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Istanbul
Top: Topkapı Palace - Hagia Sophia - Blue Mosque;
Center left: Beyoğlu, Center middle: Galata Tower, Center right: Maiden's Tower;
Bottom: Bosphorus Bridge connecting Europe and Asia, with the skyline of Levent financial district.
Istanbul is located in Turkey
Istanbul
Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey
Coordinates: 41°01′N 28°58′E / 41.017°N 28.967°E / 41.017; 28.967
Country  Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Istanbul
Founded 667 BC as Byzantium
Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantine's reign) and later Κωνσταντινούπολη Constantinople (following Constantine's death in 337)
Ottoman period 1453 as Istanbul (in Ottoman Turkish), Κωνσταντινούπολη (Greek), Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages
Republic of Turkey period 1923 as Istanbul (in Turkish), Κωνσταντινούπολη (Greek) and Constantinople (internationally), renamed as Istanbul also in foreign languages following the Turkish Postal Service Law of 28 March 1930
Districts 27
Government
 - Mayor Kadir Topbaş (AKP)
Area
 - Total 1,830.92 km2 (706.9 sq mi)
Elevation 100 m (328 ft)
Population (2009)[1][2][3]
 - Total 12,782,960 (5th)
 Density 6,211/km2 (16,086.4/sq mi)
 - Demonym Istanbulite
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 34010 to 34850 and
80000 to 81800
Area code(s) (+90) 212 (European side)
(+90) 216 (Asian side)
Licence plate 34
Website Istanbul Portal
Historic Areas of Istanbul*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party  Turkey
Type Cultural
Criteria I, II, III, IV
Reference 356
Region** Europe and Asia
Inscription history
Inscription 1985  (9th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
.Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul, historically also known as Byzantium and Constantinople;[4] see the names of Istanbul) is the largest city in Turkey and fifth largest city proper in the world with a population of 12.8 million.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing the Ottomans leave, loud cheers and shouts of joy erupted in the entire city of Constantinople, filling the air with their happiness.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, as Istanbul , the City is simply a large modern city, the largest in Turkey, but no longer a capital, a fortress, a redoubt, or a beacon of culture or religion.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Istanbul is also a megacity, as well as the cultural, economic, and financial centre of Turkey.^ It was fast losing its exotic oriental character and more closely resembling a colonial trading post in terms of its economic, social and cultural life as well as its architecture.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The city covers 39 districts of the Istanbul province.[5] .It is located on the Bosphorus Strait and encompasses the natural harbour known as the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the country.^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ It was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the earlier bridge further up the Golden Horn, which became known as the Cisr-i Atik or Old Bridge.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) sides of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world that is situated on two continents.^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Both sides had to resort to hand-to-hand combat as it was the only option within the tight, damp corridors inside the walls.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.In its long history, Istanbul has served as the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).^ Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople, 1204-1261 .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The walls of Istanbul date from the founding of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The city was chosen as joint European Capital of Culture for 2010. The historic areas of Istanbul were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.[6]

Contents

Names

.The modern Turkish name İstanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈtambuɫ], colloquially [ɯsˈtambuɫ]) has been used to describe this city, in a range of different variants, from as far back as the 10th century; it has been the common name for the city in normal Turkish speech since before the conquest of 1453[citation needed].^ The confusion is rooted in the various names the city assumed under the Ottomans in the centuries after their conquest of the city in 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Greeks still do not use the Turkish name, and Konstantinopolis continues to be used on maps and road signs in Greece today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Etymologically, it derives from the Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" [is tin ˈpolin] or in the Aegean dialect "εἰς τὰν Πόλιν" [is tan ˈpolin] (modern Greek "στην Πόλη" [stin ˈpoli]), which means "in the city", "to the city" or "downtown".[7] To this day, Greeks often refer to Istanbul as 'tin Poli' (the City).^ And greatly were they harassed by the people of the land and by the Greeks; and they rode -from day to day till they came to a city called Pamphyle, and lodged there, and sojourned in it for two months.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, the brother of the Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople, with as many people as he could gather, marched against the Greeks to a city called Tzurulum, which is a three days' journey from Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, as Istanbul , the City is simply a large modern city, the largest in Turkey, but no longer a capital, a fortress, a redoubt, or a beacon of culture or religion.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] A version found in Western languages, Stamboul, was used in lieu of Istanbul until the creation of the modern Turkish language by Atatürk after 1932. Before that time, English-speaking sources used Stamboul to describe the central parts on the historic peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.^ It is the bridge still familiar to many people today that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the modern bridge now in use.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ When used with an adjective in the Turkish language, the word "kopek" takes the form "kopegi."
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[8]
.In modern Turkish the name is written "İstanbul" with a dotted İ; in the Turkish alphabet dotted i (with capital İ) is a different letter from dotless ı (with capital I).^ No one remains of the former residents of the Tophane quarter, Orthodox Turks who spoke the Karamanlı language, a variety of Turkish written in the Greek alphabet.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Also, while in English the stress is on the first syllable ("Is"), in Turkish it is on the second syllable ("tan").
Byzantium is the first known name of the city. .In 667 B.C., this Doric colony was founded by settlers from the city-state of Megara, and they named the colony after their king Byzas.^ But they found the country raised against them, and were discomfited; and the Greeks took them, and afterwards handed them over to the King of Wallachia, who had their heads cut off.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And they found it very well defended, and saw the flags of Johannizza, King of Wallachia and Bulgaria, on the walls and towers; and the city was very strong and very rich, and very full of people.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They took envoys therefore privily, from all the cities in the land, and sent them to Johannizza, the King of Wallachia and Bulgaria, who was still at war with them as he had been aforetime.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .After Roman emperor Constantine I (Constantine the Great) made the city the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire on 11 May 330, the city became widely known as Constantinopolis (the Latinised form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" [Kōnstantinoúpolis] which means the "City of Constantine" in Greek); his successor Constantius II attempted to promote the name Nova Roma ("New Rome"), but this never caught on.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ "Stanbulin," (Greek for "to the city") once commonly found on road signs directing travelers to the capital, was punned by devout Turks into Islambol, where "Islam abounds."
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And those who were in these cities maintained the war against the Greeks, 107 and made many forays.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The name Constantinople is found on commemorative coins as early as the 330s, and is first attested in official documents under emperor Theodosius II (408–450).^ It was Anthemius, the capable governor of the Emperor Theodosius (408-450), who enlarged the walled area of the city two-fold, building the walls still named after him today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is governed through the Emperor and the Patriarchs, namely the Patriarchs of Rome , Constantinople , Alexandria , Antioch , and Jerusalem , in that order of precedence.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the first time the name "Karakachan dog" is officially mentioned in 1938 in an article dedicated to this breed and published in German cynological issue.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[7] .It remained the principal official name of the city throughout the Byzantine period, and the most common name used for it in the West until the early 20th century.^ Western accounts of the old city during this period make regular references to the name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The names Islambol and Konstantiniye were used interchangeably in Ottoman documents up until the empire's demise in 1923.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The city has also been nicknamed "The City on Seven Hills" because the historic peninsula, the oldest part of the city, was built on seven hills (just like Rome), each of which bears a historic mosque.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ OLD AND NEW CHEEK BY JOWL Alanya Fortress, the city’s oldest center of settlement, is situated on a steep promontory just behind the harbor.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Of the mosque built by Sultan Mehmed II inside the castle, only the lower part of the minaret remains today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[10] .The hills are represented in the city's emblem with seven triangles, above which rise four minarets.^ The order of the assault was so devised, that of the seven divisions, three were to guard the camp outside the city, and other four to give the assault.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is this garland of waters which makes Istanbu, whose seven hills are crowned with imperial monuments, a unique city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Two of many other old nicknames of İstanbul are Vasilevousa Polis (the Queen of Cities), which rose from the city's importance and wealth throughout the Middle Ages; and Dersaadet, originally Der-i Saadet (the Door to Happiness) which was first used towards the end of 19th century and is still remembered today.^ It is the bridge still familiar to many people today that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the modern bridge now in use.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Greeks still do not use the Turkish name, and Konstantinopolis continues to be used on maps and road signs in Greece today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ It was Anthemius, the capable governor of the Emperor Theodosius (408-450), who enlarged the walled area of the city two-fold, building the walls still named after him today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.With the Turkish Postal Service Law of 28 March 1930, the Turkish authorities officially requested foreigners to adopt Istanbul as the sole name also in their own languages.^ (March 25, 1997) and cannot be produced outside Turkey under the name “Turkish rakı”.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The names of the towers are as follows: Liberty, Independence, Law, Republic, Revolution, National Pact, 23rd April, Peace, Mehmetçik (the Turkish Soldier) and Victory.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The name controversy was assumed to be settled when Atatürk officially renamed the city Istanbul in the 1920s.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[11]

History

.In 2008, during the construction works of the Yenikapı subway station and the Marmaray tunnel at the historic peninsula on the European side, a previously unknown Neolithic settlement dating from circa 6700 BC was discovered.^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[12][13][14] .The first human settlement on the Anatolian side, the Fikirtepe mound, is from the Copper Age period, with artifacts dating from 5500–3500 BC.[15] In nearby Kadıköy (Chalcedon) a port settlement dating back to the Phoenicians has been discovered.^ The theory that the Trojans might have been Anatolian gained weight with the discovery of a lower city dating from the 17th-13th centuries BC and defined as High Trojan Culture.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Cape Moda in Chalcedon was the first location which the Greek settlers from Megara chose to colonise in 685 BC, prior to colonising Byzantion on the European side of the Bosphorus under the command of King Byzas in 667 BC. Byzantion was established on the site of an ancient port settlement named Lygos, founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, along with the neighbouring Semistra,[16] of which Pliny had mentioned in his historical accounts.^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Nineteenth century western taste and the houses and palaces furnished under European influence naturally triggered a transformation in the art of the carpet as well.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the Seraglio Point (Turkish: Sarayburnu), where the famous Topkapı Palace now stands.^ And we cannot resist with only a handful of poorly trained men and some stone walls built over a millennia ago which are about to fall any moment now.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We decided to take a tour of some of these promontories, and naturally our first stop was Sarayburnu or Palace Point, the most famous of all, upon which stands Topkapi Palace.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The surrounding areas near the city walls were completely deserted, apart from only a couple of scattered houses which were were lucky for the owners still standing, adjoined with small plots of land destined for their owners.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the period of Byzantion, the Acropolis used to stand where the Topkapı Palace stands today.^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ During the Turkish period the names 'Dersaadet' and 'Deraliye' were used.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Roman emperor Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by the Romans and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Severus and quickly regained its previous prosperity, being temporarily renamed as Augusta Antonina by the emperor, in honour of his son.^ He couldn't see the true faade of his city, the ruins of marvellous Roman villas and imposing palaces which formed today the dark side of this once splendid city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Pulcheria's Crusade AD 421–422 and the Ideology of Imperial Victory," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 18.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ottoman Sultan Yıldırım Beyazıt besieged the city for seven months (1391 AD).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[17]
.The location of Byzantium attracted Constantine I in 324 after a prophetic dream was said to have identified the location of the city; but the true reason behind this prophecy was probably Constantine's final victory over Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) on the Bosphorus, on 18 September 324, which ended the civil war between the Roman Co-Emperors, and brought an end to the final vestiges of the Tetrarchy system, during which Nicomedia (present-day İzmit, 100 km (62 mi) east of Istanbul) was the most senior Roman capital city.^ He had the Rumeli Fortress (Rumeli Hisarı) constructed the European shore of the Bosphorus, directly across from the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) The entire siege and battle took place between April 6 and May 29, and on this final day, Istanbul, once the capital of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the Turks.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ He couldn't see the true faade of his city, the ruins of marvellous Roman villas and imposing palaces which formed today the dark side of this once splendid city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Macedonian Roman Emperors, after retaking Antioch (969), entered Palestine and came close, but were not able to secure anything permanent or assault the city.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] Byzantium (now renamed as Nova Roma which eventually became Constantinopolis, i.e. "The City of Constantine") was officially proclaimed the new capital of the Roman Empire six years later, in 330. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent partition of the Roman Empire between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. .As well as being the centre of an imperial dynasty, the unique position of Constantinople at the centre of two continents made the city a magnet for international commerce, culture and diplomacy.^ It is this garland of waters which makes Istanbu, whose seven hills are crowned with imperial monuments, a unique city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And you may know that their fortunes were at the lowest, seeing that outside of Constantinople they had kepl& possession of no more than these two cities.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They rode to a city called Nicomedia, which lies on a gulf of the sea, and is well two days' journey from Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Byzantine Empire was distinctly Greek in culture and became the centre of Greek Orthodox Christianity, while its capital was adorned with many magnificent churches, including the Hagia Sophia, once the world's largest cathedral.^ While in its day Hagia Sophia was architecturally unique, and remained so for centuries -- also as the largest Church in Christendom -- the Ottomans began to build great mosques in the same style, culminating in the Sultan Ahmad (I) , or Blue, Mosque nearby, built adjacent to, and using many of the stones from, the classical Hippodrome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Stanbulin," (Greek for "to the city") once commonly found on road signs directing travelers to the capital, was punned by devout Turks into Islambol, where "Islam abounds."
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Few people, indeed, remember that Mediaeval "Romans" meant the Greek, Albanian, Vlach, Armenian, and other inhabitants of the so-called "Byzantine" Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church, still remains in the Fener (Phanar) district of Istanbul.^ "Greek Orthodox" is still used for other Churches, as of Jerusalem , that have nothing to do with the Greek national Church but that are in doctrinal communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The list of Orthodox Patriarchs is from a combination of various sources on the internet and Eusebius' The History of the Church [Penguin, 1965].
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle is still that Orthodox Churches base their doctrine on the Ecumenical Councils.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.In 1204, the Fourth Crusade was launched to capture Jerusalem, but had instead turned on Constantinople, which was sacked and desecrated.^ The Latin Patriarchate , as at Constantinople , Jerusalem , and Alexandria , was created during the Crusades, in this case in 1098 by the first Prince of Antioch .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Crusaders took Constantinople in 1204, a Latin Patriarch was installed.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Geoffrey de Villehardouin [b.c.1160-d.c.1213]: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople , trans.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[21] .The city subsequently became the centre of the Catholic Latin Empire, created by the crusaders to replace the Orthodox Byzantine Empire, which was divided into a number of splinter states, of which the Empire of Nicaea was to recapture Constantinople in 1261 under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus.^ Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople, 1204-1261 .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Latin Patriarchate , as at Constantinople , Jerusalem , and Alexandria , was created during the Crusades, in this case in 1098 by the first Prince of Antioch .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the last decades of the Byzantine Empire, the city had decayed as the Byzantine state became increasingly isolated and financially bankrupt, its population had dwindled to some thirty or forty thousand people whilst large sections remained uninhabited.^ I am going to publish my last book, Istanbul, Memories and the City, in what they call a ‘coffee table’ edition in America; printed on good paper, with large photographs, and with some new sections that I’ll write.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Few people, indeed, remember that Mediaeval "Romans" meant the Greek, Albanian, Vlach, Armenian, and other inhabitants of the so-called "Byzantine" Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the balcony of the large Blacharnae Palace, in the Byzantine capital, overlooking the natural beauty of the scenery was Basileos Manuel II, the emperor of the still surviving Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Due to the ever increasing inward turn the Byzantines took, many facets of their surrounding empire were now falling apart, leaving them vulnerable to attack.^ There are many tasks to do within the empire, we don't need any more expansions right now.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coptic Christians, however, have been leaving Egypt, in great part because of attacks from Muslim fanatics that have developed as the result of the recent increase in Islâmic militancy .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now you must know that many set eyes upon them, to know how the election had turned.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Ottoman Turks began a strategy by which they took selected towns and smaller cities over time, enveloping Bursa in 1326, İzmit (Nicomedia) in 1337, Gelibolu (Gallipoli) in 1354, and finally Edirne (Adrianople) in 1362. This essentially cut off Constantinople from its main supply routes, strangling it slowly.^ So they took messengers privily, and sent them to Vernas in Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That night they took counsel together, and the decision to which they came was, that on the morrow they should go before Adrianople, and lay siege to it.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the Greeks who were with him saw that he turned towards Adrianople, they began to steal away, both by day and by night, some twenty, thirty, forty, a hundred, at a time.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.
Panoramic view of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, as seen from the Galata Tower.
^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore to treat the Galata Bridge over the Golden Horn merely from the historic angle would be misleading.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The Galata Bridge can be seen in the centre of the picture. .The Seraglio Point where the Topkapı Palace is located is seen at the left tip of the historic peninsula; followed by (left to right) the Hagia Sophia, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Yeni Mosque near the Galata Bridge, the Beyazıt Tower rising high in the background, and the Süleymaniye Mosque at far right, among others.^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Murad winked to both Khalil and Zaganos as he left the tower, returning swiftly to his palace to prepare the final details for the assault on the Byzantine capital.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To the left of the tower a stone structure resembling a five-arch bridge is the only surviving dockyard from the Seljuk period.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The Sea of Marmara and the Princes' Islands are seen in the background, on the horizon. At the extreme left of the picture, the district of Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city can be seen. Behind the Galata Bridge, towards the horizon, the Column of Constantine (which was surrounded by iron bars for restoration) rises.
.On 29 May 1453, Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" captured Constantinople after a 53-day siege (during which the last Roman/Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI, died near the Porta Aurea while defending the city) and proclaimed that Constantinople was now the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.^ The elevated status for Constantinople was because, of course, this had become the seat of the Emperor, beginning with Constantine , and the principal capital of the Roman Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the last capital of the Rome Empire, Roma Nova , "New Rome," or Constantinou Polis , the "City of Constantine," for many centuries the largest and richest city in Europe and Christendom, the repository of much of Greek and Roman Classical learning.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is now a little hard to recapture the sense that it used to be the principal city of Syria (the third largest city of the Roman Empire, after Rome and Alexandria) right down to when it was taken by the Mamlûks in 1268.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sultan Mehmed's first duty was to rejuvenate the city economically, creating the Grand Bazaar and inviting the fleeing Orthodox and Catholic inhabitants to return.^ Even the expression "Greek Catholic" is used for the Roman Catholic counter-church that was created to lure the Greek Orthodox into allegiance to Rome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Captured prisoners were freed to settle in the city whilst provincial governors in Rumelia and Anatolia were ordered to send four thousand families to settle in the city, whether Muslim, Christian or Jew, to form a unique cosmopolitan society.^ The order of the assault was so devised, that of the seven divisions, three were to guard the camp outside the city, and other four to give the assault.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Armenian Patriarch presided over an actual Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, thus distinguished from the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then did those of the host take council together to settle what thing they should do, and whether they should attack the city by sea or by land.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22] The Sultan also endowed the city with various architectural monuments, including the Topkapı Palace and the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. .Religious foundations were established to fund the construction of grand imperial mosques (such as the Fatih Mosque which was built on the spot where the Church of the Holy Apostles once stood), adjoined by their associated schools, hospitals and public baths.^ The Coptic Catholic Patriarch has lived in Alexandria, at the Church of the Resurrenction, whose construction was funded by the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef and dedicated in 1902.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ottoman Conquest, 1453 ; Church of the Holy Apostles, 1453-1455; Convent of St. Mary Pammakaristos, 1455-1587 .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Patriarchate briefly was based at the second church of the City, the Church of the Holy Apostles, which may already have been in disrepair.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Suleiman the Magnificent's reign of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 was a period of great artistic and architectural achievements.^ An alliance between the Ottoman Empire and us will surely be of great help.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The famous architect Mimar Sinan designed many mosques and other grand buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics, calligraphy and miniature also flourished.^ Like many other arts, the Ottomans took over the art of the carpet from the Seljuk tradition.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And they devised machines of divers kinds, and scaling ladders, and many other engines, and wrought diligently to take the city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you enter through this gate, you can visit Kara Ahmet Paşa Mosque, the work of the celebrated 16th century Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara.^ Mustafa Kemal'in Istanbul'a gitmek sebepleri arasnda annesine gcenmis olmasnn da etkisi vard.
  • Dizinin ge�ti�i d�nemle ilgili d�k�manlar [Ar�iv] - DiziFilm.com Forum 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.dizifilm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ayn gn Cumhurbakan Mustafa Kemal Atatrk, Ankara Hukuk Mektebi'ni at.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mustafa Kemal Paa da Ankara'yadnnde, taarruz plann Bakanlar Kuruluna aklad.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the early years of the republic, Istanbul was overlooked in favour of the new capital. .However, starting from the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent great structural change, as new public squares (such as Taksim Square), boulevards and avenues were constructed throughout the city; sometimes at the expense of the demolition of many historical buildings.^ Along with the gracious statures of the massive Roman constructions, the dilapidation of the city's buildings was striking.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the official name of the city has, ever since the establishment of the Republic, been 'Istanbul' and great sensitivity shown on this subject, Europe resists the adoption of the name 'Istanbul'.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Starting from the 1970s, the population of Istanbul began to rapidly increase, as people from Anatolia migrated to the city in order to find employment in the many new factories that were constructed at the outskirts of the sprawling metropolis.^ Thus were they in very perilous case, for never did so few people besiege so many people in any city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they rode out a day's march, and ordered their array with as many people as they had.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then did the Emperor Henry summon as many people as he could, and issued from Constantinople, and rode day by day towards Adrianople, with all his forces in order.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This sudden sharp rise in the city's population caused a large demand for housing development, and many previously outlying villages and forests became engulfed into the greater metropolitan area of Istanbul.^ The 671,000 square metre area housed many sections.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And the greater part of the cities held for him, and all the castles; and he had so large a host that it was a marvel.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And the city he caused to be pulled down, with its towers and walls; and the high palaces and rich houses to be burned and utterly destroyed.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Illegal construction, combined with corner-cutting methods, have accounted for why 65% of the buildings in Istanbul are built without proper planning.[24] The concerns have increased due to the serious nature of the Izmit earthquake of 17 August 1999.[25] On 9 September 2009 the city experienced extensive flooding.[26]

Geography

Location

Istanbul and the Bosporus today.
.Istanbul is located in the north-west Marmara Region of Turkey.^ This ancient breed springs forth like a lion from its epicenter - the Kangal District - a region in east central Turkey located in what is known as the Anti-Taurus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.It encloses the southern Bosporus which places the city on two continents—the western portion of Istanbul is in Europe, while the eastern portion is in Asia.^ Although the official name of the city has, ever since the establishment of the Republic, been 'Istanbul' and great sensitivity shown on this subject, Europe resists the adoption of the name 'Istanbul'.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Harty, Kevin J. The Reel Middle Ages: American, Western and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and Asian Films about Medieval Europe.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

The city boundaries cover a surface area of 1,830.93 square kilometres (707 sq mi), while the metropolitan region, or the Province of Istanbul, covers 6,220 square kilometres (2,402 sq mi).

Geology

Istanbul is situated near the North Anatolian fault, which runs from northern Anatolia to the Marmara Sea. Two tectonic plates, the African and the Eurasian, push against each other here. .This fault line has been responsible for several deadly earthquakes in the region throughout history.^ Throughout history peoples have arrived and departed like migrant birds through this mountainous region.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.In 1509 a catastrophic earthquake caused a tsunami which broke over the sea-walls of the city, destroying over 100 mosques and killing 10,000 people.^ And they found it very well defended, and saw the flags of Johannizza, King of Wallachia and Bulgaria, on the walls and towers; and the city was very strong and very rich, and very full of people.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the ships were laden on the day after Easter (7th April 1203), the pilgrims encamped by the port, and the Venetians destroyed the city, and the walls and the towers.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There aain was a mighty slaughter, and the remnant that escaped the slaughter he caused to be led captive to Wallachia, while the city itself he destroyed, as lie had destroyed the others.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

In 1766 the Eyüp Sultan Mosque was largely destroyed. The 1894 earthquake caused the collapse of many parts of the Grand Bazaar. A devastating earthquake on 17 August 1999, with its epicentre in nearby İzmit, left 18,000 dead and many more homeless.[27] .In all of these earthquakes, the devastating effects are a result of the building density and poor construction of buildings.^ These occasions were memorable in themselves, but Osman Bayatli was additionally overjoyed because a new museum building was then being constructed outside the modern town of Bergama.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The first of these buildings, Dolmabahce Palace, which was completed in 1853, and the Dolmabahce Mosque and Clock Tower and Ortaköy Mosque are all by Nikoðos Balyan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Subsidence of the land over the centuries has resulted in buildings that were originally on the shore being submerged, and it is these 6th century AD ruins which have been given the romantic name of Cleopatra's Bath.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Seismologists predict another earthquake, possibly measuring magnitude 7.0, occurring before 2025.[28]

Flora

Istanbul like the Marmara region it is situated in has a temperate climate. .But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude, it has a "transitional climate", midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest.^ Thus, an aesthetic urge to render the Mediterranean, Black, and Red Seas into a convenient "T" required that much that was already known be ignored.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE INFLUENCE OF THE BLACK SEA For the people of Istanbul, fish should be caught in the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, and so when they buy fish they always ask where it comes from.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

This is also reflected in its plant geography since flora of these three climate types flourish here. Istanbul is one of the provinces that best illustrates this aspect of the Marmara region. .Thanks to the constantly very humid climate of Istanbul, plants of the European-Siberian ecoregion are concentrated here, especially in the northern areas near the Black Sea coast.^ A winter's tale on the coast of the Black Sea .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To enjoy memorable winter landscapes, the western Black Sea coast is the perfect destination over the next few months.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ They planted two ladders at a barbican near the sea; and the wall was well defended by Englishmen and Danes; and 42 the attack was stiff and good and fierce.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An increase in mediterranean flora is observed in the warmer areas to the south of the city especially on the Princes' Islands, the only place in Istanbul with a predominantly mediterranean vegetation.^ The team from Merzifon was known as the Cabbages, for which the area was famous, while the team from Amasya was called the Okras after that city's most famous vegetable.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul’s true and dominant biome is the humid temperate broadleaf and mixed forest and constitute the Balkan mixed forests which belongs to the European-Siberian ecoregion of the Palearctic ecozone. According to the Turkish General Directorate of Forestry, 44% of the Province of Istanbul is covered with forests.
The Alemdağ forest on the Asian side and the Belgrade forest on the European side, which are regarded as the city's lungs, are large virgin, humid mixed-leaf forests. .It is also possible to see examples of virgin forest in the heart of Istanbul, on both shores of the Bosphorus today.^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the time of the Eastern Roman Empire the centers of fishing in Istanbul were the villages of the Bosphorus, the Islands, Kadiköy, Tuzla and the shores of Yedikule.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The dominant tree species is the oak, three species of which are the English Oak, Sessile Oak or Durmast Oak, and Hungarian Oak are spread over a broad area. .Oriental Beech is observed in the northern areas near the Black Sea coast.^ A winter's tale on the coast of the Black Sea .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To enjoy memorable winter landscapes, the western Black Sea coast is the perfect destination over the next few months.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ A winter's tale on the coast of the Black Sea 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/alanya_03.html[/postlink] Alanya .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Other common tree species living in these humid mixed-leaf forests include Oriental Hornbeam, Horse Chestnut, Sweet Chestnut, White Poplar, Oriental Plane, Black Alder, Grey Alder, Common Hazel, Sycamore Maple, Norway Maple, Field Maple, English Elm, European White Elm, Smooth-leaved Elm, Field Elm, Silver Linden, Goat Willow and Grey Willow.
.With around 2500 different natural plant species, Istanbul alone puts entire European countries, such as the United Kingdom in the shade.^ The doctrinal difference that goes along with this, as I understand it, is that Jesus was both human and divine, as the Latin and Greek Churches agreed, but that these are united in One Nature.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even more importantly, this means that Istanbul is home to approximately one-fourth of the more than ten thousand documented species of plants that grow naturally in Turkey.^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This was the result of more than a thousand years of looting and useless spending, decadence and greed.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the barons had thus claimed the cost of the passages, and when the payments had been collected, the moneys came to less than the sum due-yea, by more than one half.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some of these plants are endemic; in other words, they live only in Istanbul and nowhere else in the whole world.^ They believed, among other things, that all matter is evfl, and that Christ suffered in appearance only.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Their despicable interests want us destroyed, erased from this world we live in with difficulty, that's what they want.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a city surrounded by sea Istanbul has many headlands, some remote and deserted with no buildings but a lighthouse, others lively and crowded.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Fauna

Istanbul has a relatively rich fauna. The forests harbour 18 mammal species and over 71 bird species, and since a ban on hunting exists, the fauna is out of danger. In the forests the most common mammals are wild boar, grey wolf, golden jackal, red fox, red deer, fallow deer, and roe deer. .The red squirrel only inhabits the European part of Istanbul and Turkey, and the Bosphorus marks the border of their habitat range.^ The reason for the panel's choice, he explained, was not only the well-known fact that Istanbul lies at a geographical cross-roads with Europe and has interacted with European civilisations for centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course those who only know Turkey from my books know it through Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[30]
The dominant bird species in the city are the common gull and the hooded crow, and both practically form a part of the cityscape. Other common bird species are the city pigeon, Eurasian collared dove and sparrow.
Istanbul has a particularly large population of stray cats and stray dogs.

Climate

Snow is common in winter.
Istanbul has a temperate climate but is located within a climatic transition zone [31] between oceanic and mediterranean climates.
Summer is generally hot and humid, the temperature between July and August averaging 28 °C (82 °F). Winter is cold, wet and often snowy, averaging 5 °C (41 °F). Spring and autumn are usually mild and wet but are erratic, and the weather can range from chilly to warm, though the nights are chilly.
.The humidity of the city is constantly high which makes the air feel much harsher than the actual temperatures.^ I feel the breath of a city which has seen much, experienced much, and retained its self-respect through all.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus did the count make an end and die; and much evil ensued, for he was a baron high and honoured, and a good knight.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The city being located in the second most humid region of the country, has an average annual humidity of 72%.[32][33] Average annual precipitation is 678 mm (27 in).[34] Istanbul has an average annual of 152 days of precipitation.[33] Summer is the driest season, but precipitation does occur during that season and is irregular and often torrential.
.Snowfall which occurs almost annually is common between the months of December and March, with an annual total snow cover of 19 days, but average winter snowfall often varies considerably from year to year, and snow cover usually remains only for a few days after each snowfall.^ Dire was the war between the Franks and the Greeks, for it abated not, but rather increased and waxed fiercer, so that few were the days on which there was not fighting by sea or land.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We had only managed to stay a few minutes on the summit which we had taken days to reach.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ So did they remain before the city for three days, in great discomfort, and but few in number.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33]
Fog is prevalent, throughout the year, particularly during the mornings, but it quickly dissipates before noon. However fog cover during the whole day is rare, and it usually occurs in winter, spring and autumn.[33] Thunderstorms, which are not common, usually occur in late spring, summer and early autumn, with an annual total of 22 days, and are particularly rare during the rest of the year and almost unheard of in winter.[33] The city is also quite windy, having an average wind speed of 18 km/h (11 mph).[33][35]
The highest recorded temperature was 40.5 °C (105 °F) on 12 July 2000, and the lowest recorded temperature was −16.1 °C (3 °F) on 15 February 1927.[36]
Due to its size, topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates.

Weather statistics for Istanbul

  • Total number of days with snow: 19 [33]
  • Total number of days with lows (nights) below freezing: 21 [33]
  • Total number of days with precipitation: 152 [33]
  • Total number of days with thunderstorms: 22 [33]
  • Total number of days with fog: 228 [33]
  • Total number of days above 32.2 °C (90 °F): 5 [33]
Climate data for Istanbul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.3
(65)
24.0
(75)
26.2
(79)
32.9
(91)
33.0
(91)
40.2
(104)
40.5
(105)
38.8
(102)
33.6
(92)
34.2
(94)
27.2
(81)
21.2
(70)
40.5
(105)
Average high °C (°F) 8.7
(48)
9.1
(48)
11.2
(52)
16.5
(62)
21.4
(71)
26.0
(79)
28.4
(83)
28.5
(83)
25.0
(77)
20.1
(68)
15.3
(60)
11.1
(52)
18.4
(65)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.8
(42)
5.9
(43)
7.55
(46)
12.1
(54)
16.7
(62)
21.0
(70)
23.4
(74)
23.6
(74)
20.2
(68)
16.0
(61)
11.9
(53)
8.2
(47)
14.3
(58)
Average low °C (°F) 2.9
(37)
2.8
(37)
3.9
(39)
7.7
(46)
12.0
(54)
16.0
(61)
18.5
(65)
18.7
(66)
15.5
(60)
12.0
(54)
8.5
(47)
5.3
(42)
10.3
(51)
Record low °C (°F) -9.0
(16)
-16.1
(3)
-7.0
(19)
-0.6
(31)
3.6
(38)
8.0
(46)
10.5
(51)
8.2
(47)
5.2
(41)
2.0
(36)
-2.0
(28)
-3.4
(26)
-16.1
(3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 87.3
(3.44)
71.3
(2.81)
63.2
(2.49)
44.9
(1.77)
32.6
(1.28)
25.3
(1)
23.7
(0.93)
23.6
(0.93)
44.3
(1.74)
70.7
(2.78)
84.7
(3.33)
106.7
(4.2)
678.3
(26.7)
% Humidity 77 75 74 71 72 70 67 68 68 72 74 76 72
Avg. snowy days 6 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 19
Avg. precipitation days 20 17 16 14 12 8 5 6 7 12 16 19 152
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[37] and BBC Weather Centre[38] 16 October 2009

Cityscape

City limits in 1922.
Three historic quarters of Istanbul, looking south from Beyoğlu to the "historic peninsula" separated by the Golden Horn to the farther right and Kadıköy on the Asian side separated by the entrance of the Bosphorus to the left.
.Istanbul Province has 39 districts (2009), of which 27 form the city proper of Istanbul, also called Greater Istanbul, administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (or Municipality of Metropolitan Istanbul) (Turkish: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi).^ On the second level was the Turkish city proper.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Turkish city of Istanbul has beaten the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, for the third nomination as European capital of culture for 2010.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul's districts are divided into three main areas:
.
  • The historic peninsula of old Istanbul corresponds approximately to the extent of Constantinople in the 15th century; it comprises the districts of Eminönü and Fatih.^ This is one of the most colourful districts of Istanbul, with its many 18th and 19th century houses, although several of the most magnificent were destroyed by fire in 1797.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .This area lies on the southern shores of the Golden Horn, which separates the old city centre from the northern and younger parts of the European side.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The land walls and their gates on the western side of the city are both of more aesthetic value and greater historic importance than the sea walls along the shores of the Marmara Sea and the Golden Horn.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .The historic peninsula ends with the Theodosian Land Walls in the west.^ We will take a brief tour of the land walls, starting from Yedikule at the southern end.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Our tour of the land walls ends at Eğrikapı, the Crooked Gate, where the revered Islamic scholar Toklu Dede is buried.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east.
  • North of the Golden Horn are the historical Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş districts, where the last Sultan's palace is located, followed by a chain of former villages such as Ortaköy and Bebek along the shores of the Bosphorus.^ Leaving the Bosphorus and turning east along the shore of the Marmara Sea, we come to Moda Burnu.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .On both the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus, wealthy Istanbulites built luxurious chalet mansions, called yalı, which were used as summer residences.
  • The districts of Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) which are located on the Asian side were originally separate cities (like the district of Beyoğlu (medieval Pera) on the European side also used to be.^ The imperial palaces and pavilions, Istanbul 's waterside residences, and the stately mansions in provincial cities and towns also had their own private baths, which were usually located at the end of a greenhouse-like passageway, filled with flowers, connecting the house and the garden.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The original Coptic Patriarch , who has resided in Cairo since 960, when the city was founded by the Fatimid Caliphs (969).
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eventually, with the construction of the Imperial Palace, embassy representatives and prominent Istanbul figures, who spent the summer months in houses on the Bosphorus, began having seaside mansions built for themselves on its shores.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ) These cities have eventually been absorbed by Istanbul and have become its districts. Today, the Asian side of the city has numerous modern residential areas and business districts, and is home to around one-third of Istanbul's population.
.To the west, to the east and to the north, Istanbul extends far beyond its historical quarters.^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The tallest office and residential towers rise particularly in the quarters of Levent, Etiler and Maslak on the European side, and in the quarter of Kozyatağı on the Asian side.

Urbanism

Barbaros Boulevard in the Beşiktaş district.
The urban landscape of Istanbul is constantly changing. .In the Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods, the city was largely made up of the historic peninsula of Constantinople; with the citadel of Galata (also called Sykae or Pera, present-day Beyoğlu) at north; and Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) and Chalcedon (Kadıköy) at east, across the Bosphorus.^ So did they decide, and the host was called together, and decision made as to who should remain in Constantinople, and who should go in the host with the Emperor Baldwin.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Pulcheria's Crusade AD 421–422 and the Ideology of Imperial Victory," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 18.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And they sailed up the straits to a city called Abydos, which lies on the straits of St. George, towards Turkey, and is very fair, and well situate.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

These were all independent cities in antiquity. .The present-day City of Istanbul can be considered the metropolitan area of old Constantinople, encompassing every single settlement around the original city, and expanding even further with the establishment of new neighbourhoods and districts since the 19th century.^ The construction of the Dolmabahce Palace and the introduction of steamship travel in the 19th century facilitated settlement even in the waterway’s most remote recesses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ OLD AND NEW CHEEK BY JOWL Alanya Fortress, the city’s oldest center of settlement, is situated on a steep promontory just behind the harbor.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Until the early 19th century, the city walls of Galata, the medieval Genoese citadel, used to stand.^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you would be a Byzantine, how would you react to seeing the Genoese on the walls with their troops while their city was falling?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.These Genoese fortifications, of which only the Galata Tower and a small portion of the citadel walls around it stand today, were largely demolished in the early 1800s to give way for a northwards expansion of the city, towards the neighbourhoods of Beşiktaş, Şişli, Nişantaşı, and beyond.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although these baths are only a memory today, one such bath, inside Yildiz Palace , has been turned into a museum.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Today Izmir is a modern city dating largely from the 19th and 20th centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.In the recent decades, numerous tall structures were built around the city to accommodate a rapid growth in population.^ Religious processions were carried out around the whole city, the population receiving the blessings and good wishes of the priests for the upcoming battle.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So they know the intensive cultural structure of the city, built from layers of history and culture, and its multiple identity.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Surrounding towns were absorbed into Istanbul as the city rapidly expanded outwards.^ As a city surrounded by sea Istanbul has many headlands, some remote and deserted with no buildings but a lighthouse, others lively and crowded.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ There are so many sights and scenes waiting to be explored in Istanbul, that some aspects of the city are pushed into the background.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The tallest highrise office and residential buildings are mostly located in the northern areas of the European side, especially in the business and shopping districts of Levent, Maslak, and Mecidiyeköy which are situated between the Bosphorus Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.^ Fatih Sultan Mehmet zamannda Osmanl topraklarna katld.
  • Dizinin ge�ti�i d�nemle ilgili d�k�manlar [Ar�iv] - DiziFilm.com Forum 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.dizifilm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fatih Sultan Mehmet'in donanmas stanbul sularna geldi.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Levent and Etiler also have numerous upmarket shopping malls, like Kanyon, Metrocity, Akmerkez, Mayadrom and Mayadrom Uptown. The headquarters of Turkey's largest companies and banks are also located in this area.
.Starting from the second half of the 20th century, the Anatolian (Asian) side of Istanbul, which was originally a tranquil place full of seaside summer residences and elegant chalet mansions surrounded by lush and vast umbrella pine gardens, experienced a massive urban growth.^ Eventually, with the construction of the Imperial Palace, embassy representatives and prominent Istanbul figures, who spent the summer months in houses on the Bosphorus, began having seaside mansions built for themselves on its shores.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The imperial palaces and pavilions, Istanbul 's waterside residences, and the stately mansions in provincial cities and towns also had their own private baths, which were usually located at the end of a greenhouse-like passageway, filled with flowers, connecting the house and the garden.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The construction of the long, wide and elegant Bağdat Avenue, with its rows of upscale shops and restaurants, contributed much to the initial urban expansion in the area. .The fact that these areas were largely empty until the 1960s also provided the chance for developing better infrastructure and a tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But how do we manage other important areas of the city?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was desolate and empty, but they figured they could plunder something until they exited the city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

But the real expansion of the Asian side came with the opening of the Ankara Asfaltı, the Asian extension of the E5 highway, which is located to the north of Bağdat Avenue, parallel to the railway line. .Another important factor in the recent growth of the Asian side of the city was migration from Anatolia.^ And many advised that they should attack the city on another side the side where it was not so well fortified.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And some remained with their ships at anchor so near to the city that from either side they shot at one another with petraries and mangonels.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Today, more than 1/3 of the city's residents live in the Asian side of Istanbul.^ He couldn't see the true faade of his city, the ruins of marvellous Roman villas and imposing palaces which formed today the dark side of this once splendid city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tradition of tossing stones from the tower lives on today but for the more innocuous purpose of making a wish.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth during the second half of the 20th century, a significant portion of the city's outskirts consist of gecekondus, a Turkish word created in the 1940s meaning ‘built overnight’ and referring to the illegally constructed squatter buildings that comprise entire neighbourhoods and run rampant outside the historic centers of Turkey's largest cities, especially Istanbul, Ankara, İzmir, and Bursa.^ R.E.Kocu 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/haydarpasa-train-station-istanbul.html[/postlink] Haydarpasa Train Station, Istanbul Turkey's largest and most magnificent railway station, Haydarpasa was built in the early 20th century by the German architects Otto Ritter and Helmuth Cuno.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ He had played a major part in the establishment of Bergama Museum and was aware how significant this new building, which was to open on 30 October 1936, was for a city which had once been the most powerful and magnificent in this region of western Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Zeki Muren (1931-1996) Zeki Muren (1931-1996) grew up in the provincial capital city of Bursa in western Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

At present, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds.

Architecture

Throughout its long history, Istanbul has acquired a reputation for being a cultural and ethnic melting pot. .As a result, there are many historical mosques, churches, synagogues, palaces, castles and towers to visit in the city.^ And the city he caused to be pulled down, with its towers and walls; and the high palaces and rich houses to be burned and utterly destroyed.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now you must know that many of those in the host went to see Constantinople, and the rich palaces and great churches, of which there were many, and all the great wealth of the city-for never was there city that possessed so much.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first of these buildings, Dolmabahce Palace, which was completed in 1853, and the Dolmabahce Mosque and Clock Tower and Ortaköy Mosque are all by Nikoðos Balyan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Some of these historical structures, which draw millions to the city every year, reflect the heart and soul of Istanbul.^ In his latest book, Istanbul, Memories and the City, he relates his own 50 years as it coincides with the history of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[39]

Ancient Greek and Roman

.The famous Maiden's (Leander's) Tower, one of the symbols of Istanbul, was originally built by the ancient Athenian general Alcibiades in 408 BC to control the movements of the Persian ships in the Bosphorus strait.^ And two ships that were bound together, of which the one was called the Pilgrim and the other the Paradise, approached so near to a tower, the one on the one side and the other on the other-so as God and the wind drove them-that the ladder of the Pilgrim joined on to the tower.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason was it well seen that two ships would attack each tower with greater effect than one.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Sultan Mehmed II was preparing for the conquest of Istanbul, he had this castle built so as to control shipping along the Bosphorus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[40]
.One of the most important monuments of Roman architecture in the city is the Column of Constantine (Turkish: Çemberlitaş), which was erected in 330 by Constantine the Great for marking the declaration of the new capital city of the Roman Empire.^ When Palestine was partitioned in 1948, the city of Jerusalem ended up itself divided, with the Old City annexed to Jordan , and most of the New City made the capital of an independent Israel .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Bayatli every stone and shard discovered at Pergamum was of incalculable value, since this city had been one of the most magnificent centres of learning and culture of its age.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The religion of the City of Rome detached itself from the religion of the Roman Empire, i.e.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.The other Roman era structures in the city include the Mazulkemer Aqueduct, the Valens Aqueduct, the Column of the Goths at the Seraglio Point, the Milion which served for calculating the distances between Constantinople and the other cities of the Roman Empire, the Great Palace of Constantinople originally built by Constantine as the primary residence of the Roman emperors, and the Hippodrome of Constantinople that was built following the model of the Circus Maximus in Rome.^ The religion of the City of Rome detached itself from the religion of the Roman Empire, i.e.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have discussed above how the term "Caesaro-Papism," often used for the role of the Emperor in Constantinople, is applied more appropriately to the Popes themselves, whose claims and accumulation of power were an innovation, while the role of the Emperor had precedents all the way back to Constantine (and earlier, when a Roman Emperor was the Pontifex Maximus ).
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Coppola is apparently unaware that the Orthodox Churches he mentions, Churches in doctrinal agreement with the Patriarch of Constantinople, are the actual direct descendants of the State Religion of the Roman Empire, founded under the authority of the Patriarch and the Emperor in Constantinople (starting with Constantine), while modern Roman Catholicism, far from being Christianity "fused with the Roman Empire," is the religion of the Bishops of Rome who repudiated the authority of the Roman Emperor and excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Construction of the Walls of Constantinople began under Constantine the Great,[42] who enlarged the previously existing walls of Byzantium in order to defend the new Roman capital city which quickly grew following its proclamation as Nova Roma.^ On top of this, Constantinople is very well defended and I am under no illusions that they will fight until the last man and until the last stone of those walls has been destroyed.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They planted two ladders at a barbican near the sea; and the wall was well defended by Englishmen and Danes; and 42 the attack was stiff and good and fierce.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pope quickly sent his congratulations through one of his Cardinals in Constantinople, his message quickly followed suit by the kings and queens of Europe through their ambassadors and diplomats.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.A new set of walls was built further west during the reign of Theodosius II, and rebuilt after an earthquake in 447 in their current shape.^ John Paul II, indeed, reigned into the new Millennium.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And Vemas had not rebuilt the walls of Demotica where they had been breached by Johannizza with his petraries and mangonels, and he had set but a weak garrison therein.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Column of Marcian (Turkish: Kıztaşı) erected by Marcianus (reigned 450–457) dates from the same period as the triple land walls of Theodosius II.

Byzantine

The 4th century Hagia Irene was the first church built by Constantine in the new Roman capital city.
Originally a church, later a mosque, and now a museum, the 6th century Hagia Sophia built by Justinian was the largest ever cathedral building in the world for a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral in Spain.
.The early Byzantine architecture followed the classical Roman model of domes and arches, but further improved these architectural concepts, as evidenced with the 4th century Hagia Irene built by Constantine as the first church in the new Roman capital city; and the 6th century churches of Saints Sergius and Bacchus and Hagia Sophia built by Justinian, the latter being the largest structure on Sultanahmet Square in the Eminönü district, and the most important surviving example of Byzantine architecture in the world.^ While in its day Hagia Sophia was architecturally unique, and remained so for centuries -- also as the largest Church in Christendom -- the Ottomans began to build great mosques in the same style, culminating in the Sultan Ahmad (I) , or Blue, Mosque nearby, built adjacent to, and using many of the stones from, the classical Hippodrome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lavishly decorated Ottoman palace could rival any Byzantine palace built in the 10th century, being a exact copy of the Roman governor's house of Ravenna, with obvious Turkish influences and other architectural additions which added to the beauty of the imposing structure.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Excavations at the substructures of the Great Palace of Constantinople, which is located right next to the Hagia Sophia, are still continuing; while its floor mosaics and wall decorations are displayed at the Great Palace Mosaic Museum.^ The traditional Cathedral of Constantinople, of course, was the great Church of Santa (Sancta/Hagia) Sophia.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And they began to assemble in a great open space that was in Constantinople, and decided that they would take up their quarters near the walls and towers they had captured.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then died two right good knights in Constantinople, Eustace of Canteleu, and Aimery of Villeroi, whereof their friends had great sorrow.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In a nearby location, the Magnaura Tower of the Great Palace still stands and is another site of continuing archaeological excavations.^ The ‘Hurling Tower’, another intriguing spot inside the Inner Citadel, is notorious as the site of a frightful game that was played with convicts during the Roman period.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[43] .The Great Palace was originally built by Constantine, but it was continuously enlarged by the following Byzantine emperors, in particular by Justinian.^ Tsirpanlis, Constantine N. "Marriage, Family Values and 'Ecumenical Vision' in the Legislation of Justinian the Great (527–565)," Patristic and Byzantine Review 15, 1996–1997, pp.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the balcony of the large Blacharnae Palace, in the Byzantine capital, overlooking the natural beauty of the scenery was Basileos Manuel II, the emperor of the still surviving Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was built in its present form by the Emperor Justinian , although subsequently damaged by earthquakes and then restored.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Boukoleon Palace, alternatively known as the Palace of Hormisdas, was built by Theodosius II in the 5th century, enlarged by Theophilos in the 9th century, and incorporated into the new walls of the Great Palace by Nikephoros II Phokas in the 10th century.^ In the 17th century the shadow play technique was developed by Turkish puppeteers, and the main character known as Karagöz or Black Eye came into being.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The many waterfront mansions built in Ortaköy in the 17th and 18th centuries were demolished in 1871 when Sultan Abdülaziz was building Çiragan Palace.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[44] .The eastern tribune of the Hippodrome of Constantinople, where the Kathisma (emperor's loge) was located, could also be directly accessed by the Byzantine emperors and members of the imperial family through a passage which connected it with the Great Palace.^ The Genoese were one of the most hated people in Constantinople, along with the Venetians, who ironically, both of them, were close traders with the Empire and the imperial family.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the balcony of the large Blacharnae Palace, in the Byzantine capital, overlooking the natural beauty of the scenery was Basileos Manuel II, the emperor of the still surviving Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The new emperor went oft to see the barons in the camp, and did them great honour, as much as he could; and this was but fitting, seeing that they had served him right well.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45][46]
.The Hagia Sophia was designed by Isidorus and Anthemius as the third church to rise on this location, between 532 and 537, following the Nika riots (532) during which the second church was destroyed (the first church, known as the Megala Ekklessia ("Great Church") was inaugurated by Constantius II in 360; the second church was inaugurated by Theodosius II in 405, while the third and current one was inaugurated Justinian in 537).^ The catholics wanted concessions, chief amongst them the reunification of both churches following the Great Schizm.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditional Cathedral of Constantinople, of course, was the great Church of Santa (Sancta/Hagia) Sophia.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The time for the coronation drew near, and the Emperor Baldwin was crowned with great joy and great honour in the church of St. Sophia, in the year of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ one thousand twelve hundred and four.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus (commonly known as the Little Hagia Sophia), which was the first church built by Justinian in Constantinople and edificed between 527 and 536, had earlier signaled such an improvement in the design of domed buildings, which require complex solutions for carrying the structure.^ While in its day Hagia Sophia was architecturally unique, and remained so for centuries -- also as the largest Church in Christendom -- the Ottomans began to build great mosques in the same style, culminating in the Sultan Ahmad (I) , or Blue, Mosque nearby, built adjacent to, and using many of the stones from, the classical Hippodrome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Patriarchate settled in the Phanar Quarter, it was forbidden to build a new church, and forbidden to have any church with a dome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditional Cathedral of Constantinople, of course, was the great Church of Santa (Sancta/Hagia) Sophia.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The present-day Hagia Irene (which was originally built by Constantine in the 4th century, but was later enlarged by Justinian in the 6th century) and the Basilica Cistern are also from this period.^ Zoe and Constantine Mosaic in Hagia Sophia," Law and Society in Byzantium, 9 th -12 th centuries, ed.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Originally built out of wood by Krikor Balyan, Beylerbeyi Palace on the Anatolian shore was destroyed by fire in 1851 and the present palace built by Sarkis Balyan, again from the same family.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Peter's Basilica at the Vatican is built over a 1st century Christian cemetery.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The oldest surviving Byzantine church in Istanbul that has preserved its original form through the centuries, though partially in ruins, is the Stoudios (İmrahor) Monastery, which was built in 462.
.The most extant Byzantine structures that have survived from the reign of Heraclius (610–641) are the Prisons of Anemas,[47] which were incorporated into the city walls at the western suburb of Blachernae.^ If you would be a Byzantine, how would you react to seeing the Genoese on the walls with their troops while their city was falling?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Westerners continued to refer to the city as Constantinople well into the 20th century.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The second assault, consisting largely of Anatolians focused on a section of the Blachernae walls in the northwest part of the city, which had been partially damaged by the cannon.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

They form a huge castle-like structure with several towers and a network of underground Byzantine dungeons. .The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (Turkish: Tekfur Sarayı), which is the only surviving part of the Blachernae Palace, dates from the period of the Fourth Crusade.^ To the left of the tower a stone structure resembling a five-arch bridge is the only surviving dockyard from the Seljuk period.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Blachernae Palace, known in Turkish as Tekfur Saray, served in the 16th century as an imperial menagerie, housing exotic animals such as giraffes and rhinoceruses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The Boukoleon Palace facing the Sea of Marmara was the primary residence of the Latin emperors of Constantinople between 1204 and 1261. In these years, on the northern side of the Golden Horn, the Dominican priests of the Catholic Church built the Church of Saint Paul in 1233.

Genoese

.Following the reconquest of Constantinople from the Latin Crusaders in 1261, the Byzantine emperors almost completely abandoned the Great Palace and Boukoleon Palace, and moved to the Blachernae Palace in the west of the city, near the triple land walls.^ Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople, 1204-1261 .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Latin Patriarchate , as at Constantinople , Jerusalem , and Alexandria , was created during the Crusades, in this case in 1098 by the first Prince of Antioch .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emperor Henry and the host of the French encamped before the city; and the foraging parties overran the land and captured oxen, and cows, and beeves in great plenty and other beasts.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The most important churches that were built after the Byzantines recovered Constantinople in 1261 include the Pammakaristos Church and Chora Church.^ There were only 9 of them, but they were the most important statesmen of the moribund Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Exactly opposite it, in the garden of the Byzantine church, a viewing terrace has been built affording a panoramic Alanya vista.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The meeting was with the most important dignitaries of the Byzantine state, the senate of the Empire, which was now only a mere shadow of its former glory.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also in this period, the Genoese Podestà of Galata, Montano de Marinis, built the Palazzo del Comune (1316),[48] an identical copy of the San Giorgio Palace in Genoa, which still stands in ruins on Banker Sokağı (the historic Rue Camondo), a parallel side street to the north of Bankalar (Voyvoda) Caddesi in Galata, together with its adjacent buildings and numerous Genoese houses from the early 1300s.^ The Genoese podesta, the administrator of the Galata quarter, Paolo, was born into a noble family which gave the first doge of Genoa, quickly becoming the podesta of Galata because of his connections.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Genoese also built the Galata Tower, which they named as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ), at the highest point of the citadel of Galata, in 1348. The Genoese Castle at the Black Sea entrance of the Bosporus was originally built by the Byzantines.^ Then they returned to the ships, and sailed over the sea; when a great mishap befell, for a great lord of the host, whose name was Guy, Castellan of Coucy, died, and was cast into the sea.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ THE INFLUENCE OF THE BLACK SEA For the people of Istanbul, fish should be caught in the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, and so when they buy fish they always ask where it comes from.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a surface current from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, which changes course when it hits the points.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Ottoman

Topkapı Palace was the home of the Ottoman emperors.
.The Ottoman Turks built the Anadoluhisarı on the Asian side of the Bosphorus in 1394, and the Rumelihisarı at the opposite (European) shore, in 1452, a year before the conquest of Constantinople.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Right opposite Çali Burnu on the other side of the Bosphorus is Filburnu, followed to the south by Kavak Burnu, and between Anadolu Kavaðý and Beykoz is the tranquil and deserted Selviburnu.Kanlica Burnu, also on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, was famous in the past for its waterfront mansions and musical gatherings, and also for its yogurt, which remains just as popular today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The main purpose of these castles, armed with the long range Balyemez (Faule Metze) cannons, was to block the sea traffic of the Bosphorus and prevent the support ships from the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea ports, such as Caffa, Sinop, and Amasra, from reaching Constantinople and helping the Byzantines during the Turkish siege of the city.^ Artillery units were battering the walls continuously but some of them were shut silent after a strong response from the Byzantine cannons placed atop the walls, received aid from the Genoese colony of Galata.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Ottomans did not purposely change the city's name, they opted to make "Constantinople" into a more Turkish style name "Konstantiniye" (which loosely translates as "of Constantine"), however variations on Konstantiniye soon cropped up.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[49] The first mosque on the European side of Istanbul was built inside the Rumeli Castle in 1452.
.Following the Ottoman conquest of the city, Sultan Mehmed II initiated a wide scale reconstruction plan, which included the construction of grand buildings such as the Topkapı Palace, Grand Bazaar and the Yedikule (Seven Towers) Castle which guarded the main entrance gate of the city, the Porta Aurea (Golden Gate).^ This was the ceremonial entrance to the city known as the Golden Gate (Porta Auera).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1427 the Karamanogullari sold Alanya to the Memluk sultan for five thousand gold sovereigns, and in 1471 it became part of the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II. In 1571 Alanya, along with Tarsus, became part of the province of Cyprus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The first grand mosque which was built in the city proper was the Eyüp Sultan Mosque in around 1459. The mosque was built on the site of the grave of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad who had died outside the land walls of Constantinople (walls of Theodosius II) in 669,[50] during the early skirmishes which preluded the Arab siege (674–678) to take the city.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ It was Anthemius, the capable governor of the Emperor Theodosius (408-450), who enlarged the walled area of the city two-fold, building the walls still named after him today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The following morning came with dense fog which completely covered the entire Constantinople area, blanketing the city from the Ottoman view despite the close distance between the camp and the first walls.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first imperial mosque inside the city walls was the Fatih Mosque (1470) which was built on the site of the Church of the Holy Apostles, an important Byzantine church originally edificed in the time of Constantine the Great.^ Of the mosque built by Sultan Mehmed II inside the castle, only the lower part of the minaret remains today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Exactly opposite it, in the garden of the Byzantine church, a viewing terrace has been built affording a panoramic Alanya vista.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you would be a Byzantine, how would you react to seeing the Genoese on the walls with their troops while their city was falling?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many other imperial mosques were built in the following centuries, such as the famous Süleymaniye Mosque (1557) which was ordered by Suleiman the Magnificent and designed by the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, and the famous Sultan Ahmet Mosque (1616) which is also known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles that adorn its interior.^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you enter through this gate, you can visit Kara Ahmet Paşa Mosque, the work of the celebrated 16th century Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In its place today, however, stands the graceful Ortaköy Mosque built by Sultan Abdülmecid in 1853-1855.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.In the centuries following Mehmed II, many new important buildings, such as the Süleymaniye Mosque, Sultanahmet Mosque, Yeni Mosque and numerous others were constructed.^ The many waterfront mansions built in Ortaköy in the 17th and 18th centuries were demolished in 1871 when Sultan Abdülaziz was building Çiragan Palace.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Of the mosque built by Sultan Mehmed II inside the castle, only the lower part of the minaret remains today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.In the 18th and 19th centuries, traditional Ottoman architectural styles were gradually replaced by European styles, such as the Baroque style interiors of the Aynalıkavak Palace (1677–1679) and Nuruosmaniye Mosque (1748–1755, the first Baroque style mosque in the city, also famous for its Baroque fountain), and the 18th century Baroque additions to the Harem section of the Topkapı Palace.^ While in its day Hagia Sophia was architecturally unique, and remained so for centuries -- also as the largest Church in Christendom -- the Ottomans began to build great mosques in the same style, culminating in the Sultan Ahmad (I) , or Blue, Mosque nearby, built adjacent to, and using many of the stones from, the classical Hippodrome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The construction of the Dolmabahce Palace and the introduction of steamship travel in the 19th century facilitated settlement even in the waterway’s most remote recesses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most famous buildings here is the 18th century Yilanli Yali - House of Snakes.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Following the Tanzimat reforms which effectively started Turkey's europeanisation process in 1839, new palaces and mosques were built in Neoclassical, Baroque and Rococo styles, or an eclectic mix of all three, such as the Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy (Mecidiye) Mosque.^ Together with a raft of names and hundreds of yalis, palaces and mosques large and small, the Bosphorus’s all-pervasive tranquility lingers on in our memory at the end of our tour.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In its place today, however, stands the graceful Ortaköy Mosque built by Sultan Abdülmecid in 1853-1855.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.Starting from the early 19th century, the areas around İstiklal Avenue were filled with grandiose embassy buildings belonging to prominent European states, and rows of European (mostly Neoclassical and later Art Nouveau) style buildings started to appear on both flanks of the avenue.^ By the 19th century, Popes were spending much of their energy just trying to maintain their rule over Rome and the Papal States.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Nineteenth century western taste and the houses and palaces furnished under European influence naturally triggered a transformation in the art of the carpet as well.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Istanbul was one of the major centers of the Art Nouveau (Liberty) movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with famous architects of this style such as Alexander Vallaury and Raimondo D'Aronco building many palaces and mansions in the city proper and on the Princes' Islands.^ The construction of the Dolmabahce Palace and the introduction of steamship travel in the 19th century facilitated settlement even in the waterway’s most remote recesses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most famous buildings here is the 18th century Yilanli Yali - House of Snakes.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ So one morning, at the break of day, he issued from the city in force, and got as far as the tents, and killed many before they could get to their armour.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.D'Aronco's most important works in the city include several buildings of the Yıldız Palace complex, and the Botter House on İstiklal Avenue.^ The palace was one of the most beautiful and delectable that ever eyes could see, with every delight therein that the heart of man could desire, and convenient for the house of a prince.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And the city he caused to be pulled down, with its towers and walls; and the high palaces and rich houses to be burned and utterly destroyed.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ THE GIANT CARPETS OF USAK Although Ottoman carpet production was concentrated in several different regions, the most important center was at Uşak with its colossal looms.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The famous Camondo Stairs on Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Karaköy (Galata) is also a beautiful example of Art Nouveau architecture. .Other important examples are the Khedive Palace[52] (Hıdiv Kasrı) on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, Flora Han in Sirkeci, and Frej Apartmanı[53] in the Şişhane quarter of Beyoğlu.^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[54]

Administration

Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality City Hall (1960) in the Fatih district.
The mayor of Istanbul, currently Kadir Topbaş, serves as the prefect of the city.[55] The governor of Istanbul province is Muammer Güler.[56]
Istanbul is a home rule city and municipal elections are mainly partisan. .The metropolitan model of governance has been used with the establishment of metropolitan administration in 1930. The metropolitan council is responsible for all authority when it comes to making city decisions.^ And be it known to you that the hearts of the people were not at peace, for 25 the one party used all efforts to break up the host, and the other to make it hold together.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Governance of the Church was also shared with the Emperor, the "Equal of the Apostles," who had the authority to call Church Councils; and, after 476, that meant only the Emperor in Constantinople -- although, as it happened, only that Emperor had ever called Councils.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then did Henry take council with his barons, and their decision was that they would go to the city of Bizve, which was a fair city, and strong.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[57]
.The metropolitan government structure consists of three main organs: (1) The Metropolitan Mayor (elected every five years), (2) The Metropolitan Council (decision making body with the mayor, district Mayors, and one fifth of the district municipal councillors), (3) The metropolitan executive committee.^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Great and marvellous was the concourse, for every one wished to see who should be elected.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So the government has the right to choose one of three works that the jury considered as worthy of reward.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.There are three types of local authorities: (1) municipalities, (2) special provincial administrations, (3) village administrations.^ Efforts by the Porte to reform the administration of the empire were continual during the nineteenth century; similar efforts by local authorities on Cyprus failed, as did those of the Porte.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Among the local authorities, municipalities are gaining greater importance with the rise in urbanisation.
.The current Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality City Hall building in the Saraçhane quarter of the Fatih district, the construction of which began on 17 December 1953 and was completed and inaugurated on 26 May 1960, will soon be demolished and replaced by a new building, designed by Istanbul-based Arolat Architects.^ When the Patriarchate settled in the Phanar Quarter, it was forbidden to build a new church, and forbidden to have any church with a dome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After what may have been the largest funeral in history, on April 8th, a historic Papal election will soon take place, the first in a quarter of a century.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a city surrounded by sea Istanbul has many headlands, some remote and deserted with no buildings but a lighthouse, others lively and crowded.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[58]

Demographics

.The population of the metropolis more than tripled during the 25 years between 1980 and 2005. Roughly 70% of all Istanbulites live in the European section and around 30% in the Asian section.^ Now you must know that this Count Thibaut was but a young man, and not more than twenty-two years of age, and the Count Louis not more than twenty-seven.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This was the result of more than a thousand years of looting and useless spending, decadence and greed.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to high unemployment in the southeast of Turkey, many people from that region migrated to Istanbul, where they established themselves in the outskirts of the city.^ As with many people who look good out of power, for their resistance, but then prove as bad, or worse, as their tormentors once they are in power themselves, our appreciation of the Papacy has its limits.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had played a major part in the establishment of Bergama Museum and was aware how significant this new building, which was to open on 30 October 1936, was for a city which had once been the most powerful and magnificent in this region of western Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus were they in very perilous case, for never did so few people besiege so many people in any city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Migrants, predominantly from eastern Anatolia arrive in Istanbul expecting improved living conditions and employment, which usually end with little success.^ Since the Melkite Patriarch had little popular support in Egypt, one might expect that the Arab Conquest in 640 would have ended the line; but it didn't.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.This results each year with new gecekondus at the outskirts of the city, which are later developed into neighbourhoods and integrated into the greater metropolis.^ What I mean to say in the book is that in the past there was the large Ottoman Empire, and this city was a metropolis like New York, Paris or Berlin.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ When notification of a new teaching post arrived he resigned so as to remain in Bergama and pursue his research into the history and culture of the ancient city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ A few years later, after riding out the troubles of 1848, Napoleon III came to the rescue of the Papacy with French troops who prevented the absorption of Rome into the new Kingdom of Italy .
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The city has a population of 11,372,613 residents according to the latest count as of 2007,[59] and is one of the largest cities in the world today.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Bayatli every stone and shard discovered at Pergamum was of incalculable value, since this city had been one of the most magnificent centres of learning and culture of its age.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the article in the Anýtkabir Project Protocol it is directly at the disposal of the Government of the Republic of Turkey to choose one of the three projects that the jury counted as the best.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The rate of population growth in the city is currently at 3.45% a year on average, mainly due to the influx of people from the surrounding rural areas. Istanbul's population density of 2,742 people per square mile (1,700 per square km) far exceeds Turkey's 130 people per square mile (81 people per square km).[60] Most of the city’s population are ethnic Turks. .Kurds now constitute the largest ethnic minority in the city.^ Now, as Istanbul , the City is simply a large modern city, the largest in Turkey, but no longer a capital, a fortress, a redoubt, or a beacon of culture or religion.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

There are several million Kurdish migrants from the countryside in Istanbul.[61]
.During the early Middle Ages, Istanbul was the largest city in the world, and has been one of the world's largest and most important cities during much of its history (excepting the period of collapse of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire before the Ottomans).^ And well does Geoffry of Villehardouin the Marshal of Champagne, bear witness, that never, since the world was created, had so much booty been won in any city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is now a little hard to recapture the sense that it used to be the principal city of Syria (the third largest city of the Roman Empire, after Rome and Alexandria) right down to when it was taken by the Mamlûks in 1268.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Genoese were one of the most hated people in Constantinople, along with the Venetians, who ironically, both of them, were close traders with the Empire and the imperial family.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its geopolitical significance since ancient times brought representatives of ethnic groups from all over Europe, Asia, and Africa.^ That bird, native to Africa, was brought to Europe via Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bosphorus joins Asia to Europe, and it is safe to say that no society that has lived in this region since the dawn of history has been indifferent to its fish.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Throughout its history the ethnic Greek and then Turkish populations have assimilated these groups throughout the city's history.^ And those who were in these cities maintained the war against the Greeks, 107 and made many forays.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The histories of these Churches has thus become entangled with political and ethnic issues that exist independently of the Christian histories of the communities.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants by year. Population tallies up to 1914 are estimated with variations of up to 50% depending upon researcher. The numbers from 1927 to 2000 are results of censuses. The numbers of 2005 and 2006 are based on computer simulation forecasts. The doubling of the population of Istanbul between 1980 and 1985 is due to a natural increase in population as well as the expansion of municipal limits.
Historic population
Year Population
330 40,000
400 400,000
530 550,000
545 350,000
715 300,000
950 400,000
1200 150,000
1453 36,000
Year Population
1477 70,000[62]
1566 600,000
1817 500,000
1860 715,000
1885 873,570
1890 874,000
1897 1,059,000
1901 942,900
Year Population
1914 909,978
1927 680,857
1935 741,148
1940 793,949
1945 860,558
1950 983,041
1955 1,268,771
1960 1,466,535
Year Population
1965 1,742,978
1970 2,132,407
1975 2,547,364
1980 2,772,708
1985 5,475,982
1990 6,629,431
2000 8,803,468
2007 11,372,613
|Istanbul-Population-Log.svg

Religion

.The urban landscape of Istanbul is shaped by many communities.^ This is true of Istanbul, where bridges have found their way into folklore and become a treasured feature of the urban landscape.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. .Religious minorities include Greek Orthodox Christians, Armenian Christians, Catholic Levantines and Sephardic Jews.^ Also, your depiction of the relationship between orthodox and catholic Christianity is not correct, as far as I'm correct.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Orthodox Christians, i.e., the Greek Cypriots who survived, had new foreign overlords.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Even the expression "Greek Catholic" is used for the Roman Catholic counter-church that was created to lure the Greek Orthodox into allegiance to Rome.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 2000 census, there were 2,691 active mosques, 123 active churches and 26 active synagogues in Istanbul; as well as 109 Muslim cemeteries and 57 non-Muslim cemeteries.^ As well as Muslims and Christians there is a smaller number of Yezidis, a people whose religion of Persian origin is thought to be related to Zoroastrianism.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In many places are symbols of Christ Triumphant, the tombs of Muslims who fell during the Omayyad period siege and the later Ottoman siege of 1453, and churches and mosques.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Some districts used to have sizeable populations of these ethnic groups, such as the Kumkapı district which had a sizeable Armenian population, the Balat district which had a sizeable Jewish population, the Fener district which had a sizeable Greek population, and some neighbourhoods in the Nişantaşı and Beyoğlu districts which had sizeable Levantine populations.^ With some variations in size and composition, such carpets were produced to the end of the 17th century.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The vast size and the ethnic variety of the empire made such a policy imperative.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ HOUR HOT WATER Public baths, where such occasions were celebrated as a group, were located in the cities and towns and in some villages and were open to everyone.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Very few remain in these aforementioned districts as they either emigrated or moved to other districts.^ Thus were they in very perilous case, for never did so few people besiege so many people in any city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So did they remain before the city for three days, in great discomfort, and but few in number.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And some remained with their ships at anchor so near to the city that from either side they shot at one another with petraries and mangonels.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In some quarters, such as Kuzguncuk, an Armenian church sits next to a synagogue, and on the other side of the road a Greek Orthodox church is found beside a mosque.^ "Stanbulin," (Greek for "to the city") once commonly found on road signs directing travelers to the capital, was punned by devout Turks into Islambol, where "Islam abounds."
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Few people, indeed, remember that Mediaeval "Romans" meant the Greek, Albanian, Vlach, Armenian, and other inhabitants of the so-called "Byzantine" Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, at vesper time, those of the host and the Doge of Venice called together a parliament, and assembled in a church on the other side of the straits-on the side where they had been quartered.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Church and first patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox communion, is located in the Fener (Phanar) district. Also based in Istanbul are the archbishop of the Turkish-Orthodox community, an Armenian archbishop, and the Turkish Grand-Rabbi. .A number of places reflect past movements of different communities into Istanbul, most notably Arnavutköy (Albanian village), Polonezköy (Polish village) and Yenibosna (New Bosnia).^ I do have dreams for Istanbul: that it be a freer place; that people break with their communities and become free individuals.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The Muslims are by far the largest religious group in Istanbul. Among them, the Sunnis form the most populous sect, while a number of the local Muslims are Alevis. In 2007 there were 2,944 active mosques in Istanbul.[63]
Istanbul was the final seat of the Islamic Caliphate, between 1517 and 1924, when the Caliphate was dissolved and its powers were handed over to the Turkish Parliament. .On 2 September 1925, the tekkes and tarikats were banned, as their activities were deemed incompatible with the characteristics of the secular democratic Republic of Turkey; particularly with the secular education system and the laicist state's control over religious affairs through the Religious Affairs Directorate.^ The Senate was divided into many factions all vying for power and control over the state's internal and external affairs.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So it was a disappointment recently when Turkey's president vetoed a law that would grant graduates of religious high schools equal access to the nation's secular universities.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Most followers of Sufism and other forms of Islamic mysticism practiced clandestinely afterwards, and some of these sects still boast numerous followers.^ While some form of Assyrian nationalism is widely popular in the Assyrian community, and even among some Chaldeans and Syrian Orthdox Christians, other Chaldeans and Syrian Orthodox find it offensive.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As well as the large fairground and park, numerous buildings in the Turkish revival style (some of which are still standing) were built at this time.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Other objections, that the Crusades represent some kind of Western "imperialism," gloss over the question of what justified the original Islamic Conquest in the first place.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In order to avoid the still valid prohibition, these organisations represent themselves as "cultural associations."
Inside the Church of St. George in the Fener (Phanar) quarter.
.The city has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate since the 4th century AD, and continues to serve as the seat of some other Orthodox churches, such as the Turkish Orthodox Church and the Armenian Patriarchate.^ There is, as it happens, an independent Monophysite Church represented in Jerusalem, and that is the line of Armenian Patriarchs, beginning with Abraham (638-669).
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The list of Orthodox Patriarchs is from a combination of various sources on the internet and Eusebius' The History of the Church [Penguin, 1965].
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle is still that Orthodox Churches base their doctrine on the Ecumenical Councils.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The city was formerly also the seat of the Bulgarian Exarchate, before its autocephaly was recognised by other Orthodox churches.^ Thus was the bridge repaired, and in the morning the divisions were armed, and rode one after the other in the order appointed, and came before the city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Greek Orthodox" is still used for other Churches, as of Jerusalem , that have nothing to do with the Greek national Church but that are in doctrinal communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before 1833, however, worries about the Church of Constantinople not being the "Greek Orthodox Church" would be anachronistic.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The everyday life of the Christians, particularly the Greeks and Armenians living in Istanbul changed significantly following the bitter conflicts between these ethnic groups and the Turks during the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which began in the 1820s and continued for a century.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Few people, indeed, remember that Mediaeval "Romans" meant the Greek, Albanian, Vlach, Armenian, and other inhabitants of the so-called "Byzantine" Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although their homeland had been dominated by foreigners for many centuries, it was only after the imposition of Ottoman rule that Orthodox Christians began to develop a really strong sense of cohesiveness.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The conflicts reached their culmination in the decade between 1912 and 1922; during the Balkan Wars, the First World War and the Turkish War of Independence.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Greek War of Independence in 1821, the Ottoman authorities feared that Greek Cypriots would rebel again.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Both ship has seen action during the Russo-Turkish war of (1877-78) "93 Harbi".
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The Christian population declined from 450,000 to 240,000 between 1914 and 1927.[64] Today, most of Turkey's remaining Greek and Armenian minorities live in or near Istanbul.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The large Syriac Othrodox population of Turkey had mainly been centered to the east, around Edessa (Urfa) and Diyarbakir; but beginning in World War I, with attacks on them as well as on Armenians and Assyrians , most such Christians have fled the area.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And with him had come the Armenians of the land, who had helped him against the Greeks-some twenty thousand with all their wives and children-for they dared not remain behind.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The number of the local Turkish Armenians in Istanbul today amount to approximately 45,000[65] (not including the nearly 40,000 Armenian workers in Turkey who came from Armenia after 1991 and mostly live and work in Istanbul);[66] while the Greek community, which amounted to 150,000 citizens in 1924,[67] currently amounts to approximately 4,000 citizens.^ The Greeks still do not use the Turkish name, and Konstantinopolis continues to be used on maps and road signs in Greece today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Tiryaki, whom I place among those who speak Istanbul Turkish, might equally be classed with those with health problems or defects, on account of his opium addiction.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[65] .There are also 60,000 Istanbulite Greeks who currently live in Greece but continue to retain their Turkish citizenship.^ And inside Adrianople were only the Greeks and 123 Peter of Radinghem, who had been set there by the emperor, with ten knights.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greeks still do not use the Turkish name, and Konstantinopolis continues to be used on maps and road signs in Greece today.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Now there was a Greek who stood higher in his favour than all others, and had done more to make him embroil himself with the Franks than any other.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[65]
The Sephardic Jews have lived in the city for over 500 years. .They fled the Iberian Peninsula during the Spanish Inquisition of 1492, when they were forced to convert to Christianity after the fall of the Moorish Kingdom of Andalucia.^ Then they issued from their quarters, and thought to find a sorer battle than the day before, for no word had come to them that the emperor had fled during the night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (1481–1512) sent a sizable fleet to Spain under the command of Kemal Reis in order to save the Sephardic Jews, as at that point in the Caliphate's history it was a beacon of tolerance compared to much of Christendom.^ In 1427 the Karamanogullari sold Alanya to the Memluk sultan for five thousand gold sovereigns, and in 1471 it became part of the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II. In 1571 Alanya, along with Tarsus, became part of the province of Cyprus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Ottoman commanders, seemingly distorted from the reality that was unfolding in front of them, were giving orders towards the soldiers to push on and enter the city, much to the shock and amazement of the nearby troops.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About two centuries ago Sultan Mahmud II was passing by in his royal barge when he saw this house, and liked it so much that he decided to buy it.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.More than 200,000 fled first to Tangier, Algiers, Genova and Marseille, later to Salonica and finally to Istanbul.^ Some considered the Senate no more important than a municipal council, so why have it in the first place at all?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Sultan granted over 93,000 of these Spanish Jews to take refuge in the Ottoman Empire.^ Mehmet the conqueror, Sultan of Ottoman Empire, was 21 years of age and the city was 2120 years old (1453 AD) .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Manuel wasn't expecting much out of these missions, but it was the only thing he could do at the moment without risking a direct confrontation with the Ottoman Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Another large group of Sephardic Jews came from southern Italy which was under Spanish control. .The İtalyan Sinagogu (Italian Synagogue) in Galata is mostly frequented by the descendants of these Italian Jews in Istanbul, where more than 20,000 Sephardic Jews still remain today.^ The two Italian Republics controlled the Galata commonly, but it was the Genoese who had more influence and much more territory within the quarter than their cohabitants.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And you may know that their fortunes were at the lowest, seeing that outside of Constantinople they had kepl& possession of no more than these two cities.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No trace of the lodge building remains today on the field, still known as the 'Ok Meydani'.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.There are about 20 synagogues, the most important of them being the Neve Shalom Synagogue inaugurated in 1951, in the Beyoğlu quarter.^ There were only 9 of them, but they were the most important statesmen of the moribund Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Economy

Levent financial district.
.Apart from being the largest city and former political capital of the country, Istanbul has always been the centre of Turkey's economic life because of its location as a junction of international land and sea trade routes.^ Zeki Muren (1931-1996) Zeki Muren (1931-1996) grew up in the provincial capital city of Bursa in western Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The other two chosen capitals are regional centres in EU countries - Pecs, in south-eastern Hungary and Essen in Germany's industrialised Ruhr Valley.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Istanbul is also Turkey's largest industrial centre.^ Now, as Istanbul , the City is simply a large modern city, the largest in Turkey, but no longer a capital, a fortress, a redoubt, or a beacon of culture or religion.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

It employs approximately 20% of Turkey's industrial labour and contributes 38% of Turkey's industrial workspace. Istanbul and its surrounding province produce cotton, fruit, olive oil, silk, and tobacco. Food processing, textile production, oil products, rubber, metal ware, leather, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, glass, machinery, automotive, transport vehicles, paper and paper products, and alcoholic drinks are among the city's major industrial products. According to Forbes magazine, Istanbul had a total of 35 billionaires as of March 2008, ranking fourth in the world.[68]
Originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange (Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsası) in 1866, and reorganised to its current structure at the beginning of 1986, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey.[69] .During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial centre of the Ottoman Empire, where the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank (established as the Bank-ı Osmanî in 1856, and later reorganised as the Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane in 1863)[70] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1866) were located.^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Today Izmir is a modern city dating largely from the 19th and 20th centuries.
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^ During the period of Ottoman domination, Cyprus had been a backwater of the empire, but in the nineteenth century it again drew the attention of West European powers.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[71] .Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak.^ This is one of the most colourful districts of Istanbul, with its many 18th and 19th century houses, although several of the most magnificent were destroyed by fire in 1797.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ It took Westerners a few decades to accept the name, as Constantinople continued to appear on maps well into the 1960s, when it began to appear in parentheses next to Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[71] In 1995, the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to its current building in the Istinye quarter.[72]
Maslak financial district.
.Today, the city generates 55% of Turkey's trade and 45% of the country's wholesale trade, and generates 21.2% of Turkey's gross national product.^ Edessa today is the city of Urfa in Turkey.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The city was the principal gateway for trade between Europe and Ottoman Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul contributes 40% of all taxes collected in Turkey and produces 27.5% of Turkey's national product. In 2005 the City of Istanbul had a GDP of $133 billion.[73] In 2005 companies based in Istanbul made exports worth $41,397,000,000 and imports worth $69,883,000,000; which corresponded to 56.6% and 60.2% of Turkey's exports and imports, respectively, in that year.[74]
.Istanbul is one of the most important tourism spots of Turkey.^ THE MOST PRECIOUS GIFT One factor which has made fish so important along the Bosphorus, placing it at the head of Istanbul's gastronomic culture, is the prominence of fish in dining in both the Eastern Roman and Ottoman Empires.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This is one of the most colourful districts of Istanbul, with its many 18th and 19th century houses, although several of the most magnificent were destroyed by fire in 1797.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ While Turkey has more than one indigenous dog breed, the Kangal is the most famous of them all.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.There are thousands of hotels and other tourist oriented industries in the city, catering to both vacationers and visiting professionals.^ There aain was a mighty slaughter, and the remnant that escaped the slaughter he caused to be led captive to Wallachia, while the city itself he destroyed, as lie had destroyed the others.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And as the other Greeks had abandoned Veroi, so did the dwellers in Blisnon abandon their city; and he found it furnished with all things necessary, and quartered himself there.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And those who had left Adrianople, the Venetians and the others who were there, came to a city called Tzurulum, that belonged to the Emperor Baldwin.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 2006 a total of 23,148,669 tourists visited Turkey, most of whom entered the country through the airports and seaports of Istanbul and Antalya.^ This township, which hosts over a million tourists a year, has recently become the most serious contender for tourism among Turkey’s southern resorts such as Bodrum, Çeşme and Antalya.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you enter through this gate, you can visit Kara Ahmet Paşa Mosque, the work of the celebrated 16th century Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.
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^ Of course those who only know Turkey from my books know it through Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[75] .The total number of tourists who entered Turkey through Atatürk International Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport in Istanbul reached 5,346,658, rising from 4,849,353 in 2005.[76] Istanbul is also one of the world's major conference destinations and is an increasingly popular choice for the world's leading international associations.^ So they conferred together, and Alexius gave him his daughter to wife, and they entered into alliance, and said they should be as one.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course those who only know Turkey from my books know it through Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ "Interestingly, the Istanbul application, the bid, did not begin either with the government of Turkey or with the government of the city of Istanbul, but with groups of public-spirited citizens, who took into their own hands the initiatives of leading their city towards this bid," he said.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[77]

Public services

Education

.
Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square, which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period.
^ This was the ceremonial entrance to the city known as the Golden Gate (Porta Auera).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Murad arrived shortly, saluting everyone around him as he climbed the stairs to the top of the main gate which was also the crucial entrance to the city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Beyazıt Tower, located within the campus, is seen in the background.
.Istanbul holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Turkey, including more than 20 public and private universities.^ Now there was a Greek who stood higher in his favour than all others, and had done more to make him embroil himself with the Franks than any other.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While Turkey has more than one indigenous dog breed, the Kangal is the most famous of them all.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Setting this value higher
; only wastes RAM and screws up your broadcast when more people connect
; than you can support.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.^ This township, which hosts over a million tourists a year, has recently become the most serious contender for tourism among Turkey’s southern resorts such as Bodrum, Çeşme and Antalya.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Istanbul University, founded in 1453, is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city,[78] while Istanbul Technical University (1773) is the world's third-oldest technical university dedicated entirely to engineering sciences.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Papacy is one of the oldest institutions in the world, perhaps even the oldest.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[79] Other prominent state universities in Istanbul include Boğaziçi University, Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts, Yildiz Technical University and Marmara University. The major private universities in the city include Koç University, Sabancı University,Fatih University, Istanbul Commerce University, Bahçeşehir University, Yeditepe University, Kadir Has University, Doğuş University and Bilgi University.
.Almost all Turkish private high schools and universities in Istanbul teach in English, German or French as the primary foreign language, usually accompanied by a secondary foreign language.^ Many times the Germans refer to Istanbul as 'Konstantinopel', the French and the British as 'Constantinople' and the Italians as 'Constantinopoli'.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ A castle tour of Turkey 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/bosphorus-tour.html[/postlink] A Bosphorus tour Besides his literary criticism, theoretical writings, guidebooks and years of teaching English literature in the universities, Murat Belge has been leading tours through every quarter of Istanbul for almost 25 years.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ So it was a disappointment recently when Turkey's president vetoed a law that would grant graduates of religious high schools equal access to the nation's secular universities.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Galatasaray Lisesi, established in 1481 as Galata Sarayı Enderun-u Hümayunu (Galata Palace Imperial School) and later known as Galatasaray Mekteb-i Sultanisi (Galatasaray School of the Sultans) is the oldest Turkish high school in Istanbul and the second oldest Turkish educational institution in the city.^ On the second level was the Turkish city proper.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Galata Bridge was a symbolic link between the traditional city of Istanbul proper, site of the imperial palace and principal religious and secular institutions of the empire, and the districts of Galata, Beyoglu, Sisli and Harbiye where a large proportion of the inhabitants were non-Muslims and where foreign merchants and diplomats lived and worked.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.İstanbul Lisesi, also commonly known as İstanbul Erkek Lisesi (established in 1884), abbreviated İEL, is one of the oldest and internationally renowned high schools of Turkey located in İstanbul.^ This ancient breed springs forth like a lion from its epicenter - the Kangal District - a region in east central Turkey located in what is known as the Anti-Taurus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ So it was a disappointment recently when Turkey's president vetoed a law that would grant graduates of religious high schools equal access to the nation's secular universities.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Kuleli Military High School is the only military high school in Istanbul, located in Çengelköy district.
Anadolu Liseleri (Anatolian High Schools) were originally furnished for the Turkish children who returned home from foreign countries, such as the Üsküdar Anadolu Lisesi with German as the primary foreign language and technical instruction in German. .Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi is one of the first six special Ministry of Education Colleges established in 1950s in big cities across Turkey.^ The 7th Station is actually the first one in the Christian rather than the Moselm Quarter of the City.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1924 Bayatli became director of the Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum, the first in Turkey built specifically for an ancient city to house finds from excavations there.
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^ And such guard was established that those of the city lost not one stiver current.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Those English-medium colleges were renamed as "Anadolu Lisesi" in subsequent decades. .There are also many foreign high schools in Istanbul, most of which were established in the 19th century in order to give education to the foreigners residing in Istanbul.^ The construction of the Dolmabahce Palace and the introduction of steamship travel in the 19th century facilitated settlement even in the waterway’s most remote recesses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Although their homeland had been dominated by foreigners for many centuries, it was only after the imposition of Ottoman rule that Orthodox Christians began to develop a really strong sense of cohesiveness.
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^ Many travellers who passed through the Seljuk lands beginning in the 12th century mention the extraordinarily beautiful carpets woven there.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, most of these schools went under the administration of the Turkish Ministry of Education, but some of them still have considerable foreign administration, such as the Liceo Italiano Statale I.M.I. (Özel İtalyan Lisesi) which is still regarded as an Italian state school by the government of Italy and continues to receive funding and teachers from Rome.^ Avignon was still a Papal possession, and there were some outlying holdings in Italy, like Benevento.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (March 25, 1997) and cannot be produced outside Turkey under the name “Turkish rakı”.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This not only bespeaks the better angels of the Papal nature but is a caution for continuing political traditions, for long under the influence of Hegel , that denigrate the individual and exalt the reality of state and government.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] Robert College, established in 1863, is another foreign school in the city, among numerous others.
.Istanbul has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past.^ Istanbul was besieed numerous times over the centuries by Persians, Macedonians, Lombards, Slavs, Avars, Bulgarians, Russians, Goths, Huns, Pechenegs, Crusaders, Arabs and Ottomans.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Byzantine period there were summer palaces, and in Ottoman times it was a royal garden.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Few people, indeed, remember that Mediaeval "Romans" meant the Greek, Albanian, Vlach, Armenian, and other inhabitants of the so-called "Byzantine" Empire.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Topkapı Palace Library, Library of the Archaeological Museum, Library of the Naval Museum, Beyazıt State Library, Nuruosmaniye Library, Süleymaniye Library, Istanbul University Library, Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Paşa Library, Atatürk Library and Çelik Gülersoy Library.^ The most important gate of all is Topkapı (far from, and unrelated to the palace of that name), literally the Cannon Gate.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The meeting was with the most important dignitaries of the Byzantine state, the senate of the Empire, which was now only a mere shadow of its former glory.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Syriac Orthodox (or "Syrian," a term now avoided to prevent confusion with the modern state of Syria, though historically the Chruch was indeed associated with geographical Syria).
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Healthcare

The city has many public and private hospitals, clinics and laboratories within its bounds and numerous medical research centers. .Many of these facilities have high technology equipment, which has contributed to the recent upsurge in "medical tourism" to Istanbul,[81] particularly from West European countries like the United Kingdom and Germany where governments send patients with lower income to the city for the inexpensive service of high-tech medical treatment and operations.^ Three high mountain ranges traverse the country from east to west so that the interior plateau, the Plateau of Asia Minor, is high, rugged and formerly inaccessible.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And those who were in these cities maintained the war against the Greeks, 107 and made many forays.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[82] Istanbul has particularly become a global destination for laser eye surgery and plastic surgery.[81] The city also has an Army Veterans Hospital in the military medical centre.
Pollution-related health problems increase especially in the winter, when the combustion of heating fuels increase. The rising number of new cars in the city and the slow development of public transportation often cause urban smog conditions. Mandatory use of unleaded gas was scheduled to begin only in January 2006.[83]

Utilities

.The first water supply systems which were built in Istanbul date back to the foundation of the city.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The legend of the foundation of Istanbul is derived from classical mythology: Zeus fell in love with Io, daughter of Inachus, King of the City of Argos and God of the River of Argos.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Two of the greatest aqueducts built in the Roman period are the Mazulkemer Aqueduct and the Valens Aqueduct. .These aqueducts were built in order to channel water from the Halkalı area in the western edge of the city to the Beyazıt district in the city centre, which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period.^ Western accounts of the old city during this period make regular references to the name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The team from Merzifon was known as the Cabbages, for which the area was famous, while the team from Amasya was called the Okras after that city's most famous vegetable.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Byzantine period the city was known as ‘Kalonoros’, or ‘beautiful mountain’.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[84] .After reaching the city centre, the water was later collected in the city's numerous cisterns, such as the famous Philoxenos (Binbirdirek) Cistern and the Basilica (Yerebatan) Cistern.^ HOUR HOT WATER Public baths, where such occasions were celebrated as a group, were located in the cities and towns and in some villages and were open to everyone.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned Mimar Sinan, his engineer and architect-in-chief, to improve the water needs of the city.^ Caravans arriving from afar would here catch sight of the rich buildings of the city and the elegant mosque built by Mimar Sinan for Mihrimah Sultan, daughter of Süleyman the Magnificent.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you enter through this gate, you can visit Kara Ahmet Paşa Mosque, the work of the celebrated 16th century Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ M. Rifat Akbulut is a lecturer on City and Regional Planning at Mimar Sinan University.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Sinan constructed the Kırkçeşme Water Supply System in 1555.[84] In later years, with the aim of responding to the ever-increasing public demand, water from various springs was channeled to the public fountains by means of small supply lines; see German Fountain.
Today, Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered water supply and a sewage disposal system managed by the government agency İSKİ.[85] There are also several private sector organisations distributing clean water. Electricity distribution services are covered by the state-owned TEK. The first electricity production plant in the city, Silahtarağa Termik Santrali, was established in 1914 and continued to supply electricity until 1983.[86]
The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in the city on 23 October 1840.[87] The first post office was the Postahane-i Amire near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque.[87] .In 1876 the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the vast Ottoman Empire was established.^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This brings me back to the first point I have mentioned to you today commercial concessions from the Ottoman Empire would greatly help our economic situation.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An alliance between the Ottoman Empire and us will surely be of great help.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

[87] In 1901 the first money transfers were made through the post offices and the first cargo services became operational.[87] .Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861–1865 on the same location) in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention.^ The Sultan looked closely at the map, analysing different possibilities of attack, until he was interrupted by Khalil who decided to interrupt the silence and speak first.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In its place today, however, stands the graceful Ortaköy Mosque built by Sultan Abdülmecid in 1853-1855.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The many waterfront mansions built in Ortaköy in the 17th and 18th centuries were demolished in 1871 when Sultan Abdülaziz was building Çiragan Palace.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[88] .Following this successful test, installation works of the first telegraph line between Istanbul and Edirne began on 9 August 1847.[89] In 1855 the Telegraph Administration was established.^ The first municipality was established in 1868, and the Kordon esplanade and quay were constructed between 1868 and 1872.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[87] .In July 1881 the first telephone circuit in Istanbul was established between the Ministry of Post and Telegraph in Soğukçeşme and the Postahane-i Amire in Yenicami.^ The first municipality was established in 1868, and the Kordon esplanade and quay were constructed between 1868 and 1872.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[89] On 23 May 1909, the first manual telephone exchange with a 50 line capacity was established in the Büyük Postane (Grand Post Office) of Sirkeci.[89]

Transportation

Airports

Atatürk International Airport on the European side is the main airport of the city and one of the largest international hubs in the region.
.Istanbul has two international airports: The larger one is the Atatürk International Airport located in the Yeşilköy district on the European side, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) west from the city centre.^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Bayatli every stone and shard discovered at Pergamum was of incalculable value, since this city had been one of the most magnificent centres of learning and culture of its age.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Reaching for the edge, Manuel instinctively looked towards the west of the city, observing two specks along the rails of the balcony.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.When it was first built, the airport was situated at the western edge of the metropolitan area but now lies within the city bounds.^ And they sailed up the straits to a city called Abydos, which lies on the straits of St. George, towards Turkey, and is very fair, and well situate.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A Christian power now secured the city for the first time since 1244.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1924 Bayatli became director of the Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum, the first in Turkey built specifically for an ancient city to house finds from excavations there.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The smaller one is the Sabiha Gökçen International Airport located in the Kurtköy district on the Asian side, close to the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit.^ There are pleasant cafés in the beautiful tree-filled park, and along the west side are Istanbul Sailing Club, Fenerbahçe Sports Club and Galatasaray Sports Club.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ One year later, an international symposium about Alevilik that was held in Istanbul by a Swedish research center got the title: “Alevi Identity”.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.It is situated approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of the Asian side and 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of the European city centre.^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Navigation

Commuter ferries have operated on the Bosphorus since 1837.
.Sea transport is vital for Istanbul, as the city is practically surrounded by sea on all sides: the Sea of Marmara, the Golden Horn, the Bosphorus and the Black Sea.^ The European side is seperated into two by a scimitar shaped gulf called Golden Horn:the old sprawls along one side, with its Byzantine ramparts and Ottoman palaces facing the Marmara Sea, the nPropontis of antiquty; on the other side,one can see the ancient Genoese port of Galata and more modern quartes beyond, with the legendary Bosphorus winding its way up to the Black Sea, the Pontus Euxinus of antiquity.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Following the advice of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Byzas established a colony at the of the Istanbul peninsula, today known as Seraglio Point, the Promentorium Bosphorium of antiquity; where the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn meet and flow in to the Marmara (667 B.C.).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Each division had its own ships, and all were ranged side by side; and the ships were separated from the galleys and transports.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many Istanbulites live on the Asian side of the city but work on the European side (or vice-versa) and the city's famous commuter ferries form the backbone of the daily transition between the two parts of the city – even more so than the two suspension bridges which span the Bosphorus.^ Now you must know that this Count Thibaut was but a young man, and not more than twenty-two years of age, and the Count Louis not more than twenty-seven.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He couldn't see the true faade of his city, the ruins of marvellous Roman villas and imposing palaces which formed today the dark side of this once splendid city.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The commuter ferries, along with the high speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Otobüsü), also form the main connection between the city and the Princes' Islands.
The first steam ferries appeared on the Bosphorus in 1837 and were operated by private sector companies.[90] On 1 January 1851, the Şirket-i Hayriye (literally the Goodwill Company, as the Istanbul Ferry Company was originally called) was established by the Ottoman state.[90] .The Şirket-i Hayriye continued to operate the city's landmark commuter ferries until the early years of the Republican period, when they went under the direction of Türkiye Denizcilik İşletmeleri (Turkish State Maritime Lines).^ The cities continue under Turkish sovereignty, as Antakya and Iskenderun.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On top of this, Constantinople is very well defended and I am under no illusions that they will fight until the last man and until the last stone of those walls has been destroyed.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This would last until 1870, giving the Papal States a run of 1116 years.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] Since March 2006, Istanbul's traditional commuter ferries are being operated by İstanbul Deniz Otobüsleri (Istanbul Sea Buses) which also operates the high speed catamaran Seabus.[90]
.İDO (İstanbul Deniz OtobüsleriIstanbul Sea Buses) was established in 1987 and operates the high speed catamaran Seabus which run between the European and Asian parts of Istanbul, also connecting the city with the Princes' Islands and other destinations in the Sea of Marmara.^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus did the fire prevail, and win across the port, even to the densest part of the city, and to the sea on the other side, quite near to the church of St. Sophia.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore they enclosed their camp with palisades and barriers, and told off part of their men to keep guard within the palisades and barriers, while the others attacked the city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Yenikapı High Speed Car Ferry Port on the European side, and the Pendik High Speed Car Ferry Port on the Asian side, are where the high speed catamaran "car ferries" are based. .The car ferries which operate between Yenikapı (on the European side of Istanbul) and Bandırma reduce the driving time between Istanbul and İzmir and other major destinations on Turkey's Aegean coast by several hours; while those which operate between Yenikapı or Pendik (on the Asian side of Istanbul) and Yalova significantly reduce the driving time between Istanbul and Bursa or Antalya.^ When Europeans arrived in America, they noticed similarities between the guinea-fowl and the American bird and called the latter turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul has had other names at various times but none of them was used widely or for any great length of time.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The port of Istanbul is the most important one in the country.^ THE MOST PRECIOUS GIFT One factor which has made fish so important along the Bosphorus, placing it at the head of Istanbul's gastronomic culture, is the prominence of fish in dining in both the Eastern Roman and Ottoman Empires.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Anselm was one of the most important philosophers of the 12th century, responsible for the "ontological argument" for the existence of God which would bedevil subsequent thinkers.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It grew into a lively, cosmopolitan, and exotic port city, with communities of Levantines, Muslims and non-Muslims, and within a century had become one of the most important ports in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The old port on the Golden Horn serves primarily for personal navigation, while Karaköy port in Galata is used by the large cruise liners.^ It was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the earlier bridge further up the Golden Horn, which became known as the Cisr-i Atik or Old Bridge.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore to treat the Galata Bridge over the Golden Horn merely from the historic angle would be misleading.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Regular services as well as cruises from both Karaköy and Eminönü exist to several port cities in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea.^ Thus, an aesthetic urge to render the Mediterranean, Black, and Red Seas into a convenient "T" required that much that was already known be ignored.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He encamped before the city, and saw, both he and his barons, that in the state in which it then was, it were not well to refortify it.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They rode to a city called Nicomedia, which lies on a gulf of the sea, and is well two days' journey from Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Istanbul's main cargo port is located in the Harem district on the Asian side of the city.^ After exchanging quick pleasantries and gifts from both sides, the Pope's men took the diplomats with a double-horsed cart towards the acropolis of the city where the Pope's quarters were located.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This prevents us from attacking their main port, while the ones on the western part of the city are sealed off as well with smaller booms.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Istanbul also has several marinas of varying size for personal navigation, the largest of which are the Ataköy Marina on the European side and Kalamış Marina on the Asian side.^ Rumelihisari is the place where the Turks first settled on the European side of Istanbul and is noted for its many historic buildings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Motorways

.The State Road D.100 and the European route E80, the Trans European Motorway (TEM) O-3 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Turkey.^ When Europeans arrived in America, they noticed similarities between the guinea-fowl and the American bird and called the latter turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The city was the principal gateway for trade between Europe and Ottoman Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason for the panel's choice, he explained, was not only the well-known fact that Istanbul lies at a geographical cross-roads with Europe and has interacted with European civilisations for centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The motorway network around Istanbul is well developed and is constantly being extended. Motorways lead east to Ankara and west to Edirne. .There are also two express highways circling the city.^ And greatly were they harassed by the people of the land and by the Greeks; and they rode -from day to day till they came to a city called Pamphyle, and lodged there, and sojourned in it for two months.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And no one came out from the city against them; and this was a great marvel, seeing that for every man that was in the host there were over two hundred men in the city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The older one, the O-1, is mostly used for inner city traffic; while the more recent one, the O-2, is mostly used by intercity or intercontinental traffic.^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Büyükdere Avenue runs through the heart of Levent and Maslak.
.The Bosphorus Bridge on the O-1 and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge on theO-2 establish the motorway connection between the European and the Asian sides of the Bosphorus.^ Fatih Sultan Mehmet zamannda Osmanl topraklarna katld.
  • Dizinin ge�ti�i d�nemle ilgili d�k�manlar [Ar�iv] - DiziFilm.com Forum 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.dizifilm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The district of Rumelihisari which has such an important place in the memories of my youth lies on the European shore of the Bosphorus between Baltalimani and Bebek.
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.The southern and northern shores of the Golden Horn, an inlet of the Bosphorus on the European side of the city, are connected through the Galata Bridge, the Atatürk Bridge and the Haliç Bridge; the latter also being a part of the O-1 motorway network.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Büyükdere Avenue is the main artery that runs through the central business districts of Levent and Maslak on the European side, and is also accessible through a number of subway stations. .At the point where the O-1 motorway junctions and tunnels between the quarters of Gayrettepe and Zincirlikuyu come together, Büyükdere Avenue connects with Barbaros Boulevard, which descends towards the ferry port of Beşiktaş.^ Now they two had never been able to speak together face to face since the conquest of the land, for so many enemies lay between them that the one had never been able to come to the other.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There it connects with the coastal highway that runs along the European shore of the Bosphorus, from Eminönü in the south to Sarıyer in the north.^ The Marquis Boniface of Montferrat rode all along the shore to the palace of Bucoleon, and when he arrived there it surrendered, on condition that the lives of all therein should be spared.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also several headlands along the Bosphorus that are home only to lighthouses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Leaving the Bosphorus and turning east along the shore of the Marmara Sea, we come to Moda Burnu.
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Railways

Sirkeci Terminal was opened in 1890 as the final destination terminus of the Orient Express.
In 1883, a Belgian entrepreneur, Georges Nagelmackers, began a rail service between Paris and Constantinople, using a steamship to ferry passengers from Varna to Constantinople. .In 1889, a rail line was completed going through Bucharest to Constantinople, making the whole journey via land possible.^ Johannizza., King of Wallachia and Bulgaria, had with him all his power, and he occupied the whole land; and the country, and the cities, and the castles held for him; and his Comans over-ran the land as far as Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He had for wife the daughter of the Emperor Alexius, through whom he laid claim to the land - this was the Alexius whom the Franks had driven from Constantinople, and who had put out his brother's eyes.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the land from Constantinople to Salonika was quiet and at peace, for the ways were so safe that all could come and go at their pleasure, and from the one city to the other there were full twelve long days' journey.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The route was known as the Orient Express, made even more famous by the works of Agatha Christie and Graham Greene.^ However, among these projects the work, which was performed by two Turkish architects expressed this national issue more successfully.
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[91]
.Today, the Sirkeci Terminal of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD), which was originally opened in 1890 as the terminus of the Orient Express, is the terminus of all the lines on the European side and the main connection node of the Turkish railway network with the rest of Europe.^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
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^ This resulted in two Papacies, the "Great Schism," and the states of Francia lined up on one side or another.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Currently, international connections are provided by the line running between Istanbul and Thessaloniki, Greece, and the Bosphorus Express serving daily between Sirkeci and Bucharest, Romania. Lines to Sofia, Belgrade, Budapest, and Chişinău are established over the Bosphorus Express connection to Bucharest.
.Beyond the Bosphorus, the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side serves lines running several times daily to Ankara, and less frequently to other destinations in Anatolia.^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
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^ And, notwithstanding all this, the Greeks ceased not to attack them, by this gate and by others, and held them so short that six or seven times a day the whole host was forced to run to arms.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The railway networks on the European and Asian sides are currently connected by the train ferry across the Bosphorus, which will be replaced by an underwater tunnel connection with the completion of the Marmaray project, scheduled for 2012. Marmaray (Bosphorus Rail Tunnel) will also connect the metro lines on the European and Asian parts of the city.^ Thus did the fire prevail, and win across the port, even to the densest part of the city, and to the sea on the other side, quite near to the church of St. Sophia.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Smyrna is a city currently in Turkey (Izmir) then part of the Ottoman Empire.
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^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
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.Inaugurated in 1908, the Haydarpaşa Terminal was originally opened as the terminus of the Istanbul-Konya-Baghdad and Istanbul-Damascus-Medina railways.^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
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.A railway line runs between the main train station of the European part, the Sirkeci Terminal, and the Halkalı district towards the west of the city centre, with 18 stations along its 30 km length.^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
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^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
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^ Reaching for the edge, Manuel instinctively looked towards the west of the city, observing two specks along the rails of the balcony.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

A single trip takes 48 minutes. .Another suburban line runs on the Anatolian part from the main train station, the Haydarpaşa Terminal, to Gebze at the eastern end of the city.^ The counts and barons landed and lodged themselves in the palace; and in the city round about, the main part pitched their tents.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
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^ This prevents us from attacking their main port, while the ones on the western part of the city are sealed off as well with smaller booms.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

The 44 km long line has 28 stations and the trip takes 65 minutes. .720,000 passengers use the urban rail lines on the European side of the city every day.^ In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell--September 9, 1570--20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted.
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[92]

Trams

A modern tram running in the Galata quarter of Istanbul.
Trams first entered service in Istanbul on 3 September 1869, at the Tophane – Ortaköy line.[93] In 1871 the Azapkapı – Galata; Aksaray – Yedikule; Aksaray – Topkapı; and Eminönü – Aksaray lines entered service.[93] .Other lines which entered service in the late 19th century included the Voyvoda Caddesi – Kabristan Sokağı – Tepebaşı – Taksim – Pangaltı – Şişli line; the Bayezid – Şehzadebaşı line; the Fatih – Edirnekapı – Galatasaray – Tünel line; and the Eminönü – Bahçekapı line.^ Although the oldest houses in the village were constructed in the 17th century according to their date plaques, the majority date from the late 19th century.
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[93] .Since 1939 the trams of the city are operated by the İETT.[93] On 12 August 1961, the historic red trams of Istanbul were removed from the city's European side; and on 14 November 1966, they were removed from the city's Asian side.^ And many advised that they should attack the city on another side the side where it was not so well fortified.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And some remained with their ships at anchor so near to the city that from either side they shot at one another with petraries and mangonels.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the Greeks saw this, they began, on their side, to strengthen the defences of the city which was enclosed with high walls and high towers.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[93] Towards the end of 1990, replicas of these historic red trams were put in service along the İstiklal Avenue between Taksim and Tünel, which is a single 1.6 km-long (1640 m) line.[93] On 1 November 2003, another nostalgic tram line (T3) was reopened on the Anatolian part of Istanbul between Kadıköy and Moda.[94] It has 10 stations on a 2.6 km long route.[94] The trip takes 21 minutes.[94]
A fast tram (T1) was put in service in 1992 on standard gauge track with modern cars, connecting Sirkeci with Topkapı. .The line was extended on one end from Topkapı to Zeytinburnu in March 1994, and on the other end from Sirkeci to Eminönü in April 1996. On 30 January 2005 it was extended from Eminönü to Fındıklı, crossing the Golden Horn through the Galata Bridge for the first time after 44 years.^ The first years of the Turkish Republic were a time of recuperation for the city.
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^ First there was a book, the Iliad, written approximately 2720 years ago by Homer, one of the greatest poets the world has ever known.
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^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
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A final extension to Kabataş was opened in June 2006. The line has 24 stations on a length of 14 km. Service was initially operated with 22 LRT vehicles built by ABB, now reassigned to other lines; while stations were provided with temporary high platforms. These vehicles were replaced by 55 low-floor Bombardier Flexity Swift trams in 2003. .An entire trip takes 42 minutes.^ An entire trip takes 42 minutes.

^ The trip takes 21 minutes.

^ A single trip takes 48 minutes.

The daily transport capacity is 155,000 passengers. The amount of investment totaled US$110 million. In September 2006, a second tram line (T2) was added, running west from Zeytinburnu to Bağcılar. Service on this line is operated with 14 ABB LRT cars. Stations have high platforms at the level of the car floor.

Funiculars

The modern funicular line running between Kabataş and Taksim.
Istanbul is served by two underground funicular railways, of very different ages and styles. The older of these lines is the Tünel (1875). .Inaugurated on 17 January 1875,[95] the Tünel is the second-oldest subterranean urban rail line in the world after the London Underground (1863) (arguably third in the world, if one counts Brooklyn, New York's abandoned Atlantic Avenue Tunnel) and the first subterranean urban rail line in continental Europe; though the first full subway line with multiple underground stations in continental Europe was the Line 1 of the Budapest Metro (1896).^ London; New York: 1997, pp.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ London/New York, 1998, pp.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ London/New York: 1997.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

The Tünel is 573 m (1,879.92 ft) long with an altitude difference of 60 m and no intermediate stations between Karaköy and Tünel Square.[95] It has been continuously in service since 1875.[95] Two trains run on a single rail every 3.5 minutes, and a trip takes 1.5 minutes.[95] Making 64,800 trips, totaling 37,066 kilometres a year, the Tünel carries 15,000 passengers per day.[95]
A second funicular line, the Kabataş-Taksim Funicular, entered service on 29 June 2006, connecting Kabataş and Taksim.[96] This system connects the Seabus station and the tram stop in Kabataş to the metro station at Taksim Square.[96] It is about 600 meters long and climbs approximately 60 meters in 110 seconds, carrying 9,000 passengers per day.[96]

Light rail

The Istanbul LRT is a light rail transit system consisting of 2 lines. The first line (M1) began service on 3 September 1989 between Aksaray and Kartaltepe. The line was further developed step-by-step and reached Atatürk Airport on 20 December 2002. The other line (T4) was opened in 2007 between Edirnekapı and Mescid-i Selam. There are 36 stations, including 12 underground and 3 viaduct stations, on the line's 32 km length. The lines are totally segregated from other traffic, without level crossings, and run underground for 10.4 km. Service is operated with LRT vehicles built by ABB in 1988.

Metro

Levent subway station.
.Construction works of the Istanbul Metro (M2) began in 1992 and the first completed section between Taksim and 4. Levent entered service on 16 September 2000.[97] This section of the line is 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long and has 6 stations.^ Eyll 2000 stanbul metrosunun Taksim-Levent hatt hizmete ald.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a significant indicator of Izmir's importance as a trading centre that the first Ottoman railway line opened not in Istanbul but in Izmir in 1866, linking the city to Aydin and Kasaba.Basmane Station was constructed at the railway terminal in the city.
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^ The first municipality was established in 1868, and the Kordon esplanade and quay were constructed between 1868 and 1872.
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[97] In 2000, there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily. On 30 January 2009, the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service.[98] Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line.[98][99] As of 30 January 2009, a total of 34 train sets, each with 4 cars, were being used on the M2 line.[99]
.A northern extension from 4. Levent to Maslak was opened on 30 January 2009.[100] The southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı, across the Golden Horn on a bridge and underground through the historic peninsula, has thus far been completed up to the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu, which also entered service on 30 January 2009.[100] At Yenikapı the M2 network will intersect with the extended light metro and suburban train lines, and with the Marmaray tunnel.^ It is the bridge still familiar to many people today that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the modern bridge now in use.
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^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
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^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
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At present, the M2 line has 10 stations in service on the European side of the city; while 6 new stations on the European side and 16 new stations on the Asian side are currently under construction. The trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Atatürk Oto Sanayi station in Maslak is 15.65 km (9.7 mi) long and takes 21 minutes.[101][102] .The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 18.36 km (11.4 mi) when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed;[97][98][103] not including the 936 metres long Golden Horn metro bridge,[104] the 0.6 km long Taksim-Kabataş tunnel connection with the Seabus port,[96] the 0.6 km long Yenikapı-Aksaray tunnel connection with the LRT network,[98] and the 13.6 km long Marmaray tunnel.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
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^ This bridge completed in 1875 was 480 m long and 14 m wide and rested on 24 pontoons.
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^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
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[105]
.On the Asian side, construction of the 21.66 km (13.5 mi) long M2 line from Kadıköy to Kartal continues, which will have a total of 16 stations.^ Having defeated the crusaders, Yıldırım Beyazıd had the Anatolia Fortress (Anadolu Hisarı) constructed at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus on the Asian side.
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[106] The Marmaray tunnel (Bosporus undersea railway tunnel) will connect the metro lines of the Asian and European parts of the city. According to the scheduled construction timeline, the tunnel will enter service in 2012.

Culture and contemporary life

Fine and performing arts

.Istanbul is becoming increasingly colourful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities.^ Other characters representing the colourful array of social and ethnic types in Istanbul were gradually added.
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^ It was fast losing its exotic oriental character and more closely resembling a colonial trading post in terms of its economic, social and cultural life as well as its architecture.
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While world famous pop stars fill stadiums, activities like opera, ballet and theatre continue throughout the year. .During seasonal festivals, world famous orchestras, chorale ensembles, concerts and jazz legends can be found often playing to a full house.^ When played in an orchestra or ensemble it sweeps up all the other instruments and leads them on.
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.The Istanbul International Film Festival is one of the most important film festivals in Europe,[107] while the Istanbul Biennial is another major event of fine arts.^ THE MOST PRECIOUS GIFT One factor which has made fish so important along the Bosphorus, placing it at the head of Istanbul's gastronomic culture, is the prominence of fish in dining in both the Eastern Roman and Ottoman Empires.
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^ For the people of Istanbul another important point is the freshness of the fish, and they insist on seeing it before eating.
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^ From 1950 to 1953 he studied Decorative Arts in Istanbul at the Fine Arts Academy, while launching his musical career.
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.Istanbul Modern, frequently hosts the exhibitions of renowned Turkish and foreign artists.^ The government appointed an impartial jury of Turkish and and foreign artists, as well as some architects chosen by the Public Works Ministry.
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.Pera Museum and Sakıp Sabancı Museum have hosted the exhibitions of world famous artists and are among the most important private museums in the city.^ The most famous personages of the entertainment world are here.
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^ Examples of carpets from the Seljuk and Ottoman periods right up to the present day are exhibited at the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, which has the world’s richest collection.
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^ The first 50 years of my life were the black and white years when this city was most remote from the world and at its most provincial.
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.The Doğançay Museum – Turkey’s first contemporary art museum – is dedicated almost exclusively to the work of its founder Burhan Doğançay.^ Although rakı is almost interchangeable with alcohol in Turkey, beer occupies first place in production.
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^ In 1924 Bayatli became director of the Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum, the first in Turkey built specifically for an ancient city to house finds from excavations there.
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.The Rahmi M. Koç Museum on the Golden Horn is an industrial museum that exhibits historic industrial equipment such as cars and locomotives from the 1800s and early 1900s, as well as boats, submarines, aircraft, and other similar vintage machines from past epochs.^ Mountain guns, machine guns and other equipment were mounted in some boats.
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^ Meanwhile the interior of the citadel, which preserves Alanya’s historic texture while harboring impressive examples of Ottoman architecture as well, is a virtual open air museum.
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^ Therefore to treat the Galata Bridge over the Golden Horn merely from the historic angle would be misleading.
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Istanbul Archaeology Museum, established in 1881, is one of the largest museums of its kind in the world. .The museum contains more than 1,000,000 archaeological pieces from the Mediterranean basin, the Balkans, Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia.^ After the diplomatic niceties that had developed in the Middle East, this was regarded as nearly as appalling as it has seemed more recently.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Defeat by the Turks and the loss of Asia Minor deprived Romania of more than half its territory.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Jerusalem-centric maps generally were much more schematic than I show here and so introduce much greater distortions than just a foreshortening of Asia.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Istanbul Mosaic Museum contains the late Roman and early Byzantine floor mosaics and wall ornaments of the Great Palace of Constantinople.^ And they began to assemble in a great open space that was in Constantinople, and decided that they would take up their quarters near the walls and towers they had captured.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The early retreat of their comrades didn't seem to have an impact on the crack troops as they marched forwards towards the gaping holes in the Byzantine walls.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the case with Sövalye Island, whose many summer villas share the island with the ruins of late Roman walls, cisterns and churches.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The nearby Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum displays a vast collection of items from various Islamic civilisations.^ Examples of carpets from the Seljuk and Ottoman periods right up to the present day are exhibited at the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, which has the world’s richest collection.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Sadberk Hanım Museum contains a wide variety of artifacts, dating from the earliest Anatolian civilisations to the Ottomans.[108]
Occasionally, in November, the Silahhane (Armory Hall) of Yıldız Palace hosts the Istanbul Antiques Fair, which brings together rare pieces of antiques from the Orient and Occident.[109] The multi-storey Mecidiyeköy Antikacılar Çarşısı (Mecidiyeköy Antiques Bazaar) in the Mecidiyeköy quarter of Şişli is the largest antiques market in the city, while the Çukurcuma neighbourhood of Beyoğlu has rows of antiques shops in its streets. .The Grand Bazaar, edificed between 1455–1461 by the order of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror also has numerous antiques shops, along with shops selling jewels, carpets and other items of art and artisanship.^ This grand mosaic consists of 126 images acquired in a tile-like fashion, covering one end of Saturn's rings to the other and the entire planet in between.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ During the dialogue between the Grand Vizier and the Sultan, a mystery person suddenly says : "- My Sultan, Grand Vizuer Halil does not know what he is saying.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like many other arts, the Ottomans took over the art of the carpet from the Seljuk tradition.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Historic and rare books are found in the Sahaflar Çarşısı near Beyazıt Square, and it is one of the oldest book markets in the world, and has continuously been active in the same location since the late Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods.^ In the Byzantine period there were summer palaces, and in Ottoman times it was a royal garden.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ To understand the Kangal Dog, one needs to understand the context -- historical, cultural, and physical -- in which it is found.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ First there was a book, the Iliad, written approximately 2720 years ago by Homer, one of the greatest poets the world has ever known.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Live shows and concerts are hosted at a number of locations including historical sites such as the Hagia Irene, Rumeli Fortress, Yedikule Castle, the courtyard of Topkapı Palace, and Gülhane Park; as well as the Atatürk Cultural Center, Cemal Reşit Rey Concert Hall and other open air and modern theatre halls.^ Meanwhile the interior of the citadel, which preserves Alanya’s historic texture while harboring impressive examples of Ottoman architecture as well, is a virtual open air museum.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And this showed great good sense, for if they had moved to the attack, the numbers of the enemy were such that they must have been overwhelmed and (as it were) drowned among them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A significant culture has been developed around what is known as a Turkish Bath.^ Bringing their Asian tradition with them, they merged it with the bath culture they found in Anatolia , and a new synthesis was born, the 'Turkish bath'.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The 'culture of water' and the 'bath tradition' have been known in Anatolia since time immemorial.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 17th century the shadow play technique was developed by Turkish puppeteers, and the main character known as Karagöz or Black Eye came into being.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

It was a culture of leisure during the Ottoman period, the finest example being the Çemberlitaş Hamamı (1584) in Istanbul, located on the Çemberlitaş (Column of Constantine) Square.[110]

Recreation

The Princes' Islands are located to the southeast of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara.
Traditional beach resorts had gradually disappeared due to water pollution. .Recently, however, old places have reopened in the city.^ In the 19th century, however, the city's large foreign expatriate community took to calling the old city Stamboul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The most popular places for swimming in the city are in Bakırköy, Küçükçekmece, Sarıyer and the Bosphorus. .Outside the city are the Marmara Sea's Princes' Islands, Silivri and Tuzla; as well as Kilyos and Şile on the Black Sea.^ Outside the Gulf of Fethiye is Gemiler Adasi (Island of Ships), which is within easy reach and well worth visiting.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a surface current from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, which changes course when it hits the points.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ They rode to a city called Nicomedia, which lies on a gulf of the sea, and is well two days' journey from Constantinople.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Princes' Islands (Prens Adaları) are a group of islands in the Marmara Sea, south of the quarters Kartal and Pendik. .Pine and stone-pine wooden neoclassical and art nouveau-style Ottoman era summer mansions from the 19th and early 20th centuries, horse-drawn carriages (motor vehicles are not permitted) and seafood restaurants make them a popular destination.^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The tomb room, which is under the sarcophagus stone in the crown hall on the first floor of the mausoleum, is done in a mixed style based on Seljuk Turkish and Ottoman Turkish architecture.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Today Izmir is a modern city dating largely from the 19th and 20th centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

They can be reached by ferry boats or high-speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz otobüsü) from Eminönü and Bostancı. Of the nine islands, only five are settled.
.Şile is a distant and well-known Turkish seaside resort on the Black Sea, 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Istanbul, where unspoiled white sand beaches can be found.^ Thus, an aesthetic urge to render the Mediterranean, Black, and Red Seas into a convenient "T" required that much that was already known be ignored.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winter has come with its white quilt, concealing the autumn colours in the forests of the western Black Sea forests.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ For years, the mother and daughter have been America's most well known singers singing in Turkish.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Kilyos is a small calm seaside resort not far from the northern European entrance of the Bosphorus at the Black Sea.^ THE INFLUENCE OF THE BLACK SEA For the people of Istanbul, fish should be caught in the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, and so when they buy fish they always ask where it comes from.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Outdoor sports enthusiasts will enjoy the climb to the top of the headland, where a small lighthouse guides ships from the Black Sea into the Bosphorus.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Fattening in the Black Sea, the fish take refuge in the coves and water canals of the Bosphorus to mature.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The place has good swimming possibilities and has become popular in the recent years among the inhabitants of Istanbul as a place for excursions. Kilyos offers a beach park with seafood restaurants and night clubs, being particularly active in the summer with many night parties and live concerts on the beach.

Shopping

The Grand Bazaar is one of the largest covered markets in the world.
Istanbul has numerous historic shopping centers, such as the Grand Bazaar (1461), Mahmutpaşa Bazaar (1462) and the Egyptian Bazaar (1660). .The first modern shopping mall was Galleria Ataköy (1987), which was followed by dozens of others in the later decades, such as Akmerkez (1993) which is the only mall to win both "Europe's Best" and "World's Best" awards by the ICSC; Metrocity (2003); Cevahir Mall (2005) which is the largest mall in Europe; and Kanyon Mall (2006) which won the 2006 Cityscape Architectural Review Award for its interesting design.^ We win, we keep our territories, we get the best city in the world.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Henry, and for all the Latins of the land of Roumania, to lose such a man by such a misadventure-one of the best barons and most liberal, and one of the best knights in the world!
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.İstinye Park (2007) and City's Nişantaşı (2008) are two new malls which target high-end consumers and are almost exclusively dedicated to world-famous fashion brands.^ Rumelihisari Something old , something new 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/city-walls-of-istanbul.html[/postlink] The city walls of Istanbul .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Restaurants

.Along with the traditional Turkish restaurants, many European and Far Eastern restaurants and numerous other cuisines are also thriving in the city.^ Where the condemnation is thought to have taken place may well be in error, and many of the events along the way are not in the Gospels but a matter of local tradition.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the windows of this lovely house, which has been open to the public since 1999, could be seen others of the traditional Ottoman Turkish type, of which examples are to be seen in many parts of Anatolia and the Balkans.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ So one morning, at the break of day, he issued from the city in force, and got as far as the tents, and killed many before they could get to their armour.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the city's historic winehouses (meyhane in Turkish) and pubs are located in the areas around İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu.^ The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The team from Merzifon was known as the Cabbages, for which the area was famous, while the team from Amasya was called the Okras after that city's most famous vegetable.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the middle of the men was a long table which contained vellum maps showing the area around Constantinople and the city itself in amazing detail.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The 19th century Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage in Turkish, or Cité de Péra in French) on İstiklal Avenue, which has many historic meyhanes, pubs and restaurants, was built by Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi at the former site of the Naum Theatre and was inaugurated in 1876. The famous Nevizâde Street, which has rows of historic meyhanes next to each other, is also in this area.^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Characteristic of the 19th century are small flowers on a matted ground, although the classical period carnations and pomegranates (depicted cracking open) are also still found.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Other historic pubs are found in the areas around Tünel Pasajı and the nearby Asmalımescit Sokağı. Some historic neighbourhoods around İstiklal Avenue have recently been recreated, with differing levels of success; such as Cezayir Sokağı near Galatasaray Lisesi, which became unofficially known as La Rue Française[111] and has rows of francophone pubs, cafés and restaurants playing live music.[112]
Istanbul is also famous for its historic seafood restaurants. .The most popular seafood restaurants are generally found along the shores of the Bosphorus and by the Marmara Sea shore towards the south of the city.^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And they journeyed towards a city that lies upon the sea, called Rodosto, and that was full three days' journey distant.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The land walls and their gates on the western side of the city are both of more aesthetic value and greater historic importance than the sea walls along the shores of the Marmara Sea and the Golden Horn.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

[113][114] .The largest of the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara (namely Büyükada, Heybeliada, Burgazada and Kınalıada) and Anadolu Kavağı near the northern entrance of the Bosphorus towards the Black Sea (close to Yoros Castle, which was also known as the Genoese Castle due to Genoa's possession of it in the mid-15th century) also have many historic seafood restaurants.^ Thus, an aesthetic urge to render the Mediterranean, Black, and Red Seas into a convenient "T" required that much that was already known be ignored.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ THE INFLUENCE OF THE BLACK SEA For the people of Istanbul, fish should be caught in the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, and so when they buy fish they always ask where it comes from.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Night life

İstiklal Avenue in Istanbul's cosmopolitan Beyoğlu district.
.There are many night clubs, pubs, restaurants and taverns with live music in the city.^ Greatly did many then grieve; alas I if only their grief had not been beyond remedy I So they lay that night in the city; and on the morrow they departed, and abandoned Stanimac.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The city was in many aspects a living ruin, and there was nothing nobody could do, apart from watch and look in despair on how the once marvellous buildings slowly but surely faded away, failing the test of time.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a city surrounded by sea Istanbul has many headlands, some remote and deserted with no buildings but a lighthouse, others lively and crowded.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The night clubs, restaurants and bars increase in number and move to open air spaces in the summer. The areas around Istiklal Avenue, Nişantaşı, Bebek and Kadıköy offer all sorts of cafés, restaurants, pubs and clubs as well as art galleries, theaters and cinemas. Babylon[115] and Nu Pera in Beyoğlu are popular night clubs both in the summer and in the winter.
.The most popular open air summer time seaside night clubs are found on the Bosporus, such as Sortie,[116][117] Reina[118][119] and Anjelique[120] in the Ortaköy district.^ Next comes the gate which was the most important in Ottoman times, Edirne Gate, which opened onto the main road through the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Q Jazz Bar in Ortaköy offers live jazz music in a stylish environment.
.Venues such as Istanbul Arena in Maslak and Kuruçeşme Arena[121] on the Bosporus frequently host the live concerts of famous singers and bands from all corners of the world.^ Emperor Henry, and for all the Latins of the land of Roumania, to lose such a man by such a misadventure-one of the best barons and most liberal, and one of the best knights in the world!
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And when they heard it, their joy was such as cannot be uttered, for never was greater joy in all this world.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Parkorman[122] in Maslak hosted the Isle of MTV Party in 2002 and is a popular venue for live concerts and rave parties in the summer.

Media

The first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi, was printed on 1 August 1831 in the Bâbıâli (Bâb-ı Âli, meaning The Sublime Porte) district. Bâbıâli became the main centre for print media. .Istanbul is also the printing capital of Turkey with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive.^ Now, as Istanbul , the City is simply a large modern city, the largest in Turkey, but no longer a capital, a fortress, a redoubt, or a beacon of culture or religion.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With its bright, clear sound capable of expressing all kinds of emotions, this instrument was widely used in Ottoman Turkey.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions.[83] .Major newspapers with their headquarters in Istanbul include Yurtsever, Hürriyet, Milliyet, Sabah, Radikal, Cumhuriyet, Zaman, Türkiye, Akşam, Bugün, Star, Dünya, Tercüman, Güneş, Vatan, Posta, Takvim, Vakit, Yeni Şafak, Fanatik and Turkish Daily News.^ Vakit, Son Posta ve Cumhuriyet gazetelerinde yaz ileri mdrl yapm pek ok eser vermiti.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also numerous local and national TV and radio stations located in Istanbul, such as CNBC-e, CNN Türk, MTV Türkiye, Fox Türkiye, Fox Sports Türkiye, NTV, Kanal D, ATV, Show TV, Star TV, Cine5, SKY Türk, TGRT Haber, Kanal 7, Kanal Türk, Flash TV and many others.^ It is possible to ski throughout the winter here, while many others come just to enjoy the scenery of coniferous forests, streams, waterfalls and lakes.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of those who come to ski on Mount Ilgaz stay here, and there are numerous attractive places easy of access in winter in the mountains near the city, such as Azdavay, Pinarbasi, Senpazar, Cide, Ulus, Çatalzeytin, Abana, Gökçeagaç and Inebolu.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And there were all the ships assembled, and all the transports, and all the galleys of the host, and many other ships of merchants that fared with them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the city of Istanbul, there are over a hundred FM-radio stations.^ There are so many sights and scenes waiting to be explored in Istanbul, that some aspects of the city are pushed into the background.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And no one came out from the city against them; and this was a great marvel, seeing that for every man that was in the host there were over two hundred men in the city.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[123]

Sports

Atatürk Olympic Stadium is the largest-capacity stadium in Turkey.
.During the Roman and Byzantine periods, the most important sporting events were the quadriga chariot races that were held at the Hippodrome of Constantinople, which had a capacity to accommodate more than 100,000 spectators.^ There were only 9 of them, but they were the most important statesmen of the moribund Byzantine Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Female saints and Holy Land pilgrimage during the Byzantine period," Hagiographica 5, 1998, pp.
  • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And on the other side of the straits of St. George, they held no more than the castle of Piga, while the rest of the land was in the hands of Theodore Lascaris.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[124] .Today, sports like football, basketball and volleyball are very popular in the city.^ Just like today's sports teams, they wore uniforms of different colors, the Cabbages green, the Okras red.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Karagöz also became popular elsewhere in North Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, and in cities of the Middle East like Damascus, Beirut, Aleppo, Haifa and Jerusalem.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş, which field teams in multiple sports, several other clubs have also excelled in particular team sports; such as Efes Pilsen, Fenerbahçe Ülker, Galatasaray Cafe Crown and Beşiktaş Cola Turka in basketball; or Eczacıbaşı, Vakıfbank, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray in volleyball.^ Fenerbahçe Ülker, Darüşşafaka'yı (3-1), Galatasaray Cafe Crown da Beşiktaş Cola Turka'yı (3-0) elemişlerdi.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ There are pleasant cafés in the beautiful tree-filled park, and along the west side are Istanbul Sailing Club, Fenerbahçe Sports Club and Galatasaray Sports Club.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Intel, Microsoft, Vestel ve Crea; Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe ve Galatasaray taraftarlarına özel Taraftar PC projesi için bir araya geldi.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

The Atatürk Olympic Stadium, the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, is a 5-star UEFA stadium and a first-class venue for track and field; having reached the highest required standards set by the International Olympic Committee and sports federations such as the IAAF, FIFA and UEFA. The stadium hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final. .The Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium, which is also a 5-star UEFA stadium, hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final that went down to history as the last Final of the UEFA Cup football tournament.^ The last words came as the final blow for Manuel, who let his head drop slowly on the table, cupping his hands over his aged face.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

The UEFA Cup will be replaced by the UEFA Europa League starting from the 2009-2010 season.[125][126]
The Sinan Erdem Dome, the largest multi-purpose indoor arena in Turkey, will host the Final of the 2010 FIBA World Basketball Championship, and will also be the venue for the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships and the 2012 FINA Short Course World Championships. The Abdi İpekçi Arena hosted the Final of EuroBasket 2001, and was also the venue for the 1992 Euroleague Final Four.
.Istanbul hosts several annual motorsports events, such as the Formula One Turkish Grand Prix, the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey, the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the GP2 and the Le Mans Series 1,000 km (621 mi) races at the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit.^ Emperor Henry, and for all the Latins of the land of Roumania, to lose such a man by such a misadventure-one of the best barons and most liberal, and one of the best knights in the world!
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Every one looked to his antis, such as he should use, for well each man knew that full soon he would have need of them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course those who only know Turkey from my books know it through Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.From time to time Istanbul also hosts the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing on the Bosphorus.^ In the time of the Eastern Roman Empire the centers of fishing in Istanbul were the villages of the Bosphorus, the Islands, Kadiköy, Tuzla and the shores of Yedikule.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Several annual sailing and yacht races take place on the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara.^ Fattening in the Black Sea, the fish take refuge in the coves and water canals of the Bosphorus to mature.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Leaving the Bosphorus and turning east along the shore of the Marmara Sea, we come to Moda Burnu.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The Golden Horn is where the rowing races take place.^ "There is not much our small fleet can do because of the boom placed around the Golden Horn.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Major clubs like Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş, and major universities such as the Bosphorus University have rowing teams.^ There are pleasant cafés in the beautiful tree-filled park, and along the west side are Istanbul Sailing Club, Fenerbahçe Sports Club and Galatasaray Sports Club.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Intel, Microsoft, Vestel ve Crea; Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe ve Galatasaray taraftarlarına özel Taraftar PC projesi için bir araya geldi.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Beşiktaş-Kartal Yuvası, Fenerbahçe-Fenerium ve Galatasaray-Store kulüp mağazalarında da Taraftar PC ürünlerinin satışı başlayacak.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Air racing is new to the city. .On 29 July 2006, Istanbul hosted the 5th leg of the spectacular Red Bull Air Race World Series, as well as the 4th leg on 2 June 2007, in both cases above the Golden Horn.^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Personal sports like golf, horse riding and tennis are gaining popularity as the city hosts international tournaments such as the WTA Istanbul Cup.^ Karagöz also became popular elsewhere in North Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, and in cities of the Middle East like Damascus, Beirut, Aleppo, Haifa and Jerusalem.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

For aerobics and bodybuilding, numerous fitness clubs are available. .Paintball is a sport which has recently gained popularity and is practiced by two large clubs in the proximity of Istanbul.^ There are pleasant cafés in the beautiful tree-filled park, and along the west side are Istanbul Sailing Club, Fenerbahçe Sports Club and Galatasaray Sports Club.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ After taking the city, Mehmed the Conqueror allocated a special field for the sport in Istanbul with a lodge or club for the archers.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Martial arts and other Eastern disciplines and practices such as Aikido and Yoga can be exercised in several centers across the city.^ In this way several monasteries, such as the Studion Monastery, and extensive gardens and orchards were enclosed in the city boundary.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul also hosts the annual MTB races in the nearby Belgrad Forest and Büyükada Island. Two of the most prominent cycling teams of Turkey, namely the Scott/Marintek MTB Team and the Kron/Sektor Bikes/Efor Bisiklet MTB Team, are from Istanbul.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

The following is a list of Istanbul's twin towns and sister cities:[127][128]
Continent Country flag City Country Start
Europe Greece Athens Greece
Azerbaijan Baku Azerbaijan
Germany Berlin[129] Germany
Spain Barcelona[130] Spain
Hungary Budapest Hungary
Germany Cologne Germany
Romania Bucharest Romania
Constanţa Romania
Albania Durrës Albania
Italy Florence Italy
Russia Grozny[131] Russia
United Kingdom London United Kingdom
Ukraine Odessa Ukraine
Bulgaria Plovdiv Bulgaria
Czech Republic Prague Czech Republic
Netherlands Rotterdam Netherlands
Russia Saint Petersburg[132] Russia 1990
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Macedonia Skopje[133] Republic of Macedonia
Sweden Stockholm Sweden
France Strasbourg France
Italy Venice Italy
Poland Warsaw[134] Poland 1991
Asia Kazakhstan Almaty Kazakhstan
Jordan Amman Jordan
Lebanon Beirut Lebanon
South Korea Busan South Korea
Thailand Bangkok Thailand
Syria Damascus Syria
United Arab Emirates Dubai United Arab Emirates
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam
Iran Isfahan Iran
Indonesia Jakarta Indonesia
Saudi Arabia Jeddah Saudi Arabia
Malaysia Johor Bahru Malaysia
Afghanistan Kabul Afghanistan
Russia Kazan Russia
Pakistan Lahore Pakistan
Turkmenistan Mary Turkmenistan
Kyrgyzstan Osh Kyrgyzstan
Uzbekistan Samarqand Uzbekistan
People's Republic of China Shanghai China
Japan Shimonoseki Japan
Indonesia Surabaya Indonesia
Iran Tabriz Iran
People's Republic of China Xi'an China
Americas Argentina Buenos Aires Argentina
Venezuela Caracas Venezuela
Cuba Havana Cuba
United States Houston USA
Mexico Mexico City Mexico
Brazil Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Canada Toronto Canada
Africa Egypt Cairo Egypt
Algeria Constantine Algeria
Sudan Khartoum Sudan
Morocco Rabat Morocco

See also

References

Notes

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  2. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Turkey_pop_2009; see Help:Cite error.
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    John Murray. p. 28.
     
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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Istanbul is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.
Sultan Ahmet Mosque at dusk
Sultan Ahmet Mosque at dusk
.Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is Turkey's most populous city, and its cultural and financial center.^ Most of the city’s population are ethnic Turks .

^ Istanbul is also Turkey's largest industrial center.

^ Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with a population that is over nine million.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

.Located on both sides of the Bosphorus, the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.^ Located on both sides of the Bosphorus , the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The bridge on the south, closer to the Marmara Sea, is called the "Bosphorus Bridge".
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Turkey is in Asia ("Asia Minor"), but Istanbul itself straddles the entrance to the Black Sea -- the divisor between Europe and Asia.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Istanbul's population is estimated to be between 12 and 19 million people, making it also the largest in Europe and one of the largest cities in the world.^ Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with a population that is over nine million.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul ) is the largest city in Turkey and fifth largest city proper in the world with a population of 12.6 million.

^ Istanbul City Tour Bosphorus Cruise & Egyptian Bazaar Istanbul Two Continents Tour Imperial Istanbul See all experiences Other destinations in Europe .

.Istanbul is one of three European Capitals of Culture in 2010 [1].^ Istanbul, one of the three European capitals of culture for 2010 .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The city was chosen as joint European Capital of Culture for 2010.
  • Turkey Istanbul Gay Travel Guide 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.turkeygay.net [Source type: General]
  • Istanbul - Archiplanet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC data.greatbuildings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Patras this year, the next European Capitals of Culture will be Luxembourg and Sibiu (Romania) in 2007, Liverpool and Stavanger (Norway) in 2008, and Linz and Vilnius in 2009.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]


.Sultanahmet-Old City
Essentially Constantinople of Roman, Byzantine, and much of the Ottoman period, this is where most of the famous historical sights of Istanbul are located.^ Identify this most Famous Ottoman Sultan .
  • Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia | Learn Ottoman Turkish History | Pictures | Sound files | Voice recordings 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.learningpracticalturkish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramada Istanbul Old City Hotel istanbul .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Sultanahmet-Old City Essentially Constantinople of Roman, Byzantine, and much of the Ottoman period, this is where most of the famous historical sights of Istanbul [¤] are located.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Galata
Housing much of the nightlife venues of the city, this district which includes Beyoğlu, Istiklal Street, and Taksim Square has also its own share of sights and accommodation.^ Galata Housing much of the nightlife venues of the city, this district which includes Beyoğlu , Istiklal Street, and Taksim Square has also its own share of sights and accommodation.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul Hop On Hop Off Tours See the Archaeological Museum, Galata Tower, Blue Mosque, Taksim Square plus much more on this fantastic tour of Istanbul.
  • Istanbul trip planner, Istanbul travel guide and travel planner | Viakeo.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC viakeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet visitors should be mindful of standard charges, such as 15 lira between Sultanahmet and Taksim Square, or 35 lira for an airport run from the center of the city.
  • Istanbul Celebrates Culture - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.New City
Main business district of the city, also home to many modern shopping malls and districts such as Elmadağ, Nişantaşı, and Etiler.^ Park (2007) and City's Nişantaşı (2008) are two new malls which target high-end consumers and are almost exclusively dedicated to world-famous fashion brands.

^ Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak .

^ Swissôtel The Bosphorus is situated in the heart of Istanbul, near the main business and shopping districts.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

.Bosphorus
European bank of Bosphorus that is dotted by numerous palaces, parks, water-front mansions, and bohemian neighborhoods.^ Bosphorus European bank of Bosphorus that is dotted by numerous palaces , parks, water-front mansions, and bohemian neighborhoods.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Nisantasi Guest recommendation: 93 % - 14 opinions On the banks of the Bosphorus straits - Wooded hilltop setting - Elegant luxury - Numerous bars and ...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alvise Gritti was one of the many western Europeans who made his fortune on the banks of the Bosphorus.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Golden Horn
Banks of Golden Horn, the estuary that separates European Side into distinctive districts.^ Golden Horn Banks of Golden Horn, the estuary that separates European Side [¤] into distinctive districts.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In 413 it reached its actual (1908) size on the right bank of the Golden Horn, under the city prefect, Anthemius .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantinople 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The narrow Golden Horn separates the old city of Stamboul to the south from the “new” city of Beyoğlu to the north; the broader Bosporus divides European Istanbul from the city’s districts on the Asian shore—Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadiköy (ancient Chalcedon).
  • Istanbul (Turkey) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eyüp with an Ottoman ambience is located here.^ Eyüp with an Ottoman ambience is located here.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Princes’ Islands
An archipelago of nine car-free islands—some of them small, some of them big—with splendid wooden mansions, verdant pine forests and nice views-both on the islands themselves, and also on the way there.^ The bishops had unanimously condemned these, but since there were yet some who defended them, he had thought it good that the bishops should be given the chance to express their views as a council.
  • A History of the General Councils - AD 325 through AD 1870 - Mgr. Philip Hughes 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lady named Selma and some blacks" and the President's ear joke are about the way that Big Current Events sound to a first grader in 1964.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Nor were they few in number, for there were of them some fifteen thousand, small 52 and great; and afterwards it proved to be of advantage to the pilgrims that these should have crossed over to them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Asian Side
Eastern half of Istanbul, with lovely neighborhoods at the Marmara and Bosphorus coasts.^ Asian Side [¤] Eastern half of Istanbul [¤] , with lovely neighborhoods at the Marmara and Bosphorus coasts.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Located on either side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul is widely considered to be the gateway to both Europe and Asia – the nearest European city to Asia, and the nearest Asian city to Europe.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world which is situated on two continents.
  • Turkey Istanbul Gay Travel Guide 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.turkeygay.net [Source type: General]

.Western Suburbs
Western chunk of the European Side.^ Western Suburbs Western chunk of the European Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Understand

History

.Expanding the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium by the order of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the imperial city of Constantinople was for nearly a thousand years the last remaining outpost of the Roman (later termed Eastern Roman or Byzantine) Empire.^ Later Constantine the Great chose it as his new capital, renaming it Constantinople, and it remained the capital of the eastern part of the Roman empire.

^ It was there that the Emperor Constantine was last seen.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI (Palaeologus) , was killed in battle.
  • Istanbul (Turkey) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th, 1453, an event often used to mark the end of the Middle Ages.^ When Constantinople ultimately fell on May 29, 1453, to the Ottoman rule Mehmed II (r.
  • Art/Museums: Byzantium, Faith and Power (1261-1557) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.thecityreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sultan Mehmed II (1449-1481).
  • The Conquest of Constantiniple—the Queen of Cities—by the Muslim Turks in 1453 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th, 1453, an event often used to mark the end of the Middle Ages.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.It was the nerve center for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically.^ It was the nerve center for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Russia's Balkan Wars Russia actively campaigned against the Ottoman Empire from 1772 to 1812.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The motor that drove the Ottoman Empire was military conquest, and when the sultan’s armies reached their geographical and technological limits, decline set in for good.
  • History of Istanbul - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid 1500s, Istanbul, with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial center.^ By the mid 1500s, Istanbul [¤] , with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial center.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul is becoming increasingly colourful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities.

^ Istanbul's population is estimated to be between 12 and 19 million people, making it also one of the largest cities in Europe and Western Asia .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Ottoman rule continued until it was defeated in WWI and Istanbul was occupied by the allies.^ Ottoman rule continued until it was defeated in WWI and Istanbul was occupied by the allies.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.When the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 after the War of Independence, Kemal Atatürk moved its capital to the city of Ankara.^ When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara .

^ When the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 after the War of Independence, Kemal Atatürk moved its capital to the city of Ankara [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1923, following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the capital was moved to Ankara.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Istanbul has continued to expand dramatically; today its population is approximately 16 million and increases at an estimated 700,000 immigrants per year.^ However, Istanbul has continued to expand dramatically; today its population is approximately 16 million and increases at an estimated 700,000 immigrants per year.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In the period following World War II, the size and population of Istanbul increased dramatically as vast numbers of rural residents moved to the city in search of employment.
  • Istanbul (Turkey) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, population growth, traffic, preventing disorganized housing, restoration of historic buildings and planning a 3rd motorway transition to the Bosphorus continue to be issues.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industry has expanded even as tourism has grown.^ Industry has expanded even as tourism has grown.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.It continues to be a city that creates its own history at the intersection where both continents meet.^ It continues to be a city that creates its own history at the intersection where both continents meet.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In his latest book, Istanbul, Memories and the City, he relates his own 50 years as it coincides with the history of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And, precisely, the Labarum of Constantine glows in our time in both distinguished cities in the North and the South of the Continent.
  • From Constantine the Great and Christopher Columbus: behold, NEW BYZANTIUM 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.new-byzantium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Orientation

.Istanbul is divided in three by the north-south Bosphorus Strait (Istanbul Bogazi), the dividing line between Europe and Asia, the estuary of the Golden Horn (Haliç) bisecting the western part and the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) forming a boundary to the south.^ The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east.

^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the Bosphorus on the east.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most sights are concentrated in the old city on the peninsula of Sultanahmet, to the west of the Bosphorus between the Horn and the Sea.^ Most sights are concentrated in the old city on the peninsula of Sultanahmet [¤] , to the west of the Bosphorus between the Horn and the Sea.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The European side of the city is the historical peninsula, also known as the “Golden Horn” because of the colour of the water at sunset.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ For Constantinople was surrounded by the most majestic city walls in Europe, built between 412 and 422 AD. Moated, battlemented, interspersed by 192 towers, and of treble thickness throughout, the walls marched a distance of six kilometres from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Marmara, rising and descending with the inequalities of the ground.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Across the Horn to the north are Galata, Beyoğlu and Taksim, the heart of modern Istanbul, while Kadıköy is the major district on the comparatively less-visited Anatolian side of the city.^ Suadiye district is located in the Anatolian side of Istanbul .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Across the Horn to the north are Galata , Beyoğlu and Taksim , the heart of modern Istanbul, while Üsküdar is the major district on the comparatively less-visited Anatolian Side [¤] of the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The European side of the city is the historical peninsula, also known as the “Golden Horn” because of the colour of the water at sunset.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

.The Black Sea forms the northern boundary of Istanbul.^ The Black Sea forms the northern boundary of Istanbul.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude, it has a "transitional climate", midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest.

^ Istanbul [¤] is divided in three by the north-south Bosphorus Strait (Istanbul Bogazi), the dividing line between Europe and Asia, the estuary of the Golden Horn ( Haliç ) bisecting the western part and the Sea of Marmara ( Marmara Denizi ) forming a boundary to the south.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Daily highs (°C) 7 8 10 15 20 25 27 27 24 19 13 10
Nightly lows (°C) 2 2 4 8 12 16 18 18 16 12 8 5
It can be cloudy, rainy, or even snowy in Istanbul
It can be cloudy, rainy, or even snowy in Istanbul
.Forget the stereotypical Istanbul image of a city of 1001 Nights situated in the desert amidst date palms.^ Forget the stereotypical Istanbul [¤] image of a city of 1001 Nights situated in the desert amidst date palms.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Atatürk Caddesi, an avenue fringed with palm trees and date palms, is the best venue for acquainting yourself with the city’s exotic, modern face.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Riva Hotel is situated in the heart of Taksim just off Taksim square and near to Istiklal Street and all the major points of interest in Istanbul City .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.It lies on the same latitude as New York City to which it bears many similarities in climate and vegetation, as they both do not enjoy warm sea currents such as the Gulf Stream unlike the Mediterranean cities of Naples and Barcelona which also lie on the same latitude and are therefore much warmer and exotic in climate and vegetation than is normal for this latitude and for the very northerly Western Europe as well.^ [NOTE: Despite the general belief worldwide that the word, Istanbul, is Turkish, the reader would be well informed to know that in fact the word is Greek Similar to the custom of residents of San Francisco and of New York who refer to their large urban areas as "the City," the Byzantines did exactly the same.
  • From Constantine the Great and Christopher Columbus: behold, NEW BYZANTIUM 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.new-byzantium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was both a natural fortress and a matchless deep-water port, enjoying easy access by sea to Africa, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And again unlike the stereotype it snows in this city, almost every winter - and a lot occasionally, although the standart precipitation is rain and sleet.^ Despite its fairly southerly latitude (which is about the same as Naples or Barcelona ), it snows in this city - a lot occasionally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Hilltop fortresses watch over almost every city and border crossing in Anatolia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Summer is generally hot as expected averaging around 27ºC during the day and 18ºC at night.^ Summers are as hot as expected.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Then they issued from their quarters, and thought to find a sorer battle than the day before, for no word had come to them that the emperor had fled during the night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was traditional to consume fruit, lemonade and various fruit juices and sherbets in the bath, where hot water flowed from the taps night and day and the interiors were fashionably sheathed in marble.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.High relative humidity levels and the ‘concrete-island effect’ only make things worse.^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But things were only to get worse for Constantinople as the Saracens then took to Egypt under the commander Amru.

.Expect temperatures of up to 35° C for the hottest days of the year.^ Expect temperatures of up to 40° C for the hottest days of the year.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Summer is also the driest season, but it does rain, albeit not a lot, as showers which tend to last for 15-30 minutes, and the sun usually reappears again on the same day.^ Summer is by far the driest season, although there is no real summer drought such as occurs further west, and so the climate cannot be considered truly Mediterranean.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 15-Aug-10 to 30-Sep-10: Early booking offer (up to 21 days before arrival).
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if it rains, you only need to wait 10 minutes for the sun to reappear again.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Winter is cold and wet averaging 2ºC at night and 7ºC during the day, and although rarely below freezing during the day, high relative humidity levels and the wind chill makes it feel bitterly cold and very unpleasant.^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temperate-Continental The city has hot and humid summers with cold, rainy and sometimes snowy winters.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Tuesday night a number of attacks on Armenians in their lodging-places were made and from 70 to 80 were thus killed in cold blood.
  • Politics and Massacre at Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Snowfall which occurs almost annually is common between the months of December and March, with an annual total snow cover of almost three weeks, but average winter snowfall often varies considerably from year to year, and snow cover usually remains only for a few days after each snowfall, even if it snows a lot.^ A traveler happening to meet an official on the road was turned back and imprisoned for a week on no charge whatever, and released only on the payment of three Turkish pounds.
  • Politics and Massacre at Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This type of building was erected by the Ottoman Turks to serve as a covered market, and there are only three left in Greece now, in Thessaloniki,in Ioannina and in Serres.
  • Ottoman Architecture [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ At a time when the average lifespan was about 45 years, Sinan was appointed to the post of Royal Architect when he was 48 (fortunately he lived to almost 100).
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Late spring from second half of May to the first half of June and early autumn from the second half of September to the first half October are very pleasant and therefore the best times to visit the city, as it is neither cold and nor hot, and still sunny, though the nights can be chilly and rainfall is common.^ This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Springs (April-May) and autumns (late September-early November) are the most pleasant times to be in this city, as it’s neither too cold nor too hot.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Temperate-Continental The city has hot and humid summers with cold, rainy and sometimes snowy winters.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For visitors an unbrella is essential during spring, autumn and winter, and during the summer to avoid the sun and occasionally the rain. .However, it’s not such a big problem, since streets of Istanbul are suddenly filled by umbrella sellers as soon as it starts raining.^ However, it’s not such a big problem, since streets of Istanbul [¤] are suddenly filled by umbrella sellers as soon as it starts raining.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ While homosexual priests as such may not be the problem, conservatives sometimes think it is, since much of the abuse really isn't of children , but of teenage boys.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the way of all such projects, however, the terms of the discussion began to expand almost as soon as I set to work.
  • The Urban Image of Late Antique Constantinople - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the umbrellas they provide are a little shoddy, going rate is only TL 5 –about US$ 3- per umbrella (though you can find much better umbrellas for that price at shops if you look around a bit).^ Although the umbrellas they provide are a little shoddy, going rate is only YTL 5 –about US$ 3- per umbrella (though you can find much better umbrellas for that price at shops if you look around a bit).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And be it known to you that he might have done much better.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We all removed our shoes and put them in little plastic grocery bags that we carried with us (in smaller mosques you can just leave them outside) and it was suggested to the women that they cover their heads with scarves, but few did.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Light clothing is recommended during summer and a light jacket and/or light sweater if the summer evenings do become chilly, warm clothing is essential during winter and a mixture of the two during spring and autumn.^ Thunderstorms , which are not common, usually occur in late spring, summer and early autumn, with an annual total of 22 days, and are particularly rare during the rest of the year and almost unheard of in winter.

^ However fog cover during the whole day is rare, and it usually occurs in winter, spring and autumn.

^ Snowfall is quite common, snowing for a week or two during the winter season, but it can be heavy once it snows.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also take note that due to its huge size, topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates.^ Due to its size, topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates .

^ Also take note that being a huge city, different parts of Istanbul [¤] may experience different weather conditions at the same time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Others may take unnecessarily long routes to increase the amount due (although sometimes alternate routes are also taken to avoid Istanbul [¤] traffic, which can be very bad).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.That is why different parts of Istanbul can experience different weather conditions at the same time.^ Also take note that being a huge city, different parts of Istanbul [¤] may experience different weather conditions at the same time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The army gathered by Murad was culturally diverse and colourful at the same time, each group of soldiers differing from the other.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, at the same moment, it can be heavily raining in Sarıyer in the north, mildly raining in Levent (northern terminus of metro line), while Taksim, the southern terminus of metro line, is having a perfectly sunny day.^ In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, at the same moment, it can be heavily raining in Sarıyer in the north, mildly raining in Levent (northern terminus of metro line), while Taksim , the southern terminus of metro line, is having a perfectly sunny day.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Duty Free area, inside Ataturk Airport
Duty Free area, inside Ataturk Airport
.Planes arrive at Istanbul Atatürk Airport [2] (IST), 20 km west of the city centre.^ Planes arrive at Istanbul [¤] Atatürk Airport [1] ( IST ), 20 km west of the city centre.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Arena Hotel is located in Sultanahmet in Istanbul approximately 20 km from Ataturk International Airport and central to the most famous traveller district in the old city Arena Hotel is owned by a woman who was born in the stone house and she has created a home for tourists that provides examples of fascinating past Istanbul living .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul has two international airports: The larger is Ataturk International, in Yeşilköy, 24 kilometers from the city center which used to be at the edge of the European part but is now inside the city, the more modern is the airport Sabiha Gökçen Airport, 20 kilometers east of the Asiatic side and 45 kilometers east of the European city centre.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the airport, there are various options for getting into Istanbul: you can take a taxi (about 30 TL), the express bus service run by the local airport service called "Havas" [3] which departs half-hourly and costs about 10 TL to Taksim, the IETT bus (96T) costing 2.5 TL
.By Metro to city center - 3 lira, 45 minutes: When you get outside the baggage claim its about a 10 minute walk in the airport to the metro line.^ Grand Gulsoy Hotel is located in Beyazit near Beyazit Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, the Grand Bazaar, the main bus terminal, the city tram line and is just 10 km from Ataturk International Airport .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul Ataturk Airport is the major organization of congresses and exhibitions and the CNR Expo Center Istanbul Expo Center in walking distance WOW Airport Hotel is inviting you to a privileged world .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Yeilrmak'n tamas sonucu 45 bin dekar tarm alan sular altnda kald, 543 ev boaltld,; zarar 10 milyon lira.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Just follow the signs to the metro.
.You need to by a jeton (token) for 1.50 lira.^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the Public Transport system, you will need to use a token.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Just hand the cashier 1.50 lira and he'll give you a token.^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ When you turn your back to Black Sea on the other hand, you’ll have a distant view of business district of the city, full of skyscrapers.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ YTL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for YTL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.They don't accept credit card or foreign currency here.^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In the beginning things were difficult, but because I have insisted on it readers have accepted me, even if they sometimes don't understand.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.This will get you on the red metro line (towards Aksaray).^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The tram is also connected to the southern metro line (for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport) at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you intend to head west (towards Europe ) by hitchhiking , take public bus HT48 ( Yenibosna Metro-Mimarsinan ) which departs from the bus stops located next to the ‘Yenibosna’ station of southern metro line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.From this line, if you are going to Sultanahmet, you can transfer at Zeytinburnu and buy another jeton (1.50 lira).^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Note that the jeton token here is different than the first one.^ The 7th Station is actually the first one in the Christian rather than the Moselm Quarter of the City.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The shopkeeper suggested that one of my ten million lire notes was counterfeit and I had to give him a different one -- I showed the guide and he said it was legitimate.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There the main entrances were at the semi-circular extremity; here this was impossible, and the main entrances (if there was more than one) were on the western side.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. 3 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Zeytinburnu, take the blue tram line T1, towards Kabataş which passes by: Sultanahmet, Eminönu and Tophane.^ Trams first entered service in Istanbul on September 3, 1869, at the Tophane – Ortaköy line.

^ In September 2006, a second tram line (T2) was added, running west from Zeytinburnu to Bağcılar .

.The trip from the airport to Sultanahmet takes about 45 min.^ From the airport, there are various options for getting into Istanbul: you can take a Taxi (about 30 YTL), the express bus service run by the local airport service called "Havas" [2] which departs half-hourly and costs about 10 YTL to Taksim , the IETT bus (96T) costing 2.5 YTL or by Metro to Aksaray and a tram on to Kabataş, which also passes through Sultanahmet [¤] , Eminönu and Tophane, for 1.4-2.8 YTL. The trip from the airport to Sultanahmet takes about 45 min.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Hali Hotel is located in Sultanahmet about 17 km from Ataturk International Airport and down a street just off Divan Yolu, the Way of Kings Hali Hotel can be reached by taxi taking the coast road and turning off into Sultanahmet .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ A Havas bus connects this airport with Taksim in the city center for 10 YTL and takes about an hour.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Other Notes: Note that people are working on commission at the airport trying to make you use special shuttle buses for very high fees (30+ TL), so for people who wish to travel more economically the Metro/tram-combination is easy and fairly quick, and offers very good value.^ Note that people are working on commission at the airport trying to make you use special shuttle buses for very high fees (30+ YTL per person), so for people who wish to travel more economically the Metro/tram-combination is easy and fairly quick, and offers very good value.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Turks who have lived in Istanbul for over 30 or more years can still recollect how areas such as large parts of Maltepe, Kartal, Pendik, and others were green fields when they were young.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will find Ottoman and other antique metal ware - copper bowls, jugs, pots and the like - once used in hammams and kitchens.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Travel by metro/tram cost 1 token per trip which is equal to 1.5 TL. No matter how long you travel, it cost 1 token per trip.^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Mike Levy adds:          You can now also hear Token Back to Brooklyn on Long Tall Weekend , TMBG's first MP3 release.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ And he answered them: " You see how matters stand with us.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Visa: Depending on nationality, foreigners arriving in Istanbul may need to purchase tourist visas (USA and some EU citizens, depending on exact nationality, do).^ Depending on nationality, foreigners arriving in Istanbul [¤] may need to purchase tourist visas ( USA and some EU citizens, depending on exact nationality, do).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ On some CD players, you may need to press "pause" before rewinding, and many CD players do not recognize this track at all.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: Gene