The Full Wiki

Italian Social Movement: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Italian Social Movement–National Right
Movimento Sociale Italiano–Destra Nazionale
Leader Giorgio Almirante, Augusto De Marsanich, Arturo Michelini, Gianfranco Fini
Founded 1946 (1946)
Dissolved 1995 (1995)
Newspaper Il Secolo d'Italia
Membership 202,715 (1993)
max: 240,063 (1963)[1]
Ideology Post-fascism, nationalism, conservatism, corporatism
International affiliation None
European affiliation None
European Parliament Group European Right (1984–1989)
Politics of Italy
Political parties
Elections

The Italian Social Movement (MSI), later Italian Social Movement–National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano–Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist and, later, national-conservative political party in Italy formed in 1946 by supporters of former dictator Benito Mussolini (the name National Right was joint in 1972, when some moderate-conservative groups joined it).

The party was dissolved in January 1995 by Gianfranco Fini, who founded National Alliance.

Contents

History

Advertisements

From the RSI to the MSI

The Italian Social Movement was founded in 1946 by disgruntled former supporters of the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI), notably Giorgio Almirante, long-time leader of the party who reviewed his pre-war racist views[2], Augusto De Marsanich and Arturo Michelini. For many of its supporters, "MSI" was both a reference to RSI and the backronym of Mussolini sei immortale (meaning "Mussolini, you are immortal"). The latter reading is however generally held as backronym.

Initially the party was relegated to a state of paralegality because it refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the new republic (in Italy it was said it was outside the constitutional arch). The MSI was largely the keeper of the fascist torch mostly in a nostalgic fashion, loyal to the "social" version of fascism embodied by the RSI. On this basis it was active in the movement for pan-European nationalism, taking a leading role in the European Social Movement, the New European Order, the National Party of Europe and the European Right.

Arturo Michelini

After brief spells of Almirante and De Marsanich, Arturo Michelini was elected party national secretary in 1954. Despite not being very successful, the new leader traced a path to overcome the isolation suffered by the party since its foundation. The two pillars of the new strategy were the proposed alliance with Christian Democracy (exemplified by Fernando Tambroni's government in 1960), the Italian Liberal Party and the Monarchist National Party, and a Atlantist foreign policy agenda. In this respect the MSI approved Italy's entry into NATO in 1955.

Giorgio Almirante

After Arturo Michelini's death in 1969, the return of Giorgio Almirante as national secretary demonstrated moderation, removing fascist symbols in 1970, declaring an acceptance of the democratic system and overseeing a merger with some monarchist and moderate-conservative groups in 1972. However the MSI included more extremist currents, for some former members of Ordine Nuovo, such as Pino Rauti, who has been implicated in various trials on terrorist attacks in the 1970s. The path opened by those reforms led ultimately to the transformation of the MSI into a mainstream conservative party in the 1990s.

Gianfranco Fini

Gianfranco Fini took over the party leadership from Giorgio Almirante in 1987 and set about modernising the party (except for a brief spell between 1989 and 1990 when Pino Rauti, who had joined the MSI in 1969, was leader). In 1994 Fini proposed the creation of a National Alliance, along with respected conservatives (such as Domenico Fisichella, Alfredo Mantovano and Luigi Ramponi), members of Christian Democracy (such as Gustavo Selva, Publio Fiori, Gaetano Rebecchini, Andrea Ronchi, Antonio Mazzocchi, Cesare Cursi e Learco Saporito), the Italian Liberal Party (such as Giuseppe Basini, Stefano Pagliuzzi and Luciano Magnalbò) and other parties (notably Pietro Armani from the Italian Republican Party).

In January 1995 a party congress officially proclaimed the party's dissolution as well as the establishment of National Alliance, a mainstream conservative party which claimed to be committed to the democratic process (as also the late MSI was), centrist in orientation and opposed in its constitution to antisemitism, xenophobia and racism. In particular, that party started to be one of the most pro-American and pro-Israel parties in Italy.

Some hardliners, under the leadership of Pino Rauti, did not join National Alliance and launched Tricolour Flame.

Ideology

An array of themes that continuously inspired the MSI for forty years:

  • advocacy of the third way in-between liberal capitalism and socialism;
  • rejection of the party system;
  • intransigent anti-communism;
  • appeals for a strong executive branch;
  • support for aggressive government intervention in the social sphere;
  • opposition to the guiding role of superpowers in international politics.

However, since Michelini took the leadership in 1954, the party took an Atlantist stance and notably supported Italy's entry into NATO in 1955. When Almirante took the leadership in the 1970s, thanks to the role of Pino Romualdi, leader of the "liberal" faction of the party, the MSI took an even pro-American stance and a more liberal position on economic issues, which led to the uphaveal of the early 1990s.

Popular support

The party's popular support came mostly from the Southern underclass and the rural oligarchy until the 1960s and later from the urban middle classes, especially in Rome, Naples, Bari and the other cities of the Centre-South. Its support in the South was increased thanks to the merger with the monarchists (the Monarchist National Party and its successors had always had their best results in Lazio, Southern Italy and Sardinia).

The MSI's electoral support was always around 4-6% of the vote, but sometimes it reached higher shares of vote, notably 8.7% in the 1972 general election and 6.8% in 1983. In 1972 the MSI won 14.8% in Lazio (17.4% in Rome and 21.0% in Latina), 16.7% in Campania (26.3% in Naples and 22.2% in Salerno), 12.5% in Apulia (21.0% in Lecce, 18.8% in Bari and 18.4% in Foggia), 12.2% in Calabria (36.3% in Reggio Calabria), 15.9% in Sicily (30.6% in Catania, 24.4% in Messina and 20.7% in Siracusa) and 11.3% in Sardinia (16.0% in Cagliari).

By the beginning of the 1990s the MSI had strengthened its position especially in Lazio and, when Christian Democracy was disbanded in 1993–1994, the MSI was able to attract many Christian Democratic voters in Central and Southern Italy, as well as many formerly Socialist, especially in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. In some places, such as Lazio, the MSI became the new dominant political force. In fact, in a time when Lega Nord was booming in the North, several voters south the Po River liked the MSI's appeals to Italian identity and unity.

In the 1996 general election, the first after the transformation of the MSI into National Alliance, the Italian right-wing had its best result ever: 15.7% nationally, 28.9% in Lazio (where, with 31.3%, AN was the largest party in Rome), 19.8% in Umbria, 21.1% in Abruzzo, 20.0% in Campania, 23.5% in Basilicata, 22.1% in Apulia, 20.9% in Calabria and 20.3% in Sardinia.[3][4]

Leadership

Secretaries:

References

  1. ^ http://www.cattaneo.org/archivi/adele/iscritti.xls
  2. ^ Il Domenicale
  3. ^ Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009
  4. ^ http://elezionistorico.interno.it/index.php?tp=C

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message