Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
|Special Capital Territory of Jakarta|
(From top, left to right): Jakarta Skyline, Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Monumen Nasional, Jakarta traffic, Istiqlal Mosque
|Nickname(s): The Big Durian|
|Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian)
(Victorious and Great)
|- Type||Special administrative area|
|- Governor||Fauzi Bowo|
|- City||740.28 km2 (285.8 sq mi)|
|- Land||662.33 km2 (255.7 sq mi)|
|- Water||6,977.5 km2 (2,694 sq mi)|
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|- Density||12,957.31/km2 (33,559.3/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi) and a population of 8,490,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political center. It is the most populous city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, and is the twelfth-largest city in the world. The metropolitan area, Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. The city's name is derived from the Sanskrit word "Jayakarta" (जयकर्) which translates as "victorious deed," "complete act,"or "complete victory."
Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It grew as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. It was made capital of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972).
Landmarks include the National Monument and Istiqlal Mosque. The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
The Jakarta area was part of the fourth century Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara. In AD 39, King Purnawarman established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java. Purnawarman left seven memorial stones across the area with inscriptions bearing his name, including the present-day Banten and West Java provinces.
After the power of Tarumanagara declined, its territories, including Sunda Pura, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. The harbour area was renamed Sunda Kalapa as written in a Hindu monk's lontar manuscripts. By the fourteenth century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper. The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java.
In 1527, Fatahillah, a Sumatran Malay warrior from Demak attacked Kingdom of Sunda and succeeded in conquering the harbour on June 22, 1527, after which Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta. The ports became part of the Sultanate of Banten, that was created in the aftermath of conquest of Banten and Sunda Kelapa from Sunda kingdom. The sultanate would grew into a major trading center in Southeast Asia.
Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the center of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.
Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.
When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayakarta's army and the British were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city "Batavia."
Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area. By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, including 37,067 Europeans.
The Japanese renamed the city "Jakarta" during their World War II occupation of Indonesia.
Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital. Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city. He instigated large government-funded projects undertaken with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture. Projects in Jakarta included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, major hotels, shopping centre, and a new parliament building.
In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt which saw 6 top generals killed, and ultimately resulted in the downfall of Sukarno and the start of Suharto's "New Order. A propaganda monument stands at the place where the general's bodies were dumped. In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-60's commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty. Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.
The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. Long-time president, Suharto, began to lose his grip on power. Tensions reached a peak in the Jakarta riots of May 1998, when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. The Jakarta riots targeted Chinese Indonesians. Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings have occurred in the city since 2000 on an almost annual basis, although the 2009 bombing of two international hotels was the first since 2005.
Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. As a province, the official name of Jakarta is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta ("Special Capital City District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta.
Jakarta is divided into five kota or kotamadya ("cities" - formerly municipalities), each headed by a mayor, and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to choose a governor, whereas previously the city's governors were appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.
The Cities/Municipalities of Jakarta are:
The only Regency (Kabupaten) of Jakarta is:
|City/Regency||Area (km2)||Total population (registered)(2007)||Total population (2007)||Population Density (km2)|
In September 1945, the government of Jakarta City was changed from the Japanese Djakarta Toku-Betsu Shi into the Jakarta National Administration. This first government was held by a Mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a Governor. The last Mayor of Jakarta was Sudiro, until he was replaced by Dr. Sumarno as Governor.
In 1974, Based on the Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta was confirmed as the Capital City of Indonesia and one of Indonesia's 26 provinces.
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The city is a lowland area averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level. Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 of land area and 6,977 km2 of sea area. Rivers flow from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities.
The northern part of Jakarta lies on a plain, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The coastal area extends around 35 km (22 mi) from west to east. The southern parts of the city are hilly. During the wet season, Jakarta suffers from flooding due to clogged sewage pipes and waterways, deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok, and the fact that 40% of it is below sea level. Major floods occurred in 1996 when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded  and 2007. Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed  and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.. Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of the city.
The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.
Jakarta has a hot and humid tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons. Wet seasons in Jakarta cover the majority of the year, running from November through June. The remaining four months forms the city’s dry season. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 385 millimetres (15.2 in), and its dry season low point is July with a monthly average of 31 millimetres (1.2 in).
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Average low °C (°F)||24.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||384.7
|Avg. rainy days||26||20||15||18||13||17||5||24||6||9||22||12||187|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation  February 2010|
As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many domestic immigrants who bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs.
The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") is a term used to describe the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and recognized as an ethnic group from around the 18th-19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia. The language and Betawi culture are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta dialect Bahasa Jakarta) used as a street language by people in Jakarta is loosely based on the Betawi language.
Betawi arts are rarely found in Jakarta due to their infamous low-profile and most Betawi have moved to the border of Jakarta, displaced by new immigrants. It is easier to find Java or Minang based wedding ceremonial instead of Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.
Jakarta has several performing art centers, such as the Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art center in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some Provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performance can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theater near Senen bus terminal. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.
Jakarta is hosting several prestigious art and culture festivals as well as exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Flona Jakarta (Flora and Fauna exhibition, held annually on August in Lapangan Banteng park featuring flowers, plant nursery, and pets), also Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. The Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid June to mid July to celebrate the anniversary of the city. It is largely centered around a trade fair, however this month-long fair also has featured entertainments, arts and music performances by local bands and musicians.
Several foreign art and culture centers also established in Jakarta, mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centers, libraries, and art galleries. Among these foreign art and cultural centers are Netherlands Erasmus Huis, UK British Council, France Centre Culturel Français, Germany Goethe-Institut, Japan Foundation, and Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.
The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institution buildings of Batavia. Some of these museums are Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum, the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Batavia), Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum, and Bank Mandiri Museum.
The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums such as Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum.
Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating complexes located all over the city. There is also international food, especially Indian, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean food because of the cosmopolitan population. One of the popular local cuisine of Jakarta is Soto betawi, which is a cow milk or coconut milk broth with beef tendons, intestines, tripe. The other popular cuisine are kerak telor, gado-gado, and cucur.
Daily newspapers in Jakarta include Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Jakarta Globe, The Jakarta Post, Indo Pos, Seputar Indonesia, Kompas, Media Indonesia, Republika, Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Lampu Merah and Suara Pembaruan.
Jakarta's economy depends heavily on financial service, trade, and manufacturing. Industry includes electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing. In 2009, 13% of the population had an income per capita in excess of US$ 10,000 (Rp 108,000,000).
The economic growth of Jakarta in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%). In 2007, GRP (Growth Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566.45 trillion. The largest contributions to GDRP was by finance, ownership and business services (28.7%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20.4%), and manufacturing industry sector (15.97%). In 2007, per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was an 11.63% compared to previous year
Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for Municipality of Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is higher than other municipalities in DKI Jakarta, which is 145.81 million rupiahs and 80.78 million rupiahs.
A new law in 2007 forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and taking tips for directing traffic at intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants.
In 2005, Jakarta's contribution to the national GDP was 17% up from 15% in 2000. The manufacturing and construction sectors in Jakarta decreased indicating that Jakarta has shifted from industry city to the services city. Most manufacturing plants in Jakarta have been relocated to peripheral areas like Tangerang, Bogor, Depok and Bekasi.
Based on 2007 National Socio-Economic Survey estimates, the population of DKI Jakarta Province was 9.06 million. The area of DKI Jakarta is 662.33 km2, suggesting a population density of 137,000 people/km2. Population growth between 2000 and 2007 was 1.11 percent compared 0.15 percent during the 1990s. Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs. The population has risen from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents. The population of greater Jakarta is estimated at 23 million, making it the second largest urban area in the world. By 2025 the population of Jakarta may reach 24.9 million, not counting millions more in surrounding areas.
Population growth has outgrown the government's ability to provide basic needs for its residents. Jakarta suffers from severe traffic congestion. Air pollution and waste management are also problems.
The National Monument, stands at the center of Merdeka Square, the central park of the city. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral. The Wisma 46 building in Central Jakarta is currently the highest building in Jakarta and Indonesia. Tourist attractions include Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta Old Town, and Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, include Dunia Fantasi theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.
Jakarta shopping malls with areas in excess of 100,000 metres square, include Grand Indonesia, Pacific Place Plaza Indonesia, Senayan City, Plaza Senayan, Pondok Indah Mall, Mal Taman Anggrek, Mal Kelapa Gading, Mal Artha Gading. Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara.
Taman Suropati is located in Menteng garden city subdistrict, Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by several Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bishopplein during the Dutch colonial time. The park is circular shaped with a surface area of 16,322 m2. There are several modern statues in the park made by artists of the ASEAN countries, which contributes to the other nickname of the park "Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN" ("Park of the ASEAN artists relationship").
Taman Lapangan Banteng (Banteng Field Park) is located in Central Jakarta. It is about 4,5 hectares. The most notable landmark inside the park is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of Irian Barat). During the 1980s, the park is used as a bus terminal. In 1993, the park turned into a public space again and has become a recreation place for people and occasionally also used as an exhibition place or other events.
Taman Monas (Monas Park) or Taman Medan Merdeka (Medan Merdeka Park) is the park where the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument) is located. The large open space was created by Dutch Governor General Herman Willem Deandels (1870) and was completed in 1910 under the name of Koningsplein. On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto initiate the action toward the beautification of the park. Several features in the park is a deer park and 33 trees that represents the 33 provinces of Indonesia.
One of the most populous cities in the world, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. In Indonesia most communal transport is provided by mikrolets, which are privately run minibuses although these normally stay off the main roads.
Jakarta suffers from traffic congestion. A 'three in one' rule during peak hour was introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads.
Auto rickshaws, called bajaj, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. In 1966, an estimated 160,000 rickshaws were operating in the city; as much as fifteen percent of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in rickshaw driving. In 1971, rickshaws were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service operates on seven reserved busway corridors in the city; connecting seven main points of Jakarta. The first TransJakarta line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004.
An outer ring road is under constructed and is mostly operational A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the northwest of Jakarta, as are the port of Merak and Tangerang to the west, and Bogor and Puncak to the south. Bekasi, Cikarang, Karawang, Cikampek, Purwakarta, and Bandung to the east.
Railways connect the city to its neighboring regions: Depok and Bogor to the south, Tangerang and Serpong to the west, and Bekasi, Karawang, and Cikampek to the east. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During peak hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.
Two lines of the Jakarta Monorail are under construction: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. There are plans for a two-line metro (MRT) system, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, with connections to both monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect with the north-south line at the Sawah Besar station. The current project, which began in 2005, has been delayed due to a lack of funds, and the project has been abandoned by the developer PT Jakarta Monorail in March 2008.
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is Jakarta's major airport. It is Indonesia's busiest airport handling more than 30 million passengers annually. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (HLP) serves mostly private and VVIP/presidential flights.
The main seaport for this transportation mode is the Tanjung Priok seaport.
The biggest university in Jakarta is the University of Indonesia with campuses in Salemba and Depok. Others government universities include Jakarta State University, Jakarta State Polytechnic, and Jakarta Islamic State University. Nowadays, the oldest of which is the privately owned Universitas Nasional (UNAS). Private universities in Jakarta include Trisakti University Atma Jaya University, and Tarumanagara University.
STOVIA was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Two of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Jakarta International School and the British International School (BIS).
Jakarta was host to the Asian Games in 1962, host of the Asian Cup 2007, and has hosted the regional-scale Sea Games several times. Jakarta's most popular footbal club is Persija, which plays its matches in the Lebak Bulus Stadium. The fans of Persija are called Jak Mania, who had a long conflict with Persebaya fans, Bonek Mania. Another premiere division team is Persitara.
The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Bung Karno Stadium with a capacity of 100,000 seats. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, a shooting range, a tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962.
In 2011, Jakarta, together with Bandung, will again host the Southeast Asian Games.
Surveys show that "less than a quarter of the population is fully served by improved water sources. The rest rely on a variety of sources, including rivers, lakes and private water vendors. Some 7.2 million people are [without clean water]."
Sister relationships with towns and regions worldwide include:
Jakarta is administratively divided into the following named districts:
Finding places in Jakarta, especially smaller buildings not on the main arteries, tends to be difficult due to poor signage and chaotic street names. Sometimes, the same name is used for different streets in different parts of the city, and it's often difficult to find the correct street/address without the postal code/region.
Alleys off a main road are often simply numbered, in a sequence that may not be logical, so a street address like "Jl. Mangga Besar VIII/21" means house number 21 on alley number 8 (VIII) off or near the main road of Jl. Mangga Besar.
If you don't want to waste time, ask for the descriptions/name of nearby buildings, billboards, color of the building/fence and the postal code of the address. If you still cannot find the address, start asking people in the street, especially ojek (motorcyle taxi drivers).
Jakarta's nickname among expats is the Big Durian, and like its fruit namesake it's a shock at first sight (and smell): a sweltering, steaming, heaving mass of some 10 million people packed into a vast urban sprawl. The contrast between the obscene wealth of Indonesia's elite and the appalling poverty of the urban poor is incredible, with tinted-window BMWs turning left at the Gucci shop into muddy lanes full of begging street urchins and corrugated iron shacks. The city's traffic is in perpetual gridlock, and its polluted air is matched only by the smells of burning garbage and open sewers, and safety is a concern especially at night. There are few sights to speak of and most visitors transit through Jakarta as quickly as possible.
Keep in mind that rules and regulations are very rarely enforced in all aspects of life in Jakarta. This is not to abet you to break the rules, but simply to explain why many of its citizens act so haphazardly, particularly on the road.
All that said, while initially a bit overwhelming, if you can withstand the pollution and can afford to indulge in her charms, you can discover what is also one of Asia's most exciting, most lively cities. There is plenty to do in Jakarta, from cosmopolitan shopping at the many luxurious shopping centers to one of the hippest nightlife scenes in Southeast Asia.
The port of Sunda Kelapa dates to the 12th century, when it served the Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran near present-day Bogor. The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese, who were given the permission by the Hindu Kingdom of Pakuan Pajajaran to erect a godown in 1522. Control was still firmly in local hands, and in 1527 the city was conquered by Prince Fatahillah, a Muslim prince from Cirebon, who changed the name to Jayakarta.
By the end of the 16th century, however, the Dutch (led by Jan Pieterszoon Coen) had pretty much taken over the port city, and the razing of a competing English fort in 1619 secured their hold on the island. Under the name Batavia, the new Dutch town became the capital of the Dutch East Indies and was known as the Queen of the East.
However, the Dutch made the mistake of attempting to replicate Holland by digging canals throughout the malarial swamps in the area, resulting in shockingly high death rates and earning the town the epithet White Man's Graveyard. In the early 1800's most canals were filled in, the town was shifted 4 kilometers inland and the Pearl of the Orient flourished once again.
In 1740, there was a rebellion by Chinese slaves against Dutch. The rebellion was put down harshly with the massacre of thousands of Chinese slaves. The remaining Chinese slaves were exiled to Sri Lanka.
In 1795, the Netherlands were invaded and occupied by France, and on March 17, 1798, the Batavian Republic, a satellite state of France, took over both VOC debts and assets. But on August 26, 1811, a British expedition led by Lord Minto defeated the French/Dutch troops in Jakarta, leading to a brief occupation of Indonesia by the British (led by Sir Stamford Raffles of Singapore fame) in 1811-1816. In 1815, after the Congress of Vienna, Indonesia was officially handed over from the British to the Dutch government.
The name Jakarta was adopted as a short form of Jayakarta when the city was conquered by the Japanese in 1942. After the war, the Indonesian war of independence followed, with the capital briefly shifted to Yogyakarta after the Dutch attacked. The war lasted until 1949, when the Dutch accepted Indonesian independence and handed back the town, which became Indonesia's capital again.
Since independence Jakarta's population has skyrocketed, thanks to migrants coming to the city in search of wealth. The entire Jabotabek (Jakarta-Bogor-Tangerang-Bekasi) metropolitan region is estimated to have 16-18 million people, a figure projected to double to 30 million by 2016. The official name of the city is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya (DKI Jakarta), meaning "Special Capital City Region".
As of March 2009, Soekarno-Hatta Airport charges departure taxes of Rp 150,000 (~ USD 15) for international flights and Rp 40,000 (USD 4) for domestic flights, payable in cash only. You cannot pay in any foreign currency. Forgetting this could be very awkward!
Soekarno Hatta International Airport (IATA: CGK; ICAO: WIII),  at Tangerang, Banten. All international and nearly all domestic flights land here 20 km (12 miles) to the northwest of the city. The unintuitive airport code comes from Cengkareng, a district near the airport. During the rainy season the road to and from Cengkareng can be flooded, so be prepared and allow more time to reach the airport if you have a flight to catch. If you don't have non-stop options between your origin city and Jakarta, try connecting via Singapore as there are more than a dozen flights a day between those 2 cities.
The Soekarno Hatta airport has three terminals, further split up into subterminals, which are really just halls in the same building:
A free but unreliable shuttle bus runs between the terminals; if you're in a hurry, it's a safer bet to take a taxi, although they'll ask for a rather steep Rp50,000 for the service (not entirely unjustified, as half of this goes to paying their parking fees).
For many country's citizens, visas on arrival are available at the airport, see the main Indonesia article for the details of the rules. If possible, use exact change (in US dollars) and ignore any requests for bribes. ATMs and currency exchange services are available in the baggage claim hall, and Terminal D has a left luggage service. Exchange rates are not significantly worse than the centre of town and better than you will get from hotels. Bear in mind that you will need some cash and Jakarta is not a place where you can just stroll down to the nearest bank in town as it is pedestrian unfriendly.
To get to the city, the easiest option is to contact your hotel to pick you up in the airport, as many hotels in Jakarta provide free airport transfers. Getting a taxi is a little more complicated:
Xtrans, Telephone: (62)-(21)-5296-2255 and (62)-(21)-5296-4477. Provides airport shuttle service from Soekarno Hatta airport to major hotels in Sudirman and Thamrin Street in Jakarta and Bumi Xtrans in Cihampelas Street in Bandung. Cost: US$3.30/adult and US$2.20/child. Schedule: once every hour from 0500h to midnight. Xtrans booth are available at Terminal IA, IB, IC and IIE.
If you have more time than money, hourly DAMRI shuttle buses connect to Jakartan destinations Rawamangun, Pasar Minggu, Blok M and Gambir (Rp 20,000) as well as directly to the neighboring cities of Bekasi and Bogor (Rp 30,000).
For overnight transits, there are a few hotels near the airport:
The older Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (IATA: HLP), to the southeast of the city, is used by military, VIP flights, charter flights, helicopter leasing companies and private jets.
The current main station for long distance passengers in Jakarta is the Gambir station, located in Central Jakarta, just east of the Monas. Eksekutif (AC) and some bisnis (non-AC) class trains depart from this station. Trains to Bandung are frequent, with one coming almost every 2 hours, departing throughout the day. Most trains to further cities (Purwokerto, Yogyakarta, Solo, Semarang, Malang and Surabaya) depart either in the mornings or from late afternoon to evening.
Cheaper trains without air-conditioning generally use the Pasar Senen station located two blocks east of Gambir. Beware that the location is rife with crime, although the station itself has been spruced up recently. Anyway, these ekonomi trains are not really suggested for tourist travel: they are slow, facilities are poor, they are overloaded.
Most trains arriving in Jakarta also stop at Jatinegara station in the eastern part of the city, giving better access to the eastern and southern parts of the city.
Jakarta Kota station is located in the old part of the city, and serves as the departure point for commuter trains and some trains to Merak. It is an interesting Art Deco style building that is currently being restored.
Information about train tickets from PT Kereta Api (Persero) is available on the Web, but no on-line reservation is possible. In Jakarta, you can buy your tickets in the major stations up to 30 days in advance. Except in weekends, you can generally buy a ticket just before departure. Beware of ticket scalpers! They will offer their wares even to people waiting in the queues in front of the ticket sales points. You should expect to pay 50-100 percent more if you do so, and you might find that your coach has empty seats anyway.
An airport bus service connects Soekarno-Hatta Airport with Gambir station.
Passengers from other cities arrive in bus terminals such as Rawamangun (East Jakarta) Kampung Rambutan (Southeast Jakarta), Pulo Gadung (East Jakarta), Kali Deres (West Jakarta) or Lebak Bulus (South Jakarta). You'll need to speak at least functional Indonesian to manage, and the terminals are notorious for muggers and pickpockets, so observe the safety precautions under #Stay safe.
The national ferry company, PELNI, and other sealines, operate passenger services to destinations across the archipelago from Tanjung Priok port in the North of the city. Some smaller speedboats, particularly to the Thousand Islands (Pulau Seribu), depart from Ancol also on Jakarta's north shore.
How to speak prokem like a Betawi
The everyday speech of Jakartans (Betawi) is liberally laced with slang (prokem) expressions. Like any slang, words come in and out of fashion with bewildering rapidity, but some features can be distinguished:
A short glossary of common Jakartan expressions:
Getting around Jakarta is a problem. The city layout is chaotic and totally bewildering, traffic is indisputably the worst in South-East Asia with horrendous traffic jams (macet "MAH-chet") slowing the city to a crawl during rush hour, and the current railway system is inadequate to say the least. The construction of a monorail system, started in 2004, soon ground to a halt over political infighting and the main glimmer of hope is the gradually expanding busway (Bus Rapid Transit) system.
Various areas of the city have different levels of chaos. For example, North Jakarta (the poorer area of the city) is more chaotic than areas in South Jakarta (more upscale).
Commuter services operate from 5 a.m. (first train departing Bogor to Jakarta) to almost 10 p.m. (last train leaving Jakarta for Bogor). Trains often run late, though. Weekend special services connect Depok and Bogor with the popular Ancol entertainment park in Jakarta.
Commuter services operate over these lines:
Station names written with CAPITALS are regular express stops. Several express trains (and semi-express trains) stop at other stations only at certain times outside the rush hours. All trains other than the expresses do not stop at Gambir station, the main station in Jakarta, so this might be a problem for those arriving from other regions and wanting to continue to other stations. The choice is to take an express train to the nearest station and continuing by other forms of transport, or taking a taxi to Juanda station, located a few hundred meters north of Gambir, close enough if you wish to walk.
There are four types of trains: express (air-conditioned non-stop trains, generally most useful for commuters going and returning from work), semi-express (similar to express, but with more stops, runs outside the rush hours), ekonomi AC (all-stops, air-conditioned, probably most useful for tourists) and ekonomi.
Riding the ekonomi class is not advisable: crime and sexual harrasment are known to happen inside packed trains. During the non-rush hours, though, economy train travel is quite an interesting experience. It is a tour of Jakarta's darker side, with peddlers offering every imaginable article (from safety pins to cell-phone starter kits), various sorts of entertainment, ranging from one-person orchestras to full-sized bands, and a chance to sample real poverty; you are riding a slum on wheels.
The Transjakarta Busway (in Indonesian known as busway or Tije) is modern, air-conditioned and generally comfortable, although sometimes service can be spotty (they have a knack of going to the depot for service and refueling at the same time during the rush hours). The bus is often crowded during rush hours. There are eight lines operational as of May 2009 with more lines planned to open soon:
(to Pulo Gadung) Harmoni Central Busway - Balai Kota - Gambir II - Kwitang - Senen - Galur - Rawa Selatan - Pasar Cempaka Putih - Cempaka Tengah - Rumah Sakit Islam - Cempaka Timur - Pedongkelan - ASMI - Pulomas - Bermis - Pulo Gadung
(to Harmoni Central Busway) Kalideres - Pesakih - Sumur Bor - Rawa Buaya - Jembatan Baru - Dispenda - Jembatan Gantung - Taman Kota - Indosiar - Jelambar - Harmoni Central Busway
The transfer points for the Transjakarta Busway lines are:
Unlike Jakarta's other buses, busway buses shuttle on fully dedicated lanes and passengers must use dedicated stations with automatic doors, usually found in the middle of large thoroughfares connected to both sides by overhead bridges. The system is remarkably user-friendly by Jakartan standards, with station announcements and an LED display inside the purpose-built vehicles. Grab onto a handle as soon as you enter the bus as they move away from the stop suddenly and quickly.
Buses run from 5 AM to 10 PM daily. Tickets cost a flat Rp 2,000 before 7 am, and Rp 3,500 after. Transfers between lines are free. The buses can get very crowded, especially during rush hours at 7 AM and 4 PM, when office workers are on the move.If you happen to have an iPhone or iPod touch, a Transjakarta Application map is also available to download, As of May 2009, the application is free.
It's advisable to refrain from using other buses for intracity travel; stick with taxis as they are safer. If you're feeling adventurous, as of October 2005 the flat fare for regular buses is Rp 2000, while air conditioned buses (Mayasari or Patas AC) cost Rp5000. Some buses have a box at the front next to the driver where you can pay your fares, while others employ a man or a kondektur who will personally collect the fares from passengers.
Cheaper yet are mikrolet (mini-buses) and angkot (small vans) that ply the smaller streets and whose fares vary from Rp 1500 to 2500, but good luck figuring out the routes. You pay the fare directly to the driver after getting off.
You may need to spare one or two Rp500 coins before boarding the bus, since there is on-board "entertainment" and other distractions. On a typical day, you may find street musicians singing unplugged versions of Indonesian and Western pop songs asking for donations at the end of the performance, and street vendors, one after another, trying to sell almost everything, starting from ballpoint pens, candies, to boxed donuts and health goods. If you do happen to be travelling in a bus, refrain from sitting or standing at the back area of the bus as this is where muggers find their prey. Always keep an eye on your belongings and be alert at all times as pickpocketing occurs.
Do note that buses do not run according to any schedule or timetable. Sometimes a bus may take a while to come,in other circumstances it is possible that two of the same bus routes may come together and these drivers will definitely drive aggressively in order to get more passengers. They do not stop at any particular bus stop and can stop just about anywhere they like. If you want to get off, simply say "kiri" (to the left) to the "kondektur" or just knock on the ceiling of the bus for three times (be sure that the driver hears your thumping), and the bus driver will find a place to drop you. An additional tip to alight from these buses is to use your left foot first to maintain balance and try to get down as quickly as possible as they do not fully stop the bus.
Also note that seats in these buses are built for Indonesians who're typically shorter and more slender and agile than people with a larger build such as caucasians and africans. Non-Indonesians might find the seats in these buses to be confined and uncomfortable.
List of bus terminals in Jakarta: Blok M (South Jakarta), Lebak Bulus (South Jakarta), Pasar Minggu (South Jakarta), Grogol, Kota, Kalideres (West Jakarta), Manggarai (South Jakarta), Pulogadung (East Jakarta), Rawamangun (East Jakarta), Kampung Melayu (East Jakarta), Kampung Rambutan (South Jakarta), Tanjung Priok (North Jakarta), Senen (Central Jakarta).
Rental cars are available, but unless you are familiar with local driving practices or lack thereof, take reputable taxis. If you're from a foreign country, it is not recommended to rent a car and drive on your own. The chaotic and no-rules traffic will certainly give you a headache. Renting a car with a driver is much a better idea. The fixed price of gasoline is Rp 4500/litre and the price of diesel fuel is Rp 4500/litre (as of January 2009)
Toll roads circle the city and are faster when the traffic is good, but are very often jammed themselves. The drainage systems of major roads are poorly maintained and during rainy season (Dec-Feb) major roads may be flooded, leading to total gridlock as motors stall.
Finding parking places in residential areas can be difficult due to the narrow roads. Paid parking is easy to find in shopping malls, offices and the like is Rp 1000-3000/hr.
If you do decide to drive by yourself or having a driver in Jakarta, please remember that there is a 3 in 1 system implemented in some of the main thoroughfares in the morning from 7.30-10.00 AM and in the afternoon from 4.30-7.00 PM where there is a requirement of having a minimum of three people in a car. The routes include the whole stretch from Kota train station through Blok M via Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl. Thamrin, Jl. Sudirman and Jl.Sisingamangaraja; Jl. Gatot Subroto from the Senayan-JCC Overpass to the intersection with Jl. HR Rasuna Said. There are intentions from the local government to change this system to an Electronic Road Pricing system beginning in the future.
Beware the false Blue Bird
Blue Bird's reputation has spawned a host of dodgy imitators, so just because it's blue doesn't mean it's safe. Check the following before you get in:
Most visitors opt to travel by taxi, which is cheap and occasionally even fast. There are a multitude of taxi companies of varying degrees of dependability, but Blue Bird group (tel. +62-21-7981001, 24 hours) is known for their reliability, has an efficient telephone order service and will among other things actually use the meter. The Blue Bird group also runs Silver Bird, Morante, Cendrawasih and Pusaka Nuri taxis; the Silver Birds "executive taxi" charges a premium.
A cheaper option is to take a TARIF BAWAH (low tariff) taxi - Putra (dark blue) is regarded as good safe TARIF BAWAH taxis, though not of quite the same standard as Blue Bird. These can work out about half the cost of taxis such as Blue Bird, which can be significant if you take a lot of taxis in Jakarta traffic.
Some other large, generally reliable companies include Taxiku, Express , Dian Taksi, and newly established Taxicab. You can generally determine a good cabbie by asking "argo?" ("meter?") - if they say no or "tidak", get another taxi.
The standard taxi rate (effective February 2009) is Rp 6000 flagfall, and Rp 3000/km after the first 2 km. Some taxis (marked TARIF BAWAH) use the older, cheaper rate, while Silver Bird is more expensive. Tipping is not necessary but rounding the meter up to the nearest Rp 1000 is expected, so prepare for small changes, or else you will be rounded up to the nearest Rp 5000.
Keep the doors locked and the windows closed when traveling in a Jakartan taxi, as your bag and watch make attractive targets when stuck in a traffic jam or traffic light. Criminal groups in Jakarta often attack passengers who use their cellular phone during traffic jam or near traffic light.
If you always kept a notebook with you, please DO write the taxi number and name, with the driver's name and ID number, so in case you left something in the taxi you can claim it to the taxi company.
Think twice about using the smaller taxi companies if you are alone, and try to know the vague route - the driver might well take you a roundabout route to avoid traffic, but you will know the general direction. Stating your direction clearly and confidently will usually pre-empt any temptation to take you on the long route. It is also not uncommon for taxi drivers to be recent arrivals in Jakarta - they often don't know their way around and may be relying on you to direct them - establish that they know the way before you get in! Make sure they don't take you the wrong way around the Toll!
The Jakartan equivalent to Thailand's tuk-tuk is the bajaj (pronounced "bahdge-eye"), orange mutant scooters souped up in India into tricycles that carry passengers in a small cabin at the back.
They're a popular way to get around town since they can weave through Jakarta's interminable traffic jams much like motorbikes can. Although slow, boneshaking (suspension is not a feature in a bajaj), hot (locals joke about the "natural A/C") and the quick way to breathing in more exhaust fumes than you ever thought possible, riding around in these little motor-bugs can really grow on you.
There are no set prices, but a short hop of a few city blocks shouldn't cost much more than Rp 5000. Be sure to agree to (read: haggle) a price before you set off! Bajaj drivers are happy to overcharge visitors. Locals who regularly use the bajaj know what a typical fare should be and are happy to tell you. Also, since bajaj aren't allowed on some of the larger roads in Jakarta, your route may well take you through the bewildering warren of backstreets. Try to keep an eye on what direction you're going, because some unscrupulous bajaj drivers see nothing wrong with taking the "scenic" route and then charging you double or triple the price. Jack molyneaux 17:44, 2 April 2008 (EDT)
If you're poking around narrow back streets, or just in such a hurry that you're willing to lose a limb to get there, then Jakarta's motorcycle taxis (ojek) might be the ticket for you. Jakarta's ojek services consist of guys with bikes lounging around street corners, who usually shuttle short distances down alleys and roads but will also do longer trips for a price. Agree on the fare before you set off.
This company operates motorbike cabs targeted at more affluent passengers than typical ojeks. All the prices vary between zones and you will be informed when you make a booking. All prices are official so you don't need to bargain like when you ride a privately-operated ojek.
If you're in a hurry and seriously loaded, Janis Air Transport (tel. +62 21 8350024) will be happy to charter a helicopter for you.
Jakarta is launching waterway using canals as a medium for public transportation manage by Transjakarta (busway). As of August 2007, the new service is still being pilot tested. December 2009 update: This waterway project doesn't run as expected. The jetties are available, but no boat operates; so do not expect a good waterway trip in Jakarta.
There are still many parts of Jakarta which are traffic free and full of trees, flowers, little red roofed houses and friendly people. These areas are generally safe for walking.
Some people would say that walking around the center of Jakarta is not recommended. With the exception of a few posher areas, sidewalks are crowded with pushcart vendors, drivers disregard pedestrians, crossing streets can be suicidal. On many busy streets there are no pedestrian crossings, so it's best to latch onto a local and follow them as they weave their way through the endless flow of cars. Muggings do occur, especially on overhead bridges, and can happen even in the daytime. If you use pedestrian bridge, watch out for motorcycles and bicycles that often use the bridge illegally. Now, Jakarta has more pedestrian bridges as supporting infrastructure for Transjakarta Busway is being built. But, be careful when you walk on those, as lack of maintenance can cause annoyances such as unstable or missing steps.
In the near future, it will be probable to walk around the Jakarta Old Town area as the local government is currently undertaking a project to create the old town area into a pedestrian-friendly zone.
For more details of these sights in Jakarta, please see the district sections of Jakarta
Casual work in Jakarta is difficult to come by and Indonesian bureaucracy does its best to stop foreigners from getting formal jobs. As in the rest of Asia, teaching English is the best option, although salaries are poor (US$700-1000/month is typical, although accommodation may be provided) and the government only allows citizens of the U.K., Australia, New Zealand, Canada or the U.S.A. to work as teachers.
The rationale behind the limitation on foreign employment is centered on the high local unemployment rate, and a push to develop local skills.
Looking for an aluminum hubcap, a large clay pot, some reupholstered car seats or perhaps a full-length mirror with elaborate ironwork? Not to worry, in Jakarta there's an alley out there just for you, with specialist vendors laying out their goods on streetside racks to entice people driving by. And given Jakarta's traffic jams, there's often plenty of time to browse too.
If you're stopping in Jakarta, consider buying an extra suitcase, because there's lots of good shopping to be done.
Tanah Abang and Pasar Baru are HUGELY popular among Malaysian tourists.
Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating complexes located all over the huge city. In addition to selections from all over the country, you can also find excellent Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and many other international foods thanks to the cosmopolitan population. Longer-term visitors will wish to dig up a copy of "Jakarta Good Food Guide" (JGFG) or "Jakarta Java Kini". The JGFG, as its affectionately known to Jakartans, is now in its 3rd edition, with the latest version published in 2009 and covering over 600 restaurants and causal eateries in the city. The JGFG has now also been made into an iPod Touch & iPhone Application, so you can download all 600 reviews and have them in the palm of your hand for whenever you're craving a bite of some good local food. You can find Jakartan versions of many dishes, often tagged with the label betawi (Indonesian for "Batavian").
Your stomach may need an adjustment period to the local food due to many spices locals used in their cooking. Standard price on this guide: The price for one main course, white rice ("nasi putih") and one soft drink, including 21% tax and service charge.
Jakarta may be the capital of the world's largest Islamic country, but it has underground life of its own. If you're the clubbing type, its nightlife is arguably among the best in Asia. From the upscale X-Lounge to the seediest discos like Stadium, Jakarta caters to all kinds of clubbers, but bring a friend if you decide to brave the seedier joints (though they tend to have the best DJs). Fans of live music, on the other hand, are largely out of luck if they go to budget bars, at least unless they're into Indonesian pop.
When out and about, note that Jakarta has a fairly high number of prostitutes, known in local parlance as ayam (lit. "chicken"), so much so that much of the female clientele of some respectable bars (operated by five-star hotels, etc) is on the take.
A nightlife district popular among expats is Blok M in South Jakarta, or more specifically the single lane of Jl. Palatehan 1 just north of the bus terminal, packed with pubs and bars geared squarely towards single male Western visitors. While lacking the bikini-clad go-go dancers of Patpong, the meat market atmosphere is much the same with poor country girls turned pro. Blok M is now easily accessible as the southern terminus of BRT Line 1. For a more off-the-beaten track experience, head a few blocks south to Jl. Melawai 6 (opposite Plaza Blok M), Jakarta's de-facto Little Japan with lots of Japanese restaurants, bars and (what else?) karaoke joints.
To hang out where Indonesia's young, rich and beautiful do, head to Plaza Indonesia's EX annex, packed full of trendy clubs and bars including Jakarta's Hard Rock Cafe. Plaza Senayan's Arcadia annex attempts to duplicate the concept, but with more of an emphasis on fine dining. The Kemang area in southern Jakarta is popular with expats and locals alike. It has numerous places to eat, drink and dance.
The Kota area in northern Jakarta is the oldest part of town with numerous colonial buildings still dominating the area. It is also considered to be the seediest part of town after midnight. Most karaoke bars and 'health' clubs there are in fact brothels who mostly cater to local Jakartans. Even regular discos such as Stadium and Crown have special areas designated for prostitutes. This part of town has a large ethnic Chinese population who also dominate the clubbing scene there.
The bulk of the clubbing scene is spread throughout Jakarta however, most usually found in officebuildings or hotels. A help of an experienced local with finding these places is recommended. Do note that nightlife in Jakarta tends to be pricey for local standards.
In general, dresscodes are strictly enforced in Jakarta: no shorts, no slippers. During the month of Ramadhan, all nightlife ends at midnight and some operations close for the entire month.
The travel agencies at Jakarta's airport can have surprisingly good rates for mid-range and above hotels. In Jakarta, there are several classes of hotels: Budget hotels: Melati 1, Melati 2, Melati 3 (the best). Midrange - Splurge: 1 Star, 2 Stars, 3 Stars, 4 Stars, 5 Stars (the best). The standard room rate: published rate for standard room + 21% (tax and service charge).
Wartel telephone shops are ubiquitous on the streets of Jakarta.
If you see a public telephone, lift the receiver and check the number in the display near the keypad. If the number is not 000, don't insert coins, because the phone is broken. They usually are, but are very cheap (just 0,001 $/ minute) when they do work.
If you have your own laptop, it may run free WLAN networks at many of the capital's malls. Ask at the information desk for access codes. Free hotspots are also available on most McDonald restaurants and StarBucks Cafes. Several hotels also provide free hotspot on their lobby.
Internet cafes are available in many parts of the city with a price of Rp. 4,000 - Rp. 5,000. However, most of them only have dial-up capabilities. Most of the internet cafes can be found around universities, and in most shopping malls. However, the internet connection speed can be better in the internet cafes found at malls.
If you are keen on using the internet for long hours, try to get the "happy hour" deals provided by internet cafes near universities. They provide 6 hours of surfing on the internet for Rp. 12,000, but only available at midnight to 6 AM.
The Departemen Luar Negeri (Deplu) or Ministry of Foreign Affairs  maintains a complete searchable database of diplomatic institutions. The embassies are located in Jakarta, except some consulates general and honorary consulates. The addresses of some of the embassies and consulates are listed here:
Tap water in Jakarta is not drinkable. Always use bottled water, even for brushing your teeth.
During rainy season (December, January, February), lower parts of Jakarta (mostly those to the north) are often flooded.
There is a new law against smoking at public places in Jakarta, and the smoker can (in theory) be fined up to US$5000. If you want to smoke, ask other people first: Boleh merokok?
The high-profile terrorist bomb blasts at the JW Marriott in 2003, the Australian Embassy in 2004 and the JW Marriott (again) & Ritz-Carlton in 2009 mean that security in Jakarta tends to be heavy, with car trunk checks, metal detectors and bag searches at most major buildings. Statistically, though, you're far more likely to be killed in the traffic.
Strict gun control laws make Jakarta safer, but theft and robbery are real problems. Be on your guard in crowded places such as markets, because pickpockets often steal wallets and cellular phones. Keep a close eye on your valuables and choose your transportation options carefully, especially at night. Business travellers need to keep a close eye on laptops, which have been known to disappear even from within office buildings. For all-night party excursions, it may be wise to keep your cab waiting — the extra cost is cheap and it's worth it for the security.
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|- Density||14,464.08/km2 (37,461.8/sq mi)|
Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta) is the largest and the capital city of Indonesia. It is located on the northwest coast of the island of Java, it has an area of 661.52 km² and a population of 8,792,000 (2004). Jakarta has been established for more than 490 years and now is the ninth most dense city in the world with 44,283 people per km².
Jakarta's first name was Sunda Kelapa. Before the Dutch came, it was renamed the city Jayakarta, starting in 1527. In 1619 the Dutch renamed the city Batavia. It was called Jakarta by the Japanese during World War 2
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