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JWH-018
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone
Identifiers
CAS number 209414-07-3
ATC code  ?
PubChem 10382701
Chemical data
Formula C24H23NO 
Mol. mass 341.45 g/mol
Physical data
Solubility in water hydrophobic, n/a mg/mL (20 °C)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Schedule II (CA)

JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is an analgesic chemical from the aminoalkylindole family, which acts as a cannabinoid agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with some selectivity for CB2.[1][2][3] It produces effects in animals very similar to those of THC itself, but with a longer duration of action.

Contents

History

On December 15th 2008, it was reported by the German pharmaceutical company THC Pharm, that JWH-018 was found as one of the active components in at least three versions of the herbal blend Spice, which has been sold as an incense, in a number of countries around the world since 2002. [4][5][6]

Effects

When smoked or orally ingested, JWH-018 produces some effects similar to those of cannabis. When it is not presented more directly to the bloodstream pulmonarily via inhalation, and instead is ingested orally, it goes through first pass digestion, and consequently its actions are affected by hepatic preprocessing, which reduces the immediacy of the bioavailabity of the substance. Its effects are by some persons considered as very similar to those of cannabis, but more of a general body high with unusually clear cerebral effects, the difference being analogous to that between cannabis that has a higher component ratio of cannabis sativa sativa to cannabis sativa indica. Some users have reported side effects, similar to those of cannabis, such as nausea, tachycardia, paranoia severe hallucinations and anxiety. JWH-018 has also been described to be an efficient painkiller. One might suppose that its analgesic properties are similar to those of cannabis, due to its agonism at the same receptors, and that it so might be useful on some range of painful ailments.

Against Cancer and Alzheimers: JWH-018 being an activator of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors(although somewhat selective for CB2) is likely to have the same anti-cancer effects as Marijuana and other cannabinoids with similar receptor activity. THC, marijuana, and other synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to be effective anti-tumor, anti-cancer drugs effective against a whole range of cancers including pancreatic, breast, lung, leukemia, head, brain and other cancers. This receptor activation also apparently being responsible for the reduction of inflammation associated with alzheimer's disease. Some of the relevant studies being of CB2 activation and many of both CB1 and CB2 activating agents. [7][8]

Common Dosage

The usual dosage for individual consumption (orally) varies greatly per individual but is typically between 3 and 20 milligrams. Dosage is not strictly sensitive to users' general tolerance to THC, however there seems to be a noticeable correlation per individual (unconfirmed) reports. When smoked (as opposed to consumed orally) the amount needed may be lower, however the observed effects have a lesser duration.

Toxicity

A study performed a cytotoxicity assay in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It was found that JWH-018 showed little cytotoxicity with an IC50 >250 >μM. These results are consistent with the other cell based assays.[9]

Substance CYPs hERG Cytotox Genotox Rat Repeat Tox Rat PK
JWH-018 4/6 +ve * [9] Negative [9] Negative [9] Negative [9] Lethargy, Catatonia, Tachyphylaxis, No Organ Pathology [9] Bi-phasic, Well Distributed [9]
  • *Denotes positive results and indicates further testing needed to define the issue.

Legal status

Several countries have placed legal restrictions on the compound.

Country Date of Ban Notes
Austria 18th December 2008 The Austrian Ministry of Health announced on 18th December 2008 that Spice would be controlled under Paragraph 78 of their drug law on the grounds that it contains an active substance which affects the functions of the body, and the legality of JWH-018 is under review.
Belarus 1st January 2010
France [10]
Germany 22nd January 2009 [11]
Latvia 28th November 2009
Lithuania 5th June 2009 [10]
Poland [10]
South Korea 1 July 2009 [12]
Sweden 30th July 2009 The bill was accepted on 30th July 2009 and was in effect on 15th September 2009.[13]
Estonia 24th July 2009
Romania 15th February 2010
Russia 22nd January 2010
United Kingdom 23rd December 2009 [14]

United States

JWH-018 is currently not federally controlled in the U.S., but the Drug Enforcement Administration labeled it a "drug and chemical of concern" in 2009. March 2009: DEA Microgram Bulletin "INTELLIGENCE ALERT" [3]. Lawmakers in the state of Kansas[4] are currently considering bills that would ban JWH-018. [15]In February of 2010, two Kansas stores selling an herbal blend containing the product were raided by the FDA, who confiscated all of their JWH-018 stock. [16]In Feb. 2010, Law makers in Missouri began considering a ban on K2, which is an herbal blend containing JWH-018. [17]A new law in Kansas has passed that will ban designer cannabinoids JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210 along with stimulant BZP and TFMPP.Georgia is now working up a bill to ban its sales and possession and it derivatives.

See also

References


Citable sentences

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