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Józef Cyrankiewicz


In office
February 6, 1947 – November 20, 1952
President Bolesław Bierut
Preceded by Edward Osóbka-Morawski
Succeeded by Bolesław Bierut

In office
March 18, 1954 – December 23, 1970
Preceded by Bolesław Bierut
Succeeded by Piotr Jaroszewicz

In office
December 23, 1970 – March 28, 1972
Preceded by Marian Spychalski
Succeeded by Henryk Jabłoński

Born April 23, 1911
Tarnów, Austro-Hungary (now Poland)
Died January 20, 1989
Religion Atheist

Józef Cyrankiewicz ['juzɛf t​͡sɨˈrankʲɛwʲit​͡ʂ] ( listen) (April 23, 1911 – January 20, 1989) was a Polish Socialist, after 1948 Communist political figure. He served as premier of the People's Republic of Poland between 1947 and 1952, and again between 1954 and 1970. He served as head of state of Poland from 1970 to 1972.

Born in Tarnów, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Cyrankiewicz attended Kraków's Jagiellonian University. He became the secretary of the local branch of the Polish Socialist Party in 1935.

Contents

World War II

Active in Armia Krajowa, the Polish resistance organization, from the beginning of Poland's 1939 defeat at the start of World War II, Cyrankiewicz was captured by the Wehrmacht in the autumn of 1942 and after imprisonment at Montelupich sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp. He arrived on September 4, 1942, and received registration number 62,933.

While there, he contacted other socialists and tried to organize resistance. He worked on bringing international prisoners' groups together. The organization that was formed struggled to pass the message about what was happening in the camp to the outside. Cyrankiewicz, along with other Auschwitz prisoners, was transferred to Mauthausen as the front approached Auschwitz. He was eventually liberated by the US Army.

In spite of this experience, six years later in 1948 he would present false testimony in a show trial resulting in the betrayal and execution of fellow Auschwitz survivor and Polish national hero Witold Pilecki by communist authorities.

Rise to power

Following the end of the war, he became secretary-general of the Polish Socialist Party's central executive committee in 1946, and the following year, became the prime minister (pl. premier). However, soon there was factional infighting in the Party and eventually it split in two: one faction lead by Cyrankiewicz, the other by Edward Osóbka-Morawski, who was also the head of the Polish government.

Osóbka-Morawski thought that the PSP should join with the other non-communist party in Poland, the Polish Peasant Party, to form a united front against communism.

Cyrankiewicz argued that the PSP should support the communists (who held most of the posts in the government) in carrying through a socialist programme, while opposing the imposition of one party rule. The communists played on this division in the PSP, dismissing Osóbka-Morawski and making Cyrankiewicz prime minister of the country.

Upon the formal merger of the Polish Socialist and Communist Parties in 1948, Cyrankiewicz was named secretary of the central committee of the new Polish United Workers' Party. By this time, there was little left of Cyrankiewicz the socialist, as evidenced during the 1956 upheaval following Nikita Khrushchev's "secret speech." He tried to repress the rioting that erupted across the country at first, threatening that "any provocateur or lunatic who raises his hand against the people's government may be sure that this hand will be chopped off." Cyrankiewicz also gave the order for soldiers to fire on the protesters during the 1970 demonstrations on the coast in which 42 people were killed and more than a thousand wounded.

Cyrankiewicz died in 1989, a few months before the collapse of the regime that he had served so faithfully.

See also

References

Political offices
Preceded by
Edward Osóbka-Morawski
Prime Minister of Poland
1947–1952
Succeeded by
Bolesław Bierut
Preceded by
Bolesław Bierut
Prime Minister of Poland
1954–1970
Succeeded by
Piotr Jaroszewicz
Preceded by
Marian Spychalski
Chairman of the Polish Council of State
1970–1972
Succeeded by
Henryk Jabłoński
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