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JSTOR
JSTOR.jpg
JSTOR new front page.png
The JSTOR front page
URL http://www.jstor.org
Commercial? No
Type of site Journal archive
Registration Yes
Available language(s) English (includes content in other languages)
Owner Itself
Created by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Launched 1995
Current status Open

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a United States-based online system for archiving academic journals, founded in 1995. It provides full-text searches of digitized back issues of several hundred well-known journals, dating back to 1665 in the case of the Philosophical Transactions.

JSTOR was originally funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, but is now an independent, self-sustaining not-for-profit organization with offices in New York City and Ann Arbor, Michigan. In January 2009, it was announced that JSTOR would merge with Ithaka,[1] a non-profit organization founded in 2003 and "dedicated to helping the academic community take full advantage of rapidly advancing information and networking technologies."[2]

Contents

History

JSTOR was originally conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. The founder, William G. Bowen, was the president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988.[3] Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a comprehensive collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of these journals with the confidence that they would remain available for the long term. Online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. JSTOR originally encompassed ten economics and history journals and was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites. Ten additional sites were added in the spring of 1996. JSTOR access was improved based on feedback from these sites and it became a fully searchable index accessible from any ordinary Web browser. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear and readable.[4]

With the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, were interested in expanding the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London, and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society back to its beginning in 1665. The work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000.[5] As of September 23, 2009, the database contained 1,079 journal titles in 18 collections representing 51 disciplines, and 262,042 individual journal issues, totaling over 33.7 million pages of text.[6]

Usage and contents

JSTOR access is licensed mainly to libraries, universities and publishers all over the world. Licensee institutions can make JSTOR available to their members free of charge through the Internet. Individual subscriptions are also available to certain journal titles through the journal publisher.

As of February 2008, JSTOR material is provided by 568 publishers. More than 10 million searches of the archives were performed between January 1 and February 6, 2008.[7] In addition to its use as an archive for individual journals, JSTOR has also been used as a resource for linguistics research. The breadth of material in the archive makes it useful in investigating trends in language use over time.[8]

The availability of nearly all journals on JSTOR is controlled by a "moving wall", which is an agreed-upon delay between the current volume of the journal and the latest volume available on JSTOR. This time period is specified by agreement between JSTOR and the publisher and is usually 3-5 years. Publishers can request that the period of a "moving wall" be changed or request discontinuation of coverage. Formerly publishers could also request that the "moving wall" be changed to a "fixed wall" – a specified date after which JSTOR would not add new volumes to its database. As of March 2008, "fixed wall" agreements were still in effect with three publishers of 32 journals made available online through sites controlled by the publishers.[9]

In addition to the main site, JSTOR's labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service at http://dfr.jstor.org[10]. This site offers a very rich faceted search facility with graphical indication of the article coverage and loose integration into the main JSTOR site. Users can create very focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and basic metadata. They will be notified when the dataset is ready and can download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, though academics can request that from JSTOR subject to a non-disclosure agreement.

Related projects

ARTstor was set up as a sister organization to JSTOR to work with content owners and educational users, using a similar subscription model, and beginning to function in 2004. It gained considerable impetus after the disbanding in 2005 of Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO), a competitive online system for images of artworks, set up by a Getty Foundation-led consortium of institutions. ARTstor’s collections are contributed by the community and offer a wide range of images needed for interdisciplinary teaching and research, including contributions from the leading museums, photo archives, libraries, scholars, photographers, artists, and artists’ estates. These diverse collections include: Carnegie Arts of the United States, The Illustrated Bartsch, the Mellon International Dunhuang Archive, The Huntington Archive of Asian Art, and The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) Architecture and Design Collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Bodleian Library, and more. The ARTstor Digital Library comprises more than one million images from more than 100 collections worldwide.[11]

Ithaka Harbors, Inc., a non-profit organization based in New York City and Princeton, New Jersey, works closely with JSTOR the areas of finance, human resource management, information technology, software development, research, and strategic guidance.

Aluka is an online digital library focusing on the materials about Africa. Started in 2003, Aluka was an initiative of Ithaka Harbors. In July 2008, Aluka merged with JSTOR organizationally, and the platforms and content will eventually be merged as well.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Gauger, Barbara J. (2006). "JSTOR usage data and what it can tell us about ourselves: is there predictability based on historical use by libraries of similar size?". OCLC Systems & Services 22 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1108/10650750610640801.  
  • Schonfeld, Roger C. (2003). JSTOR: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691115311.  
  • Seeds, Robert S. (November 2002). "Impact of a digital archive (JSTOR) on print collection use". Collection Building 21 (3): 120–122. doi:10.1108/01604950210434551.  
  • Spinella, Michael P. "JSTOR: Past, Present, and Future." Journal of Library Administration, 2007, Vol. 46 Issue 2, pp. 55-78,
  • Spinella, Michael P. "JSTOR and the changing digital landscape," Interlending & Document Supply, 2008, Vol. 36 Issue 2, pp 79-85
  • Articles about JSTOR

External links

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JSTOR
File:JSTOR
File:JSTOR new front
The JSTOR front page
URL www.jstor.org
Commercial? No
Type of site Journal archive
Registration Yes
Available language(s) English (includes content in other languages)
Owner Itself
Created by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Current status Open

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a United States-based online system for archiving academic journals, founded in 1995. It provides full-text searches of digitized back issues of several hundred well-known journals, dating back to 1665 in the case of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

JSTOR was originally funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, but is now an independent, self-sustaining not-for-profit organization with offices in New York City and Ann Arbor, Michigan. In January 2009, it was announced that JSTOR would merge with Ithaka,[1][2] a non-profit organization founded in 2003 and "dedicated to helping the academic community take full advantage of rapidly advancing information and networking technologies."[3]

Contents

History

JSTOR was originally conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. The founder, William G. Bowen, was the president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988.[4] Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a comprehensive collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of these journals with the confidence that they would remain available for the long term. Online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. JSTOR originally encompassed ten economics and history journals and was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites. Ten additional sites were added in the spring of 1996. JSTOR access was improved based on feedback from these sites and it became a fully searchable index accessible from any ordinary Web browser. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear and readable.[5]

With the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, were interested in expanding the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London, and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society back to its beginning in 1665. The work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000.[5] As of September 23, 2009, the database contained 1,079 journal titles in 18 collections representing 51 disciplines, and 262,042 individual journal issues, totaling over 33.7 million pages of text.[6]

Usage and contents

JSTOR is accessed all over the world and is licensed mainly to libraries, universities and publishers. Licensee institutions can make JSTOR available to their members free of charge through the Internet. Individual subscriptions are also available to certain journal titles through the journal publisher.

As of February 2008, JSTOR material is provided by 568 publishers. More than 10 million searches of the archives were performed between January 1 and February 6, 2008.[6] In addition to its use as an archive for individual journals, JSTOR has also been used as a resource for linguistics research. The breadth of material in the archive makes it useful in investigating trends in language use over time.[7]

The availability of nearly all journals on JSTOR is controlled by a "moving wall", which is an agreed-upon delay between the current volume of the journal and the latest volume available on JSTOR. This time period is specified by agreement between JSTOR and the publisher and is usually 3–5 years. Publishers can request that the period of a "moving wall" be changed or request discontinuation of coverage. Formerly publishers could also request that the "moving wall" be changed to a "fixed wall" – a specified date after which JSTOR would not add new volumes to its database. As of March 2008, "fixed wall" agreements were still in effect with three publishers of 32 journals made available online through sites controlled by the publishers.[8]

In addition to the main site, JSTOR's labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.[9] This site offers a very rich faceted search facility with graphical indication of the article coverage and loose integration into the main JSTOR site. Users can create very focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and basic metadata. They will be notified when the dataset is ready and can download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, though academics can request that from JSTOR subject to a non-disclosure agreement.

JSTOR Plant Science [10] is available in addition to the main site. JSTOR Plant Science is an online environment that brings together content, tools, and people interested in plant science. It provides access to foundational content vital to plant science – plant type specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, and related materials. JSTOR Plant Science strives to be a comprehensive online research tool for aggregating and exploring the world’s botanical resources. It is useful for those researching, teaching or studying botany, biology, ecology, environmental and conservation studies. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative [11] (GPI). GPI is an international undertaking by leading herbaria to digitize and make available plant type specimens and other holdings used by botanists and others working in plant science every day. Partners include more than 52 countries. There are two partner networks in place and contributing today: the African Plants Initiative which focuses on plants from Africa and the Latin American Plants Initiative which contributes plants from Latin America. GPI has also expanded to North America, Asia, and Europe.

Related projects

ARTstor was set up as a sister organization to JSTOR to work with content owners and educational users, using a similar subscription model, and beginning to function in 2004. It gained considerable impetus after the disbanding in 2005 of Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO), a competitive online system for images of artworks, set up by a Getty Foundation-led consortium of institutions. ARTstor’s collections are contributed by the community and offer a wide range of images needed for interdisciplinary teaching and research, including contributions from the leading museums, photo archives, libraries, scholars, photographers, artists, and artists’ estates. These diverse collections include: Carnegie Arts of the United States, The Illustrated Bartsch, the Mellon International Dunhuang Archive, The Huntington Archive of Asian Art, and The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) Architecture and Design Collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Bodleian Library, and more. The ARTstor Digital Library comprises more than one million images from more than 100 collections worldwide.[12]

Ithaka Harbors, Inc., a non-profit organization based in New York City and Princeton, New Jersey, works closely with JSTOR in the areas of finance, human resource management, information technology, software development, research, and strategic guidance.

Aluka is an online digital library focusing on the materials about Africa. Started in 2003, Aluka was an initiative of Ithaka Harbors. In July 2008, Aluka merged with JSTOR organizationally, and the platforms and content will eventually be merged as well.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Gauger, Barbara J.; Kacena, Carolyn (2006). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "JSTOR usage data and what it can tell us about ourselves: is there predictability based on historical use by libraries of similar size?"]. OCLC Systems & Services 22 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1108/10650750610640801. 
  • Schonfeld, Roger C. (2003). JSTOR: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691115311. 
  • Seeds, Robert S. (November 2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Impact of a digital archive (JSTOR) on print collection use"]. Collection Building 21 (3): 120–122. doi:10.1108/01604950210434551. 
  • Spinella, Michael P. "JSTOR: Past, Present, and Future." Journal of Library Administration, 2007, Vol. 46 Issue 2, pp. 55–78,
  • Spinella, Michael P. "JSTOR and the changing digital landscape," Interlending & Document Supply, 2008, Vol. 36 Issue 2, pp 79–85
  • Articles about JSTOR

External links

List of Overseas Agencies


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