in their combat unit.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Publicly, the IDF insists that homosexual soldiers are screened for positions according to the same standards as heterosexual soldiers.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 100 thousand soldiers were mobilized within seventy-two hours; the Israel Air Force (IAF) was fully operational within forty-three hours.

A pin attached to the beret identifies a soldier's corps. .Soldiers serving in staffs above corps level are often identified by the General Corps pin, despite not officially belonging to it, or the pin of a related corps.^ The Chief of the General Staff is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After early tours in Stockholm, Washington, Rome and the US Mission to NATO, he served as chief of staff to NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, unequal prosecution amounts to obstruction of justice or to some other related form of official malfeasance.
  • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

New recruits undergoing basic training (tironut) do not have this pin. .Beret colors are also often indicative of the soldier's corps, although most non-combat corps do not have their own beret, and sometimes wear the color of the corps to which the base they're stationed in belongs.^ Three soldiers expressed some concern about showering with a homosexual solider, although they stated that in general they did not have a problem with gay soldiers.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israelis know that another holocaust is on the horizon, as do most other people, even if they’re scared to talk about it.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: Former Obama adviser on invading Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ In later work, Moskos reaffirmed that “gays are excluded from elite combat units, and most sleep at their own homes rather than in barracks”.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Individual units are identified by a shoulder tag attached to the shoulder strap. .Most units in the IDF have their own tags, although those that do not generally use tags identical to their command's tag (corps, directorate, or regional command).^ Although the video was prepared by the IDF School of Military Law, the issue of morality in armed conflict is ultimately the responsibility of the commander.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Teaching Morality in Armed Conflict: The Israel Defense Forces Mod 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many though not all cases, the use of the video was accompanied by a discussion led by an officer from the IDF School of Military Law in the presence, and with the contribution, of the particular unit's commander.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Teaching Morality in Armed Conflict: The Israel Defense Forces Mod 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Walzer, “the IDF has been a unifying, uniform experience for Israeli Jews; those who escape service, namely the ultra-Orthodox, are highly resented by most Israeli Jews.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While one cannot always identify the position/job of a soldier, two optional factors help make this identification: an aiguillette attached to the left shoulder strap and shirt pocket, and a pin indicating the soldier's work type (usually given by a professional course).^ In one case, for example, two (heterosexual) soldiers made a bet to see who would perform oral sex on whom.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course US support would help but losing it won’t make Israel give-up it’s nukes.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramon's body was one of four sets of remains that have been positively identified, Israel Radio reported.

.Other pins may indicate the corps or additional courses taken.^ Of course like all military contracts it will end one day and that may lead to plant closings and lay offs unless other work can be found.

.Finally, an optional battle pin indicates a war that a soldier has fought in.^ After the battle of Ramat Yohanan during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, approximately 1000 Syrian Druze soldiers and officers deserted and joined Israel.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Budget

.During 1950-66, Israel spent an average of 9% of its GDP on defense.^ Expenditures and alliances During 1950-66, Israel spent an average of 9% of its GDP on defense.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 1950-66, Israel spent an average of 9% of GDP on defense.

^ To give you some background on the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), in 2008 Israel spent $16.2 billion on its armed forces, making it the country with the biggest ratio of defense spending to GDP as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Python Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC python.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloudonomics Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudonomics.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | GovIT Conference Expo 2009 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govitexpo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Government Cloud Computing 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govcloud.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | AJAXWorld RIA Conference & Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ajaxworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars.^ Defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Real defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars.

^ The Background Leading to the 1973 War The territorial outcome of the 1967 conflict was Israeli control of additional Arab lands.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They reached a high of about 24% of GDP in the 1980s, but have since come back down to about 9%,[12] about $15 billion, following the signing of peace agreements with Jordan and Egypt.^ They reached a high of about 24% of GDP in the 1980s, but have since come back down to about 9%, about $15 billion, following the signing of peace agreements with Jordan and Egypt.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008, Israel spent $16.2 billion on its armed forces, making it the country with the biggest ratio of defense spending to GDP and as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.^ To give you some background on the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), in 2008 Israel spent $16.2 billion on its armed forces, making it the country with the biggest ratio of defense spending to GDP as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Virtualization Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC virtualization.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Reuven Cohen 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC reuvencohen.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | GovIT Conference Expo 2009 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govitexpo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Government Cloud Computing 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govcloud.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | AJAXWorld RIA Conference & Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ajaxworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 1950-66, Israel spent an average of 9% of GDP on defense.

^ In July, when the U.S. and Israel aborted a test of a missile-defense shield under development by the two countries due to what they called a "glitch," Israeli military analysts called the setback a psychological blow to Israel.
  • U.S., Israel Start Defense Drill - WSJ.com 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

($2,300 per person).[13][14]
.On 30 September 2009 Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu endorsed an additional NIS 1.5 billion for the defense budget to help Israel address problems regarding Iran.^ He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ehud Barak was elected prime minister in 1999.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mordechai had served as defense minister in the government of former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
  • Case of Yitzhak Mordechai - Former Israeli Defense Minister (Israel) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: News]

.The budget changes came two months after Israel had approved its current two-year budget.^ This is the second year the budget is transferred to the Jewish state as part of understandings that the American assistance to Israel in the coming decade will total $30 billion.
  • Israel Threatens to Use Force Against Settlers | CommonDreams.org 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The program consists of two months of actual basic training in the Israel Defense Forces.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two months later, Israel agreed to the construction of a Voice of America relay transmitter on its soil to broadcast programs to the Soviet Union.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The defense budget in 2009 stands at NIS 48.6 billion and NIS 53.2 billion for 2010 - the highest amount in Israel's history.^ To give you some background on the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), in 2008 Israel spent $16.2 billion on its armed forces, making it the country with the biggest ratio of defense spending to GDP as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Python Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC python.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | SAP Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC sap.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Web 2.0 Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Virtualization Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC virtualization.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloudonomics Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudonomics.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Reuven Cohen 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC reuvencohen.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | GovIT Conference Expo 2009 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govitexpo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Government Cloud Computing 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govcloud.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the second year the budget is transferred to the Jewish state as part of understandings that the American assistance to Israel in the coming decade will total $30 billion.
  • Israel Threatens to Use Force Against Settlers | CommonDreams.org 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ From 1949-1985,the U.S. Government has given Israel a total of $30.7 billion: military assistance has totaled $19.1 billion, while economic aid has amounted to $9.9 billion.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The figure constitutes 6.3% of expected gross domestic product and 15.1% of the overall budget, even before the planned NIS 1.5 billion addition.^ According to government figures, the Jewish population received approximately 1.6 billion NIS ($457 million).
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF may even expect the IAF to assist the ground forces before the latter has fully attained air superiority.
  • The Role of the Israel Air Force in the Operational Doctrine of the Israel DefenseForces: 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Israel plans a strike without expecting excessive collateral damage, the rule of proportionality permits it, even if, in retrospect, Israel turns out to have erred in its damage estimates.
  • International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.zionismontheweb.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Service

Regular service

Soldiers on their regular service
.National military service is mandatory for any non-Arab Israeli citizen (as well as for Druze men) over the age of 18, although other exceptions may be made on religious, physical or psychological grounds (see Profile 21).^ Also all male citizens are required to serve three years in the IDF with exceptions made only on religious, physical or psychological grounds.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Python Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC python.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | SAP Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC sap.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Web 2.0 Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Virtualization Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC virtualization.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloudonomics Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudonomics.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Reuven Cohen 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC reuvencohen.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Government Cloud Computing 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govcloud.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | AJAXWorld RIA Conference & Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ajaxworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conscription is universal for Jewish men and women over the age of 18, although exemptions may be made on religious grounds.

^ Regular service National military service is mandatory for Jewish and Druze men and Jewish women over the age of 18, although exceptions may be made on religious, physical or psychological grounds.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Israeli border policemen (not part of the IDF) with a Magav Sufa in Jerusalem with the Mount of Olives in the background
.Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two.^ Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men serve for three years and women serve for just under two years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compulsory service is three years for men, and 20 months for women.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The IDF allowed women who volunteer for several combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training.^ Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF allowed women who volunteer for several combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men serve for three years and women serve for just under two years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women in other positions, such as programmers, who require lengthy training time, may also serve three years.^ Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men serve for three years and women serve for just under two years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in other positions, such as programmers, who require lengthy training time may also serve three years.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women in most combat positions are also required to serve in the reserve for several years after they leave regular service.^ Women in most combat positions are also required to serve as reserve for several years after their dismissal from regular service.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also all male citizens are required to serve three years in the IDF with exceptions made only on religious, physical or psychological grounds.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Web 2.0 Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Virtualization Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC virtualization.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloudonomics Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudonomics.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Reuven Cohen 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC reuvencohen.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

^ Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Non-IDF service

.Other than the National Service (Sherut Leumi), IDF conscripts may serve in bodies other than the IDF in a number of ways.^ Circassians and Bedouin actively enlist in the IDF. Since 1956, Druze men have been conscripted in the same way as Jewish men, at the request of the Druze community.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, most Haredim do not serve in the IDF. Women Israel has female conscription, but about a third of female conscripts (more than double the figure for men) are exempted, mainly for religious and nuptial reasons.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other nations may rise once again to challenge it but that does not negate the right of Israel to defend their nation.
  • Round 1: ecoparity vs Snarf - "Israel has a Justifiable Defense", page 1 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The combat option is Israel Border Police (Magav) service, part of the Israel Police.^ In contrast to our commitments to South Korea, Japan, Germany and other parts of the world, not a single American service person needs to be stationed in Israel.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel's security forces, primarily in the Border Police.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Border Guard service Some IDF soldiers will serve their mandatory military service in the Mishmar HaGvul (Magav), the Israel Border Police - a section of the Israel Police.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some soldiers complete their IDF combat training and later undergo additional terror and Border Police training.^ Once the soldiers complete their IDF combat training they undergo additional counter-terror and Border Guard training.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History The IDF was founded May 26, 1948 after the establishment of the state of Israel " to protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life ".
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period the IDF utilized female instructors for training male soldiers in certain roles, particularly tank crews.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are assigned to Border Police units.^ They are then assigned to any one of the Border Guard units around the country.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We taught these courses to over 1200 persons assigned to individual units and those assigned to the theater command staff between December 1990 and February 1991.
  • Israel Defense ForcesTag Archive for israel-defense-forces archive at dragonfly ranch blog 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC dragonflyranch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warriors who have been assigned to these units are dying while awaiting medical care that is limited because of administrative snafus.
  • Israel Defense ForcesTag Archive for israel-defense-forces archive at dragonfly ranch blog 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC dragonflyranch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Border Police units fight side by side with the regular IDF combat units.^ The Border Guard units fight side by side with the regular IDF combat units.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many officers in the Border Guard come from the IDF combat units.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Border Guard service Some IDF soldiers will serve their mandatory military service in the Mishmar HaGvul (Magav), the Israel Border Police - a section of the Israel Police.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are also responsible for security in heavy urban areas such as Jerusalem.^ They also are responsible for security in heavy urban areas such as the City of Jerusalem.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before Windows 7 Microsoft could offer some services (such as Exchange Online) from the cloud – but could not provide full enterprise directory, security and so on – now they can.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

.Non-combat services include the Mandatory Police Service (Shaham) program, where youth are instead serve in the police, Israel Prison Service, or other wings of the Israeli Security Forces.^ Israel's security forces, primarily in the Border Police.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within minutes he had called senior contacts within the Israeli Government, contacts that would eventually include the Deputy Prime Minster of Israel as well as various other high ranking officials.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Python Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC python.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | SAP Developer's Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC sap.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Web 2.0 Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloudonomics Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudonomics.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Twitter on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC twitter.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Reuven Cohen 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC reuvencohen.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | GovIT Conference Expo 2009 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govitexpo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing on Ulitzer 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Interoperability Magazine 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudinterop.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Government Cloud Computing 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC govcloud.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

^ Extensive programs of international cooperation were initiated, as hundreds of Israeli physicians, engineers, teachers, agronomists, irrigation experts and youth organizers shared their know-how and experience with people in other developing countries.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reserve service

Officers in reserve duty before parachuting exercise
After personnel complete their regular service, the IDF may call up men for:
  • reserve service of up to one month annually, until the age of 43–45 (reservists may volunteer after this age)
  • active duty immediately in times of crisis
.In most cases, the reserve duty is carried out in the same unit for years, in many cases the same unit as the active service and by the same people.^ In most cases, the reserve duty is carried out in the same unit for years, in many cases the same unit as the active service and by the same people.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of respect for their community's religious commitments, Orthodox women may be exempted, although many choose to perform 1-2 years national service in the civilian sector.
  • Ahavat Eretz Israel - Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ahavat-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.^ Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given the omnipresent nature of military service in the Israeli's life, the army and service within it became an opportunity to integrate new immigrants into daily Israeli life; military service here has often been called the "university of life" for this reason - people from all socio-economic strata and backgrounds serve together both in initial compulsory duty and then later in annual reserve service.
  • The Israeli Military (IDF) & Security Services Resources Page at Historama.com | The Online History Shop 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.historama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground, women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although still available for call-up in times of crisis, most Israeli men, and virtually all women, do not actually perform reserve service in any given year.^ Compulsory service is three years for men, and 20 months for women.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It relies heavily on its reserve forces and in time of war, most of the population is called up.

^ Q: Reserve soldiers have been called up.
  • Israel Defense Forces press conference following the Kafr Qana incident 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC emperor.vwh.net [Source type: Original source]

.Units do not always call up all of their reservists every year, and a variety of exemptions are available if called for regular reserve service.^ Q: Reserve soldiers have been called up.
  • Israel Defense Forces press conference following the Kafr Qana incident 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC emperor.vwh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Units do not always call up all of their reservists every year, and a variety of exemptions are available if called for regular reserve service.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reserve units should train with all of their equipment at every opporutunity.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virtually no exemptions exist for reservists called up in a time of crisis, but experience has shown that in such cases (most recently, the 2006 Lebanon War) exemptions are rarely requested or exercised; units generally achieve recruitment rates above those considered fully-manned.^ Virtually no exemptions exist for reservists called up in a time of crisis, but experience has shown that in such cases (most recently, Second Lebanon War in 2006) exemptions are rarely requested or exercised; units generally achieve recruitment rates above those considered fully-manned.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It relies heavily on its reserve forces and in time of war, most of the population is called up.

^ Experience has repeatedly shown in the past & even today in Afganistan,you cannot fight a conventional war against terrorist & guerilla warfare.
  • DailyTech - Israel Defense Forces' Trophy Active Protection System Operational 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Legislation (set to take effect by 13 March 2008) has proposed reform in the reserve service, lowering the maximum service age to 40, designating it as a purely emergency force, as well as many other changes to the structure (although the Defence Minister can suspend any portion of it at any time for security reasons).^ March 13, 2008 .
  • Military News, benefits, careers, photos, discussions - Military Times HOME 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.militarycity.com [Source type: General]

^ Being in that service, in this time, changes you?
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently, legislation has been proposed for reform in the reserve service, lowering the maximum service age to 40, designating it as a purely emergency force, as well as many other changes to the current structure (although the Defence Minister can suspend any portion of it at any time for security reasons).
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The age threshold for many reservists whose positions are not listed, though, will be fixed at 49.

Women

Female soldiers in 1956
Female soldier in 2006
.Uniquely among nations, Israel conscripts women and assigns some drafted women to infantry combatant service which places them directly in the line of enemy fire.^ National military service is compulsory for Jewish men and women.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the night, the tanks of the 5th Infantry Division flooded through the Rafid Gap and the Syrians moved their two armored divisions forward to the cease-fire line.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to ISS the IAF has a total of 696 combat aircraft, including 446 in service and some 250 (including most of the Kfir C7) in operative storage.
  • All IAF aircraft 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.waronline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]. .However, approximately one third of female conscripts (more than double the figure for men) are exempted, mainly for religious and nuptial reasons.^ However, most Haredim do not serve in the IDF. Women Israel has female conscription, but about a third of female conscripts (more than double the figure for men) are exempted, mainly for religious and nuptial reasons.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Egyptian Second and Third Armies were able to cross the Suez even more quickly and with far fewer casualties than they had planned for.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zionist facilitators and gatekeepers in the finance industry are even more obvious than in the media if one understands the business.
  • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following their active service, women, like men, have in theory to serve up to one month annually in reserve duty.^ Following their active service, women, like men, are in theory required to serve up to one month annually in reserve duty.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compulsory service is three years for men, and 20 months for women.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reserve service Following regular service, men may be called for reserve service of up to one month annually, until the age of 43-45 (reservists may volunteer after this age), and may be called for active duty immediately in times of crisis.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in practice only some women in combat roles get called for active reserve, and only for a few years following their active service, with many exit points (e.g., pregnancy).^ However, in practice only some women in combat roles get called for active reserve duty, and only for a few years following their active service, with many exit points (e.g., pregnancy).
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combat roles are voluntary for women.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground, women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
The unisex Caracal Battalion, which serves in a full combat capacity
.Apart from during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground, women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles.^ Apart from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground, women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in the Security Forces Women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles, except during the 1948 war of independence, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a landmark 1994 High Court appeal by Alice Miller, a Jewish immigrant from South Africa, the Air Force was instructed to open its pilots course to women (several served as transport pilots during the first Arab-Israeli War in 1948 and "Operation Kadesh" in 1956, but the Air Force later closed its ranks to women fliers).
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

IDF commanders have historically considered the practice of assigning women to combatant duties to be immoral due to the heightened danger of sexual assault that female soldiers would face if captured by the enemy:
.Soon after the establishment of the IDF, the removal of all women from front-line positions was decreed.^ History The IDF was founded May 26, 1948 after the establishment of the state of Israel " to protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life ".
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2005, women are allowed to serve in 83% of all positions in the military, including Shipboard Navy Service (except submarines), and Artillery.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF allowed women who volunteer for several combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Decisive for this decision was the very real possibility of falling into enemy hands as prisoners of war.^ Thus, in the event of war, Israel must overcome its enemies alone, and as rapidly as possible.
  • Statement of Martin Sherman 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Advantages The decision of war was very difficult and President Sadat was very brave to take this step, as well as, achieving a strategic objective.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If war breaks out, Israel must defeat the enemy quickly and decisively.

.It was fair and equitable, it was argued, to demand from women equal sacrifice and risk; but the risk for women prisoners of rape and sexual molestation was infinitely greater than the same risk for men.^ Women's rights activists and government transparency NGOs had opposed the plea bargain, which carried convictions for indecent acts and sexual harassment but dropped two rape charges against him and imposed a suspended prison sentence.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tal Korman, who runs a centre to aid sexually abused women, said Mordechai should have been sent to prison.
  • Case of Yitzhak Mordechai - Former Israeli Defense Minister (Israel) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: News]

^ This phenomenon is almost the same in the field of classic conventional warfare; the more the other side perceives its chances are greater, the more likely it is that it will risk an attack.

[16]
.During this period the IDF utilized female instructors for training male soldiers in certain roles, particularly tank crews.^ During this period the IDF utilized female instructors for training male soldiers in certain roles, particularly tank crews.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our guests are Tamar Yarom, who served in the IDF and is the director of "To See if I'm Smiling," the testimonies of six female soldiers serving in the territories.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The IDF allowed women who volunteer for several combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a landmark 1994 appeal by Alice Miller, a Jewish immigrant from South Africa, the Israeli High Court instructed the Israeli Air Force to open its pilots course to women.^ After a landmark 1994 High Court appeal by Alice Miller, a Jewish immigrant from South Africa, the Air Force was instructed to open its pilots course to women (several served as transport pilots during the first Arab-Israeli War in 1948 and "Operation Kadesh" in 1956, but the Air Force later closed its ranks to women fliers).
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Air Force had made its point.

^ But after a landmark 1994 High Court appeal by Alice Miller, a Jewish immigrant from South Africa, the Air Force was instructed to open its pilots course to women (several served as transport pilots during the war of independence in 1948 and "Operation Kadesh" in 1956, but the Air force later closed its ranks to women fliers).
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Miller failed the entrance exams, but since her initiative, many additional combat roles were opened for women.^ Combat roles are voluntary for women.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miller failed the entrance exams, but since her initiative, many additional combat roles were opened.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miller failed the entrance exams, but since her initative, many additional combat roles were opened.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .As of 2005, women are allowed to serve in 83% of all positions in the military, including Shipboard Navy Service (except submarines), and Artillery.^ As of 2005, Women are allowed to serve in 83% of all positions in the military, including Shipboard Navy Service (except submarines), and Artillery.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2005, women are allowed to serve in 83% of all positions in the military, including Shipboard Navy Service (except submarines), and Artillery.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interviewees reflected a broad range of social backgrounds and served in elite infantry brigades, the armored corps, artillery units, combat engineering units, navy attack ships, submarines and pilots’ school.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combat roles are voluntary for women.^ Combat roles are voluntary for women.
  • Israel Defense Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2002, 33% of lower-rank officers are women, 21% of Captains and Majors, and 3% of the most senior ranks.^ As of 2002, 33% of lower rank Officers are women, 22% of Captains and Majors, but only 3% of the most senior ranks.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On board were Major General Kuti Adam, another senior officer, and a team of communications operators.

^ Women in Israeli industry and politics In 2002, women comprised 33% of director positions in government owned corporations, and 20% of managerial positions within the private industry (2005).
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Female soldiers in 1950
.Women primarily serve in the border patrol of the Israel Defense Forces.^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel's military force.

^ The Israel Defense Forces was formed in battle.

^ The Mission of the Israel Defense Forces is to defend the existence and territorial sovereignty of the state of Israel.

.Yael Rom, the first female pilot in the Israeli Air Force, earned her wings in 1951.[18] The first female jet fighter pilot, Roni Zuckerman, received her wings in 2001.[18] In November 2007 the Air Force appointed its first woman deputy squadron commander.^ The first female fighter pilot successfully received her wings in 2001.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Air Force had made its point.

^ Most Israelis, males and females, are drafted into the military at the age of 18.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.Women serve in combat support and light combat roles in the Artillery Corps, infantry units and armored divisions.^ Mechanized infantry units, supported by vehicles ...
  • IDF and Security Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelmint.com [Source type: General]

^ Combat roles are voluntary for women.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interviewees reflected a broad range of social backgrounds and served in elite infantry brigades, the armored corps, artillery units, combat engineering units, navy attack ships, submarines and pilots’ school.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few platoons, named Karakal, were formed, in which men and women serve together as light infantry on the borders with Egypt and Jordan.^ It borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan in the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The territory Israel controls, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip, borders the states of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt (listed clockwise from north to south).
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men serve for three years and women serve for just under two years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Karakal became a battalion in 2004.[17]
.The IDF abolished its "Women's Corps" command in 2001, believing that it had become an anachronism and a stumbling block towards integration of women in the army as regular soldiers with no special status.^ In a controversial move, the IDF abolished its "Womens Corps" command in 2004, with a view that it has become an anachronism and a stumbling block towards integration of Women in the IDF as regular soliders with no special status.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uzbekistan to repair helicopters Indian Midair Refueler Program May Be Rebid No vacancy for women officers in army, air force: ...

^ The IDF Medical Corps had quietly called in reservist doctors, with no explanations offered for the unusual summons.

.However, after pressures from feminist lobbies, the Chief of Staff was persuaded to keep an "adviser for women's affairs". Female soldiers now fall under the authority of individual units based on jobs and not on gender.^ However, after pressures from Feminist lobbies, The Chief of Staff was persuaded to keep an "advisor for Women's affairs".
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the pressure from United States, however, the contract was canceled.
  • China Military Power Mashup | Archive | Chinese Defense Industry 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.china-defense-mashup.com [Source type: News]

^ Based on the officials’ experience, homosexual soldiers had not adversely affected “unit readiness, effectiveness, cohesion, or morale”.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 2006 Lebanon War was the first time since 1948 that women were involved in field operations alongside men.^ Since its founding in 1948, Israel has fought five major wars, conducted numerous major operations against hostile neighbors and supplied an army of occupation in the West Bank and Gaza for more than 30 years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They showed that while enhanced armor did indeed reduce casulties from an average of 2 for the 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1.5 Operation Peace of Galilee (1982) and 1 for the 2006 Lebanon War; they still did not neutralize the threat.
  • DailyTech - Israel Defense Forces' Trophy Active Protection System Operational 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ It fought three large-scale wars in the years between 1950 and 1980, and countless smaller engagements during and since that time.

Airborne helicopter engineer Sergeant-Major (res.) .Keren Tendler became the first female combat soldier to be killed in action.^ STEVE: When we first trained, and we trained for southern Lebanon, or trained for combat, it was different than going into a dual rotation in the territories when then you became occupiers.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

[17]

Minorities in the IDF

.Druze and Circassian men are subject to mandatory conscription to the IDF just like Israeli Jews[20].^ Circassians and Bedouin actively enlist in the IDF. Since 1956, Druze men have been conscripted in the same way as Jewish men, at the request of the Druze community.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serving in the IDF is mandatory for almost all Jewish men and women in Israel over the age of 18.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Walzer, “the IDF has been a unifying, uniform experience for Israeli Jews; those who escape service, namely the ultra-Orthodox, are highly resented by most Israeli Jews.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Originally, they served in the framework of a special unit called "The Minorities' Unit", which still exists today, in the form of the Herev ("Sword") independent battalion.^ He joined the Haganah as a teenager, serving in various units, including Orde Wingate’s Special Night Squads...
  • Personalities 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelmint.com [Source type: General]
  • IDF and Security Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelmint.com [Source type: General]

^ Official differentiation still exists, if perhaps in a more muted form.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are just as great as the men and women that made our original independence possible.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, since the 1980s Druze soldiers have increasingly protested this practice, which they considered a means of segregating them and denying them access to elite units.^ I mean, the fact that you're dealing with the population that they're not soldiers.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Which is ridiculous considering Israel means and budget, and the fact they have never tested a thermonuclear device.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/30-81388.aspx 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The army has increasingly admitted Druze soldiers to regular combat units and promoted them to higher ranks from which they had been previously excluded.^ Even in combat and intelligence units with known gay soldiers, however, we found no evidence of a deterioration in cohesion, performance, readiness or morale.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, some heterosexual soldiers are allowed to live off-base or to change units if they are having trouble with their group.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, some IDF combat and intelligence units have developed a reputation as particularly welcoming to gay and lesbian soldiers and some have developed a gay culture.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, several Druze officers have reached ranks as high as Major General and many have received commendations for distinguished service.^ Since then, Israel has been in conflict with many of the neighboring Arab countries, resulting in several major wars and decades of violence that continue to this day.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (TASE:THF) reported today that it received final approval for several recently announced deals.
  • Military Ties | Global BDS Movement 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC bdsmovement.net [Source type: General]

^ I want to thank you for the many, many letters, phone calls, emails and prayers of support we have received in the last several weeks.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is important to note that, proportionally to their numbers, the Druze people achieve much higher—documented—levels in the Israeli army than other soldiers.^ The following day, the eleventh, on television, he assured the Egyptian people that "the Egyptian Army will not bite off more than it can chew."
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This figure drastically underestimates the number of Israelis living in the US because many Israelis emigrated from countries other than Israel or had their nation of birth listed on immigration documents.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A note on IDF casualties, these were under-reported by the IDF at the time, and other independent observers considered them to be much higher; losses in aircraft and armoured vehicles.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, some Druze still charge that discrimination continues, such as exclusion from the Air Force, although the official low security classification for Druze has been abolished for some time.^ It was the first time that a senior Israeli official had been convicted on such charges.
  • Case of Yitzhak Mordechai - Former Israeli Defense Minister (Israel) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: News]

^ Thus, the Israeli Air Force was able to give more attention to the Egyptian battlefield on the fourteenth, although its aircraft generally kept clear of the air defense barrier.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During times of violence, US officials have urged Israel to withdraw as rapidly as possible from Palestinian areas retaken in security operations.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first Druze aircraft navigator completed his training course in 2005; his identity is protected as with all air force pilots.^ Soviet technicians began training Egyptian personnel to man these missile bases and Soviet pilots provided protective air coverage over Egypts interior against Israeli air strikes in Cairo and other cities.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Air Force set up dummy SCUD sites in the Negev for pilots to practice on—they found it no easy task.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These squadrons are formed for the last 6 months of pilot's training courses.
  • All IAF aircraft 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.waronline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the battle of Ramat Yohanan during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, approximately 1000 Syrian Druze soldiers and officers deserted and joined Israel.^ In addition to seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought five wars since 1948, Israel has given high priority to gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role.

^ Since then, Israel has been in conflict with many of the neighboring Arab countries, resulting in several major wars and decades of violence that continue to this day.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think Israel current war stocks are as depleted as the IDF post 1973 war stocks due to Israeli political corruption.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Since the late 1970s the Druze Initiative Committee centered at the village of Beit Jan and linked to the Israeli Communist Party has campaigned to abolish Druze conscription.^ Circassians and Bedouin actively enlist in the IDF. Since 1956, Druze men have been conscripted in the same way as Jewish men, at the request of the Druze community.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Launching a peace initiative of his own, Sadat announced on 5 February 1971 that, if the Israelis would make a partial withdrawal, the Egyptians would clean and reopen the Suez Canal.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conscription is a tradition among some of the Druze population, with most opposition in Druze communities of the Golan Heights; 83 percent of Druze boys serve in the army, according to the IDF's statistics.^ Circassians and Bedouin actively enlist in the IDF. Since 1956, Druze men have been conscripted in the same way as Jewish men, at the request of the Druze community.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Walzer, “the IDF has been a unifying, uniform experience for Israeli Jews; those who escape service, namely the ultra-Orthodox, are highly resented by most Israeli Jews.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though we agree that most homosexuals in IDF combat and intelligence units do not acknowledge their sexual orientation to peers, it is also true that some known gays do serve in such units.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.By law, all Israeli citizens are subject to conscription.^ Israel's parliament passed a law forbidding Palestinians who marry Israelis from becoming Israeli citizens.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

The Defense Minister has complete discretion to grant exemption to individual citizens or classes of citizens. .A long-standing policy dating to Israel's early years extends an exemption to all other Israeli minorities (most notably Israeli Arabs).^ As a result of UNRWA's policies and programmes, a Jewish majority in Israel and the territories has been turned into a minority.
  • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.N. has labeled “Zionism” as “Racism” which means this international brothel has a long-standing documented hatred for Israel.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aside from hosting a Night to Honor Israel we will present a Middle East Briefing given by Israeli military and policy experts.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, there is a long-standing government policy of encouraging Bedouins to volunteer and of offering them various inducements, and in some impoverished Bedouin communities a military career seems one of the few means of (relative) social mobility available.^ The U.N. has labeled “Zionism” as “Racism” which means this international brothel has a long-standing documented hatred for Israel.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not until 1962 that the U.S. offered Israel some military loans and only in 1966 that it agreed to ensure the sale of arms to Israel, if not from the Western allies, then from the U.S. itself.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its other stated policy was to establish a system under which both Jews and Arabs were to share one government.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Also, Muslims and Christians are accepted as volunteers, even at an age greater than 18.[22]
Bedouin soldiers in 1949
.From among non-Bedouin Arab citizens, the number of volunteers for military service—some Christian Arabs and even a few Muslim Arabs—is minute, and the government makes no special effort to increase it.^ It is hardly surprising that Arabs, Muslims and increasing numbers of other peoples hate American freedoms that amount to free fire zones and free market exploitation, and as long as Judonia controls the US government, we Americans have no genuine freedom.
  • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Johnson Administration was responsive to Israels ever-increasing military needs even when the Israelis were the aggressors, using force to capture Arab land.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make no mistake, this is not because Lieberman is some kind of crypto- ­peacenik.
  • A toxic force rises in Israel | World news | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Six Israeli Arabs have received orders of distinction as a result of their military service; of them the most famous is a Bedouin officer, Lieutenant Colonel Abd el-Majid Hidr (also known as Amos Yarkoni), who received the Order of Distinction.^ Israel supplies Israeli-developed military technology to most of the world?s top militaries including the USA, India, and China.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/30-81388.aspx 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What can happen in that window is anyone's guess, but an Israeli-Arab military alliance for a strike against Iran would not be impossible if the Arabs feel desperate enough.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/30-81388.aspx 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The police have refused to implement a court order to evict an Arab clan who had been living in a Jewish-owned home for more...

.Recently, a Bedouin officer was promoted to the rank of Colonel.^ In 1994, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel and assigned as Head of the Department of Operational Requirement for Weapon Development and Acquisition.

[citation needed]
An Ethiopian-Jewish soldier
.Until the second term of Yitzhak Rabin as Prime Minister (1992-1995), social benefits given to families in which at least one member (including a grandfather, uncle or cousin) had served at some time in the armed forces were significantly higher than to "non-military" families, which was considered a means of blatant discrimination between Jews and Arabs.^ The Arabs are one of the least developed cultures.
  • The Ayn Rand Center for Individual Rights: America at War: Israeli-Arab Conflict 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aynrand.org [Source type: News]

^ Men studying full-time in religious institutions can get a deferment from conscription; most Haredi Jews extend these deferments until they are too old to be conscripted, although there has been some change in Haredi society, with a small group of single Haredi annually joining in to serve in various fields.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The websites of the Military Times Network provide members of the U.S. Military and their families with independent, award-winning journalism that impacts their lives.
  • Military News, benefits, careers, photos, discussions - Military Times HOME 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.militarycity.com [Source type: General]

Rabin had led the abolition of the measure, in the teeth of strong opposition from the Right. .At present, the only official advantage from military service is the attaining of security clearance and serving in some types of government positions (in most cases, security-related), as well as some indirect benefits.^ It was not until 1962 that the U.S. offered Israel some military loans and only in 1966 that it agreed to ensure the sale of arms to Israel, if not from the Western allies, then from the U.S. itself.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we pray for our soldiers we should remember the members of the Israel military as well who stand in defense of freedom while representing the only democracy in the Middle East; .
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the years, some of those neighbors have moderated their stance somewhat towards Israel; Egypt and Jordan have diplomatic relations with Israel, but in Egypt’s case only because Washington pays them to do it.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, however, a large number of Israeli employers placing "wanted" ads include the requirement "after military service" even when the job is in no way security-related, which is considered as a euphemism for "no Arab/Haredim need apply". The test of former military service is also frequently applied in admittance to various newly-founded communities, effectively barring Arabs from living there.^ Historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clickfool - There`s no need for anyone .
  • Israeli defense official: Fatah arms transfer bolsters forces of peace - Haaretz - Israel News 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no problem with their service in the Army.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the Israeli national airline El Al hires only pilots who had served in the Air Force, which in practice excludes Arabs from the job.^ The Israeli Air Force had made its point.

^ JERUSALEM -- Israeli authorities, ignoring a court decision, have refused to evict Arab squatters from a Jewish-owned property in the nation's capital.

^ The tattered remains of an Israeli Air Force flag, for which Ramon carried into space, was found among debris in Texas .

.On the other hand, non-Arab Israelis argue that the mandatory three-year (two years for women) military service puts them at a disadvantage, as they effectively lose three years of their life through their service in the IDF, while the Arab Israelis can start right into their jobs after school, or study at a university.^ Men serve for three years and women serve for just under two years.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compulsory service is three years for men, and 20 months for women.
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also all male citizens are required to serve three years in the IDF with exceptions made only on religious, physical or psychological grounds.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

.In fact, the most frequently heard argument whenever the subject of the discrimination of Arabs comes up—whether on the Knesset floor, in the media or among ordinary citizens—is that the Arabs' "non fulfillment of military duty" justifies their exclusion from some or all the benefits of citizenship.^ So all the moral questions come up.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The JIDF says outright that if it’s OK for Arabs to say “let’s kill all Jews” and be applauded in the media and around the world, it is also OK for Jews to stand up to their executioners.
  • Inside The Jewish Internet Defense Force | THE CUBAN REVOLUTION 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.briancuban.com [Source type: General]

^ There are several Arab sources which corroborate the historical fact that the refugees left mainly because Arab leaders instructed them to in preparation for the coming 1948 war.
  • Round 1: ecoparity vs Snarf - "Israel has a Justifiable Defense", page 1 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The late former general Rafael Eitan, when he went into politics in the 1980s, proposed that the right to vote be linked to military service.^ Among the twenty-three nations that allow known gays and lesbians to serve in the military, many include powerful social and political groups that oppose gay rights.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of his military service, Mordechai earned a BA in political science and Jewish history.
  • Case of Yitzhak Mordechai - Former Israeli Defense Minister (Israel) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: News]

^ Peres went on to provoke a discussion on the probabilities of success of a military operation - though it must have seemed in conflict with the political situation.

.The idea occasionally crops up again among right-wing groups and parties.^ Yitzhak Shamir then formed a Likud-led coalition government, including members from religious and right-wing parties.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jerusalem Magistrate David Mintz acquitted Nadia Matar, head of the Women in Green right-wing group, of insulting a public official after...

^ Sharon again won, and formed a new government consisting of his own Likud party, the right-wing National Religious Party and National Union party, and centrist Shinui.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the occupied territories, "Israeli Arabs were not required to perform mandatory military service and, in practice, only a small percentage of Israeli Arabs served in the military.^ Two of which, Israel and Switzerland require military service.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | AJAXWorld RIA Conference & Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ajaxworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If anything, it's the rich arab oil lobbies that are skilled at diverting attention from their crimes against americans and the human rights issues in Dafur, Yemen and Saudi arabia.
  • The Raw Story » Defense analyst in AIPAC spy case was FBI ‘double agent’ 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC rawstory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the best part, secondly I must report for my Israeli military service in a place called Tiberias not far from Jordan and Syria on western shore of the Sea of Galilee as soon as possible.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Journal 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | AJAXWorld RIA Conference & Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ajaxworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who did not serve in the army had less access than other citizens to social and economic benefits for which military service was a prerequisite or an advantage, such as housing, new-household subsidies, and employment, especially government or security-related industrial employment.^ From 1949-1985,the U.S. Government has given Israel a total of $30.7 billion: military assistance has totaled $19.1 billion, while economic aid has amounted to $9.9 billion.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Johnson was less emphatic about nonproliferation than President Kennedy-or perhaps had more pressing concerns, such as Vietnam.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the enactment of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1962, the U.S. gave more economic than military assistance.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regarding the latter, for security reasons, Israeli Arabs generally were restricted from working in companies with defense contracts or in security-related fields."^ Thus, the Israeli Air Force was able to give more attention to the Egyptian battlefield on the fourteenth, although its aircraft generally kept clear of the air defense barrier.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arab strategies and war aims in 1967 may have been restricted because of a fear of the Israeli “bomb in the basement,” the undeclared nuclear option.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By dardas on 8/9/09 , Rating: 2 By dardas on 8/9/2009 9:05:10 PM , Rating: 2 Actually, Israeli defense industries were MOST prolific after the Arab-led embargo in the 1970's.
  • DailyTech - Israel Defense Forces' Trophy Active Protection System Operational 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.In recent years, there have been several initiatives to enable Israeli Arabs to volunteer for civilian National Service instead of to the IDF, completion of which would grant the same privileges as those granted to IDF veterans.^ During two recent appearances on National Public Radio , Moskos said that there are no known gay soldiers in combat or intelligence units of the IDF. [30] .
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been numerous clashes along the border recently and on several occasions the Israelis have bombed the smuggling tunnels.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As more gay Israelis have grown comfortable about expressing their orientation in recent years, however, greater openness has been found in the military as well.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this plan has gained strong resistance from Arab members of the parliament, and as a result, has not been implemented.^ While partially a testimony to Israeli courage, planning and execution, this chain of events just as accurately underscored the complete incompetency among the Arab coalition members.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no combined war plans or coordinated plans for operations among the members of the Arab coalition.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Homosexuals

.Since 1993, homosexuals serve openly in the military, including special units, without any discrimination.^ He joined the Haganah as a teenager, serving in various units, including Orde Wingate’s Special Night Squads...
  • IDF and Security Forces 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC israelmint.com [Source type: General]

^ She said that “In the unit I serve in I have heard of no discrimination (in either direction) toward gays”.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beside Sayeret MATKAL, Unit 101 is considered to be the unit with the most influence on the Israeli infantry oriented units including both special and conventional units.

.This happened after a reserves officer testified before the Knesset that he had been barred from researching sensitive topics, and his rank had been revoked, because of his sexual orientation.^ Professor Uzi Even, chairman of Tel Aviv University’s Chemistry Department, created a public sensation when he testified that he had been stripped of his rank of officer and barred from sensitive IDF research in the 1980s because of his sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The regulation stated that homosexuals would not be limited in their positions or discharged from service solely because of their sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF does not conduct any special education or sensitivity training related to sexual orientation issues.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Haredim

IDF soldiers of the religious 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion.
.Men in the Haredi community may choose to defer service while enrolled in yeshivot (see Tal committee), a practice that has given rise to tension between the Israeli religious and secular communities.^ For example, though an estimated 70% of Israelis (according to polls) support the enactment of civil marriage (not requiring religious affiliation), it was blocked by religious parties (see below).
  • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conscription is universal for Jewish men and women over the age of 18, although exemptions may be made on religious grounds.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A US-mediated accord between Lebanon and Israel, signed on May 17, 1983, provided for Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
  • AllGov - Nations - Israel 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While options exist for Haredim to serve in the IDF in an atmosphere conducive to their religious convictions, most Haredim do not choose to serve in the IDF.
The Haredi public has the option of serving in the 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion. .This unit is a standard IDF infantry battalion focused on the Jenin region.^ The IDF attacked in retaliation, but the regular infantry units (including the T'zanhanim) were simply not up for the task.

.To allow Haredi soldiers to serve, the Netzah Yehuda bases follow the highest standards of Jewish dietary laws and the only women permitted on these bases are wives of soldiers and officers.^ These days, many young soldiers find themselves serving in the occupied territories.
  • Israeli Defense Force Marks 60 Years : NPR 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Interpretation of Jewish law concerning nuclear weapons does not permit their use for mutual assured destruction.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A use of force that meet these thresholds can be lawful under the Charter only if based on one of the two exceptions.
  • A Follow-Up on Israel and Gaza « EJIL: Talk! 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ejiltalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, some Haredim serve in the IDF via the Hesder system of a 5 year program which includes 1 year of religious studies, 2 years of military service and 2 years of religious studies during which the soldiers can be recalled to active duty immediately.^ Also all male citizens are required to serve three years in the IDF with exceptions made only on religious, physical or psychological grounds.
  • Cloud Computing and The Israel Defense Forces | Cloud Computing Expo 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

^ Years of Consolidation During Israel's second decade (1958- 68), exports doubled, and the GNP increased some 10 percent annually.
  • Israel - Crystalinks 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC crystalinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The independent judicial system includes secular and religious courts.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are permitted to join the other units of the IDF as well.^ Golani had endured a long tradition of being the unit to which all rejects from other IDF echelons had been sent.

^ They will behave, educate and evaluate themselves and others according to the Spirit of the IDF. .

^ I invite your church to join hundreds of other churches for Christians United for Israel Sunday on May 17, 2009.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

Overseas volunteers

Foreigners typically serve with the IDF in one of three ways:
.
  • The Mahal program targets young non-Israeli Jews (men younger than 24 and women younger than 21).^ Gangs of young men from the Islamic Defenders Front, wearing white outfits accessorized with green scarves and wooden rods, prowled the Jakarta, Indonesia , airport looking, unsuccessfully, for Israeli Jews to kill.
    • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Military service is mandatory for Jewish men and women at the age of 18 and it provides a common experience for young Israelis entering adulthood.
    • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Had we done that 15 years ago, we would have seen a generation of young Palestinian men with few reasons to commit violence against each other or against the Jews.
    • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The program consists typically of 16 months of IDF service, including a lengthy training for those in combat units or one month of non-combat training and additional three months of learning Hebrew after enlisting, if necessary.^ I'm not familiar with IDF promotion zones but it seems like they'd have no-one below O-5 or (more importantly) E-8 with real combat experience.
    • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In May 1986, Israel became the first non-NATO and only the third country, in addition to Britain and West Germany, to agree to participate in the program.
    • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We stand united with the families who lost loved ones and those who sit in vigil for the injured.
    • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

    Volunteering for longer service is possible. .There are two additional subcategories of Mahal, both geared solely for religious men: Mahal Nahal Haredi (16 months), and Mahal Hesder, which combines yeshiva study of 6.5 months with IDF service of 14.5 months, for a total of 21 months.^ Men studying full-time in religious institutions can get a deferment from conscription; most Haredi Jews extend these deferments until they are too old to be conscripted, although there has been some change in Haredi society, with a small group of single Haredi annually joining in to serve in various fields.
    • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is no woman on the committee; among the six judges who convicted Mordechai, the two women were severe and the men were lenient.
    • Case of Yitzhak Mordechai - Former Israeli Defense Minister (Israel) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theawarenesscenter.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Compulsory service is three years for men, and 20 months for women.
    • Israel - Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Similar IDF programs exist for Israeli overseas residents.
  • Sar-El, an organisation subordinate to the Israeli Logistics Corps, provides a volunteer program for non-Israeli citizens who are 17 years or older (or 15 if accompanied by a parent).^ According to Walzer, “the IDF has been a unifying, uniform experience for Israeli Jews; those who escape service, namely the ultra-Orthodox, are highly resented by most Israeli Jews.
    • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It offered 95% of the West Bank (Judea and Samaria), and the release of Palestinian prisoners from Israeli jails who had committed major crimes against the citizens of Israel.
    • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ JERUSALEM -- A 15 year-old imprisoned for 11 weeks for refusing to recognize the authority of the Israeli justice system has been released.

    .The program is also aimed at Israeli citizens, aged 30 years or older, living abroad who did not serve in the Israeli Army and who now wish to finalize their status with the military.^ The Israeli Air Force dropped leaflets over Gaza on 27 December asking the citizens to inform their military of the whereabouts of projectile launchers and Hamas members.
    • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The secret nature of the Israeli nuclear program has hidden the increasing problems of the aging Dimona reactor and adverse worker health effects.
    • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ KFAR SABA -- A young Jewish woman who participated in Jewish settlement has become the second Israeli this year to languish in prison for refusing to cooperate with prosecutors.

    .The program usually consists of three weeks of volunteer service on different rear army bases, doing non-combative work.
  • Garin Tzabar offers a program mainly for Israelis who emigrated with their parents to the United States at a young age.^ Thomas Henriksen’s excellent 2007 Joint Special Operations University monograph, ‘The Israeli Approach to Irregular Warfare and Implications for the United States,’ clearly relates how the Israelis have tried most of the usual solutions.
    • Israel Can’t Win | Defense Tech 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ JERUSALEM -- An Israeli court has awarded $7,500 in damages to three Jewish teenagers who were assaulted by policemen during an anti-Disengagement demonstration.

    ^ Evangelical Christians from the United States and ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel were working together to stop homosexuals from marching through Jerusalem.
    • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    Although a basic knowledge of the Hebrew language is not mandatory, it is helpful. .Of all the programs listed, only Garin Tzabar requires full-length service in the IDF. The program is set up in stages: first the participants go through five seminars in their country of origin, then have an absorption period in Israel at a kibbutz.^ In May 1986, Israel became the first non-NATO and only the third country, in addition to Britain and West Germany, to agree to participate in the program.
    • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That gays and lesbians seek to contribute to their country through military service is an affirmation of what the IDF tries to represent itself as: an institution that brings the diverse strata of Israeli society together”.
    • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Israel, on the other hand, the prevalence of security issues and the system of near-universal conscription have made participation in the IDF the primary rite of passage into Israeli citizenship and a necessary precondition for consideration as a full member of society.
    • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Each delegation is adopted by a kibbutz in Israel and has living quarters designated for it. The delegation shares responsibilities in the kibbutz when on military leave. Participants start the program three months before being enlisted in the army at the beginning of August.
  • Marva is short-term basic training for two months

Weapons and equipment

Equipment[1] Quantity In Service Being delivered
High quality main battle tanks 1030 1030 300
Medium and low quality tanks 1980 1620
APCs, IFVs, ARVs, LCVs 7070 7070 250
Self-propelled artillery 1254 1114 60
Combat warplanes 874 541 25
Transport warplanes 76 66 9
Training warplanes 171 110
Military helicopters 286 184 6
Heavy SAM batteries 25 25 1
Warships 13 13 9
Submarines 3 3 2
Patrol boats 50 50 8

Military technology

Merkava Mark III tank
.The IDF possesses top-of-the-line weapons and computer systems used and recognized worldwide.^ Because Hamas uses your houses to hide and smuggle military weapons, the IDF will attack the area, between the Egyptian border and the beach road.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IDF servicemen and women will use their weapons and force only for the purpose of their mission, only to the necessary extent and will maintain their humanity even during combat.

.Some gear comes from the US (with some equipment modified for IDF use) such as the M4A1 assault rifle, the SR-25 7.62 mm semi-automatic sniper rifle, the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon, and the AH-64D Apache and AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters.^ According to reliable sources, Hamas acquired four stinger missiles from Egyptian smugglers in the Sinai Peninsula and tried to use them against Israeli Air Force AH-64 Apache attack helicopters.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1979, the Carter Administration granted Israel another exception and allowed the use of $181 million in FMS funds to develop a modified version of the Pratt and Whitney F-100 jet engine which powers the U.S. F-15 and F-16 aircraft.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in 1985, McDonnell Douglas signed a $20 million contract with Israeli defense companies to produce parts for its Apache attack helicopter.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israel also has developed its own independent weapons industry, which has developed weapons and vehicles such as the Merkava battle tank series, the Kfir fighter aircraft, and various small arms such as the Galil and Tavor assault rifles, and the Uzi submachine gun.^ Innovative Israeli technologies have a similar effect on civilian and computer related industries and agricultural industries, which view Israel as a successful research and development model.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because SIPRI includes in its calculations only major weapons systems such as aircraft, tanks and naval ships, and excludes small arms, ammunition and defense electronics which constitute the bulk of Israels military exports.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These components encompass: conformal fuel tanks for McDonnell Douglas F-15 fighters, some airframe and and avionics components for McDonnell Douglas F-4, Grumman F-14 and General Dynamics F-16 aircraft; armor parts for General Dynamics M-60 tanks; small arms ammunition; AN/VRC-12 radios; and shoulder launched multipurpose assault rocket weapons, produced under license by McDonnell Douglas for the U.S. Marine Corps.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The IDF also has several large internal research and development departments, and it purchases many technologies produced by the Israeli security industries including IAI, IMI, Elbit, El-Op, Rafael, Soltam, and dozens of smaller firms.^ Israeli research and development; .
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Innovative Israeli technologies have a similar effect on civilian and computer related industries and agricultural industries, which view Israel as a successful research and development model.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. subsequently subcontracted an Israeli firm to produce these tanks in Israel.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these developments have been battle-tested in Israel's numerous military engagements, making the relationship mutually beneficial, the IDF getting tailor-made solutions and the industries a very high repute[citation needed].^ Innovative Israeli technologies have a similar effect on civilian and computer related industries and agricultural industries, which view Israel as a successful research and development model.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the lease was viewed as enhancing Israels arms industry reputation around the world.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1982, the U.S. has permitted Israel to use $100 million annually of its FMS funds to purchase Israeli-made military equipment.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response to the price overruns on the US Littoral Combat Ship program, Israel is considering producing their own warships, which would take a decade[24] and depend on diverting US financing to the project.^ Some left on their own in order to avoid the shooting and a very low number were expelled by Israel for being being combatants.
  • Round 1: ecoparity vs Snarf - "Israel has a Justifiable Defense", page 1 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. assistance has been the mainstay of Israels continuing ability to finance both military and development programs.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May the Lord bless you and keep you as you prayerfully consider taking a stand in our nation’s capital for Israel.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

[25]

Main developments

.Israel's military technology is most famous for its firearms, armored fighting vehicles (tanks, tank-converted armored personnel carriers (APCs), armoured bulldozers, etc.^ Tanks / other ground military vehicles .
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans have made virtually all their most advanced weaponry and technology--meaning the best fighter aircraft, missiles, radar, armor, and artillery--available to Israel.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various attempts to steal sensitive U.S. technology have been directly and indirectly connected with Israels military procurement office in New York.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), unmanned aerial vehicles, and rocketry (missiles and rockets). .Israel also has manufactured aircraft including the Kfir (reserve), IAI Lavi (canceled), and the IAI Phalcon Airborne early warning System, and naval systems (patrol and missile ships).^ The cooperation was so close that Israel worked with France on the preproduction design of early Mirage jet aircraft, designed to be capable of delivering nuclear bombs.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After French disengagement in the early 1960s, Israel progressed on its own, including through several covert operations, to project completion.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Pratt and Whitney, the engine manufacturing subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation, is helping Israel to develop the engine for the Lavi that will be completed in the 1980s.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of the IDF's electronic systems (intelligence, communication, command and control, navigation etc.^ These command posts had sophisticated communication equipment to control their respective areas.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) are .Israeli-developed, including many systems installed on foreign platforms (esp.^ Also note that the Israelis developed an excellent system for defeating anti-tank weapons.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trophy is marketed by General Dynamics, which plans to install the system on every new and existing combat vehicle it produces, including Stryker, M-1A2 and FCS. .
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless of the true types and numbers (see Appendix A) of Israeli nuclear weapons, they have developed a sophisticated system, by myriad methods, and are a nuclear power to be reckoned with.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

aircraft, tanks and submarines), as are many of its precision-guided munitions.
.Israel is the only country in the world with an operational anti-ballistic missile defense system on the national level - the Arrow system, jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States.^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel's military force.

^ In 1947 the United Nations voted in majority to recognize the State of Israel.
  • Round 1: ecoparity vs Snarf - "Israel has a Justifiable Defense", page 1 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To conclude, what does Israel do for the United States?
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israel has also worked with the US on development of a tactical high energy laser system against medium range rockets (called Nautilus or THEL).^ They work together against Israel.
  • Israel Air Force preparing for Iranian strike 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TEXT SIZE By: IAN DEITCH The Associated Press Israel has successfully completed testing a high-tech rocket defense system designed to protect its civilians from attacks by militants in Gaza and Lebanon, the Defense Ministry said Wednesday.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Israel completes testing rocket defense system 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The officers had been assigned to monitor the reconnaissance system being developed for Israel at the plant.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The U.S. Role in Israel's Arms Industry' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israel has the independent capability of launching reconnaissance satellites into orbit, a capability shared with Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, South Korea, Italy, Germany, the People's Republic of China, India, Japan, Brazil and Ukraine.^ To conclude, what does Israel do for the United States?
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This call is free and open to anyone in the United States who is interested in Israel and the Middle East.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2009 Israel shared with the United States its battle-tested experience in combatting Palestinian and Hezbullah terrorism, which are the role models of anti-U.S. Islamic terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan, contrary to what the current administration labels as “overseas manmade disasters.” .
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israeli security industries developed both the satellites (Ofeq) and the launchers (Shavit).^ Innovative Israeli technologies have a similar effect on civilian and computer related industries and agricultural industries, which view Israel as a successful research and development model.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel's tech market is very developed, and in spite of the pause in the industry's growth, the high-tech sector is likely to be the major driver of the Israeli economy.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israel is also said to have developed an indigenous nuclear capability, although no official details or acknowledgments have ever been publicized.^ Israel will then have a second strike capability with nuclear cruise missiles, and this capability could well change the nuclear arms race in the Middle East.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arabs forgot it in 1973, and Syria has said time and again (at least once in the last few days) that they do not consider Israel's nuclear arsenal a bar to an attack.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although denied at the time, America delivered the F-4Es, on September 5, 1969, with nuclear capable hardware intact.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the issue of this nuclear weapons program, Israel chooses to follow a policy of deliberate ambiguity.^ Initially, I rejected that hypothesis because I understood it expressed as a way to divert attention from Irans nuclear weapons program and it seemed as too simplistic an explanation.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Washington Times reports that Barack Obama may counter demands from Israel to confront Iran over their nuclear program by confronting Israel over theirs.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Obama to force Israel to give up nukes? 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC hotair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel views Iran as its biggest threat because of its nuclear program and long-range missiles.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Israel completes testing rocket defense system 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 2006 Israel deployed the Wolf Armoured Vehicle APC for use in urban warfare and to protect VIPs.^ By the 1973 Yom Kippur War Israel had a number of sophisticated nuclear bombs, deployed them, and considered using them.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Doctrine

Mission

.The IDF mission is to "defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel.^ The Mission of the Israel Defense Forces is to defend the existence and territorial sovereignty of the state of Israel.

^ IDF soldiers are obligated to fight, to dedicate all their strength and even sacrifice their lives in order to protect the State of Israel, her citizens and residents.

^ The goal of the IDF is to protect the existence of the State of Israel and her independence, and to thwart all enemy efforts to disrupt the normal way of life in Israel.

.To protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life."^ To protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten daily life.

^ IDF soldiers are obligated to fight, to dedicate all their strength and even sacrifice their lives in order to protect the State of Israel, her citizens and residents.

^ The goal of the IDF is to protect the existence of the State of Israel and her independence, and to thwart all enemy efforts to disrupt the normal way of life in Israel.

[26]

Main Doctrine

The main doctrine consists of the following principles:[27]

Basic Points

  • Israel cannot afford to lose a single war
  • Defensive on the strategic level, no territorial ambitions
  • Desire to avoid war by political means and a credible deterrent posture
  • Preventing escalation
  • Determine the outcome of war quickly and decisively
  • Combating terrorism
  • Very low casualty ratio

Prepare for Defense

  • A small standing army with an early warning capability, regular air force and navy
  • An efficient reserve mobilization and transportation system

Move to Counterattack

  • Multi-arm coordination
  • Transferring the battle to enemy territory quickly
  • Quick attainment of war objectives

Low-intensity warfare

.Owing to the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the IDF has adapted tactics for low intensity warfare - primarily directed against Palestinian militants operating from within densely-populated civilian territory.^ Since the start of the conflict, the Israel Defense Force has tried to wage psychological war on the civilian population.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Defense Force will soon escalate its operations against tunnels, weapons warehouses, terrorist infrastructure and terrorists all over the Gaza Strip.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minister Friedmann will formulate answers to possible questions regarding IDF operations, which the self-righteous are liable to raise concerning the character of the Israeli fighting and its results.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Assassinations

.The IDF employs a strategy of "focused foiling" (Hebrew: סיכול ממוקד‎, Sikul Memukad) of Palestinian terrorists, often referred to as "targeted killing" or "targeted assassination".^ Yasir Arafat asked Palestinian terrorists to please stop killing Israelis .
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Israel assassinated a Palestinian paramilitary commander by blowing up his vehicle with missiles fired from helicopter gunships; two women who were standing nearby were also killed.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Israeli soldiers assassinated Dr. Thabet Thabet, a senior Palestinian health official, near his home in the West Bank: Last week, an Israeli general admitted on the radio that the extra-judicial killing of suspected terrorists was an official policy of the Israeli government.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The strategy aims at preventing future acts of terrorism by killing individuals known to have participated or assisted in acts such as suicide bombings.^ Arab strategies and war aims in 1967 may have been restricted because of a fear of the Israeli “bomb in the basement,” the undeclared nuclear option.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamas proved that it still has the power to prevent such negotiations by sending a wave of suicide bombers into Israel , which culminated in a double bombing on a crowded Jerusalem street that left at least 10 people dead.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing in a Sbarro restaurant in downtown Jerusalem ; at least 18 people, including 6 children , were killed.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.On December 14, 2006 the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that targeted killing is a legitimate form of self-defense against terrorists, and outlined several conditions for its use.^ December 14, 2006 .
  • Military News, benefits, careers, photos, discussions - Military Times HOME 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.militarycity.com [Source type: General]

^ JERUSALEM -- An Israeli court rejected the appeal by the state prosecution against an order to avail a defendant of one year's worth of cases of insulting a public official.

^ The Israeli Defense Force will soon escalate its operations against tunnels, weapons warehouses, terrorist infrastructure and terrorists all over the Gaza Strip.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

House demolitions

IDF Caterpillar D9R armored bulldozer. The heavily armored D9, a vehicle resistant to attacks by Palestinian militants[29]
.Until the summer of 2005 the IDF used a strategy of demolishing the houses of family members of suicide bombers, originally claiming that this was a very effective prevention tactic: would-be bombers' families sometimes prevent the bomber, sometimes even going as far as informing to the IDF, in the hope of preventing their family-member's death as well as their house being demolished.^ Because Hamas uses your houses to hide and smuggle military weapons, the IDF will attack the area, between the Egyptian border and the beach road.
  • Gaza Leaflets, Israel VS Hamas 2008-2009 PSYOP 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of Israel, experts have raised three arguments to bolster their claim that the evidence from the IDF is irrelevant for determining whether the U.S. military would remain effective if the gay ban were lifted.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Authors have made the point that Israeli professional military schools do not teach nuclear tactics and would not use them in the close quarters of Israel.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some would-be bombers even relented at the last moment, fearing their parent's home would be demolished.^ But Lieberman – who lives in a West Bank settlement – has said he would be prepared to give up even his own home.
  • A toxic force rises in Israel | World news | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Even if the planes did show up on hostile radar screens, it was unlikely that they would be believed to be Israeli aircraft so far from home.

Critics, including human-rights organizations,[30] contend that effectiveness does not legitimize excessive force.

House demolition can also occur in the course of fighting. After several IDF soldiers were killed early in the conflict while searching houses containing militants, the IDF started employing a tactic of surrounding such houses, calling on the occupants (civilian and militant) to exit, and demolishing the house on top of the militants that do not surrender. .This tactic, called "Nohal Sir Lachatz" נוהל סיר לחץ "Pressure Pot", is now used whenever feasible (i.e., non multi-rise building that's separated from other houses).^ Researchers can test non-nuclear components of other types separately and use extensive computer simulations.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In discussion with the other generals, IDF Chief of Staff Gur was still not convinced that the now rapidly evolving plan was feasible.

Palestinians claim several cases in which houses were demolished on top of incapacitated or deaf civilian occupants. The IDF claims that in the vast majority of cases the occupants were militants. In some heavy fighting incidents, especially in the 2002 Battle of Jenin and Operation Rainbow in Rafah 2004, heavily-armored IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozers were used to demolish houses to widen alleyways or to secure locations for IDF troops.
Palestinians and international organizations regard the use of bulldozers for purposes of demolishing civilian structures as illegal. .In one well-known incident, International Solidarity Movement activist Rachel Corrie was killed when she jumped to the path of a Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer in Rafah after being ordered several times by the IDF soldiers to move and to exit the area of the demolition but at the last moment she jumped.^ IDF soldiers will be meticulous in giving only lawful orders, and shall refrain from obeying blatantly illegal orders.

^ Kaplan and Ben-Ari conducted in-depth interviews with 21 self-identified gay IDF combat soldiers and found that five of them (23.8 percent) were known to be homosexual by at least one other member in their combat unit.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A note on IDF casualties, these were under-reported by the IDF at the time, and other independent observers considered them to be much higher; losses in aircraft and armoured vehicles.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.By the summer of 2005, after the destruction of numerous houses, the Israeli army itself came to the conclusion that these demolitions had outgrown their usefulness and announced an end to this policy.^ These would be very useful for hardened deeply buried command and control facilities and for airfield destruction without exposing Israeli pilots to combat.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli army announced that female soldiers must not lower the waistline of their pants or take in their shirts.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ ISRAELI JUDGE RULES HEBRON HOUSE DEMOLITION ILLEGAL .

Code of Conduct

.In 1992, the IDF drafted a Code of Conduct that combines international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical code—the IDF Spirit (Hebrew: רוח צה"ל‎, Ru'ah Tzahal).^ Under traditional Jewish law, sex between two men is considered unclean and a 1983 study found Israelis to be considerably less tolerant of homosexuality than Americans.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jewish Agency, however, assumes such responsibilities and operates as a state-within-a-state by acting as the international arm of the Israeli Government with a broad spectrum of domestic activities.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Foreign Ministry rejected the idea that its conduct in the war with Lebanon was “outside international norms or international legality concerning the rules of war.” .
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[31]

Stated values of the IDF

The document defines three core values for all IDF soldiers to follow, as well as ten secondary values (the first being most important, and the others appearing sorted in Hebrew alphabetical order):[31]
Core values
.
  • Defense of the State, its Citizens and its Residents - "The IDF's goal is to defend the existence of the State of Israel, its independence and the security of the citizens and residents of the state."
  • Love of the Homeland and Loyalty to the Country - "At the core of service in the IDF stand the love of the homeland and the commitment and devotion to the State of Israel-a democratic state that serves as a national home for the Jewish People-its citizens and residents."
  • Human Dignity - "The IDF and its soldiers are obligated to protect human dignity.^ The Mission of the Israel Defense Forces is to defend the existence and territorial sovereignty of the state of Israel.

    ^ The IDF and its soldiers are obligated to protect human dignity.

    ^ Where are the nations that have persecuted the Jewish people?
    • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

    Every human being is of value regardless of his or her origin, religion, nationality, gender, status or position."
Other values
.
  • Tenacity of Purpose in Performing Missions and Drive to Victory - "The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselves with courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere in their missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangering their lives."
  • Responsibility - "The IDF servicemen or women will see themselves as active participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents.^ IDF soldiers are obligated to fight, to dedicate all their strength and even sacrifice their lives in order to protect the State of Israel, her citizens and residents.

    ^ They will be ready to give their all in order to defend the state, its citizens and residents.

    ^ The Israel Defense Forces serviceman or woman will see themselves as active participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents.

    .They will carry out their duties at all times with initiative, involvement and diligence with common sense and within the framework of their authority, while prepared to bear responsibility for their conduct."
  • Credibility - "The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting.^ They will carry out their duties at all times with initiative, involvement and diligence with common sense and within the framework of their authority, while prepared to bear responsibility for their conduct.

    ^ The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting.

    ^ Tenacity of Purpose in Performing Missions and Drive to Victory - The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselves with courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere in their missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangering their lives.

    .They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can rely upon them in performing their tasks."
  • Personal Example - "The IDF servicemen and women will comport themselves as required of them, and will demand of themselves as they demand of others, out of recognition of their ability and responsibility within the military and without to serve as a deserving role model."
  • Human Life - "The IDF servicemen and women will act in a judicious and safe manner in all they do, out of recognition of the supreme value of human life.^ They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can rely upon them in performing their tasks.

    ^ The IDF servicemen and women will comport themselves as required of them, and will demand of themselves as they demand of others, out of recognition of their ability and responsibility within the military and without to serve as a deserving role model.

    ^ The Israel Defense Forces servicemen and women will act in a judicious and safe manner in all they do, out of recognition of the supreme value of human life.

    .During combat they will endanger themselves and their comrades only to the extent required to carry out their mission."
  • Purity of Arms - "The soldier shall make use of his weaponry and power only for the fulfillment of the mission and solely to the extent required; he will maintain his humanity even in combat.^ June 2006 (UTC) The recent bombings of infrastructure and power supply make the word "invades" the only accurate word,imo.
    • Talk:Israel Defense Forces attack Gaza Strip - Wikinews, the free news source 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC en.wikinews.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some soldiers complained they were exposed to unnecessary danger by being sent on daytime missions that should only have been carried out under cover of darkness.
    • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And when they do look at themselves they'll find the oppressed have become the oppressor, the victims of crimes against humanity have become war criminals, and those discriminated against have become bigots.
    • A toxic force rises in Israel | World news | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .The soldier shall not employ his weaponry and power in order to harm non-combatants or prisoners of war, and shall do all he can to avoid harming their lives, body, honor and property."
  • Professionalism - "The IDF servicemen and women will acquire the professional knowledge and skills required to perform their tasks, and will implement them while striving continuously to perfect their personal and collective achievements."
  • Discipline - "The IDF servicemen and women will strive to the best of their ability to fully and successfully complete all that is required of them according to orders and their spirit.^ The Israel Defense Forces servicemen and women will acquire the professional knowledge and skills required to perform their tasks, and will implement them while striving continuously to perfect their personal and collective achievements.

    ^ IDF soldiers will not use their weapons and force to harm human beings who are not combatants or prisoners of war, and will do all in their power to avoid causing harm to their lives, bodies, dignity and property.

    ^ The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting.

    .IDF soldiers will be meticulous in giving only lawful orders, and shall refrain from obeying blatantly illegal orders."
  • Comradeship - "The IDF servicemen and women will act out of fraternity and devotion to their comrades, and will always go to their assistance when they need their help or depend on them, despite any danger or difficulty, even to the point of risking their lives."
  • Sense of Mission - "The IDF soldiers view their service in the IDF as a mission; They will be ready to give their all in order to defend the state, its citizens and residents.^ IDF soldiers are obligated to fight, to dedicate all their strength and even sacrifice their lives in order to protect the State of Israel, her citizens and residents.

    ^ The Israel Defense Forces soldiers view their service in the IDF as a mission.

    ^ The IDF servicemen and women will act out of fraternity and devotion to their comrades, and will always go to their assistance when they need their help or depend on them, despite any danger or difficulty, even to the point of risking their lives.

    This is due to the fact that they are representatives of the IDF who act on the basis and in the framework of the authority given to them in accordance with IDF orders."

Code of Conduct against militants and Palestinian civilians

Two Israeli soldiers on a street in Hebron
An Israeli soldier buys from Palestinians selling drinks at an Israeli check point
.In 2004 a team of professors, commanders and former judges, led by the holder of the Ethics chair at Tel Aviv University, Professor Asa Kasher, developed a code of conduct which emphasizes the right behavior in low intensity warfare against terrorists, where soldiers must operate within a civilian population.^ Thousands of Israelis rallied against the Gaza pullout in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Professor Uzi Even, chairman of Tel Aviv University’s Chemistry Department, created a public sensation when he testified that he had been stripped of his rank of officer and barred from sensitive IDF research in the 1980s because of his sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces | Palm Center 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.palmcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War erupted between Hezbollah and Israel after the Lebanese militia launched Operation Truthful Promise against Israel by crossing the border and capturing two Israeli soldiers.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Reserve units and regular units alike learn the following eleven rules of conduct, which are an addition to the more general IDF Spirit:
  1. Military action can be taken only against military targets.
  2. The use of force must be proportional.
  3. Soldiers may only use weaponry they were issued by the IDF.
  4. Anyone who surrenders cannot be attacked.
  5. Only those who are properly trained can interrogate prisoners.
  6. Soldiers must accord dignity and respect to the Palestinian population and those arrested.
  7. Soldiers must give appropriate medical care, when conditions allow, to themeselves and to enemies.
  8. Pillaging is absolutely and totally illegal.
  9. Soldiers must show proper respect for religious and cultural sites and artifacts.
  10. Soldiers must protect international aid workers, including their property and vehicles.
  11. Soldiers must report all violations of this code.

Alliances

United States

Sailors of the Israeli Navy
.In 1983, the United States and Israel established a Joint Political Military Group, which convenes twice a year.^ In 1983, the United States and Israel established the Joint Political Military Group, which meets twice a year.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel's military force.

^ This call is free and open to anyone in the United States who is interested in Israel and the Middle East.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both the U.S. and Israel participate in joint military planning and combined exercises, and have collaborated on military research and weapons development.^ Both the U.S. and Israel participate in joint military planning and combined exercises, and have collaborated on military research and weapons development.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1983, the United States and Israel established the Joint Political Military Group, which meets twice a year.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Text size Sri Lankan News July 6, 2009 A d v e r t i s e m e n t The Israel Air Force is planning to participate in aerial exercises in the US and Europe in the coming months.
  • Israel Air Force preparing for Iranian strike 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally the U.S. military maintains two classified, pre-positioned War Reserve Stocks in Israel valued at $493 million.^ War erupted between Hezbollah and Israel after the Lebanese militia launched Operation Truthful Promise against Israel by crossing the border and capturing two Israeli soldiers.
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Israel could not afford the massive costs of maintaining a suitable regular standing military which could defeat the Arab coalition which surrounded it.29 Thus, it relied on the capabilities of its reserve forces.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the 1973 October War, Egypt's stated objectives with regard to Israel were completely out of step with the military capabilities which it (or its Arab allies) possessed.
  • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Israel has the official distinction of being an American Major non-NATO ally.^ Over the years, these sources have generated billions of dollars for Israel from the prosperous American Jewish community and, to a lesser extent, from non-Jewish sources.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private American assistance is obtained from three major sources: (1) private institutions; (2) private individuals; and (3) the sale of Israel Bonds.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this happens I am sorry for the children of American soldiers for the loss of your parents being USED as military slaves to Israel.
  • Israel Air Force preparing for Iranian strike 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result of this, the US and Israel share the vast majority[citation needed] of their security and military technology.^ US military aid to Israel in 2009 totals USD 2.55 billion.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, military assistance to Israel accounted for 75 percent of total U.S. governmental assistance during this recent period.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Nixon Administration had to dip into its own reserves to meet Israels military needs, thus jeopardizing U.S. national security for the sake of helping Israel.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1976, Israel had been the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance.^ Since 1989, nearly a million immigrants from the former Soviet Union have arrived in Israel, making this the largest wave of immigration since independence.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study reveals that the U.S. has increased the volume of its economic assistance and the amounts of grants as Israels foreign debt has worsened--a debt which reached a record high of $18 billion in 1981.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represented a seven-fold increase over the previous year and the largest amount of economic aid Israel had yet received from the U.S. since its inception in 1948.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2004, Israel received $2.16 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants from the Department of Defense.^ It also removed any immediate threat to Israel, which was receiving extensive military aid during this time.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1949-1985,the U.S. Government has given Israel a total of $30.7 billion: military assistance has totaled $19.1 billion, while economic aid has amounted to $9.9 billion.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minutes before the meeting, both the Foreign Ministry and the Defense Ministry received from Paris, a preliminary list of terrorists, held in Israel, France, Germany, Switzerland and Kenya, whose release was being demanded by the hijackers in Entebbe.

[33] .This amount has increased in recent years due to non-military economic aid being shifted to military aid.^ From 1949-1985,the U.S. Government has given Israel a total of $30.7 billion: military assistance has totaled $19.1 billion, while economic aid has amounted to $9.9 billion.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study reveals that the U.S. has increased the volume of its economic assistance and the amounts of grants as Israels foreign debt has worsened--a debt which reached a record high of $18 billion in 1981.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, he decided to increase American military aid to Israel, thus enabling Israel to intervene in Lebanons internal affairs.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] A large proportion of this military aid is for the purchase of American military equipment only.

India

India and Israel enjoy strong military and strategic ties.[35] .Some analysts have dubbed the alliance between India and Israel as the new "axis in the war on terror".[36] Apart from being Israel's second-largest economic partner in Asia,[37] India is also the largest customer of Israeli arms in the world.^ Israel will then have a second strike capability with nuclear cruise missiles, and this capability could well change the nuclear arms race in the Middle East.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy and his successors poured six billion dollars into Israel to modernize its armed forces between 1962-1976.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel's war against terrorism includes detecting Palestinian child bombers.

[38] .In 2006, annual military sales between India and Israel stood at US$900 million.^ I urge you to join us in Washington DC, July 21-24 for the third annual Washington/Israel Summit.
  • Christians United for Israel: Pastor John Hagee's Teachings 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cufi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the U.S. Bonds return was 6.9 percent annual yield, the unions pension funds lost $7.3 million over the 20-year period based on the differences between the annual return of both bonds.
  • AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'U.S. Aid to Israel' 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC ameu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kifaya: Cancel Camp David Kifaya is working towards collecting one million signatures on a petition demanding the cancellation of the Camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Israeli defense firms had the largest exhibition at the 2009 Aero India show, during which Israel offered several state-of-the art weapons to India.^ The Israel Defense Forces are the state of Israel's military force.

^ Aero India 2009 .
  • F-15 (Israel) - Military Pictures - Air Force Army Navy Missiles Defense 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: News]

^ The Mission of the Israel Defense Forces is to defend the existence and territorial sovereignty of the state of Israel.

[40] .The first major military deal between the two countries was the sale of Israeli EL/M-2075 AEW radars to the Indian Air Force in 2004.[41] In March 2009, India and Israel signed a US$1.4 billion deal under which Israel would sell India an advanced air-defense system.^ US military aid to Israel in 2009 totals USD 2.55 billion.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli Air Force had made its point.

^ Israel,blow up bridges and kidnap elected Israeli political leaders would we use the word "invade"?
  • Talk:Israel Defense Forces attack Gaza Strip - Wikinews, the free news source 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC en.wikinews.org [Source type: Original source]

[42] .India and Israel have also embarked on extensive space cooperation.^ Current military contacts between Israel and India, another nuclear power, bring up questions of nuclear cooperation.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008, India's ISRO launched Israel's most technologically-advanced spy satellite TecSAR.^ American-born Israeli spy Jonathan Pollard obtained satellite-imaging data of the Soviet Union, allowing Israel to target accurately Soviet cities.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea that Hezbollah could advance on Israel's tank formations (most of the problems were Tanks unsupported by infantry, an easily correctable mistake) with no air cover is laughable.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECONOMY Israel has a diversified, technologically advanced economy with substantial but decreasing government ownership and a strong high-tech sector.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .In 2009, India reportedly developed a high-tech spy satellite RISAT-2 with significant assistance from Israel.^ The skills brought by the new immigrants and their added demand as consumers gave the Israeli economy a strong upward push and in the 1990s, they played a key role in the ongoing development of Israel's high-tech sector.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel's tech market is very developed, and in spite of the pause in the industry's growth, the high-tech sector is likely to be the major driver of the Israeli economy.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECONOMY Israel has a diversified, technologically advanced economy with substantial but decreasing government ownership and a strong high-tech sector.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] The satellite was successfully launched by India in April 2009.[45]
Many analysts saw the 2008 Mumbai attacks as an attack on the growing India-Israel partnership.[46] .In the past, India and Israel have held numerous joint anti-terror training exercises[47] and it was also reported that in the wake of the Mumbai attacks, Israel was helping India launch anti-terror raids inside Pakistani territory.^ On October 6, 1973--Yom Kippur (the Jewish Day of Atonement), the armies of Syria and Egypt launched an attack against Israel.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This report comes in the wake of a recent Iran Shihab-3 missile test and indications to Israel that Iran is two to three years from a nuclear warhead.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it is, until they actually control the territory again, I'm not going to consider the claims of a group of people who have mostly never lived inside Israel to be legitimate.
  • An unconvincing defense | Stephen M. Walt 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC walt.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]

Germany

A Dolphin class submarine, co-developed by Israel and Germany
.Germany supplies arms to Israel.^ After three wars, with a robust domestic arms industry and a reliable defense supply line from the U.S., Israel felt much more secure.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Israel and Germany co-developed the Dolphin submarine. .The military co-operation has been discrete but mutually profitable: Israeli intelligence, for example, sent captured Warsaw Pact armour to West Germany to be analysed.^ American commanders in Germany depleted their stocks of missiles, at that time only shared with the British and West Germans, and sent them forward to Israel.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israeli intelligence information on the Nazi past of some West German officials may have provided the motivation.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli military operation continued until January 18, 2009, when Israel and Hamas each declared a unilateral cease-fire.
  • Israel (12/09) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The results aided the German development of an anti-tank system.^ Also note that the Israelis developed an excellent system for defeating anti-tank weapons.
  • The Israeli Defense Force -- A Hollow Military? - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.In 2008, it was revealed that Germany and Israel had been jointly developing a nuclear warning system, dubbed Operation Bluebird.^ It was revealed that in 2003 the Bush Administration refused an offer by Iran to end Iranian support of Palestinian terror organizations and recognize Israel in exchange for an end to sanctions and permission to peacefully develop its nuclear program .
  • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ He would become the director of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the founder of Israel's efforts to develop nuclear weapons.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peres secured an agreement from France to assist Israel in developing a nuclear deterrent.
  • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

See Also

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b c The Institute for National Security Studies", chapter Israel, June 17, 2009.
  2. ^ 51.6 mld NIS
  3. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages1099701.html
  4. ^ http://world.guns.ru/machine/mg22-e.htm
  5. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/arms-embargo-vital-gaza-civilian-toll-mounts-20090115
  6. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site - Recipients in 1965 (in Hebrew)". http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/PrasIsrael/Tashkag/Tashlab_Tashkag_Rikuz.htm?DictionaryKey=Tashka. 
  7. ^ Mahler, Gregory S. (1990). Israel After Begin. SUNY Press. p. 45. ISBN 079140367X. 
  8. ^ Pa'il, Meir (1982). "The Infantry Brigades". in Yehuda Schiff. IDF in Its Corps: Army and Security Encyclopedia. Volume 11. Revivim Publishing. p. 15.  (Hebrew)
  9. ^ a b Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). ed. Shoshana Shiftel. ed. An Army is Born (Vol. 1). Israel Ministry of Defense. pp. 113–116. ISBN 965-05-0695-0.  (Hebrew)
  10. ^ IDF Website.
  11. ^ Seitz, Charmaine. "Israel's Defense Budget: The Business Side of War,"". The Jerusalem Fund. http://www.thejerusalemfund.org/ht/d/ContentDetails/i/2122. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  12. ^ "Military spending-Arming up". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/daily/chartgallery/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13808801&fsrc=rss. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1117753.html Haaretz. Defense budget to grow, education spending to shrink by Moti Bassok. Accessed: 30 September 2009.
  14. ^ "A Woman of Valor", Bar Ben-Ari, Israel Defense Forces, August 1, 2007
  15. ^ "SPOTLIGHT ON ISRAEL: The Israel Defense Forces" Dr. Netanel Lorch, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, May 31, 1997
  16. ^ a b c Gelfond Feldinger, Lauren Gelfond (2008-09-21). "Skirting history". Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull&cid=1221489069566. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  17. ^ a b "First woman pilot in Israeli Air Force dies", The Jewish news weekly of Northern California, June 2, 2005. Accessed Jan 20, 2008.
  18. ^ Azoulay, Yuval "Israel Air Force appoints first female deputy squadron commander", Haaretz, November 28, 2007. Accessed 2008-01-20.
  19. ^ IDF "human resources" site (Hebrew)
  20. ^ Derfner, Larry. "Covenant of blood". The Jerusalem Post, January 15, 2009.
  21. ^ http://www.aka.idf.il/brothers/skira/default.asp?catId=57479&docId= IDF Human Resources site, (Hebrew)
  22. ^ Eichner, Itamar (2007-02-08). "Follow Israel's example on gays in the military, US study says". Ynetnews. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3362505,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  23. ^ Jpost: Navy mulls building ships locally
  24. ^ Navy Drops US Warship for Made-in-Israel Option
  25. ^ IDF desk - Doctrine, Mission
  26. ^ IDF desf - Main Doctrine
  27. ^ Summary of Israeli Supreme Court Ruling on Targeted Killings December 14, 2006
  28. ^ "Razing Rafah - I. SUMMARY". Human Rights Watch. 2004-10-17. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/11963/section/3. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  29. ^ Human Rights Watch - Mass Home Demolitions in the Gaza Strip
  30. ^ a b "Ethics - The IDF Spirit". IDF Spokesperson's Unit. http://dover.idf.il/IDF/English/about/doctrine/ethics.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 
  31. ^ Global Security.org. "31st Munitions Squadron (31st MUNS)". http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/agency//31muns.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  32. ^ US House of Representatives. "Summary and Analysis of the President's 2004 Budget". http://www.house.gov/budget_democrats/pres_budgets/fy2004/fy04update/150.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  33. ^ US State Department. "Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations". http://www.state.gov/s/d/rm/rls/cbj. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  34. ^ Israel & India: New Allies
  35. ^ US plays matchmaker to India, Israel
  36. ^ India-Israel Commercial Relations
  37. ^ Israel largest defence supplier to India: report
  38. ^ [Israel arms sales to India top USD 900 million a year http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3310835,00.html]
  39. ^ Israeli Exhibit Among Largest at Show
  40. ^ India, Israel ink the Phalcon deal
  41. ^ India, Israel sign $1.4 bn deal on air defence system
  42. ^ India and Israel Eye Iran
  43. ^ India to launch Israel-backed satellite
  44. ^ Spy satellite RISAT takes off from Sriharikota
  45. ^ Some see Mumbai terrorism as an attack on India-Israel ties
  46. ^ India, Israel likely to hold joint anti-terror training exercises
  47. ^ Israeli experts help India prepare commando raids into Pakistan
  48. ^ Israel welcomes new Germany to a celebration of its 60th birthday
  49. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (2008-11-17). "Israel, Germany develop nuclear warning system". The Jerusalem Post (JPost.com). http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1226404751066&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 

Further reading

  • Rosenthal, Donna (2003). The Israelis. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-7035-5. 
  • Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). Shiftel, Shoshana. ed. An Army is Born. .Israel Ministry of Defense.^ A report indicates that the Israel Defense Ministry has formally gone to the government with a request to authorize a retaliatory nuclear strike if Israel was hit with first strike nuclear weapons.
    • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Israel secretly founded its own Atomic Energy Commission in 1952 and placed it under the control of the Defense Ministry.
    • Israel's Nuclear Weapons 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 965-05-0695-0.
      (Hebrew)
  • Gelber, Yoav (1986). Nucleus for a Standing Army. Yad Ben Tzvi.  (Hebrew)
  • Yehuda Shif, ed (1982). IDF in Its Corps: Army and Security Encyclopedia (18 volumes). Revivim Publishing.  (Hebrew)
  • Ron Tira, ed (2009). .The Nature of War: Conflicting Paradigms and Israeli Military Effectiveness.^ The Background Leading to the 1973 War The territorial outcome of the 1967 conflict was Israeli control of additional Arab lands.
    • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ SEE ALSO: Arab-Israeli conflict ; Gaza Strip ; Israel ; Military offenses ; Protection of civilians ; War PDF FREE TEXT IMAGES .
    • Israel (Harper's Magazine) 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Nowhere in the world exists a reserve force which possesses the ability to mobilize and conduct war with the speed and effectiveness of the Israeli Defense Forces' reserves.
    • 1973 War: The Egyptian Perspective ____ by:Major J.C. Moulton,United States Air force - Iran Defense Forum 16 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-378-2.
     
  • Country Briefing: Israel, Jane's Defence Weekly, 19 June 1996

External links


Simple English

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל}}  Tzva HaHagana LeYisrael (info • help), "Army (or Force, literally "Host") for the Defense of Israel", known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym צה"ל, Tzahal), is the name of Israel's military forces, and the Israeli Army, Air Force and Sea Corps.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Israel Defense Forces, which are similar to those in the above article.








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