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Isuzu Piazza
First generation Isuzu Piazza
Manufacturer Isuzu Motors
Production 1981–1992
Assembly Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
Class Sport compact
Body style(s) 3-door hatchback
2-door station wagon
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro

The Isuzu Piazza (also known as the Isuzu Impulse in the United States and the Holden Piazza in Australia) is a small sporty 3-door liftback coupé that was manufactured by Isuzu from 1981 to 1992 in two generations. In Australia it was sold by Holden, the local division of Isuzu's parent company, General Motors (GM).

The first generation Impulse was a rear-wheel drive car, and in the United Kingdom it was the first widely available Isuzu.

The second generation was available as front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. It was the basis for the Gemini Coupe, or Geo Storm as it was known in the U.S. market.

1980–1990

First generation
Isuzu Impulse (North America)
Also called Holden Piazza
Isuzu Impulse (North America)
Production 1980-1990
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 2.3L 110 hp I4
2.0L 140 hp I4
Wheelbase 2,441 mm (96.1 in)
Length 4,384 mm (172.6 in)
Width Base: 1,656 mm (65.2 in)
1,669 mm (65.7 in)
Height 1,306 mm (51.4 in)
Related Isuzu Gemini

In 1978, Isuzu commissioned Giorgetto Giugiaro to design a new sporty car to replace the 117 Coupe (also a Giugiaro design).[1] They delivered several T Series Geminis to the Italdesign studio in Italy and allowed Giugiaro free rein over the design. The result of this effort was the wedge-shaped three-door hatchback called the Asso di Fiori ("Ace of Clubs") prototype and show car, that was shown at the 1979 Tokyo Motor Show to rave reviews. Giugiaro referred to the design as his fifth "Copernican revolution", integrating the design innovations of many different previous designs into one, mass producible, vehicle.[2] Within 48 hours of its unveiling at the Tokyo Motor Show, Isuzu fast tracked the vehicle into production with minimal changes to the design.[3][4]

The first Piazza rolled off the production line in September of 1980[5] in Fujisawa, Japan, available with either 120 hp (89 kW), 120 lb·ft (163 N·m) 2.0 L SOHC I4 engine or a 135 hp (101 kW), 123 lb·ft (167 N·m) 2.0 L DOHC I4 engine. Five-speed manual and 4-speed automatic transmissions were available, and all models were rear-wheel drive. For the 1985 model year, a 180 hp (134 kW), 185 lb·ft (251 N·m) turbocharged SOHC I4 engine was introduced, and the DOHC naturally aspirated engine was phased out in years that followed. Piazzas were available in a multitude of trim levels including Bella, XN, XJ, XE, XG, Nero, and others. There were three different suspension tuning levels, standard, Irmscher, and Lotus.[6] Production continued through 1990[7].

For the U.S. market, this vehicle was introduced as the Impulse in 1983. For the 1983 and 1984 model years, only one engine was available, the 2.0 L SOHC I4 engine, rated at 90 hp (67 kW), 108 lb·ft (146 N·m). A turbocharged model was introduced in 1985, with a 2.0 L SOHC I4 engine rated at 140 hp (104 kW) and 166 lb·ft (225 N·m). The 1988 model year saw several changes. Mild exterior and interior changes were made to the appearance of the vehicle (a larger rear spoiler, fixed headlights without pop up covers, etc.). The 2.0 L non-turbo engine was replaced with a 2.3 L SOHC I4 engine, rated at 110 hp (82 kW), 127 ft·lbf (this engine was offered only in the U.S. market). All Impulses received a Lotus-tuned suspension beginning in the 1988 model year, which consisted of redesigned sway bars, stiffer dampers, and a change in previous spring rates.[8]

In the U.S. market, the Impulse was marketed as "everything standard", meaning that all Impulses came with all available equipment for the vehicle's model year, and only two trim levels offered: non-turbo and Turbo. There were, however, some special edition models, most notably the RS model of the 1987 model year, available only in white body color with pewter color trim, and featuring the stiffest suspension available on any Impulse, very close to the Irmscher suspension sold only in Japan. For the 1989 model year, a "Special Edition" non-turbo model was offered, which was equipped with the Turbo model wheels and interior trim.

The vehicle was sold as the Piazza in Europe and Australia, though introduced into these markets in 1985 or later.

In the UK the Piazza was sold in only 1 trim level & only Turbo form, with a 147bhp 2.0 Turbocharged engine (4ZC1-T). The Piazza had a shaky start in the UK with the first importer Isuzu GB, based in Maidstone, Kent going out of business in 1986, and London car dealer Alan Day bought the remaining stock of Isuzu Piazza's at a bargain price. These cars were sold by Alan Day at significantly reduced price, the main reason Isuzu GB went out of business was due to high unit price. In 1987 International Motors Group of West Bromwich (IM Group) were awarded the official Isuzu Franchise for the UK. (They also at the time represented Subaru & Hyundai in the UK). IM Group,(Isuzu (UK) Ltd) still marketed the Piazza in single trim/engine form, but they only sold the updated 'Lotus' Piazza. The earlier cars sold by Day became known as 'pre-lotus' cars, the suspension & handling of these pre-lotus cars was derided by UK Press as poor, especially the live axle arrangement at the rear, which by late 80's was seen to be antiquated. The updated 'Handling by Lotus' car was available from 1987 and the handling, although keeping the live axle arrangement was transfomed by Lotus in the UK after significant development work, involving modified suspension layouts, larger brakes, specially produced dampers & Goodyear tyres. The 'Handling by Lotus' cars had updated Interior & Exterior equipment. The exterior having a redesigned rear, with a large 'hoop' spoiler, new rear lamps, new rear badging with 'Handling by Lotus' badges & removal of the rubber side bumper strakes for cleaner, more modern look. The updated interior trim was mainly 'tweed' check fabric, an updated centre console, but the loss of Air Conditioning to keep the price down for the UK market. Isuzu (UK) Ltd, the West Bromwich based importer sold the Lotus Piazza from 1987 to 1989, before concentrating on the 4WD Isuzu Trooper. They never sold the second generation Piazza in the UK.

In Australia, the Piazza was introduced very late (April 1986), and offered only in Turbo form.[9]

Performance of the Turbo model was comparable to the Mitsubishi Starion or Dodge Conquest, as demonstrated by the fact that the acceleration and handling numbers reported by the auto enthusiast magazines were within 0.1–0.2 seconds between the vehicles.[10]

In the U.S., the Impulse was replaced by the second generation Impulse after the end of the 1989 model year. However, in Japan, the first generation Piazza continued production and was available through the 1991 model year.

1990–1992 (1990–1991 & 1993 in Canada)

Second generation
Isuzu Piazza hatchback
Also called Isuzu Piazza
Asüna Sunfire (Canada)
Isuzu Impulse (North America)
Production 1990-1993
Layout Front engine, front-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 1.6L 130 hp I4
1.8L 140 hp I4
1.6L 160 hp I4 Turbo
Wheelbase 2,451 mm (96.5 in)
Length Base: 4,168 mm (164.1 in)
4,216 mm (166.0 in)
Width 1,694 mm (66.7 in)
Height Base: 1,313 mm (51.7 in)
1,298 mm (51.1 in)
Related Isuzu Gemini/Stylus
Geo Storm
Isuzu PA Nero
1993 Asuna Sunfire

The second generation Impulse was designed on General Motors's second generation R-body "world car" platform. GM had commissioned Isuzu to build a replacement for the Spectrum, this time a sportier model called the Storm (Gemini Coupe in Japan). The body design of the Storm was strongly influenced by GM and drew heavily from GM Europe's design submission for the Lotus Elan M100.[11][12] Under Shiro Nakamura,[13] Isuzu's then head of design, the third generation Gemini sedan was first designed on this platform, and then attention was turned to a sporty coupe to replace the first generation Impulse. Starting with the Storm, alternative front and rear treatments were made, retaining the lozenge theme of the Gemini sedan, and drawing heavy influence from the rear-wheel drive Impulse (semi-concealed headlights with integrated grille as well as hood and taillight styling) while also expanding on the "European look", which later became a central point of marketing the vehicle in Japan.

The three-door hatchback debuted as the Impulse XS in 1989 for the 1990 model year. It was offered only in front-wheel drive with a DOHC 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4 engine which produced 130 hp (97 kW). The suspension consisted of MacPherson struts both front and rear, with a rigid trailing arm front suspension and a multi-link rear suspension, featuring Nishiboric passive steering.

For the 1991 model year, the Impulse RS was introduced with a 160 hp (119 kW) turbocharged engine and all-wheel drive drivetrain which featured front and rear viscous differentials and center helical differential. The wagonback model was also introduced for the 1991 model year, only available with the normally-aspirated 1.6 L engine.

For the 1992 model year, the Turbo model was discontinued and the base engine was replaced with a 1.8 L (1809 cc) engine, sharing the same bore but with a longer stroke due to the taller engine block. This larger powerplant was good for 140 hp (104 kW) and 125 ft·lbf (169 N•m).[14] Both body styles continued into 1992, but very few were produced.

Since the Impulse weighed just 2411 lb (1094 kg) in front-wheel drive configuration and 2732 lb (1239 kg) in all-wheel drive configuration, the turbo engine and all wheel drive combined gave excellent performance.

General Motors, who owned nearly half of Isuzu, also owned Lotus Cars at the time. Lotus selected the 1.6 L engine and transmission from the Isuzu Gemini for the Lotus Elan M100 and a following generation of that engine eventually ended up in the Impulse. Lotus was subcontracted by Isuzu to fine tune the suspension of the Impulse, through selection of stiffer dampers, larger sway bars, and softer springs. All of the second generation Impulses had the Lotus-tuned suspension.

A non-Lotus innovation in the Impulse was the development of the Nishiboric passive rear-wheel steering system which adjusted the toe of the rear wheels by changing the rear wheel alignment through the range of suspension travel.

The combination of the burst of the Japanese economic bubble, rising emissions and crash safety requirements, and continued restrictive market segment meddling by General Motors forced Isuzu out of the car making market and brought an end to the Impulse.

In the Japanese market, this vehicle was sold as the Piazza beginning in July 1991 through to spring of 1992. The second generation Piazza was offered only in front-wheel drive with the 1.8 L engine. All of the second generation Piazzas came with the Lotus-tuned suspension.

In Canada, the same models, with minor variations, were sold in the 1990 and 1991 model years. No Impulses were made for Canada for the 1992 model year. In 1993 the 1.8 L model was sold in Canada as the Asüna Sunfire, but only with the hatchback body.[14] Since the phaseout of the Asuna brand in 1993, after only one model year, the Sunfire name moved to a Pontiac, as its version of the third-generation Chevrolet Cavalier on the GM J platform rather than an Isuzu platform.

The second generation Piazza was not marketed as a Holden in Australia, possibly due to lack of sales of its predecessor.

References

  1. ^ Alfieri, Bruno (ed.) (1987). Giugiaro Italdesign Catalogue Raisonné 1959–1987, Vol. 2. Milano, Italy: Automobilia International Publishing Group. pp. pp. 108–109.   Accessed 2007-02-13.
  2. ^ Alfieri, Giugiaro Italdesign Catalogue Raisonné 1959–1987, Vol. 2, pp. 191–194. Accessed 2007-02-13.
  3. ^ Alfieri, Giugiaro Italdesign Catalogue Raisonné 1959–1987, Vol. 2, p. 216. Accessed 2007-02-13.
  4. ^ "Isuzu Piazza". Car Styling Quarterly. Vol. 35. July 1981.
  5. ^ Isuzu Piazza JR Parts Catalog 1980-1990, Isuzu Motors Ltd., PN 6-8871-0500-9
  6. ^ Isuzu Piazza, 117 Coupe, and Bellett GT. Tokyo, Japan: Neko Publishing Co. Ltd., 1998. ISBN 4-87366-026-2.
  7. ^ Isuzu Piazza JR Parts Catalog 1980-1990, Isuzu Motors Ltd., PN 6-8871-0500-9
  8. ^ "Impulse JR Specifications". http://www.isuzuperformance.com/isupage/hist/specimpjr.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13.  
  9. ^ Bebbington, Terry, and Michel A. Malik. 45 Years of Holden. The Australian Publishing and Printing Co. Distributed by Classic Motorbooks. ISBN 0-947216-31-6.
  10. ^ "Performance Comparison; 1985–1989 Impulse/Piazza JR Turbo Versus The Competition". http://www.isuzuperformance.com/isupage/hist/comparo.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13.  
  11. ^ Robinson, Graham. Lotus Since the 70's; Volume 1: Elite, Eclat, Excel, and Elan. Croydon, England: Motor Racing Publications Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-947981-70-5.
  12. ^ Hughes, Mark. Osprey Automotive Lotus Elan. London: Osprey Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-85532-194-7.
  13. ^ Gandini, Marzia. Bruno Alfieri, Editor. Shiro Nakamura, Nissan Design (Car Men 45). Automobilia s.r.l. Italy, 2003. ISBN 88-7960-152-0.
  14. ^ a b "Impulse JI and Asuna Sunfire Specifications". http://www.isuzuperformance.com/isupage/hist/specimpji.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13.  

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