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(1936-1941), when northern parts of conquered Ethiopia were assigned to Eritrea by the Italians as a reward for the Eritrean Ascari's help in the conquest of Ethiopia]]

Italian Eritrea was the first colony of the Kingdom of Italy. It was created in 1890 (but the first Italian settlements were done in 1882 around Assab) and lasted officially until 1947.

Contents

History

The end of the colony

The British maintained initially the Italian administration of Eritrea, but the country soon started to be involved in a violent process of independence (from the British in the late forties and after 1952 from the Ethiopians, who annexed Eritrea in that year).

During the last years of World War II some Italian Eritreans like Dr. Vincenzo Di Meglio defended politically the presence of Italians in Eritrea and successively promoted the independence of Eritrea.[1]

After the war Di Meglio was named Director of the "Commitato Rappresentativo Italiani dell' Eritrea" (CRIE). In 1947 he supported the creation of the "Associazione Italo-Eritrei" and the "Associazione Veterani Ascari", in order to get alliance with the Eritreans favorable to Italy in Eritrea [2]. As a result of these creations, he cofounded the "Partito Eritrea Pro Italia" (Party of Shara Italy) in September 1947, an Eritrean political Party favorable to the Italian presence in Eritrea that obtained more than 200,000 inscriptions of membership in one single month.

Indeed the Italian Eritreans strongly rejected the Ethiopian annexation of Eritrea after the war: the Party of Shara Italy was established in Asmara in 1947 and the majority of the members were former Italian soldiers with many Eritrean Ascari (the organization was even backed up by the government of Italy). The main objective of this party was Eritrea freedom, but they had a pre-condition that stated that before independence the country should be governed by Italy for at least 15 years (like happened with Italian Somalia).

With the Peace Treaty of 1947 Italy officially accepted the end of the colony.

Governors of Italian Eritrea

File:Coat of arms of Eritrea from 1941 by Alexander File:Coat of arms of Eritrea from 1926 by Alexander
The heraldic device of Italian Eritrea first adopted in 1919. The Fascist government added its symbols, a fasces surrounded by a wreath of laurel on a red chief, to the arms in 1926.
  • Oreste Baratieri from February 1892 to February 1896
  • Antonio Baldissera from February 1896 to December 1897
  • Ferdinando Martini from February 1897 to March 1907
  • Giuseppe Salvago Raggi from March 1907 to August 1915
  • Giovanni Cerrina Feroni from August 1915 to September 1916
  • Giacomo De Martino from September 1916 to July 1919
  • Camillo De Camillis from July 1919 to November 1920
  • Ludovico Pollera from November 1920 to April 1921
  • Giovanni Cerrina Feroni from April 1921 to June 1923
  • Giacopo Gasparini from June 1923 to June 1928
  • Corrado Zoli from June 1928 to July 1930
  • Riccardo Di Lucchesi from July 1930 to January 1935
  • Emilio De Bono from January 1935 to November 1935
  • Pietro Badoglio from November 1935 to May 1936
  • Alfredo Guzzoni from May 1936 to April 1937
  • Vincenzo De Feo from April 1937 to December 1937
  • Giuseppe Daodiace from December 1937 to June 1940
  • Luigi Frusci from June 1940 to May 1941

Gallery

See also

Eritrea portal

References

Bibliography

  • Bandini, Franco. Gli italiani in Africa, storia delle guerre coloniali 1882-1943. Longanesi. Milano, 1971.
  • Bereketeab, R. Eritrea: The making of a Nation. Uppsala University. Uppsala, 2000.
  • Lowe, C.J. Italian Foreign Policy 1870-1940. Routledge. 2002.
  • Maravigna, Pietro. Come abbiamo perduto la guerra in Africa. Le nostre prime colonie in Africa. Il conflitto mondiale e le operazioni in Africa Orientale e in Libia. Testimonianze e ricordi. Tipografia L'Airone. Roma, 1949.
  • Negash, Tekeste. Italian colonialism in Eritrea 1882-1941 (Politics, Praxis and Impact). Uppsala University. Uppsala, 1987.
  • Rosselli, Alberto. Storie Segrete. Operazioni sconosciute o dimenticate della seconda guerra mondiale. Iuculano Editore. Pavia, 2007

External links








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