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Lake Issyk-Kul
From space, September 1992
Coordinates 42°30′N 77°30′E / 42.5°N 77.5°E / 42.5; 77.5Coordinates: 42°30′N 77°30′E / 42.5°N 77.5°E / 42.5; 77.5
Lake type Endorheic
Mountain lake
Monomictic
Primary inflows Glaciers
Primary outflows Evaporation
Catchment area 15,844 square kilometers (6,117.4 sq mi)
Basin countries Kyrgyzstan
Max. length 182 kilometers (113 mi)
Max. width 60 kilometers (37 mi)
Surface area 6,236 square kilometers (2,407.7 sq mi)
Average depth 270 meters (886 ft)
Max. depth 668 meters (2,192 ft)
Water volume 1,738 km³ (416.97 mi³)
Shore length1 688 kilometers (428 mi)
Surface elevation 1,607 meters (5,272 ft)
Settlements Cholpon-Ata, Karakol
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol; Kyrgyz: Ысык көл Issık Köl, Turkish: Issık Göl , Russian: Иссык-Куль, Chinese: 熱海) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. Although it is surrounded by snow-capped peaks, it never freezes; hence its name, which means "hot lake" in the Kyrgyz language. The lake is a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity (Ramsar Site RDB Code 2KG001) and forms part of the Issyk-Kul Biosphere Reserve. It is also the site of an ancient metropolis 2500 years ago, and archaeological excavations are ongoing.[1]

Contents

Geography

Southern shore of lake Issyk Kul
Map of Kyrgyzstan showing Issyk Kul in the north

Lake Issyk Kul has a length of 182 kilometers (113 mi), a width of up to 60 kilometers (37 mi), and covers an area of 6,236 square kilometers (2,407.7 sq mi). This makes it the second largest mountain lake in the world behind Lake Titicaca in South America. Located at an altitude of 1,607 meters (5,272 ft), it reaches 668 meters (2,192 ft) in depth.[2].

About 118 rivers and streams flow into the lake; the largest are the Djyrgalan and Tyup. It is fed by springs, including many hot springs, and snow melt-off. The lake has no current outlet, but some hydrologists hypothesize[3] that, deep underground, lake water filters into the Chu River. The bottom of the lake contains the mineral monohydrocalcite: one of the few known lacustrine deposits.[4]

The lake's southern shore is dominated by the ruggedly beautiful Teskey Ala-Too Range of the Tian Shan mountains. The Kyungey Ala-Too Range of the Tian Shan runs parallel to the north shore.

The lake water has salinity of approx. 0.6%—compare to 3.5% salinity of typical seawater—and its level drops by approximately 5 cm per year.[5]

Administratively, the lake and the adjacent land are within Issyk Kul Province of Kyrgyzstan.

Tourism

During the Soviet era, the lake became a popular vacation resort, with numerous sanatoria, boarding houses and vacation homes along its northern shore, many concentrated in and around the town of Cholpon-Ata. These fell on hard times after the break-up of the USSR, but now hotel complexes are being refurbished and simple private bed-and-breakfast pensions are being established for a new generation of health and leisure visitors.

The city of Karakol (formerly Przhevalsk, after the Russian explorer Przhevalsky who died there) is the administrative seat of Issyk Kul Oblast (Province) of Kyrgyzstan. It is located near the eastern tip of the lake and is a good base for excursions into the surrounding area. Its small old core contains an impressive wooden mosque, built without metal nails by the Dungan people, and a wooden Orthodox church that was used as a stable during Soviet times (see state atheism).

History

Lake Issyk Kul was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century.[6] The lake's status as a byway for travelers allowed the plague to spread across these continents via medieval merchants who unknowingly carried infested vermin along with them. A 14th century Armenian monastery was found on the northeastern shores of the lake by retracing the steps of a medieval map used by Venetian merchants on the Silk Road.

On the beach at Koshkol'

The lake level was some 8 metres (26 ft) lower in medieval times. Divers have found the remains of drowned settlements in shallow areas around the lake. In December 2007, a report was released by a team of Kyrgyz historians, led by Vladimir Ploskikh, vice president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, that archaeologists have discovered the remains of a 2500-year-old advanced civilization at the bottom of the Lake. The data and artifacts obtained suggest that the ancient city was a metropolis in its time. The discovery consisted of formidable walls, some stretching for 500 metres (1,600 ft) as well as traces of a large city with an area of several square kilometers. Other findings included Scythian burial mounds eroded over the centuries by waves, as well as numerous well-preserved artifacts, including bronze battleaxes, arrowheads, self-sharpening daggers, objects discarded by smiths, casting molds, and a faceted gold bar that was a monetary unit of the time.

Articles identified as the world's oldest extant coins were also found underwater with gold wire rings used as small change and a large hexahedral goldpiece. Also found was a bronze cauldron with a level of craftsmanship that is today achieved by using an inert gas environment.[1][7][8]

Issyk Kul beach (2002)

Fish

The lake contains highly endemic fish biodiversity, and some of the species, including four endemics, are seriously endangered. In recent years catches of all species of fish have declined markedly, due to a combination of over-fishing, heavy predation by two of the introduced species, and the cessation of lake restocking with juvenile fish from hatcheries. At least four commercially targeted endemic fish species are sufficiently threatened to be included in the Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic: Schmidt's Dace (Leuciscus schmidti), Issyk-Kul Dace (Leuciscus bergi), Marinka (Schizothorax issyk-kuli), and Sheer or Naked Osman (Diptychus dybovskii). Seven other endemic species are almost certainly threatened as by-catch or are indirectly impacted by fishing activity and changes to the structure and balance of the lake's fish population.

Sevan trout, a fish endemic to Lake Sevan in Armenia, was introduced into Issyk-Kul in the 1970s. While this fish is an endangered species in its "home" lake, it has a much better chance to survive in Lake Issyk-Kul where it has ravaged the indigenous species.

The Legend of its Creation

In pre-Islamic legend, the king of the Ossounes had donkey's ears. He would hide them, and order each of his barbers killed to hide his secret. One barber yelled the secret into a well, but he didn't cover the well after. The well water rose and flooded the kingdom. The kingdom is today under the waters of Issyk-Kul. This is how the lake was formed, according to the legend. Other legends say that four drowned cities lie at the bottom of the lake. Substantial archaeological finds indicating the presence of an advanced civilization in ancient times have been made in shallow waters of the lake.[8]

Russian Navy test site

During the Soviet period, the Soviet Navy operated an extensive facility at the lake's eastern end, where submarine and torpedo technology was evaluated.[9] In March 2008, Kyrgyz newspapers reported that 866 hectares (2,140 acres) around the Karabulan peninsula on the lake would be leased for an indefinite period to the Russian Navy, which is planning to establish new naval testing facilities as part of the 2007 bilateral Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation, Mutual Help, and Protection of Secret Materials. The Russian military will pay $4.5 million annually to lease the area.[10]

Issyk Kul at sundown (2002)

Lakeside towns

Towns and some villages around the lake, listed clockwise from the lake's western tip:

References

  1. ^ a b ANI (2007-12-28). "Archaeologists discover remains of 2500-year-old advanced civilization in Russia". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080101111204/http://in.news.yahoo.com/071228/139/6oy8j.html. 
  2. ^ International Lake Environment Committee Foundation
  3. ^ V.V.Romanovsky, "Water level variations and water balance of Lake Issyk Kul", in Jean Klerkx, Beishen Imanackunov (2002), p.52
  4. ^ Sapozhnikov, D. G.; A. I. Tsvetkov (1959). "[Precipitation of hydrous calcium carbonate on the bottom of Lake Issyk-Kul]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 24: l3l-133. 
  5. ^ Lake Issyk-Kool
  6. ^ The Silk Route - Channel 4
  7. ^ Advanced Russian civilization found-Health/Sci-The Times of India
  8. ^ a b Lukashov, Nikolai. Ancient Civilization Discovered at the Bottom of Lake Issyk Kul in the Kyrgyz Mountains. Ria Novosti. December 27, 2007. Accessed on: July 24, 2008.
  9. ^ Kommersant-Vlast, 'Vys Rossiya Armia', 2005
  10. ^ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 12, No. 51, Part I, 14 March 2008

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ISSYK-KUL, also called Tuz-KuL, and by the Mongols Temurtu-nor, a lake of Central Asia, lying in a deep basin (5400 ft.

above sea-level), between the Kunghei Ala-tau and the Terskei Ala-tau, westward continuations of the Tian-shan mountains, and extending from 76° 10' to 78° 20' E. The length from W.S.W. to E.N.E. is 115 m. and the breadth 38 m., the area being estimated at 2230 sq. m. The name is Kirghiz for "warm lake," and, like the Chinese synonym She-hai, has reference to the fact that the lake is never entirely frozen over. On the south the Terskei Ala-tau do not come down so close to the shore as the mountains on the north, but leave a strip 5 to 13 m. broad. The margins of the lake are overgrown with reeds. The water is brackish. Fish are remarkably abundant, the principal species being carp.

It was by the route beside this lake that the tribes (e.g. Yue-chi) driven from China, by the Huns found their way into the AraloCaspian basin in the end of the 2nd century. The Ussuns or Uzuns settled on the lake and built the town of Chi-gu, which still existed in the 5th century. It is to Hsiian-tsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, that we are indebted for the first account of Issyk-kul based on personal observation. In the beginning of the 14th century Nestorian Christians reached the lake and founded a monastery on the northern shore, indicated on the Catalan map of 1374. It was not till 1856 that the Russians made acquaintance with the district.


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